EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE ON THE SURFACE TENSION OF WATER

I. INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Surface tension is a phenomenon that happens when the surface of a liquid, where the liquid surface is in contact with gas, acts like a thin elastic sheet. The molecules in a liquid (for example, water) are drawn together by intermolecular forces known as Van der Waals force of attraction. The molecules on the surface of the water are not surrounded by water molecules on all sides. They will cohere more strongly with neighboring water molecules, as opposed to air molecules. This creates a ―film‖ on the surface which requires a certain amount of force to penetrate.

It is revealed, for example, in the floating of some objects on the surface of water, even though they are denser than water, and in the ability of some insects (e.g. water striders) to run on the water surface. This property is caused by cohesion of similar molecules, and is responsible for many of the behaviors of liquids. An interesting thing about surface tension is that it gives the shape that is formed by a drop of water. Ideally all liquids will form a spherical shape in the absence of gravity in order to minimize their surface tension. This is because the sphere has the smallest surface area for a given volume. However, the shape of a water droplet is not spherical due to the force of gravity.

Statement of the Problem: 

What are the effects of salinity and temperature in the strength of water surface tension?

or if anything contaminates the liquid in use. the addition of a surfactant. Significance of the Study:  This study will verify if there are changes in the surface tension when there are changes in the molecular level of the substance being used. then the surface tension changes.Conceptual Framework: Independent Variable/s Dependent Variable/s Salinity:  Water with salt  Water without salt Strength of Water Surface Tension Temperature:  15°C  25°C  35°C  45°C  55°C Hypothesis:  When salt is added to water and the temperature of the water increased. the surface tension of water is reduced. . If the formulation changes due to the addition of another chemical. Measuring surface tension is a direct indicator of the quality of any liquid.

 Sodium Chloride . electrical conductivity when melted or when in solution. relatively high melting points. adhesion is the interaction between the surfaces of different bodies. Also. usually salts. or push them apart.  Intermolecular Forces .chemical compound that has the formula NaCl. and a crystalline structure when in the solid state. Comparisons between the two solutions were observed. the changes in the strength of the surface tension of water was deliberates. temperature was varied in order to further determine the changes in the strength of surface tension of water. The term salt is also applied to substances produced by the reaction of an acid with a base. known as a neutralization reaction. Cohesion differs from adhesion in being the force of attraction between adjacent particles within the same body. which is the result of a number of molecules being pressed together to produce forces of attraction high enough to give a liquid structure. Molecular behavior depends to a great extent on the balance (or lack of it) of the forces that pull the molecules together. present in a given amount of water. Definition of Terms:  Cohesion . Salts are characterized by ionic bonds. The force of cohesion in gases can be observed in the liquefaction of a gas.Scope and Limitation of the Study:  In this experiment.measurement of the mass of dissolved solids. It is only limited to what are the effects when the water is added with salt.forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules of matter. .phenomenon of intermolecular forces holding particles of a substance together.  Salinity .

this is reflected in the considerable curvature at those edges where the liquid is in contact with the wall of a vessel. the tension is the force per unit length of any straight line on the liquid surface that the surface layers on the opposite sides of the line exert upon each other.condition existing at the free surface of a liquid. More specifically. Surface Tension .g. and is responsible for many of the behaviors of liquids. water striders) to run on the water surface. property of systems that determines whether they are in thermal equilibrium  Water – common name for H2O. each molecule is pulled equally in every direction by . It is revealed. a chemical compound known to be the universal solvent. and in the ability of some insects (e. II.in physics.  Temperature . people use the term surface energy—which is a more general term in the sense that it applies also to solids and not just liquids. The tension is the result of intermolecular forces exerting an unbalanced inward pull on the individual surface molecules. liquid. even though they are denser than water. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. and gas. solid. resembling the properties of an elastic skin under tension. for example. in the floating of some objects on the surface of water. Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length or of energy per unit area. This property is caused by cohesion of similar molecules. In the bulk of the liquid. The two are equivalent—but when referring to energy per unit of area. Water can exist in three phases. The cohesive forces among liquid molecules are responsible for the phenomenon of surface tension.

METHODOLOGY Materials: 2 beakers or any containers of similar size 400ml distilled water 2 tablespoons of salt Rice grains 2 pieces of aluminum foil measuring 1cm x 1cm each Refrigerator Hot plate Thermometer . Surface tension is dependent on temperature. The general trend is that surface tension decreases with the increase of temperature. which forms an almost round ball when a small quantity is placed on a horizontal surface. The tendency of any liquid surface is to become as small as possible as a result of this tension. See also Capillary Action. III. temperature must be explicitly stated.neighboring liquid molecules. The molecules at the surface do not have other molecules on all sides of them and therefore are pulled inwards. is another example of this force. For that reason. The near-perfect spherical shape of a soap bubble. surface tension alone can support a needle placed horizontally on a water surface. This creates some internal pressure and forces liquid surfaces to contract to the minimal area. Surface tension is important at zero gravity. resulting in a net force of zero. which is the result of the distribution of tension on the thin film of soap. as in space flight: Liquids cannot be stored in open containers because they run up the vessel walls. when a value is given for the surface tension of an interface. as in the case of mercury.

Procedure 3 was repeated with the beaker labeled ―salt water‖ and the results were also recorded. 5. 35°C. The 2 beakers were then placed on a hot plate and heated to temperatures 35°C. The 2 beakers were labeled ―pure water‖ and ―salt water‖. The 1cm x 1cm piece of aluminum foil was made to float on the surface of the water in the beaker labeled ―pure water‖. For this experiment. 45°C and 55°C. The 2 beakers were brought to a room temperature of 25°C and Procedure 3 was repeated on these 2 beakers. 45°C and 55°C. The beakers were taken out of the refrigerator and the required temperature was confirmed using a thermometer. 3. . The grains of rice are placed one at a time on the aluminum foil until the aluminum foil sinked into the water. 2. The dependent variable was the number of rice grains placed on the aluminum foil before it sinks. The beakers were each filled with 200ml of distilled water. 25°C.Procedure: 1. The constant variables were the size of the aluminum foil. The 2 beakers were then placed in the refrigerator until the contents in the 2 cups reach 15°C. the size of the grains of rice and the room temperature. The number of rice grains placed on the foil was recorded. Procedures 3 and 4 are repeated at each required temperature level and the results were recorded. This was determined by gradually adding grains of rice on the surface of the aluminum foil. In the beaker labeled ―salt water‖ 2 tablespoons of salt were added and mixed into the water. the independent variable was the salinity of the water and its temperature – 15°C. 4. 6.

temperature. Also. This data represented the strength of the surface tension in each set-up. and strength of surface tension was represented in Figure 1.IV. The relationship of salinity. temperature. °C Water Water + Salt Figure 1. Relationship of salinity. and strength of surface tension . a descending trend in the number of rice grains was shown in both water solutions. However. Effect of Salinity and Temperature on Water Surface Tension 25 20 Number of Grains 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Temperature. Results obtained from the experiment Number of Rice Grains Water Solution Water Water + Salt 15°C 21 9 25°C 19 8 35°C 16 8 45°C 13 7 55°C 11 5 Table 1 shows the amount of rice grains needed before the foil collapsed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1. water alone gave a higher number of rice grain needed.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Based on the experiment. etc. its surface tension decreases. it completely dissociates into their separate ions in water.Results show that as the temperature of a solution increases. we can say that the hypothesis made was correct. Salt readily dissolves in water thus. On the other hand. higher temperature will cause the lowering of the surface tension as well as the addition of salt. It is highly recommend to further test the effects of other substances when added to water like detergent. so the bond between these surface molecules is stronger than the bonds of other water molecules. salinity further lowers the surface tension of water. Indeed. Surface tension in liquids is caused by a phenomenon known as cohesion. This attraction of the surface molecules to each other is also much greater than their bond to the air molecules surrounding them. . we can say that hot water is a better cleaning agent because the lower surface tension makes it a better "wetting agent" to get into pores and fissures rather than bridging them with surface tension. Based on these data. This means that there is an inverse relationship between temperature and surface tension. These ions can lower the surface tension by small amounts. oil. V. The water molecules at the surface have fewer molecules around them than the ones in the middle. Cohesion is when the molecules of a substance cling together more tightly to each other than to molecules of other substance.

University Physics with Modern Physics.. White. Young. 75th Ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.com Guide in Physics Lite. 10th ed. Roger A. .VI. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. Com. 2000 Jones. Mass.. Surface Tension. Hugh D. Cambridge. David R. About. (1948). Andrew Zimmerman.. Addison-Wesley Publishing. Inc.. Modern College Physics. 2010. Harvey E. van Nostrand. REFERENCES      Freedman.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful