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The Entrance into the Middle Way (Madhyamakavatara) By Chandrakirti . -- EXCLUDING CHAPTER 6 . [see other file for chapter 6] . (A commentary on Nagarjuna's root text, explaining the identitylessness of self (using the sevenfold reasoning) and phenomena (using the reasoning of the diamon d fragments) and discussing the progressively refined view of emptiness on the t en bhumis (Bodhisattva levels) in relation to the ten paramitas (perfections).) . [Note: the core of this text is taken from Shenpen Osel, Issue 13, Khenpo Tsultr im Gyamtso Rinpoche s commentary on Chandrakirti s The Entrance Into the Middle Way and from Shenpen Osel, Issue 6, A Commentary on the Twenty Emptinesses, by The V enerable Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche. Some titles of sections, and another version of the verses, have been taken from the book Ocean of Nectar by Geshe Kels ang Gyatso, 1995.] . ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . L1: [Contents] L1: [CONTENTS] L1: [ABBREVIATED CONTENTS] L1: [INTRODUCTION [DOWN-PLAYING CONCEPTUALIZATION, AND THEN SAYING THAT WE DON T H AVE TO ABANDON IT] L3: [Part 1 The context for the madhyamaka rangton view as taught here the secon d turning of the wheel] L4: [The five schools of Tenets] L4: [The three turnings of the Wheel] L4: [The four divisions] L4: [The four Reliances] L3: [Part 2 The shentong view the third turning of the wheel] L3: [Acknowledgments] L1: [A PRAISE OF COMPASSION] L4: [A. Praising great compassion without distinguishing its types] L5: [Showing great compassion to be the principal cause of a bodhisattva] L5: [Showing great compassion to be the root of the other two causes of bodhisat tva] L4: [B. An homage to the great compassion distinguishing its three types] L5: [1. An homage to compassion observing mere living beings] L5: [2. A homage to compassion observing phenomena and the unobservable] L1: [GROUNDS AND PATHS] L1: [A PRESENTATION OF CAUSAL GROUNDS] L2: [A PRESENTATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL GROUNDS] L3: [The First Mind Generation: Perfect Joy (17 verses) Giving] L4: [A. Briefly showing the entity of the ground, the basis of characteristics] L4: [B. An extensive explanation of the good qualities that characterize the gro und] L5: [B.1 The good qualities that beautify one's own continuum] L6: [B.1.1 Enumerating the good qualities/ Benefits of Bodhicitta]
L6: [B.1.2 Showing the good qualities in brief] L5: [B.2. The good qualities that outshine others' continuums / emptiness and li beration] L6: [B.2.1 Outshining Hearers and Solitary Realizers by way of lineage on this g round] L6: [B.2.2 Outshining Hearers and Solitary Realizers by way of wisdom on the sev enth ground] L6: [B.2.3 An explanation of the meaning established by this teaching] L5: [B.3 The surpassing good quality of the first ground / the perfection of giv ing] L6: [B.3.1 An explanation of the giving of one who abides on the first ground] L6: [B.3.2 An explanation of the giving of lower bases - giving practiced by ord inary beings who are not Bodhisattvas] L7: [i. Attaining samsaric happiness through giving] L7: [ii. Attaining the happiness of nirvana through giving] L6: [B.3.3 An explanation of Bodhisattvas' giving] L7: [i. The uncommon benefits of Bodhisattvas' giving] L7: [ii. The instructions on giving are fundamental for both bases] L7: [iii. The great joy a Bodhisattva obtains from giving] L7: [iv. Whether a Bodhisattva experiences pain when giving away his body] L6: [B.3.4 The divisions of the perfection of giving] L4: [C. Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground] L4: [Now are there any questions?] L3: [The Second Mind Generation The Stainless (10 verses) - Moral discipline] L4: [A. The completely pure moral discipline on this ground] L5: [A.1 The excellent moral discipline on this ground] L5: [A.2 The completely pure qualities that depend upon this] L5: [A.3 This moral discipline surpasses that of the first ground] L5: [A.4 Another cause of completely pure moral discipline] L4: [B. A praise of moral discipline] L5: [B.1 Enjoying the fruits of giving in fortunate realms depends upon moral di scipline] L5: [B.2 Enjoying the fruits of giving continuously depends upon moral disciplin e] L5: [B.3 It is extremely difficult for those who lack moral discipline to escape from the lower realms] L5: [B.4 Why the instructions on moral discipline were given after the instructi ons on giving] L5: [B.5 Praising moral discipline as a cause of both high status and definite g oodness] L4: [C. An illustration of separation from that which is incompatible with moral discipline] L4: [D. The divisions of the perfection of moral discipline] L4: [E. Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground] L4: [Now are there any questions?] Patience] L3: [The Third Mind Generation: The Luminous (13 verses) L4: [A. The etymology of the ground, the basis of characteristics] L4: [B. The good qualities that characterize this ground] L5: [B.1 The surpassing patience on this ground - of bodhisattvas] L5: [B.2 The way to rely upon other patience - for ordinary beings] L6: [B.2.1 The unsuitability of getting angry] L7: [i. Anger is unsuitable because it is unnecessary and very faulty] L7: [ii. Not wishing future suffering and retaliating harmfully are contradictor y] L7: [iii. Anger is unsuitable because it destroys virtues previously accumulated over a long time] L7: [iv. Stopping anger having contemplated the many faults of impatience] L6: [B.2.2 The suitability of relying upon patience] L7: [i. Contemplating the many benefits of patience] L7: [ii. In summary, an exhortation to rely upon patience]
L5: [B.3 The divisions of the perfection of patience] L5: [B.4 The other pure qualities that arise on this ground] L4: [C. The characteristics of the first three perfections] L4: [D. Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground] L4: [Now are there any questions?] L3: [The Fourth Mind Generation: The Radiant (2 verses) Effort] L4: [A. The surpassing effort on this ground] L4: [B. The etymology of this ground] L4: [C. The characteristics of abandonment] L3: [The Fifth Mind Generation: The Difficult to Overcome (1 verse) Concentratio n] L4: [A. The etymology of the fifth ground] L4: [B. The surpassing mental stabilization and skill in the truths] L4: [Now are there any questions?] L3: [The Sixth Mind Generation: The Approach (226 verses) Wisdom] L3: [The Seventh Mind Generation Gone Far Beyond (1 verse) - Means] L4: [The good qualities of the seventh ground] L2: [THE THREE PURE GROUNDS] L3: [The Eighth Mind Generation: Unshakable (3 verses) Aspiration Prayers] L4: [The good qualities of the eight ground] L5: [A. The surpassing prayer on this ground, and how he is raised from cessatio n] L5: [B. Showing that he has extinguished all delusions] L5: [C. Showing that he has attained the ten powers] L4: [Now are there any questions?] L3: [The Ninth Mind Generation: Excellent Mind (1 verse) Forces] L4: [The good qualities of the ninth ground] L3: [The Tenth Mind Generation: Cloud of Dharma (1 verse) Primordial Awareness] L4: [The good qualities of the tenth ground] L2: [THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE TEN GROUNDS] L4: [A. The good qualities of the first ground] L4: [B. The good qualities of the second to the seventh grounds] L4: [C. The good qualities of the three pure grounds] L4: [Now are there any questions?] L4: [Other questions ?] L1: [A PRESENTATION OF RESULTANT GROUNDS -- NOT COVERED HERE, BUT COPIED FROM AN OTHER FILE] L4: [A. HOW BUDDHAHOOD IS FIRST ATTAINED] L5: [A.1 The actual meaning] L5: [A.2 Rejecting an argument] L6: [A.2.1 Stating the other position] L6: [A.2.2 Refuting this position] L7: [i. Rejecting the argument that a knower of thatness is unacceptable] L7: [ii. Rejecting the argument that a person knowing thatness is unacceptable] L4: [B. A PRESENTATION OF BUDDHA'S BODIES AND GOOD QUALITIES] L5: [B.1 A Presentation of Buddha s bodies] L6: [B.1.1. An explanation of the truth body] L6: [B.1.2. An explanation of the complete enjoyment body] L6: [B.1.3. An explanation of the body corresponding to its cause] [emanation bo dies] L7: [B.1.3.1 How he displays all his deeds in one pore of his body] L7: [B.1.3.2 How he displays all the deeds of others there] L7: [B.1.3.3 An explanation of his completely excellent mastery of his wishes] L5: [B.2 A PRESENTATION OF THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE FORCES] L6: [B.2.1 Briefly presenting the ten forces] L6: [B.2.2 An extensive explanation of the ten forces] L6: [B.2.3 Why all the qualities cannot be described] L6: [B.2.4 The benefits of understanding the two good qualities] L4: [C. EXPLAINING EMANATION BODIES] L4: [D. PROVING THAT THERE IS ONE FINAL VEHICLE]
5.045 088) -----. (VI.3. (VI.Explaining with an analogy (the sevenfold reasoning applied to the .Refuting the assertion fabricated within our own tradition that the aggregates are (the same as) the self. ABBREVIATED CONTENTS A PRAISE OF COMPASSION A PRESENTATION OF CAUSAL GROUNDS . CHAPTER 6.1 The duration of enlightenment] [E. (VI.120 163) -----.3.120] (2.3.098 141) -----.146 189) -----.5.Negating inherently existent self -----.Refuting production from self (VI.126 169) -----.2 The duration of remaining] [CONCLUSION] [How the treatise was composed] [Dedicating merit from composing the treatise] [The meaning of the conclusion] . L1: [Abbreviated Contents] . A PRESENTATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL GROUNDS . STAINLESS .3.Perfection of effort (2 verses: 41-42) CHAPTER 5.1) (VI. LUMINOUS .Negating a self that is a different entity from the aggregates as f abricated by other traditions.Negating a substantially existent self that is neither identical no r different. APPROACHING .142 185) -----.Perfection of wisdom (226 verses: 44-269) .014 057) -----.L4: L5: L5: L1: L4: L4: L4: [E. DIFFICULT TO OVERCOME . basis.Refuting production without a cause (neither) (VI.Refuting production from other (VI.The way to negate inherently existent self and mine (the sevenfold reas oning applied to the self) (VI.008c 051c) -----.Perfection of patience (13 verses: 28:40) CHAPTER 4.121 164) -----. (VI.008 Refuting the Four Extremes of Production within both Truths (reasoning of the diamond fragments) -----.3. VERY JOYFUL . == ESTABLISHING THE MEANING OF THE SCRIPTURES BY REASONING (2.Perfection of mental stabilization (1 ve rse: 43) .The Two Truths * (VI.104 147) [The King of all reasonings: the reason of dependent-arising] == THE SELFLESSNESS OF PERSONS [VI. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* .8.099 142) Conclusion: The meaning established by the refutation of the four extremes (VI .022 065) -----.Refuting the three positions of dependent.Perfection of giving (17 verses.Perfection of moral discipline (10 verses: 18-27) CHAPTER 3. including those o n compassion) CHAPTER 2. CHAPTER 1. EXPLAINING THE DURATION OF ENLIGHTENMENT AND REMAINING] [E.Refuting production from both (VI.2) -.5.A refutation of the Chittamatra system * in particular (VI. RADIANT .3) 051) == SELFLESSNESS OF PHENOMENA [VI. and possession th at remain after these two (both).ab] (2.
150 193) -----.224 26 7-269) . in other words. surpassing exalted awareness (1 ver se: 275) .B. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* .17] * (11 verses: 292-302) -----.160 203) -----. which can be better under stood by placing Chandrakirti's text in the larger framework of the Buddha's tea chings.168 211) == THE DIVISIONS OF EMPTINESS (2.E. A PRESENTATION OF BUDDHA'S BODIES AND GOOD QUALITIES -----. and then saying that we don t h ave to abandon it] L3: [Part 1 The context for the madhyamaka rangton view as taught here the secon d turning of the wheel] . If he were .BUDDHA'S BODIES [XI.The analysis of the self and the cart also applies to other things (VI. In Buddhism.Rejecting the argument against it (VI.a supreme.1] * (9 verses: 276-284) . This double issue of Shenpen Osel contains Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche's te achings on Chandrakirti's Entrance to the Middle Way.forces become completely pure (1 verse: 274) CHAPTER 10. GOOD INTELLIGENCE .The division of emptiness into four (VI. "Absolute Truth or Absolute Reality means the end point of one's an alysis.chariot) how the self is merely a dependent imputation (VI.a surpassing perfection of means (1 verse: 270) CHAPTER 8. It contains teachings on both absolute truth (the way things really are) and relative truth (the way things appear to be). EXPLAINING THE DURATION OF ENLIGHTENMENT AND REMAINING [XI.165 208) -. if one takes a clay pot. which again is a commentary on the Prajnaparamita Sutras of the Buddha Shakyamuni's second turning of the wheel of dharma.5.166 209) -----.179 222) -----. PROVING THAT THERE IS ONE FINAL VEHICLE [XI. but a scientist might say it was a collection of atoms. CLOUD OF DHARMA . HOW BUDDHAHOOD IS FIRST ATTAINED [XI. "For example. THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE TEN GROUNDS [XI. the most basic or fundamental element of existence or ex perience.The division of emptiness into sixteen (VI.48] (4 verses: 323-326) CONCLUSION [XI.52] * (5 verses: 327-331) .45] (3 verses: 320-322) -. L1: [Introduction [down-playing conceptualization.prayers become extremely pure (3 verses: 271-273) CHAPTER 9. A PRESENTATION OF RESULTANT GROUNDS * -. GONE AFAR .A.D. .C. a potter might say that in absolute terms it was clay.Applying it to cause and effect (VI.181 224) -----. which is a commentary on N agarjuna's Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way.4) (VI.219 262-266) == CONCLUSION BY WAY OF EXPRESSING THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE GROUND (VI. 166 209) -----.Usefulness .This presentation has the good quality of allowing us easily to abandon conceptions grasping at extremes (VI.44] (1 verse: 319) -.28] * (16 verses: 303-318) -.3.THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE FORCES [XI.10] (7 verses: 285-291) -.Negating inherently existent mine (VI. CHAPTER 7. EXPLAINING EMANATION BODIES [XI. . IMMOVABLE .
3.2. . are mere appearances that are in reality the display or radiance or light of the mind which experiences them represent the mahayana view of the third dharmachakra as developed by Maitreya in the Mahayana Uttara Tantra Sastra. . L4: [The five schools of Tenets] .5. These three major cycles of teachings are referred to in Buddhist literature as the three turnings of the wheel of dharma or the three dharmachak ras. And the shentong teachings on the clear light nature of mind that all things ." . -. -. . -. -. The writings of the various philosophical schools of Buddhism and the views of the nature of reality that they represent all emerge as commentaries on one or more of these three turnings. Thus writes Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche as interpreted and arranged by Shen pen Hookham in the introduction to Rinpoche's Progressive Stages of Meditation o n Emptiness. . "The key stages in the Buddhist experience of the Absolute Truth of Emptiness .1. Buddhapalita.1. r epresent the mahayana view of the second dharmachakra taught in the Prajnaparami ta Sutras and further developed in the commentaries of Nagarjuna. -----------------------------------------------.3. including both the svatantrika madhyamaka and prasangika madhyamaka. the Cittamatra stage.2. -----------------------------------------------.being more precise he might say the atoms themselves consisted of atomic partic les moving in space. These increasingly subtle stages of meditative understanding and experience are first described in our historical epoch by the Buddha Shakyamuni in three major cycles of teachings that unfolded during his forty-five years of post-enlightenm ent teachings. -. . but even this would be a rough approximation to reality. L4: [The three turnings of the Wheel] . They cannot be said to be this or that or here or there. the Prasangika-Madhyamaka stage. . No doubt scientists will express it differently agai n in a few years' time. -----------------------------------------------. and Chandrakirti. the Shravaka stage. [are] five-fold: -. and further deve loped in the vajrayana. . Just as this emerges in the experience of an individual practitioner. .4. they have to be express ed in terms of probability. . including what we now see as external and solid sources of pleasure and pain. the Shentong Madhyamaka stage. -. -. The shravaka teachings on not-self or one-and-a-half-fold egolessness (sel flessness) represent the hinayana view of the first dharmachakra. the Svatantrika-Madhyamaka stage. The madhyamaka rangtong teachings on the emptiness of self-nature of all p henomena. Bhavaviveka. In absolute terms atomic particles can no longer be defined precisely these days. . "In the same way Absolute Truth presents itself differently to practitioners at the various levels of their practice. it occurs historically in the way that the Buddhist Scriptures emerged as a progression of increasingly subtle teachings.
It is important to realize that none of these teachings are worthy of being disc arded simply because more subtle and profound teachings were subsequently taught . . the teachings of these various other levels of understanding are a lso still presented. impermanence. corresponding to the doctrine of the Cittamatra. and dzogchen. and not free of attachment. aggressi on. etc. commentaries.2. Even in the Buddhist lineages that hold and practice the most advanced vajraya na practices. klesha. rebir th. but on the doctrine be ing taught. Then.3. L4: [The four Reliances] .4. including the teachings on suffe ring.4. including the teachings of tantra. and moments of cons ciousness. "Do not rely on the person but on the doctrine. These guidelines were presented by the Buddha in what have come to be known as the four reliances. Teachings on the ultimate reality of the way things really are merely the play. the radiance. sutras. methods. -. . -.1. mahamudra. karmic cause and effect. . This vast and profound complex of Buddhist teachings. Furthermore. the shentong. i t is important to have a set of guidelines that will enable one to understand ho w to go about sorting them out. and the va jrayana. rely not on ordinary conscious ness but on an exalted wisdom consciousness. The first reliance is not to rely on the person teaching. corresponding to the sutras of the second dharmachakra. while it is important dur ing one's meditation to see the emptiness of all relative dharmas including the em ptiness of the teachings of the Buddha on karmic cause and effect. Teachings on the way things really are empty of true existence or self-natur e. rebirth. -. it is equally important to live one's life in ac cordance with these teachings on relative truth when one is not meditating and t herefore not free of grasping and fixation.2. The Buddha enjoined his followers to apply this standard even to him . -. -. As set forth by His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama. corresponding to the sutras of the third dharmachakra. atoms. with respect to the doctrine. the display. and stages of practice Khenpo Rinpoche o ften divides into four: . -.1. Teachings on the way all things are fundamentally mind and that there is n o real distinction between mind and matter. Then. Teachings on the way things appear to be. -." . -----------------------------------------------. And with respect to the definitive meaning.L4: [The four divisions] . Because the teachings of the Buddha are presented at so many different levels. the four relian ces are: -. corresponding to the hinayana. viewpoints. Tenzin Gyamtso. or the light of the clear light nature of mind." If one understands consciousness a lways to be dualistic and awareness to be non-dualistic. because they are all useful according to the various levels of meditative understanding of students. suffering.3. and ignorance. rely not on the interpretable meaning b ut on the definitive meaning. phil osophical schools. . impermanence. . rely not on the word [or words] but on the meaning. then this last reliance should read "exalted wisdom awareness. with respect to the meaning. .
spiritual heirs. offspring. for examp le. and remain that way in perpetuity. not to rely on the interpret able meaning. but on the definitive meaning. -. For example. because it is the reali zation of emptiness or the true nature that liberates one from suffering and its causes. and rubbing it. cutting. which in this example is that all phenomena. we have to und erstand that we are not praying for him magically to transform himself into a fi ve-pronged iron ritual instrument. the "you" that does not truly exis t will still experience the immense suffering which also does not truly exist. when we pray that Karmapa remain forever in the vajra nature. no path. This injunction is very important w hen it comes to distinguishing the various levels of the Buddhist teachings. with respect to the doctrine or teaching. und erstanding which teachings supersede which other teachings when it comes to unde rstanding absolute truth. "Oh monks and scholars. including suffering and i ts causes. From the standpoint of the shentong madhyamaka teachings. should be translated at all. . ascertaining for oneself their t ruthfulness or lack thereof. no attainment. it i s still important to accept such an interpretable meaning in one's post-meditati on or between-meditations experience. which can only be known non-dualistically by this non-conceptual wisdom min . translators and students alike must rely on the meaning of the teaching rather than exclusively on the words themselves. you should not accept my word out of respect for me but rather upon analyzing and investigating it in the way that a gold-smith analyses gold by scorching. Therefore. whether the Tibetan word se should be transla ted as sons and daughters. or whatever. heirs apprentice. This second injunction is very important when it conies to translating the teachings from one language into another. Oftentimes. . similar to what is used in advanced vajrayana practice. progeny. The second reliance is. It may be all we ll and good to understand that suffering is empty of true nature or of inherent existence. there does not seem to be any word in the recipient language exactly equival ent to the word used in the language from which the teachings are being translat ed. and understanding when certain teachings should be app lied and when they should not. one should try to understand. but if you have not realized that. for instance. no wi sdom. The third reliance is. it is important to unde rstand and live in accordance with the law of cause and effect. In determining whether the Tibetan word dampa should be translated as genuin e or as holy or even as venerable. . personal liberation." This means that regardless of the greater experience or perceived level of realization of the t eacher. the definitive m eaning is that all things are merely the radiance of the clear light nature of m ind. children. hei rs. One should not. the Buddha's teachings on karma that g ood and bad actions as causes invariably lead to the results of happiness and su ffering must be interpreted in the light of his subsequent teachings in the Heart Sutra that all dharmas (phenomena) are emptiness and his teaching that there is "no suffering. one should still rely on the teachings. are empty of true existence. rather than accept them simply because of the profo und impression the teacher may have made on one or because of his or her reputat ion or hierarchical status. given the rather coarse. not to rely on the words of the teaching. ac cept a teaching simply because the words are eloquent as we know even the devil c an quote scriptures and charm the birds out of the trees but because the meaning i s truthful and conducive to happiness. and no non-attainment. with respect to the meaning. or whether the term dharmaka ya. no origin of suffering. but on the meaning. no cessation of suffering. a nd will take it all to be very real. common-place level of understand ing of things that we have at the beginning of our path. But in meditation. and realize the definitive meaning. and the benefit and liberation of others. daughters and sons. and even after one has developed the ability skillfully to meditate on empt iness but not the ability to maintain that realization when not meditating." The teachings on karma are thus int erpreted to mean that. meditate upon. when one has not realized emptin ess. which is given eight different meanings in the Mahayana Uttara Tantra Shastr a.1. Similar ly.self when he said.
At the ultimate level.5. the rangtongpas are th ereby implying. they are the finger pointing at the moon. This formulation. This question brings us to the fourth reliance. implying t hat emptiness in some way exists. a wonderful song. which can only be realized non-conceptually and non-dualistically by the clear light nature of mind itself which means that it is beyond the compreh ension of the conceptual mind dualistically involved in the effort to refute any and all conceptual notions or understandings of reality. with respect to the de finitive meaning. but on an exalted wis dom awareness. . though adamantly refusing to assert. The Eight Cases of Basic Goodness Not to be Shunned (i. wh ich is taught in this commentary by Chandrakirti. therefore.e. however. ¢(i. -. moved to another file) . not to rely upon ordinary consciousness. But how can one truly know for oneself which of these truths is the definitive truth? . Also included in this issue is Khenpo Rinpoche's commentary on Gyalwa Gotsangpa' s song. which is. including mind.4. All of these points of view were taught by the Buddha.e. -. a point of view developed by the svatantrika madhyamaka. fabrication. L3: [Part 2 The shentong view the third turning of the wheel] . that gives extremely practical and effic acious advice to all practitioners for whom the intensity of practice is met wit h the intensification of obstacles. -. . Which basicall y says that we don t have to abandon conceptualization). i. one must rely ultimately on the wisdom that arises in meditation and not on any of the w orkings of conceptual mind. The teachings that all dharmas are emptiness. But from the standpoint of the shentong madhyamaka.e. -. direct from the heart of the practice lineage. that absolute truth is simp ly the absence of conceptual fabrication or the absolute freedom from concepts.3. .2. not the moon itsel f. and their meanings are applicable under different circumstances and at different levels of understa nding and practice. words and concepts are at bes t very useful lies. can not account for the existence of things. ******************************************************* . the rangtong doctrine.d itself. which ar e accounted for in the shentong philosophy as the radiance of the clear light na ture of mind. This means that in order to understand the definitive truth. . From this point of view. from the standpoint of the prasangika madhyamaka (rangtong). L3: [Acknowledgments] . ******************************************************* . . in o rder to understand beyond the need to interpret the true nature of things and wh ich of the Buddha's many teachings lead directly to that understanding. or elaboration of the nature of things. that there is no real distinction between mind and matter w hich point of view reflects the Buddha's statement that "The three realms are me rely mind" must be interpreted in light of his subsequent teachings that all dharm as. the teachings of the cittamatra that all things a re fundamentally mind. is concerned with d estroying any sort of conceptual formulation. . . however. . Their doctrine. is still subtly conceptual. are emptiness.
please aspire to attain the state o f complete and perfect enlightenment." The use of these two words together gives the understanding that the world we experience is really nothing more than a kind of ever-changing projection of mind. which literally means "to shine. Before listening to the teachings. and good. Last year there shone a dependently arisen appearance of our meeting here. of his translators in the West. L1: [A PRAISE OF COMPASSION] . "Ma y everything be auspicious." . and a gain tonight." "an ide a. also literally means "to emit light" or "to shine. for the benefit of all sentient beings who are as limit less in number as the sky is vast in extent. In English it is sometimes translated as "to appear. which means. A very warm tashi delek* to Lama Tashi and all of you gathered here this evening . ref lect upon. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . Finally. that will create a very good and auspicious connection amongst us. . for her master ful presentation of Khenpo Rinpoche's teachings in Progressive Stages of Meditat ion on Emptiness. as a verb. . we would like to thank his translator Ari G oldfield for his continual and prompt willingness to clarify various aspects of the original transcripts of his translation. . May your wisdom which arises from listening to." or "a thought." or "a concept." "an appear ance or thing seen. from which much of the information in this introduction is dra wn. which." "an apparition. We would also like to thank Shenpen Hookham. . If we begin by singing A Song of Meaningful Connections by the lord of yogins.] . a long-time student of the dharma and of Khenpo Rinpoche. . reflecting on. M ilarepa. please give rise to the precious attitude of bodhicitta. please give rise to it and listen. there shines another dependently arisen appearance of our meeting all together here.** ." and is often used in conjunction with nangwa. and one of t he earliest. As always we would like to thank Khenpo Rinpoche for the great generosity and cl arity of his teachings. ~ **Editor's note: The Tibetan word shar. if not the earliest. Lama Tashi Namgyal . something like a light-show in space to which we falsely im pute objective reality. In addition. thereby taking it to be "real" and solidifying it. and meditate upon the teachings of the genuine dharma with all of the enthusiasm we can muster in our hearts.. blissful. and as a result. . [Students sing. and meditating upon the teachings of the genuine dharma increase and increase. This is like the appearance of the moon in a pool of water. . In order to do that we must listen to. This is the precious attitude of bodhic itta." and as a noun means variously "light" or "brightness. we would like to thank Michael Barraclough and Zhyisil Chokyi Ghatsal P ublications in New Zealand for their gracious permission to use their graphic fo r the cover of our last issue of Shenpen Osel." i s the same word that is used when the sun comes out or comes up and begins to sh ine. may you perform great benefit for all the limitless number of sentient beings. ~ *Editor's note: Tashi delek is a Tibetan greeting that literally means." "a visual seeing.
. -----------------------------------------------. and short versions of the great mother. These are known as the extensive. The stage of bodhisat . \ And the mind of compassion. Then the commentary continues. because of their greater merit and wisdom.1.Tonight. \ Buddhas are born from Bodhisattvas. because at the time they are practicing the path they have to be bodhisattvas. on the other hand. non-dual awareness. Here in the verse they are described as being intermediate. -. \ Buddhas are born from the bodhisattvas. The first verse explains the causes of the three different levels of awakening: . This was none other than the glorious Chandrakirti." The commentary explains that. "Those who listen to the teachings given by a n authentic spiritual teacher and then explain them to others are shravakas." sol itary realizers or solitary sages. L4: [A. Praising great compassion without distinguishing its types] L5: [Showing great compassion to be the principal cause of a bodhisattva] . is the Madhyamakavatara. is a commentary on the Buddha's intention when teach ing the sutras of the middle turning of the wheel of dharma. "Those who. . Nagarjuna's text called The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way. (verse id. His text is ca lled Entrance to the Middle Way. the Prajnaparamit a Sutras. are inferior to the Buddhas. (1) . \ ### \ Shravakas and intermediate Buddhas arise from the Mighty Ones. .* from listening to the teachings of the Buddhas. Entrance to the Middle Way.e. meaning "those who listen and he ar." Th at is the first type of realized being that is being described. Shravakas and pratyekaBuddhas are born from or arise from t he speech of the Mighty Ones. \ /// \ [I. . and. in L entrée du milieu) \ Hearers and Middling Buddhas [i. middle. \ And compassionate mind. the wisdom of non-duality. \ And Bodhicitta are the [three] causes of Conquerors Sons. and so this text. Mulama dhyamakakarika in Sanskrit.thos. ~ *Editor's note: An epithet for Buddhas . They are superior to the shravakas but inferior to the Buddhas. In Tibetan it is called db U. from everything that comprises what is known as the genuine dharma the topic to be explained is the text composed by the one who was able to milk the p ainting of a cow and thereby effectively reverse everyone's clinging to things a s being real. in Ocean of Nectar) \ 1. a Sanskrit term translated literally into Tibetan as nyan. is entering into the middle way in the sense that it is explaining this earlier text by Nag arjuna.pa' and in English. So they are called i ntermediate Buddhas. This text is an explan ation of an earlier text by the protector Nagarjuna known as The Fundamental Wis dom of the Middle Way. the la nguage of India at the time.2. The Buddhas themselves arise or are born from bodhisattvas. -. are called pratyekaBuddhas. It begins by describing those who are known as shravakas. Solitary Realizers] are born from the Powerful Able Ones. \ And bodhicitta are the causes of these heirs of the Victors. The name of this commentary in Sanskrit.1] (verse id. are superior to the shravakas and realize things more quickly.ma 'jug. The commentary on this text that Rinpoche will be explaining was composed by Mip am Rinpoche. . Entrance to the Middle Way. Why? Because they are between the shravakas and the Buddhas.
1. which means the mind that wishes to p rotect all sentient beings from suffering. The Tib etan word se. ~ *Editor's note: The Victors or the Victorious Ones are the Buddhas. The second is non-dual awareness. But an heir is basically someone w aiting around for their parents to die so that they can inherit lands. Enlightened b odhisattvas do depend upon Buddhas for teachings and guidance. which cannot be avoided without adopting the artificial alternation of wo rd order. . and is used to refer to enlightened bodhisattvas. an d titles. their realization of the true nature of mind and reality when they meditate i s said to be the same as the Buddha's. the younger is going to come in to a lot of wealth. At first it was unthinkingly translated as "son. money. a first-bhumi bodhisattva's realization is said to be lik e looking at the same sky through a hole in a sesame seed. No Buddha must die for a bodhisattva to come into their "inheritance. bodhicitta. Even the t erm "spiritual heir" conveys the unfortunate implication that if one could just get close enough to the guru. The use of sons and daughters is often e mployed." For all of these reasons "heir" seems a n unfortunate choice of words.tva comes first. . "son" is inaccurate. There are of course some heirs of large fortunes who go into the family business before the progenit or of it dies in order to learn the business and to lend a helping hand. it is an honorific t erm for son or daughter.2. And finally. . Nothing is transferred from a Buddha to a bodhisattva at the time of the death of a Buddha that will make the bodhisattva a Buddha. not implied by the text. These three are the causes of the Heirs of the Victors. The term heir recommends itself because of its n on-specificity of gender and because it implies that sometime in the future the bodhisattva will have the status of a Buddha. who are in effect apprenticed to the Buddhas. " but since the term se is not gender specific and bodhisattvas come in both fem ale and male form. -. but at the same time are doing the same work as a Buddha. here translated as heir. So "children" does no t seem an adequate translation. wisdom. which is the sense one gets from the word child or children. Fo r those who are familiar with languages that have parallel sets of terminology e mployed for ordinary people and for people who are honored. Enlightened bodhisattvas are very hardworking.3. meaning the wisdom or the intelligence t hat does not fall into either the extreme of existence or non-existence. one might inherit some spiritual goodies at the ti . compassion. and bodhicitta are very important. Ther efore. So for these two reasons the cause of being a Buddha is the bodhisattvas. . though on a lesser scale. and the second reason is that they have to rely on bodhisattvas as their teachers when they are practicing on the path. "What are the causes of being a bodhisattva?" There are thre e given here. Though their post-meditation experience is vastly inferio r. The first is the mind of compassion. It has been difficult over the years to arrive at a sui table translation of this term. energetic ind ividuals. Sometimes the word children or child is used. but this rendering of th e term implies dependence and the need for care and looking after. -. and a bodhisattva. -. And the term is inappropriate also because it focuses on an entirely passive relationship between two individuals. which is another name fo r bodhisattvas. but their status is much more akin to an adolescent apprentice than to a toddler or small child." and there is in fact no inheritance to come into. the meaning of which i s that by virtue of no effort on their own part. Then one might ask. literally means the offspring of nobility or of exalted individuals. If a Buddha's realization is like the who le expanse of the sky. does not convey the honorific sense of the word. an intermediate Buddha or solitary realizer. Enlightened bodhisa ttvas are already engaged in bringing great benefit to sentient beings in a grea t many different ways. That is one reason. and by its word order conveys a cultural bias favoring males. but it is a bit long. a Buddha. though it is a popular one these days.* So in this verse are pointed out the causes of being a shravaka . but non e of that is implied by the term "heir.
However. like water for growth. Along the path one comes to realize t hat the sentient beings that one has set out to help are limitless in number.me of his or her passing. Next comes a praise of compassion. \ ### \ Since I assert that loving kindness itself is the seed of the Victors ' abundant harvest. ¢-. compassion observing mere living beings without considering their impermane nce or emptiness. and are sometimes not very gr ateful for the good things one does for them.** Finally. \ And like ripening remaining for long enjoyment.2] \ 2. . So. and to give up on sentient beings.e. . since the English lang uage does not have any recognizable honorific language. great compassion.3. . An homage to the great compassion distinguishing its three types] . conditioning. \ And is its ripening that allows it to be enjoyed for a long time. tho ugh it also does not convey the honorific sense. Why is loving kindness. (2) .2. . \ /// \ [I. it is important at the end of the path because compassion is like the ripening of the harvest. And then come praises of the different kinds of compassion. compassion observing the unobservable / observing living beings who are rea lized as empty of inherent existence. \ I therefore praise compassion at the very outset. \ At the beginning I praise compassion. ~ **Editor's note: Without great compassion. ¢(i. of the abundant harvest of the fruition of the Buddhas. the venerable Chandrakirti begins this text by praising compassion. Perhaps progeny would be a better choice of words. which then can be enjoyed for a very long time. the vast number of sentient bein gs and their manifest confusion would easily cause a bodhisattva to become dispi rited.1. .It is when we really understand samsara . so important? It is important in the b eginning of the practice because it is like the seed of the Victors' abundant ha rvest. ¢-. \ Because for this bountiful harvest of the Conquerors \ Compassion itself is like the seed. It is important in the middle because it is like the water and the fertil izer that causes that harvest to flourish. and the end [of the p ath]. a praise of compassion in general wherein the different kinds of compassion are not differentiated: . compassion observing phenomena / observing living beings who are realized a s impermanent). L4: [B. since compassio n is important in these ways in the beginning. this is a deficiency tha t will be difficult to make up in any case. L5: [Showing great compassion to be the root of the other two causes of bodhisat tva] . an d that they do all kinds of bad things to oneself. -----------------------------------------------. to despair. emptines . the middle. It is because one has compassion t hat these different things do not cause us to regress on the path.impermanence. THREE TYPES OF COMPASSION: ¢-. \ Is the water which causes it to flourish. Compassion is the seed. ¢-.
This well [or mill pond] that bei ngs go around in is the cycle of existence. ." This compassion is something that is incredibly important. it is an incredibly imp ortant and wonderful thing. we let go of all the hindrances associated with the fear abou t the ego.3 \ 3." attachment to things develops. th e belief that the self exists. If we reflect on this then we generate strong compassion. \ ### \ First thinking "me". including even o ur enemies. And they are totally clueless about it and about how to stop it." For example. . These latte r two go together in the first two lines of the fourth verse which read: . of somet hing being mine. \ Then thinking 'This is mine' and generating attachment for things. and you develop attachment to these outer thing s as being real. Th is calm is necessary to develop concentration and then insights. "This is mine. out of ignorance. "Beings are powerless like a rambling water mill. (3) . and we bring great calm to the mind. "This is mine. Aft er that they think. Chandrakirti begins his text by pro strating to this incredibly important mind of compassion. when we exchang e self-for-others. So it is a direct consequen ce of wisdom." So first thinking "me".e. like a bucket in a well that keeps going around and around. all the discriminations. they fixate on "self. The meditation that ends with having compassion for all other sentient bein gs in samsara. samsara. our compas sion will grow even stronger. The third specific kind of compassion is non-referential compassion. and feels love towards them because they suffer first from clinging to the thought that there is a "me" and second from clinging to things as being "mine." So after y ou believe in self. that stretches from what is called the very peak of existence down to the worst hell. The first of these is compassion that has sentient beings as its focus: ." \ Then. I bow to compassion f or these wandering beings who wander in this cycle of samsara. then you start to believe in things in relation to the self with the idea of possessiveness. An homage to compassion observing mere living beings] . It is also a great tool to develop wisdom because. ¢(i. L5: [1. \ Are without self-control like the spinning of a well. which in this c ase has the dharma in the sense of the basic nature of sentient beings as its focus. all sentient beings turn and turn in samsara.s . ." .that we feel compassion for all sentient beings. Next comes the praise of the second specific kind of compassion. they fixate on self. It is also di fficult to give rise to it. creating the cau ses of their own suffering. like a rambling water mill \ I bow to compassion for these wanderers. etc. It is by understanding the conditions of samsara that we finally have compassion for all sentient beings in the same situation. there comes the mode of perception that focuses on the self. L5: [2. The commentary reads: "Before they cling to the idea of possessiveness. \ /// \ I. and if one is able to do so. For this reason. \ Beings are powerless.) . thinking. And if we think about the specific sufferings that they constantly experience.) . And so compassion is the mind that beholds all sentient beings. \ I bow down to that compassion for living beings \ Who from first conceiving 'I' with respect to the self. A homage to compassion observing phenomena and the unobservable] . "These are my eyes. Without control.
. The method of sending and taking is a most effective way of developing the bodhisattva's motivation. they suffer. This is the second type of compassion. they suffer. happiness. So the second ty pe of compassion sees the quality of their impermanence. and non-refer ential compassion are described by Kalu Rinpoche in experiential terms in the cont ext of the practice of tong len in the following way: "One method for developing bodhicitta is called tong len [gtong len]. there is nothing really there. compassion with reference to phenomena (dharmas). Therefore. beings are completely impermanent. even their in cipient or potential suffering. health.4 \ 4ab. A dualism lingers here. One focuses on their impermanence. seeing that beings are impermanent. Anything that we enjoy. \ /// \ I. but they are empty of any self nature. but also they are just like the moon's reflection in a pool of water. they suffer. and (3) the actual act of feeling compassion through understanding or perceiving the su ffering of others. to take it away from all other beings. Thus the meditation is one of willingly taking on all that is negative and willi ngly giving away all that is positive. There is nothing remaining from one moment to the next in terms of the beings' basic nature. ~ *Editor's note: These three types of compassion compassion with reference to sentient beings.. Once this k . Would it not be a worthy goal if this one being could take on all the pain of every other being in the universe and fr ee each and every one of them from suffering? We therefore resolve to take on ou rselves all this suffering. They suffer because they cling to their belief in permanence.* . and yet because they think that things are real. anything noble or wort hy. (2) other beings as the objects of compassion. In short. However. because being s think that they are permanent and think that there is something there which re mains and continues. they are of the nature of impermanence. . So there a re two kinds of compassion here. wealth and potenti al for long life to other beings. not only are they impermanent. \ ### \ Beings are like the moon on the surface of rippling water \ They move and are empty of any self nature. This framework prepares our path in the mahayana. and one sees their emptiness. (4ab) . because we are still caught by the threefold idea of (1) ourselves exp eriencing the compassion. however. and all of its causes. And not on ly are they impermanent. What are beings like? They are like the moon that appears on the surface of wate r that is being blown about by the wind. positive or happy in our situation we send selflessly to every other being. They do not remain the same even from o ne instant to the next. which literally means 'sending [and] taking.' The attitude here is that each of us is only one being. They are completely empty of any self nature. \ Living beings are seen to be transient and empty of inherent existenc e. and the third type of c ompassion sees the quality of sentient beings' emptiness. They are empty of any inherent exi stence. At the same time we devel op the attitude of sending all our virtue. while the numb er of beings in the universe is infinite. . \ Like a moon in rippling water. Moreover. and both of them see that because beings do not realize these two things. . "The kind of compassion we have des cribed so far is called 'compassion with reference to sentient beings" (sem chen la mik pay nying je [sems can ladmigspa'i snying rje]). We reverse our usual tendency to cling to what we want for ourselves and to ignore others. We develop a deep empathy with everything that lives.
A Mahayana trainee trains in the three Dharmas . we arrive at a second. The definition of spi ritual ground is a clear realization that acts as the foundation of many good qu alities.until he or she gener ates spontaneous Bodhicitta. Here we entirely transcend any concern with subject/object refere nce. ¢---. We se e that these three aspects belong to a conventional. The moment he generates spontaneous Bodhicitta he e nters the Mahayana path of accumulation. This is the main path of mahayana practice. The realization b egins to grow that the self which is feeling the compassion. and the compassion itself are all in a certain sense illusory. State University of New York Press. ¢---. . and Bodhicitta . that is emptiness still appears to his mind mixed with a generi c image. "From this second kind of compa ssion a third develops. by K yabje Dorje Chang Kalu Rinpoche.While on the path of accumulation the Bodhisattva meditates on emptines s with a concentration of tranquil abiding until he or she attains the realizati on of tranquil abiding observing emptiness. The definition of spiritual path is an exalted awareness conjoined with spontaneous renunciation. . 'non-referential compassion' (mik me nying je [dmigs med snying rje]). ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . not ultimate.Through the force of this meditation the generic image gradually fades unt . Perceiving these illusions and thereby understanding the t rue emptiness of all phenomena and experience is what we call 'compassion with r eference to all phenomena' (cho la mik pay nying je [chos la dmigspa'i snying rj e]). Because of this he still has dualistic appearance. ¢-----. .The Mahayana paths: . With the attainment of the union of tranquil abiding and superior seeing he advances to the path of preparation and becomes a Bodhisattva of the path of preparation.Two types of ground: Hinayana grounds (without great compassion) and Mahayana grounds (motivated by Bodhicitta). Renunciation is a strong which to escape samsara.Superior grounds: ¢-----. Spiritual grounds and spiritual paths are synonymous. reality.ind of compassion has been established. . the wis dom of non-duality related to Bodhicitta.Preparation: a realization of a Bodhisattva who has attained superior seei ng observing emptiness that serves as the preparation for attaining the Mahayana path of seeing. -. copyright 1 986. we lay a foundation whic h guarantees that our path will lead directly to enlightenment.Bodhisattvas on the paths o f accumulation and preparation are called 'ordinary Bodhisattvas' because they h ave not attained ultimate Bodhicitta.e. They are nothing in themselves. ¢-----.Ordinary grounds: ¢-----. It is the ultimate experience that results in Buddhahood. the objects of the compassion. To remove the generi c image and overcome dualistic appearance he meditates repeatedly on emptiness w ith a union of tranquil abiding and superior seeing. Kagyu Thubten Choling.Accumulation: a realization of a Bodhisattva who principally accumulates a collection of merit that is a method for attaining the Mahayana path of prepara tion.At this stage the Bodhisattva's meditation on emptiness is s till conceptual. L1: [GROUNDS AND PATHS] . All these three l evels of compassion are connected. ¢-. ¢-. but simply illusions that create the appearance of a dualistic framework." THE DHARMA That Illuminates all Beings Impartially Like the Light of the Sun and the Moon. so if we begin with the basic level by develo ping loving kindness and compassion towards all beings. -. pages 46-47. -. ¢(i.great compassion.
2. L1: [A PRESENTATION OF CAUSAL GROUNDS] L2: [A PRESENTATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL GROUNDS] . The first is an explanation of the temporary state.Ultimate causal grounds -.b.ii. is again divided into two sections -. starting with the seventh. . The Stain less. -. ¢-. The first chapters of the Guide (up to "6. .e. This mind functions as the direct antidote to intelle ctually-formed true-grasping and its seeds. There are two main sections.-. The Luminous.-. He now is a Superior Bodhisattva of the fi rst ground (Very Joyful). ¢-----. it is called an 'uninterrupted path' because the Bodhisattva passes without interruption into the released path of t he first ground. meaning the state of e nlightenment. -. and so on.) . -.-.-. The first is the explanation of the first five of these grounds. and Difficult to Overcome. The second is an explanation of the ultimate state. and they never appear to him or her to be so.-. -.Seeing: a realization of a Bodhisattva who is sees emptiness directly that is a method for attaining the Mahayana path of meditation. ¢-----.-.the ten explained here --: an uncontaminated (not polluted by either the ignorance of true-grasping or its imprints) mind of a Su perior Bodhisattva in single-pointed meditative equipoise on emptiness that is m aintained by great compassion.Meditation: a realization of a Bodhisattva who is either abandoning or has abandoned innate true-grasping by practicing meditation. Next we get to the main body of Mipam Rinpoche's commentary. ¢-----. In the explanation of the first five bodhisattva grounds there is a section for each ground. A Buddha never conceives phen omena to be truly existent. or Buddhahood: is an ultimate realization that has aband oned completely the two obstructions. ¢---.il it disappears altogether and emptiness appears clearly and directly to his mi nd. -. -. These first five grounds are called in order Perfect Joy. an explanation of the ten bodhisattva grounds -. which is a mind that has completely abandoned intellectually-fo rmed true-grasping and its seeds. called The Manife st. All dualistic appearances subsides into emptiness and his mind mixed with em ptiness like water mixing with water. which refers to the te n grounds or bhumis of the bodhisattvas.The first moment of the non-conceptual wisdom directly realizing emptiness is the uninterrupted p ath of the path of seeing. and then the qualities of these grounds .i.1. . -. The Radiant.Bodhisattvas on the paths of seeing and med itation are called 'Superior Bodhisattvas' because they have attained ultimate B odhicitta. called Gone Far Beyond. .) . ¢-. -. . wisdom") present the stages of t he vast path principally according to Nagarjuna's Precious Garland.iii. The second is an explanation of the sixth ground. And the third is an explanation of the last four grounds. ¢(i. The first section. beg inning with the ground of Perfect Joy.Causal grounds are grounds that cause the attainment of Buddhahood.Resultant grounds are the actual Buddha grounds. .-.The ten bodhisattva gr ounds is in turn divided into three main sections.Conventional causal grounds: ¢---.a.-. First he gives an o utline of how the text is divided.No More Learning. the explanation of t he temporary state.
one immediately feel bliss ."Giving is the sharpest swo rd to cut through the knot of miserliness" . Finally." . The description of the essence of the entity of the ground itself is found in th e last two lines of the fourth verse and the first two of the fifth: .." .In the section on the ground called Perfect Joy.) ¢ (From other sources: "Everything has to go anyway" .to show others their innate perfection. (4cd) \ And perfectly dedicating their virtue with Samantrabhadra's prayer. \ And always abiding in joy. isn't it."the causes and conditions of all w isdom and merit all come from giving" . L4: [A. -----------------------------------------------. \ /// \ [I. by way of an expression of the ground's qualities. there is a one-sentence summary. the basis of characteristics] . ."Da na is the wisdom of openness. The purpose of all kinds of wholesomeness should be to eli minate defilements. \ Governed by compassion to liberate living beings completely. G iving while seeing the emptiness of the three.the abs ence of hindrances and fears .By letting go of the strong obsessions and fears about the self by exchanging self for all others without discrimination.) . ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . Combining method (creating good c onditions) and wisdom (letting go of the self)."It is wise. ¢-.and this permits to calm the mind in order to dev elop insights about the real nature of the mind and of everything. to let go?" . ------------------------------------------------ . . the joy of getting rid of the e go and working for the benefits of all sentient beings without discrimination. ¢-. L3: [The First Mind Generation: Perfect Joy (17 verses) Giving] . \ /// \ Thoroughly dedicated with Samantabhadra's prayers. . externally. So there are three sections. to get rid of selfishness.cd] \ 4c 5b. the joy of having the opportunity to give. and innately.4. Briefly showing the entity of the ground. internally. is called the first. . there is the explanation of t he ground itself. and underst anding or wisdom. (5ab) . ¢(i.") ¢ (The definition of the first ground is a Superior Bodhisattva's path that abando ns or has abandoned intellectually-formed true-grasping (but still has innate tr ue-grasping). what it actually is. \ The mind of this Conquerors' Son. \ They perfectly abide in joy this is called "the first". and that has attained a surpa ssing practice of the perfection of giving from within the ten perfections."The fine st and only lasting richness one may bring beings is an insight into their uncon ditioned nature . . \ ### \ The Victors' heirs see this and in order to free beings completely \ Their minds come under the power of compassion.. its principal object of abandonment."The three beautifu l roots are: non-attachment or generosity. and an extensive explanation of the groun d's qualities. non-aversion or kindness. The joy of being free from miserliness and strong attachments to samsaric t raps..e.
They wou ld just give the verses and give little introductions to each verse explaining w hat they were about. an explanation of the qualities they gain on this ground.[d. since they hav e attained ultimate bodhicitta. there is an explanation of why they are called bodhisa ttvas. it is said that bodhisattvas often take birth volunta rily in the lower realms. The good quality of mastering higher grounds] -. which read. In the description of the good qualities that beautify the b odhisattva's mind-stream. In India there was no tradition of these outlines in the commentaries. The good quality of being able to cause a hundred worlds to shake] -. .[c. five different ways in which they outshi ne others." It is at this point that they get the na me or are praised with the name "actual genuine bodhisattvas.[f. An extensive explanation of the good qualities that characterize the gro und] L5: [B. beginning with the first ground.[g. meaning that t hey abandon ever being born in the lower realms* and so forth. . The good quality of abandoning the three bonds: the intellectually-formed view of the transitory collection. The good quality of birth into Buddha's family] -.[a. \ ### \ Having attained this ground \ They are called by the name "bodhisattva". \ From then on. an explanation of the qualities that cause the bodhisattva to out shine the mind-streams of others. .[h. In the description of the qualities of bodhisattvas that cause them to outshine others. they a re called actual genuine bodhisattvas. are no longe r impelled by the ripening of karma to take birth in the lower realms. . Why they get the name bodhisattva is explained in the last two lines of the fift h verse. . however.1. The good quality of attaining a meaningful name] -. The good quality of exhausting the grounds of ordinary beings] . there are five different parts. The extensive explanation of the qualities of the ground is divided into three s ubsections: an explanation of the qualities that make the bodhisattva's mind-str eam beautiful. \ /// \ 5cd. such as being b orn into the family of the tatagathas. and an explanation of the qu alities of this ground from the perspective of what is abandoned.[b. The good quality of abiding in great joy] -.. and holding wrong moral disci plines and conduct as supreme.[e. . L4: [B.] -." They are noble be ings. The good quality of destroying the causes of lower rebirth] -. because he has attained this.1 The good qualities that beautify one's own continuum] L6: [B. the Buddhas. -. The commentary to this reads: "After attaining this first ground. for the b enefit of beings. the actual genuine mind of enlightenment. . (5cd) . ~ *Editor's note: Bodhisattvas. The traditional Tibetan way of formulating and presenting the major commentaries always includes an extensive outline of all the different sections in the text. deluded doubt.1 Enumerating the good qualities/ Benefits of Bodhicitta] . and an explanation of the superior qualities o f the first ground. \ He is addressed by the very name 'Bodhisattva' (1).
The commentary reads: "Since they have transcended or have gone beyond the level s of ordinary beings. Additionally they have the quality of abandoning three things. \ And is able to cause a hundred worlds to shake (5). The three bonds referred here are the inte llectually-formed view of the transitory collection. . First..) . \ This Bodhisattva possesses a supreme joy (4) . and as a result abides in eternal joy. they fully progress upwards (7a) . of Buddhas. taking the five skandhas the transitory collection to be a truly existent self rather than a mere dependently arisen ever-changing appear ance. they have the quality of the family. These five qualities are referred to in the four lines of verse numb er six and the first line of verse number seven: . (6) .** the belief that their own conduct is what makes them superio r.. they are born into th e family of tatagathas. . ¢(i. and the quality of constant i mprovement. These are all given up on the path of seeing. They do not go on any oth er paths. ~ *Editor's note: The stages of the path to enlightenment are traditionally e numerated as five: (1) the path of accumulation the preliminary path of a beginner . \ /// \ 6. . \ /// \ 7.) . He also abandons all intellectually-formed delusions and attains many special qualities and powers. \ And can cause a hundred worlds to quake.) . . \ Mastering ground after ground. the quality of their power.e.. the family of the Bud dhas. It is certain that this is their level. Since they directly realize selflessness. and doubt. they abandon the three which entangle so thoroughly. Their potential places them in the family of the Buddhas. The great peace and happiness is not enough .e. \ These bodhisattvas possess extraordinary happiness. and of solitary sages. of thus-gone ones. the quality of what they realize. ¢(i. \ They abandon all three that entangle sothoroughly. one should not get attached to those either. he advances higher (6). He attains a non-conceptual realization of emptiness. deluded doubt. the path on which on e becomes a noble bodhisattva. of shravakas.e. \ ### \ They are born into the family of the tatagathas. ¢(i." . These three are the view of the transitory collection. \ He is also born into the lineage of the Tathagatas (2) \ And has [completely] abandoned all three bonds (3). ~ **Editor's note: i. Delusions such as attachment and ignorance are sometimes called 'bonds' bec ause they bind us tightly to samsara. in this sense. meaning be lief in the self. and holding wrong moral disciplines and conduct as supreme.e. seeing emptiness with his mental awareness as clearly and vividly as he sees something with his eye a wareness. \ ### \ Advancing from ground to ground.* .
(2) the path of junction or application . Number 1. For more on the twelve qualities or pow ers of bodhisattvas of the ten grounds. and through learning to practice and to meditate . at the time they attain what is ca lled the level of patience. (3) the path of seeing or insight. This is one of twelve qualities common to all th e bodhisattva grounds. . . an intensive. This happiness is what propels them further and furth er upward through the bhumis. \ At that time for him all paths to lower rebirths have ceased (7). He takes rebirth in samsara only out of compassion. Volume 3. corresponding to the first bodhisattva bh umi. one example of which is given in the li ne that says that through their miraculous abilities they can cause a hundred di fferent world systems to quake. Finally. and so called because during this stage one meditates on or practices what ha s been seen on the path of seeing. all of which leads to the heat of wisdom or the spiritual awareness that comes with the experience of meditative heat.** . etc. see all the karma of one hundred previous lives. and finally (5) the path of perfection or ful fillment. each of which qualities the bodhisattvas on the first gro und have one-hundred fold.) . Like if the Wheel of life had stopped for him. Utter Joy. which is on the preceding path. (4) the pat h of meditation or practice. ~ **Editor's note: In an instant they can enter one hundred meditative absorp tions. . the path of junction . corresponding to the second through the tenth bhumi s. He has destroyed the causes of a lower rebirth with the antidote of his non -conceptual realization of emptiness.on which one is gathering the accumulations of merit and wisdom through study.e. corresponding to the stage of Buddhahood. through eschewing the ten unvirtuous actions and adopting the ten virtuous ones while practicing the paramitas. see Shenpen Osel. ¢(i.) . pa ges 30-31. \ /// \ 7. \ At that time for him all grounds of ordinary beings are exhausted (8) . in terms of their progressing upwards. . on which one realizes beyond mere conceptuality the Four Noble Truths and f or the first time has direct. \ ### \ At that time. (see the next box) . non-conceptual insight into emptiness. emanate one hundred emanations. Next it is stated that. Fourth is an explanation of their power. \ At that time. all grounds of ordinary beings evaporate \ They are taught to be like the eighth ground of the noble ones. highly concentrated. all paths to the lower realms meaning birth in the hells or as a hungry ghost or as an animal are completely cut off. Actually. they move with incredible happin ess from ground to ground. ¢(i.e. which is why this ground is call ed Perfect Joy. At the time the bodhisattva reaches this first ground. and patient stage of practice. since the realization of the bodhisattva of the first gr ound is so extraordinary since they have given up so many faults and have so many good qualities they have extraordinary happiness. make a hundred worlds move. which leads to. He will never regress to the state of an ordinary being. all paths to the lower realms are sealed off. the ground of Perfect Joy . . The text continues: . (7bcd ) .
and arhats who have actually gained the result of an arhat. there are arhats who are beginning arhats. are counted from the top down. which is followed by Buddhahood. because they are now noble beings and will no longer re vert to being ordinary. they evaporate. even the tiniest cause or seed of being born in the lower realms is wiped out. and the stream-enterer as seven and eight." ¢-. \ ### \ Even those abiding on the first ground of perfect bodhicitta. The levels of the hinayana path. . (Please see the boxed note on page 19. The term "eighth noble one" refers to the hinayana path of see ing and specifically refers to the stage of "stream-enterer." and the terms are synonyms.. L6: [B. each of which is sub divided into two. The reference to "the eighth noble one" by Chandrakirti in the Madhyamakava tara may be explained as follows: ¢-. each of which is divided into two. They are described as being like the eighth of the noble ones. The first is called "stream-enterer. For instance. which they were on before. The good qualities that outshine others' continuums / emptiness and li beration] L6: [B. Then the first three lines of the eighth verse read: . ¢(i. \ On the ground Gone Far Beyond. ¢-.e.Chandrakirti's reference to "the eighth noble one" refers to this eight-fold d ivision of the hinayana. .There are four levels of attainment on the hinayana path.) By dividing ea ch of these four levels into two. then all of the grounds of ordinary beings. saying that the first-bhumi bodhisattva is like th e noble beings who have attained the result of the stream enterers on the path o f the arhats. the conditions for their being born in the lower realms can no longer gather o r come together. we count upward from the first up to the tenth level. there are eight levels.) . In counting the bhumis.When he composed his commentary. which is the eighth down the line. The arhat levels are counted as numb ers one and two. which refers to the path of the arhats." and the fourth is termed the "foe-destroyer" or ar hat. \ Even when abiding on the first view of the mind of complete enlighten ment. \ /// \ 8." the third "non-returner. (8) . Here Chandrakirti is comparing the bodhisat tva path to the arhat's path. the once-returner as five a nd six. \ Through the power of their merit. But here what happens is that as a result of the remedy of reac hing the first bodhisattva ground. On the arhat's path there are eig ht stages four levels. outshine \ Both those born of the Mighty One's speech and the solitary sages. ("Arhat" means "foe-destroyer. Chandrakirti's audience was primarily compose d of hinayana practitioners plus many mahayana students who were familiar with t he hinayana path.1 Outshining Hearers and Solitary Realizers by way of lineage on this g round] . their minds also become superior. If you count the stages of the hinayana path backwards. when bodhisattvas gain this groun d.2 Showing the good qualities in brief] .1. L5: [B. you get to the stream enterers and those who have attained the result of the stream enterer ." the second "once-returne r. Furthermore. ¢ The Venerable Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche) .2.2. The reference to the levels of the hinayana path is com plicated by the fact that they are numbered in a different way than are the bodh isattva bhumis. \ /// \ He is shown to be similar to an eighth Superior [of the Hinayana]. by contrast. just d issolve. the non-returner as three and four.
right fr om the start. ¢(i. ¢-. and then supe rior in wisdom at the seventh.Like. . we must realize the lack o f inherent existence of all phenomena. in conclusion. and not non-existence.So. When b odhi-sattvas finally get to the seventh ground. Moreover. . The commentary reads: "Even those abiding on the first ground which leads eventu ally to perfect enlightenment and this mind which is going to lead to perfect enli ghtenment is bodhicitta because of their relative bodhicitta and because of their non-referential compassion. but of all phenomena. Those two must be linked somehow. which refers to the shravakas. on the ground Gone Far Beyond their minds also become superior. In other words. . He is superior because. re alizing ultimate bodhicitta. So on the earlier bodhisattva grounds they are superior because of th eir merit. We have emptiness of all dharmas: not existence. instead of having no-self of the persons. he has accumulate d the merit of his great compassion. th e pratyekaBuddhas or solitary realizers. He has both method and wisdom. ¢-. but also grasping existent aggregated (As long as we grasp at inherently existent aggregates we also grasp at an inherently ex istent I. that is the Union of the Two Truths. But. So he surpas ses only in merit until the seventh ground.2. not non-exis tence. because of these two things. The Mahayana path cultivate both together. \ /// \ And on Gone Afar (7) he surpasses them in wisdom. but real components making up th e five aggregates. Moreover. the real nature of everything is not existence.This is also linked to the fact that not only the person is empty. Only then is everything logically sound. Gone Far Beyond. to abandon se lf-grasping of persons and attain liberation we need to abandon not only graspin g at an inherently existent self. in addition to equivalent wisdom. ¢-. outshine even those who have attained the level of f ruition in a different vehicle. who are the intermediate Buddhas. Realizing emptiness is only ha lf of it. The only way to attain the rea l liberation is by realizing lack of inherent existence.It looks like it is superior wisdom in two ways: 1. substantially existent person) that is the problem (as stated in the Hinayana) but also the subtle self -grasping conceiving an inherently existing self. that all dharmas are empty of inherent existence.e. There he wil l have both superior method and wisdom. 2. combining emptiness with m ethod or dependent origination.).e. ¢(i. but also al l phenomena.) . Hinayana Superiors] \ Through the power of his greatly increased merit. and phenomena other than persons. and the solitary sages.) . That is why it is superior in method at this ground. method and wisdom. The pure merit that comes from these tw o causes them to outshine realized beings of the hinayana path. realizing the emptiness of not only the self. . W e need both. So it is not just the gross self-grasping (grasping at a self-supporting. the view of the real nature of everything (self. aggregates and all phenomena) is b etter: the Middle Way away from all extremes. also become superior to the shravakas and the solit ary sages.2 Outshining Hearers and Solitary Realizers by way of wisdom on the sev enth ground] . their relative bodhicit ta and their non-referential compassion.e. This is superior wisdom. But he will surpass them in wisdom also at the seventh ground. ¢-. Thus we need to realize the lack of inherent existence of both perso ns.\ He defeats those born from the speech of the \ Powerful Able One [Hearer Superiors] and the Solitary Buddhas [Solita ry Realizer Superiors] [i. L6: [B. who are born of t he Buddha's speech. their minds. So even the bodhisattvas on the first g round are superior to them. but when they get to the seventh ground they are also superior becaus e of their wisdom.
3. or even his body. . Attaining samsaric happiness through giving] . his possessions.3 The surpassing good quality of the first ground / the perfection of giv ing] L6: [B. Treatises and Hinayana Sutras that prove this] ¢-. The next verse reads: .. ¢[i.[a. It comes to the fore in th e sense that the other ones are not so important here as this one. \ /// \ 9. \ ### \ At that time. \ Becomes surpassing for him. even if we can not see the fire directly. We can make this i nference. (9) . and feels no sense of loss when giving away his wealth.[b. \ ### \ All beings strongly desire happiness .1 An explanation of the giving of one who abides on the first ground] .. . \ When one is enthusiastic even about giving away one's own flesh. The commentary reads that on the first ground. He has abandoned all stains of miserliness and attachment that are discorda nt with the perfection of giving . \ This is a sign of something that normally cannot be seen. there is fire. but they give it a way enthusiastically then. Mahayana Sutras that prove this] ¢---.) . just as we can infer that. In this regar d. becomes preeminent. ¢(i. the fi rst of the ten paramitas. The definition of perfection of giving is any giving maintained by Bodh icitta. Rejecting arguments against this teaching] . \ That he acts gracefully even when giving his own flesh \ Is a reason for inferring the non-apparent.. \ At that time giving.e. the cause of gainin g the enlightenment of the Buddha that becomes preeminent [in the life and activ ity of] the bodhisattva is the first of the ten transcendent perfections. the first cause of complete enlightenment. The sources that proves this] ¢---.3 An explanation of the meaning established by this teaching] . when you see somebody who is giving away their own flesh without the slightes t manifestation of clinging to it not only are they not unhappy to give it away.[iii. ¢-. this is a sign that they are. There are two types of perfection of giving: the transcending perfection of giving (of Bodhisattvas) and the transcendent perfection of giving (of Buddh as). L6: [B.giving practiced by ord inary beings who are not Bodhisattvas] L7: [i. the paramita of generosity.e. at that time. giving Dharma. even though as ordinary beings we cannot really tell th at they are on the first bhumi.2 An explanation of the giving of lower bases . n ot only do they not have any misgivings about giving it away. The next verse reads: . L5: [B. The teaching of Sutra on the Ten grounds that Hearer and Solitary Realizers have the realizations of the lack of inherent existence of all phenomena] ¢-.[ii. when we see smoke somewhere.2. the first cause of the enlightenment of complete Buddhahood.3.Three types of giving: giving material things. and giving fearl essness. L6: [B. \ Generosity.
. want to be happy. you are unhappy. .) . In order to end those states you nee d objects of enjoyment. in fact. \ Even for those with little compassion and very rough minds. \ And soon after. ¢(i. like discipline. not in the three low er realms. \ Will meet a noble being. \ Knowing that these enjoyments [in this life] come from giving [in for mer lives]. In this case it is food and drink. If anybody gets any of those things. who is extremely hot-tempered and gets angry easily. That is. given all the different transcendent perfections. So why. in order to receive benefits in this life. . Knowing this. the Migh ty One. drink. The next verse reads: . \ ### \ Even they. generosity is also the cause of samsaric happiness. first taught and praised generosity.e. through an occasion of giving. (11) . or in the next life. clothing. \ The Able One taught giving first [of the ten paramitas]. The ordinary motivation of working for a good rebirth. If we take people as an example. did the Buddha first t each generosity? Ordinary beings. Attaining the happiness of nirvana through giving] . (12) . \ The Mighty One taught generosity first. \ Desired enjoyments [in future lives] that cause the alleviation of su ffering \ Arise from giving [in this life]. comes from generosity. Therefore. \ Who pursue only their own interests.\ But human happiness does not occur without objects of enjoyment. \ And [ordinary] humans cannot be happy without enjoyments [basic enjoy ments like food. what makes them happy is the re versing of states in which they feel that they are lacking something. above all. the perfect Buddha. This verse teaches that even the happiness you get in samsara comes from generos ity. happiness is the ending of those states. Another reason that he taught it first is that it is the easiest virtue to practice. it is because they have been generous in t he past. \ All these beings strongly desire happiness. completely cutting the stream of cyclic existence. \ The objects of enjoyment they desire \ And that pacify their suffering come from generosity. and shelter]. If you are hungry or thirst y. and so fo rth. who does not have much faith or compassion. L7: [ii. So it could be materiali stically / egoistically motivated. out of all the different practices of virtue. \ They will progress to peace. \ Knowing that these objects arise from generosity. all they want. having a human rebirth with good attributes. When you f eel that you are lacking something. all of it. Someone who is a giver. receive their counsel. \ ### \ Even for those without much compassion \ Who are extremely hot-tempered and self-concerned. . \ /// \ 10. and generosity is the provision of those objects to enjoy. the result of that. (10) . and who is really only concerned w ith their own benefit even for them. \ /// \ 11. everything that they want in terms of objects of enjoyment that can pacify their suffering.
) . This is what causes bodhisattvas to be happy.) . This happiness comes from seeing the satisfaction of the recipients of t heir generosity for example. on some occasion of giving.e. \ Those who possess this cause will go to peace. L7: [ii. (13cd) . meditate on the path. . He takes great delight doing it. .) . \ The instructions on giving are fundamental. Bodhisattvas.e. As a result. The first two lines of the thirteenth verse read: .3. ¢(i. perfectly cut the stream of c yclic existence the round of continuous birth and death and proceed to the peace tha t is the result of this meeting with a genuine noble being. So even the givers of things who have no compassion. having severed the continuum of samsara completely. the satisfaction of beggars as a result of giving to them. they always delight in givin g. \ ### \ It is for those who are loving and those who are not \ Therefore. it can lead to meeting someo ne who will teach us the way to Nirvana. Even if the initial motivation is superficial. \ /// \ Therefore whether one is compassionate or not. They don't have to wait to experience the benefits. \ Will soon come to meet a Superior being \ Then. Why? Because the way things work in the world is that when somebody is giv ing something away. And finally the next two lines of the verse summarize all of this by way of a pr aise of generosity: . they will meet a noble being rather sudd enly. (13ab) . A noble being wi ll come and then will teach the giver the dharma. it attracts noble beings. ¢(i. such givers will turn their backs on samsara. . They have no sense of l oss or regret as ordinary beings. because they love to see the satisfaction of others. \ /// \ 12. and when they do. . The instructions on giving are fundamental for both bases] . . \ Those who hold in their mind a promise to help living beings \ Immediately experience joy from giving. The uncommon benefits of Bodhisattvas' giving] .e. They love to give. ¢(i. \ ### \ Those whose minds vow to benefit beings \ Quickly gain happiness from their acts of generosity. generosity is foremost. \ /// \ 13. who have the mind that has vowed to benefit others in ways that gi ve them both short-term and long-term happiness both temporary happiness and a dee per ultimate happiness themselves gain happiness quickly as a result of their gene rosity. \ Even they. Because it lead to temporary happiness of samsara and the ultimate happines s of liberation. even they at some time will give something away.. who then show up. L6: [B.3 An explanation of Bodhisattvas' giving] L7: [i.
when they enter into the e xpanse of nirvana. on the other hand. Just being asked to give. ¢(i. \ And awakens one's vigor in striving to cut that suffering off. meaning the noble bodhisattvas. \ Through the pain from cutting and giving his body. and therefore f or everyone. \ /// \ 14. referring to the happiness of liberation the realization of th e arhats and the happiness of the omniscience of enlightenment of the Buddhas. He would feel only joy at having the opportunity to give aw ay his body for the sake of others.) . . "Now I have the chanc e to help this beggar who has come to me to ask for something.e. \ If from hearing and contemplating the word 'Give (1)'. For all of these beings. including his body." Even the happine ss of an arhat at their highest level of realization.. \ What can be said about giving everything? . \ The Conquerors' Son develops a bliss \ The like of which is not aroused in the Able Ones through experiencin g peace. Whether a Bodhisattva experiences pain when giving away his body] . the teachings on generosity are foremost. how much more in giving everything. then what need is there to mention the leve l of happiness the bodhisattva experiences when they are actually able to give a way everything inner and outer to this supplicating beggar and see the beggar sa tisfied as a result.e. \ ### \ The pain one feels from cutting one's own flesh to give it away \ Brings the suffering of others in the hell realms and so forth \ Directly into one's own experience. The commentary to this reads: "It is for those who are loving. (15) . and solitary sages. \ And strives with great effort to eliminate it quickly. meaning everybody else all ordinary indi viduals. and contemplating the meaning he experiences blis s. "Please give to me. And if that is the case. . Is that not something quite good? . \ /// \ 15. meaning that they are incredib ly important. shravakas. \ ### \ The happiness of an arhat attaining peace \ Cannot match the joy experienced by a bodhisattva \ Upon merely hearing the words. \ He sees from his own experience \ The suffering of others in the hells and elsewhere." \ So what need to mention their joy when they give away everything? (14 ) . and for those who are not. A Superior Bodhisattva will experience no pain and no sense of loss when pa rting with his body. it is the source of all samsaric happiness and of all completely ex cellent happiness. The great joy a Bodhisattva obtains from giving] . ¢(i. an ordinary Bodhisattva. A bodhisattva experiences great happiness just by hearing a beggar ask to be giv en something just by that mere thought and the mere thought." . L7: [iii. The refore. The fourteenth verse reads: . cannot compare to the happiness of a bodhisattva under those conditions. L7: [iv.
The last verse. giver. . a t ranscendent perfection. On the other hand. \ Completely dispels the thick darkness it is victorious! (17) . and receiver \ Is called a supramundane perfection. which transcends the world. reads: . . but the suffering of being s in lower realms is thousands of times worse than that. and because one is still an ordinary individual.3. The sixteenth verse describes the different ways of giving: . and recipient \ Is a transcendent perfection beyond the world. \ Where attachment to these three is generated \ It is explained as a mundane perfection. But the consequence of this pain is to bring int o one's own experience the suffering of those in the hell realms and other lower realms. Generosity that is empty of generosity in the sense that one realizes that there i s no gift. one realizes that one's own suffering is insignificant. "undefiled generosity.does experience pain when his body is cut. one will experience pain. This realization awakens one's vigor in striving. However. joy's light beautifully shines. th en even when one is still an ordinary individual. To develop compassion for all sentient beings who are suffering much more.) . the Victors' heirs utterly abide in the mind of bodhicitta \ And from their excellent support. \ ### \ Like that. which one now realizes is so much greater than what we ourselve s are going through. (16) . when one does that. and one realizes that their suffering is thousands of times worse than the suffering we feel just by cutting off part of our hand and giving it away. the giver. L6: [B. there is no one giving. to eliminate the suff ering of others. \ /// \ 16." and it is a transcendent perfection. \ That is a mundane transcendent perfection. L4: [C. Such giving is called. \ ### \ Giving empty of gift. which is a concluding summary. one will cut one's own flesh a nd give it away. \ /// . a paramita. when there is att achment to these three spheres as being real. \ This joy. -----------------------------------------------. . gift." So we do suffer as a result of cutting off our flesh. for the very reason there is still a focus on these three spheres as bein g real. Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground] . like the jewel of the water crystal. And realizing this. The commentary reads: "When the mind arises that is incredibly happy to give. The three spheres are the gif t.4 The divisions of the perfection of giving] . and the recipient. he is able to use this exper ience to strengthen his practice. then that is still a paramita. but it is called a worldly or mundane transcendent perfe ction. and there is no one receiving is called the wis dom that has no focus on any of the three spheres. whi ch transcends the mundane and the ordinary. \ Giving with emptiness of giver. This give a boost to his motivation. It is really nothing in com parison. \ When attachment to these three arises.
Just as the moon beautifies sky with light. \ Beautifying with light this holy base. ¢(i. And that is what makes the distinction an d that is why this is called a paramita and not just an ordinary virtue or somet hing else. N ow let us recite the verses from this chapter. if there is fixation on gift. the moon]. the heir of the Victorious Ones. Translator: So. The bodhisattva. [Students recite. And from the ge nuine and supreme support that is this mind of bodhicitta of the first ground sh ines the light of perfect joy. . and just the mundane virtue of gener osity. which corresponds to this first ground. It is like the light of the jewel known as the water crystal. is compared to thick darkness. Just like the moon abides in a high place. the mundane transcendent perfection of generosity. 1. by virtue of which they emerge victorious. wh ich is another name for the moon. RINPOCHE: The difference between the virtue of generosity and the worldly parami ta of generosity is that the virtue of generosity's result is samsaric happiness and the worldly paramita's result is eventually the transcendence of samsara th rough the attainment of enlightenment.] . The concluding line of the chapter states that this is the first ultimate mind g eneration in the text known as the Entrance to the Middle Way. Here the bodhisattva is being compared to the moon resting high in the sky. The first part of the question is." and I'm wondering what is the distinction between a mundane transcend ent perfection. And so the bodhisattva and their wisdom and jo y are like the beautiful light of the moon.e. This beautiful light is the radiance of their pri mordial wisdom.\ 17. Just as the moon dispels the darkness of the night . because this bodhicitta is now a part of their mind. 3. abiding high in the mind of the Conquerors' Son. and the mundane virtue of gen erosity or the worldly virtue of generosity? And secondly. The remedy that completely dispels this thick darkness is their primo rdial awareness. giver. and recipient as being real. . \ This Joyful (1) is like a water crystal jewel [i. then how can it be a transcendent perfection if it is in fact mundane? . giver. and is victorious over the intellectually-formed delusions. so the first ground dispels the thick darkness of confusion obscuring the view of emptiness. QUESTION: The second to last verse makes reference to a "mundane transcendent pe rfection. utterly abides in the mind of bodh icitta that has developed on this first ground. is it in fac t the fact of seeing gift. Each succeeding c hapter explains a different level of the generation of the mind of bodhicitta. ) . L4: [Now are there any questions?] . That is why they can abide in it perfectly. and recipient as being empty that makes a virt ue or perfection transcendent? And if one is not seeing them as empty. ******************************************************* . meaning completely f ree. \ Thus. and everything that they abandon on the path of seeing. so the first ground beautifies the holy mind of the Conqueror's Son with the light of wisdom. . so the first ground abides in the mind of the highly-realized Bodhisattva. then what is it that causes it to b e a transcendent perfection? . what is the difference between a mundane transcendent perfection. 2. for instance of generosity. What is the distinction? The second part of the question is.e. the question is about the sixteenth verse. \ For having dispelled all heavy darkness it is victorious. .
one will see that when generosity is practiced consistently over a significant period of time. surrounded by such good will. to fulfill one's duty as a parent. as a result of which they get rich. it is the v irtue of generosity. We can a lso see a distinction between the ordinary virtue of generosity and the worldly paramita of generosity based on whether there is a dedication of merit of the ge nerosity to the enlightenment of all sentient beings. Thu s. which leads to samsaric happiness. and as a consequence begins to grasp at it. this type of generosity. they do not have a lot of compassion. tha t it is still called a transcendent perfection? . It is a transcendent perfection as practice d by ordinary mundane beings. ~ *Editor's note: Any casual observation of generosity reveals that it in tim e endows the giver with some sort of additional energy and power due to the appr eciation of the recipient of the gift. So these things also help to disti nguish. Is it because of their compas sionate motivation. however. They will be born as a rich human being. Because of the giver's motivation. RINPOCHE: That is a good explanation. and then the giver starts to practic e the dharma. But the difficulty of this type of generosity practiced either without any specif ic motivation or motivated by the desire simply to make another happy or to curr y favor. or for some other samsaric motivatio n is that when the merit accumulated by such generosity exhausts itself. etc. or even begins to practice financial fraud or theft in order to gain wealth. it will result in one's being increasingly surrounded by beneficiaries of one's ge nerosity who harbor a great deal of appreciation for one. even if they do not kn ow why. Eventually this becomes the practice of the paramita of generosity. It also teaches that following any act o f generosity we should dedicate the merit arising from that generosity to the li beration and enlightenment of all sentient beings. becomes miser ly and ungenerous. while leading temporarily at some time in the future to the hi gher realms. and as a consequence will find it easier to ama ss wealth. Does that answer the question? . By so doing. which will eventually lead to the at tainment of enlightenment. and on how much wisdom is involved. and then they go on from there. and in time a noble being appears to receive their generosity. though I'm still a little confused. even th ough they do not transcend focus on the three spheres. Furthermore. but they practice g enerosity. The way this progression works is that first somebody practices generosity. etc. then one will sooner or later be reborn in the lower realms. if such g enerosity has not been continued. Thus the bodhisattva path tea ches that we should practice generosity out of compassion for sentient beings wi th the motivation to establish all sentient beings in liberation from suffering and in the enlightenment of Buddhahood. can be conditione d by changing the motivation with which it is practiced and by dedicating the me rit or virtue or energy and power arising from it. QUESTION: What is the difference in the manner of practicing generosity in these two cases? . As a result. if in one's relationship to wealth wh ether one is gaining it or losing it one begins to be fearful of losing wealth or never gaining wealth. or in the god's realms. Then they practice more generosit y. nor does it prevent one from constant and unending wandering in conditioned existence fraught with s uffering. That is one way it works. The karmic consequence of one's generosity.. Then the noble being gives the beginning giver teachings. the giver will fall in samsaric status and wil l once again know poverty. the giver will be increasingl y successful in their endeavors. in no way endows one with permanent happiness. which is being referred to here as the ordinary virt ue of generosity.* . we gradually inc . QUESTION: Yes. If one looks at generosity from the stand point of karma as it might ripen over the course of lifetimes. RINPOCHE: The difference is that when beginners practice generosity. even though they are not transcending the three spheres. on how much compassion is involved. their action is still giv en the name transcendent perfection.
if we see sentient beings and wish that they be free of the sufferi ng of thinking that things are permanent when in fact they are not. But suffering is also of the nature of impermanence. i s what ultimately liberates one from samsara altogether and is the cause of Budd hahood. So. it must be practiced within the context of the vie w of emptiness. referring to imper manence? . b . in the sense that the term implies ultimately seeing the emptiness of all things interdependent with any particular act of generosity: the giver. particularly suffering. changing. which in turn is one of the causes of Buddhahood. etc. and so they think that things are permanent and as a result of that they suffer. QUESTION: What is non-referential compassion. meditative concentration."] but here it is better translated as "quality. or in the language of the translator. Such generosity the transcendent paramita of generosity and the pra ctice of the other transcendent paramitas or perfections discipline. the results of su ch giving. and the energy and power with which we are able to practice the path leading to Buddhahood. or fixation on the three spheres the giver. The alternative is jus t to realize that the suffering is completely momentary and that it vanishes ins tant by instant. one finds the word cho in Tibetan or dharma in Sansk rit. Three-fold purity can also be one-hundred fold pu rity. which has a lot of different meanings.rease our impulse to dharma practice. Thus we can see that the ordinary virtue of generosity with a little luck leads to the practice of the worldly or mundane paramita of generosity. Sentient beings. the gift . but they do not know that. the wisdom realizing emptiness and the true nature. In fac t. the recipient. when we come t o understand that sunyata. etymologically. it completely di sappears in the next instant. they do not realiz e that. then that is compassion that focuses on the quality of the nature of sentient beings. the strength of our intention to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of bein gs. and prajna are the direct cause of Buddhahood. one comes to understand that for gene rosity to lead to Buddhahood. There is nothing really there. in the sense that it is permanent. the giving. the worldly or mundane "transcendent perfection" of generosity. The worldly paramita of generosity leads to the transcendent paramita of generos ity. are empty of any r eal existence. are permanent. and that it is going to last and just get g reater and greater. If we suffer and think that this suffering is real . . there i s really nothing there. Sentient beings comple tely change from moment to moment. . Non-referential compassion describes the compassion that knows and understands t he analogy of the water moon. or the transcendent "transcendent perfection" of generosity. they are just like a reflection." the quality of the situation. . [including the meaning "phenomena. This is what is called the worldly or mundane paramita of genero sity. and how is it different from the second type. beings suffer greatly because they think things. He re the quality of the situation refers to the sentient being's quality and the s entient being's quality is of the nature of impermanence. which means without reference to. our concern and compassion for sentient be ings. RINPOCHE: If one looks at this second type of compassion. which in turn leads to the practice of the transcendent paramita of generosity. the motivations of giver and recipient. compassion with reference to phenomena . which was translated as being the reality of the situation. the attitudes and thoughts and remarks of others wi th respect to the act. the gift or act or giving. cho la mikpay nyingje in Tibetan. like the water moon. and the recipient which is o ften called three-fold purity. .* Not only is the water moon constantly moving arou nd. and it leads eventually to Buddhahood. the third type of compassion. exe rtion. attachment to. but because it is just a water moon. then that causes even more suffering. patience. and thus impermanent. When one comes to understand that. On e can begin to practice the transcendent paramitas effectively after one has had decisive insight into emptiness.
when you reach this level of realization on the first bhumi. then the condit ions for being reborn in the lower realms do not assemble. he says that the first one is the mind of compassion. That is the difference. you will th ink that this burning is something that is going to go on until you die. which t hey experience only because they think things. Since their realization of the selflessness of the ind ividual is so great. ~ *Editor's note: but not all of their cognitive obscurations. The compassion that focuses on this abse nce of real existence and makes the aspiration. . And so. ~ *Editor's note: The reflection of the moon in water. Not only that. it is comparable to the bodhisattva's realization of emptin ess on the seventh bhumi. if any. the second is non-dual awareness. whic h is the path that leads to the first ground of the bodhisattva. This co nfusion creates great suffering. and that subsequently . What determines becoming a mahayana practiti oner is giving rise to the mind of bodhicitta. you explained that until they reach the seventh bhumi. are real. all the paths to the lower realms are sealed off. great fear. QUESTION: The text states that when one becomes a bodhisattva. But it is stated in the eigh th chapter of The Jewel Ornament of Liberation as one of the eight benefits of g oing for refuge that merely going for refuge prevents rebirth in the lower realm . but it is not until the seventh bhumi that they are able to outshine them with their wisdom? the way i t is explained here is that this is in essence a great praise of the arhat's rea lization of selflessness. But if you do not know you are dreaming. And then. I couldn't tell from your br ief explanation what the difference was. . after which it is based on their gre ater wisdom. which are not real. Thi s type of compassion understands that the only reason that beings suffer is that their thoughts are confused. . they suffer. and the third is bodhicitta. that is bodhicitta. which is the desire to attain enl ightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings. How do you reconcile this with the notion of the inseparability of compassion and emptiness as the essence of the bodhisattva path? . and great pain.* which does not occur for the bodhisattv a until the seventh bhumi. then the seed of being reborn in the lower realms is also destroyed. For example. When we actually aspire to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings. between compassion and bodhicit ta. in order to be able to li berate them from their suffering. . RINPOCHE: The compassion which wants to free all beings from suffering is the ca use of bodhicitta. their s uperiority is based on their greater merit. and the wish for them to be free from a ll their suffering arises. Non-referential com passion is the aspiration that beings be free of this type of suffering. where the text describes bodhisattvas as superior to shravakas and pratyekaBuddhas. When we see the suffering of sentient beings. when Chandrakirti is describing the causes of being a bodhisattva. The arhat's realization of selflessness completely wip es out all of their mental afflictions. then why is it that the first-bhumi bodhisattvas because of their m erit and their compassion outshine the shravaka and arhats. and the fact is that the fire and the body being burned in it are just mere dependently arisen appear ances. because they think that they are real and t hat other things are real. QUESTION: In the beginning. "Would it not be wonderful if be ings were free from the suffering which they experience because they think that they themselves and everything around them are real!" This suffering is just lik e the suffering one experiences in a dream when one does not know one is dreamin g. With regard to the second question if it is the case that compassion and wisdom are inseparable on the bodhi sattva path. you could dream of being burned in a fire. then you will think that the fir e is real and that you are really being burned in it. And Rinpoche further explained that the comment ary says that when you reach the level of patience on the path of junction. that is compassion.ut they do not realize that. Compassion is something that one can experience even before o ne becomes a mahayana practitioner.
as a rabbit. reflect. We can distinguish three kinds of generosity: the generosity of bodhisattvas. For example.s again. QUESTION: Rinpoche. we should make aspiration prayers that this act of generosity will be the cause of their proceeding on the path to enlightenment. At the time he made an aspiration prayer. e ither along the path of the arhats as shravakas or solitary sages. as a beggar in a city . When you go for refuge in the dharma. Second. who sucked out his blood. there are listed the characteristics of generosity as practiced by bodhisattvas." So that is how we have to pray. Merely taking the refuge vow is not enough. then you will not be reborn in the lower realms. the Mahayanasutralankara. We should know that. who had been reborn as 80.000 bugs. both their temporary and their ultimate ones and makes the m happy. Those tiger cubs wer e reborn as the first five students of the Buddha because at the time of his gen . Also when you go for refuge in the dharma. . In the text called The Ornament of the Mahayana Sutras. as a deer. and if you never harm another being then you will not be reborn in the lower realms. bodhisattvas take birth as many different kinds of animals. we should not be thinking about any sort of consequence other than just alleviating their hunger and thirst. and later.00 0 bugs. out of compassion they often willingly take rebirt h in the lower realms to be of benefit to others. you will not be b orn in the lower realms. you vow to listen. When the Buddha was not yet a Buddha. it causes beings to be ripened in one of the three ways. At the same time. and the generosity of ordinary individuals who are not on the path of dharma. Bodhisattvas need to be willing to take birth in the hells. or on the bod hisattva path leading to Buddhahood. ~ **Editor's note: The Buddha is said to have related the stories of some 500 of his previous lives as a bodhisattva. Third. then one of the things you vow is to give up harming other beings. he was bo rn as a prince and gave his body to five tiger cubs to eat. he was born as a turtle. is it sometimes more compassionate not to give if by giving we encourage the recipient to be lazy or dependent on us? . . after he had become enlightened as the Buddha. And finally. and meditate on the dharma well.000 worldly deities who had come to listen to his teachings. the Buddha. You also have to practice in accordance with the vow. First the generosity of bodhisattvas causes the opposite of generosity to decrease. . and as a special kind of deer called a rooroo.** In order to benefit beings. the o pposite of generosity being avarice and miserliness. and there are many stories of bodhisatt vas doing so just to be of benefit to a single sentient being. There are actuall y prayers to take birth in the lower realms that go something like. was once born as a sea tortoise and was attacked by 80. th e generosity of ordinary individuals on the path. and if you do that. So for example. "In order to benefit other beings. What does this latter statement mean in light of the explanation you ha ve just given? . he taught the dharma to th ese same 80. as a fish. RINPOCHE: If you take the refuge vow and practice properly in accordance with it . the generosity of b odhisattvas is embraced by non-conceptual primordial wisdom. and as animals to benefit others. but was a bodhisattva practicing the bodhisattva path. as hungry g hosts. The bodhisattvas' practice of generosity ha s these four characteristics. then our concern should be for the alleviation of their hunger or thirst. RINPOCHE: It is better to give. if we see poor people who are hungry or thirsty. Any other questions? . may I be born as a fish. . which are said to be contained in the J ataka Tales. it fulfills the wishes of beings. though bodhisattvas are not constrained by their karma to b e reborn in the lower realms. when he was a bodhisattva. In another of his lives as a bodhisattva. actually.
e. and so forth. We should think. Combining method (creating peace) and wisdom (relativity of point of view).] . and on compas sion that is without reference. like pois on or weapons.' attachment to things develops. It is not appropriate to give those things because they are harmf ul to others. Beings are powerless. There are those with whom we have good connections. with peace of mind favorable to dev elop concentration. Ordinary beings do not do that. I pray th at in the future I can give this person the dharma that allows them to be libera ted from the suffering of samsara. like a rambling water mill I bow to compassion for these wanderers. Guarding the mind. [Students sing. What is not appropriate is to give things which are harmful to others. ¢(i. not thinking some are pure and some impu re. This is the distinguishing feature of generosity as it is practiced on the pa th. Moral discipline while seeing the emptiness of the three . Beings are li ke the moon on the surface of rippling water they move and are empty of any self n ature.e. \ All you sentient beings I have a good or bad connection with \ As soon as you have left this confused dimension \ May you be born in the west in Sukhavati \ And once you're born there. And at the same time." . taking the side of others.Moral discipline] . and that does not harm other s. Now let's sing the prayer for all sentient beings with whom we have good and bad connections.' they fixate on 'self. free fro m the obsession of trying to benefit the ego at the disadvantage of others. we should make aspiration pray ers in the following way.Moral discipline is the conditions necessary to create the proper environment and mental peace in order to develop concentration. [Students meditate. . then wisdom. The three t rainings: first moral discipline. . and those with whom the connections are changing from one to the other so that we have both good and bad connections.n o grasping at rules of right and wrong. Sarva Mangalam! . those with who m we have bad connections. So now we should meditate on compassion on compassion that focuses on sentient bei ngs. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . tryin g not to hurt them. From other sources: "The best definition of the second liberating action is . But if you can give in a way that pacifies people's suffering. "First thinking 'me. and then wisdom. .] . 'This is mine. When ordinary p eople who are not on the path give they do not make such noble aspiration prayer s." . ¢-. RINPOCHE: Goodnight. ¢(i. on compassion that focuses on the quality of sentient beings.erosity he made aspiration prayers that his generosity would cause them to proce ed on the path to enlightenment. tha t alleviates their thirst and hunger. free from remorse and retaliation or punishment.' The n thinking. and Rinpoche and students recite dedication prayers. checking the motivation. complete the bhumis and the paths . L3: [The Second Mind Generation The Stainless (10 verses) . then it is good to give.) . "Now I'm giving materially. Resume: The stainless of being free from the stains of immorality. then concentration.
" . its principal object of abandonment.") . ¢--.. The principle of equality holds that all living beings are the same in their basic orientation and outlook. injured." -.whether it be thought. The definition of the second ground is a Superior Bodhisattva's path that h as abandoned big-big. all should be kept in check and prevented from wandering towar ds what is unwholesome. although one may have formerly possessed dull faculties. if the bodhisattva finds that there is nothing which can be gotten at in e ither offense or non-offense. please give rise to the precious attitude of . both in yourself and in your relationships with others. We can put this principle of reciprocity quite simply by saying." ." . security. The continu ation of exchanging self for others started with giving. innate true grasping. from distracting sounds that fos ter delusions ."what lies behin d the rules of good conduct -. stability. anger or other delusions to arise.we should examine our motivation and check to see whether it is wholesome or unwholesome.) ."following the rules of good conduct creates a s ocial environment characterized by harmony and peace. You can cultivate and perf ect the various aspects of mental development. by preventing our attention from wandering to those visual objects that cause at tachment."At the very beginning o f any action . tongue."In upholding the p recepts there are no considerations of gain or loss. All sorts of other such circumstances constitute instances of the uphold ing of precepts bringing forth praj~naa paaramitaa. and strength."There is no point in engag ing in the many different practices of dharma if we do not guard our mind well. wealth and other virtues decline tha n to let our practice of guarding the mind decrease." -. If one leaves behind the ho me life." . . You can then achieve wisdom -."If we do not reduce our attachment to our own body it will be impossible for us to keep pure moral discipline.' Once we are aware of these principles of equality and re ciprocity. The most important one is the mind itself. The upholding of precepts is carried out only for the sake of all beings."It is the maintenance and guarding of this mind that const itutes the true observation of moral discipline. See page 12. 'Do not act toward others in a way you would not want t hem to act toward you. just as we would not like to be abused. body and mind.The second ground is called "Stainless" because a Bodhisattva on this ground is completely free from stains of degenerate moral discipline and uncommon Hinay ana attitudes. desists from engaging in worldly endeavors and co nstantly contemplates that the reality mark of all dharmas is devoid of any mark . Let us begin with the Song of Meaningful Connections.probably living meaningfully and for the benefit of others. year. the principles of equality and reciprocit y. [Students sing. it is not hard to see how they form the foundation of the rules of go od conduct in Buddhism. it is at this time that his practice constitutes s hiila paaramitaa. Before listening to the teachings. nose. upholds the precepts." -.namely. " . . The practice of morality creates an inner sense of tranquility ... But what exactly is to be guarded? It is the consciousness of each of our physic al and mental senses : the eye."It is far better to let our body. for the sake of succeeding in the way of the Buddha. you can successfully follow the other steps of the path. All our social goals can b e achieved within the rules of good conduct based on the fundamental principles of equality and reciprocity." . and that has attained a surpassing practice of the perfection of moral discipli ne from within the ten perfections. honor. livelihood. word or physical deed .bu t only after you have created the necessary foundation of morality both within a nd without."Moral discipline is not hurting others. so all other living beings are unwill ing to have such things happen to them. Once you have created that inner peace. In addition. each person benefits from the practice of good conduct. Then a gain.] . they gradually become sharp. For example. and for the sake of realizing the Dharma of all Buddhas. Reciprocity means that. ¢(i. robbed. Such characteristics as these demonstrate what is meant by shiila paaramitaa. or killed.e.
the moral discipline of restraint (Pratimoksha vows). and mind is free of even the slightest flaw or most subtle transgression. speech and mind. the transcending perfection of moral discipline (Bodhisattvas). which is the second chapter in this text. we must listen to. speech and mind are pure. and mind the movement of their body. \ Because he possesses excellent moral discipline (2) and pure qualitie s. who are as limitles s in number as the sky is vast in extent. to attain the state of complete and pe rfect Buddhahood. and is the principal practice of the bodhisattva on t he second bodhisattva bhumi. but even in their dreams. The completely pure moral discipline on this ground] L5: [A.bodhicitta. \ He has abandoned the stains of degenerate discipline even in his drea ms. (1) . t he paramita of discipline. Tonight Rinpoche will explain the second mind generation. It has two divisions: ¢-.e.3. ¢The definition of perfection of moral discipline is any moral discipline maintain ed by Bodhicitta.2. . they gather the ten types of virtue. including the seven of b ody and speech. not only when they are awake.e. speech. aspiring for the benefit of all sentient beings.) .2. It is connected with the second of the ten paramitas or transcendent perfections. \ Because his conduct of body. ¢-. L4: [A. meaning the second gen eration of the mind of bodhicitta. \ Since their movements of body. In order to do that. and the transcendent perfection of moral discipline (of Buddhas). Please give r ise to it and listen. This is the precious attitude of bodhicitta." There are seven types of cond . . ¢-.1. the moral discipline of gathering virtuous Dharmas (Bodhisattva vows). . \ They abandon the stains of faulty discipline even in their dreams. the second bodhisattva bhumi. The first verse reads: .1 The excellent moral discipline on this ground] L5: [A. ¢(i.1. Therefore. The commentary reads: "For those who have reached the second ground.ab] \ 18. it i s pure. and ¢-. \ They gather the ten types of virtue on the path of the genuine ones. reflect upon. The moral discipline of abandoning the ten non-virtuous actions permits to purify our conduct of body. the moral discipline of benefiting living beings (Tantric vows). the y give up all the stains of faulty discipline. and medi tate upon the teachings of the genuine dharma with all of the enthusiasm we can muster in our hearts. \ He accumulates all ten paths of holy actions. which are considered to be karma.) . ¢(i. speech. Therefore.1. "Since their conduct of body. spee ch. and mind is pure. Three types of moral discipline: ¢-.2 The completely pure qualities that depend upon this] . their discipline is excellent and their qualities are complet ely pure. \ /// \ [II. \ ### \ Because the bodhisattvas' discipline has such excellent qualities. even in their dream s." They do not commit any transgres sion of their vows or any transgression of their discipline. -----------------------------------------------.
\ Therefore. and then there are three activities of mind. \ Like an autumn moon. \ Like the autumn moon he is always completely pure. so excellent." The example that demonstrates this is the autumn moon. \ Beautified by their serenity and radiance. and there is no degeneration from that. These two make the bodhisattvas quite beautiful . \ ### \ But if they thought their pure discipline had an inherent nature. \ Their discipline would not be pure at all. . They are motivational in nature because they are mental activities. \ /// \ 19. in the second verse. but here they are sup erior. . you get ten. \ Then because of that our moral discipline is not pure.3 This moral discipline surpasses that of the first ground] . \ /// \ 20. L5: [A. And the commentary reads: "This path of virtue.4 Another cause of completely pure moral discipline] . Like that. The quality of discipline in the great vehicle of the mahayana is that it is con duct motivated by loving kindness. and like that. which are considered to be the mo tivations for these activities. the bodhisattvas on this ground have the serenity of their sense doors' being bound by their discipline and the radi ance of a beautiful white light. the bodhisattva's discipline is always comple tely pure and is endowed with two qualities that are compared to the way that th e light of this moon is said to cool the heat. and so extremely pure. he is beautified by these. that is one's disc ipline. And so. The light of a pure autumn moon i s very soothing and cooling. (3) . making ten. the bodhisattvas are always pure. \ For him all these ten virtuous paths \ Are perfected. \ Therefore he is always completely free from the wanderings \ Of the dualistic mind towards the three. (2) . \ If we keep pure moral discipline with the view of inherent existence. they are at all times completely free \ Of dualistic mind's movement towards the three spheres. comes a presentation of how it is that the transcende nt perfection or the paramita of discipline is the one that comes to the fore on this particular bodhisattva ground: . has been practiced before. These ten virtues were pres ent and practiced by the bodhisattvas on the first ground. \ But here they are superior because they have become so pure. \ ### \ These ten types of virtue have been practiced before. These are called karmic activities . . Next. one conducts oneself in a way that is of benefit to others.uct of body and speech that one must abandon. They outshine what the bodhisattvas had practiced before in an incredible way because they have become so pure. . Bodhisattvas on this bhumi conduct themselves in this way even in their dreams. a harvest moon in the sky that is com pletely free of clouds. With this motivation of love . . and glorious. \ Pacified and radiant. adding these together. Bodhisattvas on the second ground gather those on the path of the genuine ones. love for others. which is comprised first of the three positive motivations of mind and then the seven positive activities of bod y and speech. L5: [A.
. ¢(i.e. According to the Madhyamika-Prasangika school, moral discipline is complete ly pure only when it is conjoined with the realization of lack of inherent exist ence. There are many cause of the complete purification of moral discipline, but realizing the emptiness of the three spheres is the main cause. The complete pu rification of moral discipline is given as a quality of the second ground. ¢-- i.e. Seeing emptiness does not make moral discipline meaningless. Seeing depen dent origination, understanding samsara, makes us feel equality with others, com passion, brings the desire not to hurt them, but instead to help them all.) . The commentary reads: "If it were the case that the bodhisattvas had incredibly pure conduct of their pratimoksha vows, the vows of individual liberation, and y et were arrogant in the sense that they conceptualized themselves as having pure discipline if they thought, 'Wow, I keep my discipline very well' then they would b e taking their discipline to be truly existent, to have an inherent nature. If t hat were the case, then their discipline would not be pure at all. Therefore, bo dhisattvas on this ground do not conceptualize either the flawed conduct which t hey are abandoning, the antidote they use to give it up, or the person who is gi ving it up. They do not conceptualize any of these three to be real. They are fr ee of the movements of dualistic mind, which perceives some things to be existen t and other things to be non-existent. They are completely free of the movements of dualistic mind towards these three spheres." . To put this in the form of a logical reasoning, we would say, "Given the individ ual who has pure conduct of their pratimoksha vows, the vows of individual liber ation, but takes their conduct to be real, their discipline is not pure at all, because they believe that their conduct has an inherently existent nature." The discipline of the bodhisattva on the second ground is completely pure because th ey do not conceive any of the three spheres to be real. In short, so long as a p erson believes that the three spheres related to discipline are real, their disc ipline will never be pure. But when the individual is free of attachment to thes e three spheres as being real, then their discipline is pure. When one has attac hment to the three spheres of discipline as being real, then that is like discip line conducted in a dream when we do not know that we are dreaming. But when one is free from attachment to these three spheres as being real, that is like the conduct of discipline in a dream when one knows that it is just a dream. Thus, i f one wants to have a pure practice of the transcendent perfection of discipline , one must also realize emptiness. . -----------------------------------------------. L4: [B. A praise of moral discipline] L5: [B.1 Enjoying the fruits of giving in fortunate realms depends upon moral di scipline] L5: [B.2 Enjoying the fruits of giving continuously depends upon moral disciplin e] . \ ### \ Generosity can result in wealth gained in the lower realms \ When an individual has lost their legs of discipline. \ Once the wealth's principal and interest are completely spent, Materi al enjoyments will not come again. (4) . \ /// \ 21. \ If enjoyments [in the next life] that result from giving [in this lif e] arise in a lower rebirth [in the next life], \ It is because that being broke his legs of moral discipline [in this life]. \ (To have a rebirth with enjoyments in a precious human life we need
both giving and moral discipline.) . \ /// \ If both the interest and the capital are spent, \ No enjoyments will arise for him in the future. . ¢(i.e. If the fruits of giving ripen in lower rebirths they are consumed without f resh seeds being sown because beings in the lower realms have no opportunity to practice giving. Thus practicing giving and moral discipline together creates th e cause to enjoy the fruits of giving continuously in life after life.) . The material enjoyment that is the result of the practice of generosity in previ ous lives can come to fruition in the lower realms if the individual had lost th e legs of discipline at the same time the individual was practicing generosity. Discipline is said to be like legs, because discipline is what allows you to pro gress to the higher realms. If you do not have those legs, you fall into the low er realms, where you can experience life as, for instance, a very wealthy naga, a very wealthy sea serpent, or as other kinds of beings in the lower realms who have material enjoyments. The problem with that is that, when you are born in th e lower realms, you are naturally quite stupid in that state, and so you do not practice generosity again and as a consequence, do not accumulate the causes of having material enjoyments in the future. The example given here is that of mone y. When you have money, once you spend all the interest and all the principal, t here is nothing left to produce anything more. Therefore, material enjoyments do not come again, because there is no cause for them to be reproduced. You have e xhausted all of your profit from before and there is nothing left to replace it. So this verse teaches the disadvantage of having generosity without the right c onduct of discipline. The fifth verse reads: . L5: [B.3 It is extremely difficult for those who lack moral discipline to escape from the lower realms] . \ ### \ If when independent and enjoying favorable circumstances, \ One does not protect oneself from falling into the lower realms, \ Once one has fallen into the abyss and has no power to escape, \ What will be able to lift one up and out of that? (5) . \ /// \ 22. \ If, when living in good conditions and acting with freedom, \ We do not act to hold ourself back [in this life], \ Once we have fallen into the abyss and lost our freedom [in the next life], \ How shall we raise ourself from there in the future [in subsequent li ves]? . ¢(i.e. We should not waste this precious opportunity and freedom we have, otherwis e we will be in the lower realms for long.) . The example here is that of a warrior who has entered a friendly land where he i s able to move about freely. If, when one is independent not needing to rely on a nyone else and enjoying favorable circumstances of being born as either a human being or a deity and one does not protect oneself from the conduct that would caus e one to fall into the lower realms, then one becomes like a warrior in an unfri endly land who is bound up and thrown off a mountain. When one falls into the ab yss of the lower realms, one loses one's independence. One comes under the power of others and is powerless to do anything about it. What method will there be t o lift one up and out of that? Once you have fallen into the abyss, how can you possibly get out?
. L5: [B.4 Why the instructions on moral discipline were given after the instructi ons on giving] . \ ### \ Therefore, after giving his advice on generosity, \ The Victor taught about accompanying it with discipline. \ When good qualities thrive in discipline's field, \ The enjoyment of their fruits is unceasing. (6) . \ /// \ 23. \ Therefore the Conqueror taught moral discipline \ After he had taught giving. \ When qualities grow in the field of moral discipline, \ The fruits will be enjoyed unceasingly. . ¢(i.e. It is a multiplicator of the fruits of giving; practicing giving without mo ral discipline is unwise.) . For the reasons given in the above verses, the Victor, the completely perfect Bu ddha, after first giving teachings and advice on the practice of generosity, tau ght that the practice of generosity should be accompanied by the practice of dis cipline. The reason for this is that when the good qualities that come as a resu lt of practicing generosity thrive in the field of discipline, then the result o r the fruits of those practices of generosity, like attaining a precious human b ody, material enjoyments, and so forth, can be enjoyed in an ever increasing and uninterrupted way. . L5: [B.5 Praising moral discipline as a cause of both high status and definite g oodness] . The seventh verse reads: . \ ### \ For ordinary individuals, those born of the Buddha's speech, \ Those set on solitary enlightenment, \ And heirs of the Victor, \ The cause of the higher realms and of true excellence is nothing othe r than discipline. (7) . \ /// \ 24. \ There is no cause other than moral discipline [in this life] \ For the high status [happiness in the next life] and definite goodnes s [i.e. happiness of liberation and enlightenment] \ Of ordinary beings, those born from the speech, \ Those definite in self-enlightenment, and Conquerors' Sons. [for all beings whatever their goal is] . For ordinary beings, those who do not see the true nature of reality; for those born of the Buddha's speech, which refers to the shravakas, the hearers; for tho se set on solitary enlightenment, which refers to the solitary sages, the pratye kaBuddhas; and for the heirs of the Victors, which refers to the bodhisattvas, b oth the cause of the higher realms being born as a god or a human and of true excell ence which refers to the various stages of realization on the path is nothing other than discipline. When it says that it is nothing other than discipline, it means that if there is no discipline, then these results cannot be attained. This sta tement is not excluding the importance of other causes. It is just saying that i f you do not have discipline, you definitely will not attain these results.
when great beings referring here to those who have reached the second bodhisa ttva ground come under the power of discipline. (9) . will also have pure discipline. when you have auspicious circumstances. \ And auspiciousness and misfortune together. showing that immorality is completely non existent on the second ground) . which is why. -----------------------------------------------. \ As with an ocean and a corpse together. L4: [C. Finally: .. The divisions of the perfection of moral discipline] . L4: [E. \ ### . . you will not have the opposit e of that at the same time. Nagas are sea serpents and are incre dibly clean creatures. \ ### \ If there be any focus on these three \ The one who abandons. \ When great beings come under discipline's power. Similarly. The ninth verse teaches the different kinds of discipline: . (8) . \ They do not abide together with its decay. . \ If there is observation of the three\ What is abandoned. Simila rly. L4: [D. -----------------------------------------------. by whom. \ That which is empty of attachment to the three is supramundane. Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground] . \ /// \ 26. Here the commentary says that this means that those around them. and with respect to whom \ That moral discipline is explained as a mundane perfection. Auspiciousness and misfortune do not coexist. they do not abide together with t he decay of that discipline. ¢(i. \ Discipline empty of attachment to these three has gone beyond the wor ld. -----------------------------------------------. it a lways washes up on the shore. the abandoned act.e. their retinue and friends. The ocean is said to be inhabited by nagas. \ So too this great being controlled by moral discipline \ Has no desire to remain with that which is degenerate. if a corpse ever falls into the ocean. and the one with regard to w hom it is abandoned \ Such discipline is explained to be a worldly transcendent perfection. . The nagas will not allow it to stay in the ocean. They wi ll not be together with those who do not have pure discipline. An illustration of separation from that which is incompatible with moral discipline] . \ ### \ Like the ocean with a corpse. \ And auspiciousness with misfortune. \ /// \ 25.
\ And just like the light of the autumn moon. first you give up killing others and engage in the activity of protecting lives. RINPOCHE: The ten virtues are the three positive activities of body. Then you give up stealing and engage in the activity of giving to sentient bein gs. Bodhisattvas. the Conqu erors' Son. With respect to body. . Although he is no longer in samsara. are the glory of worldly existence. that causes people to become . \ It relieves the mental torment of living beings. Instead of taking things from them you give them things. telling the truth.* Since they are free of the stai ns of faulty discipline.e. even though they are not included among those who are still stuck in worldly existence. Just like t he soothing light of the harvest moon. RINPOCHE: There are three virtuous activities of body and four of speech. . first you give up lying and speak honestly. they are the glory of the world. and the three positive activities of the mind. this second ground is called The Stainless. (10) . Is t hat okay? . QUESTION: Can Rinpoche tell us in some detail about the virtues? . L4: [Now are there any questions?] . . bodhisattvas on this ground assuage the t orment of faulty discipline that exists in the minds of wandering sentient being s. \ Like the light of the moon in autumn \ They assuage the torment in the minds of beings. out of great compassion he continues t o take rebirth in the abodes of samsara. Second. ¢(i. yet are the world's glory. The Stainless. And third you give up improper sexual activity and protect proper sexual conduct from degenerating.\ Free from stains. you give up speech that is divisive. -----------------------------------------------. \ /// \ 27. . The summarizing line states that this completes the second mind generation from the text called Entrance to the Middle Way. arising from the moon of the second grou nd. the four po sitive activities of speech. It is not taught that these bodhisattvas have brought the practice of discipl ine to its highest degree. QUESTION: What are they? . [Students recite] . ~ *Editor's note: Meaning that because they are in the world but not of the w orld. With respect to speech. the bodhisattvas arising from the mo on \ Are not of the world. arises from the moon. where he is the source of all happiness and good fortune. \ This Stainless (2). free from stains. So let us recite this section togeth er. \ Who although not of samsara is the glory of samsara. . the heirs of the victors. But it does be come their foremost or most important practice on this ground. they have not completely perfected it. which consist of giving up the three unvirtuous activities of body and the four unvirt uous activities of speech and practicing their opposites.) .
nor can you cleanse your own mind of its confusion." . such as recitation of mantras. . first you give up covet-ousness. the mind of awakening. With respect to mind. reflectin g. Third. the one who abandons woul d be the one who abandons the activity of killing. that they are just mere dependently arisen appearances. This approach is summed up in the two practices of relative and ultimate bodhicitta. then it is still a wor ldly practice. RINPOCHE: If we look at the discipline of not killing. If there is attachment to these three as being real. and what are the results o f that choice? . are. it is a worldly transcendent perfection. By practicing ultimate bodhicitta. the three spheres would be the one who is giving. RINPOCHE: It is possible to attain these bhumis by practicing the mahayana path of cultivating loving kindness and compassion. the act of abandoning. particula rly the part. a tra nscendent perfection which has gone beyond the mundane. then you have t ranscended the world. If there is no attachment to these as being real. you give up gossiping an d engaging in meaningless chatter which distracts others from listening. and if there ar e. which leads to the attainment of the bodhisattva grounds. we need to practice t . you cannot realize the nature of genuine reality. you give up harsh speech towards others and adopt a pleasant way of speaking. There are extensive explanations of the ten unvirtuous actions and the ten virtu ous actions in The Words of My Perfect Teacher and in The Jewel Ornament of Libe ration. If you do not have ultimate bodhicitt a. and the third is the one with regard to whom you are practicing such conduct or discipl ine. and the three jewels and abide in the authentic or correct view. however. RINPOCHE: The three spheres. . a soft way of speaking that makes people happy. Second. and speak in a way that brings people together. and th e three of mind are the motivation with which you act. reduce attachment. with regard to the practice of discipline. when we have the vajrayana now. you give up maliciousness and adopt an attitude of lo ving kindness. . If. the discipline or conduct itself. Third. then that is called a paramita. and de velop contentment. the one to whom you give. QUESTION: Are there still beings who are progressing along these paths. and the one with reg ard to whom it is abandoned. the person. The loving kindness and compassion and the desire to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings that serve as your motivat ion for doing that is relative bodhicitta. Finally. followin g the mahayana path exclusively. So. the self who is practicing the discipline. QUESTION: In the third verse it mentions the three spheres. The seven types of conduct of body and speech are considered to be karma. and meditating on the dharma and adopt speech that encourages them to engage in dharma practices. "the one who abandons. you gain the realization of the nature of reality. what does that mean for us? Could you put that into context for us? What caus es a being to choose the vajrayana over the mahayana.enemies with each other. . and by meditating on emptiness doin g these two practices together. Other questions? . The abandoned act is the kill ing. and a briefer description in the Torch of Certainty. QUESTION: I would appreciate a further explanation of the ninth verse. the t ruth of cessation and the path. and the act of generosity itself. and the one with regard to whom it is abandoned is the one you do not kill. fir st. when the same activity is practiced. Therefore. Connected with generosity. there is st ill fixation on these three as being real. you abandon wrong views concerning cause and effect. . What are they? . and so forth. if there is realization that these three do not really exist. The second sphere is the way in which you conduct yourself.
And they are also not afraid to give away their head and their limbs. They are not discouraged by the fact t hat it will take them an incredibly long time to attain enlightenment. Number 1. Part of the term in Tibetan is pawo. they do n ot get discouraged. The Buddha said that an eon and an instant are of the nature of equality. In a dream it does not matter if you think it is a long time or a short time. 7 times 10 to the 59th eons . . it is not r eal.he stages of meditation that allow us to gain realization. there is really no d ifference at all between them.* this is called the emptiness of that which is imperceivable. is a heroic name. if one ha s practiced on the path in previous lifetimes and is of very sharp faculties. Thus you need both ultimate and rela tive bodhicitta to attain the state of enlightenment. It was to assuage people's discouragement at thinking that i t would take such a long time as 3 times 10 to the 59th eons to attain enlighten ment that the emptiness of time was taught. . whether man or woman. The vajrayana practices of the generation and completion stages are very profoun d methods that can cause one to advance on this path quickly. Volume 3. So it takes quite a long time. . None of these conceptual notions have any reality . They are just like time in a dream. Bodhisattva. QUESTION: How long is an eon? . RINPOCHE: An eon is the period of time it takes for a universe to come into bein g and then disintegrate again. It is explained that it takes a very long time to progress along the mahayana path [in a mahayana way without th e benefit of vajrayana]. In order to progress along the entire mahayana path from the beginning throu gh all of the ten grounds to the level of enlightenment. Their bravery consists of three types of fear lessness. the emptiness of the three times. one has great loving kindness and compassion for others a nd is doing wonderful things to benefit others. The tiniest particle of dust and the biggest mo untain that appear to you in a dream are fundamentally the same. When people realize that there is really no such thing as time anyway. Does that answer the second part of your question? . In fact. if that is what the y need to do to benefit others. (see sections included bellow) . because both are just dependently arisen mere appearances. then one can attain Buddhahood in a single life. you can understand how this is true. someone who is brave. There is no such thing as time. a short period of time and a long period of time ar e fundamentally the same. . If you do not have relative bodhicitta. In short. which includes commentary on the sixteen empti nesses. Bodhisattvas are not discouraged by the fact that the beings whom they vow to liberate are limitless in number. it is j ust the elimination of that mistake. . Whether it is y our finger or the king of all mountains. or 37 times 10 to the 59th eons. li ke Milarepa. . which is the name given to a mahayana practitioner. . pages 55-62. Mount Sumeru. but the fact is time does not really exist. for comm entary on the twenty emptinesses. does not matter. and if you ask what enlightenment is. It is a mere error in perception. the tradition of the mahayana explains that samsara is just a mistake. In the explanation of the sixteen emptiness es. it is explained various ly that it takes either 3 times 10 to the 59th eons. But the point is that at the same time one is pro gressing on this path. ~ *Editor's note: See Shenpen Osel. If you think of a dream. Nothing more. In fact. They have these three types of fearlessness. both practices are necessa ry. that is all. A pa rticle and a planet are of the nature of equality. which means a warr ior or hero. there is really no difference in their size when they appear in dreams. then you will neither want to benefit an yone else nor will you benefit anyone else.
In the tradition of the mahayana it is explained that clean and unclean. and do not practice it. Therefore. . th ey are just mere appearances that are dependently arisen. Translator: An arhat is the highest level of realization attained by both pratye kaBuddhas and shravakas. because it is j ust a dream. RINPOCHE: There are shravakas. You can only have one if you have the other. So we got a little bit of unexpected explanation because I did not pronounce the Tibe tan for permanence properly. permanent and impermanent. But since i t is just a dream. sound quite the same in Tibetan. QUESTION: What is a shravaka. what appears is the infinite expanse of purity. ~ *Editor's note: In the context of the teachings of the second turning of th e wheel of dharma. They do not believe in the mahayana. . whether or not what is left when one cl ears away all mistaken perception is permanent in essence. In places like Thailand. but what this means is not the permanence that is the opp osite of impermanence. Translator: When people who do not know how to speak Tibetan [very well] ask que stions." and in dependence upon that you could ha ve a notion of something else being impermanent. the answer is that it transcends both permanence and impermanence. to which the commentaries of Chandrakirti and Nagarjuna perta in. Burma and Sri Lanka. certainly less compassion t han mahayana practitioners. Sometimes it might be explained wi th the word permanent. . they practice onl y the shravaka path without accepting or practicing the mahayana or the vajrayan a teachings. and follow this p ath exclusively. which . you could have a dream of a big rock mountain and think. So they p ractice according to the selflessness of the individual alone. . but they do not believe in the selflessness of phenomena. RINPOCHE: Here* to say that it is an expanse of purity means that there is nothi ng impure. "Wow this i s something very stable and permanent. QUESTION: What is an arhat? . RINPOCHE: When you clear away this mistake. . and is there a path to being a shravaka? And do th ey not have some qualities of being of the mahayana in that they listen to the d harma and explain it to others? . but none of these things exist. The nature of all of them is undifferentiated appearance/emptiness. coming from an English speaking tongue. then they can confuse the Tibetan terms for purity and permanence. they are just mere appearance. But we have to understand also that our notion of permanence in the first place depends upon first having a not ion of something impermanent. From the perspective that there is no impurity it is called the inf inite expanse of purity.QUESTION: What happens when you clear away this mistaken perception? . they believe that there is no self in the individual. . and according to the d escription of them they have very little compassion. neither of them is real. As in a dream. Of the two kinds of selflessness. you can dream of seeing different kinds of things whic h look very dirty and repulsive. QUESTION: Does the infinite expanse appear to be permanent in its essence? . Instead of asking Rinpoche about permanence. . . it is the permanence which transcends both concepts of im permanence and permanence. those who listen and hear. They have great disgust for and renunciation of sams ara. I aske d him about the purity aspect of this infinite expanse of purity. F or example. and so forth exist only in depend ence upon each other. You cannot have one without the other. As to the second aspect of the question. they have no inherent existence.
which also includes relative bodhicitta. M ind generation is a condensed way of saying generating the mind of bodhicitta. and wha t they practice is the vajrayana. we see that the dream is j ust a mere appearance. When that happens. There are no actions being performed. Where is this person who did not know they were dr eaming? Where is the person in the dream who knew they were dreaming? There is r eally no difference. this mere appearance of a self. what the monks and nuns study is the mahayana. it is described as being like a candle fla me that just goes out. QUESTION: Is there an eternal soul. because you still have a body. then that is lik e understanding that this reality is just a mere appearance. but really there is nothing happening. In Tibetan monasteries the conduct is the con duct of the shravakayana. as it was translated into Tibetan. QUESTION: Can Rinpoche talk a little bit or explain a little bit about the idea of the second mind generation? What does that really mean? Is that just another name for the second bhumi? . then that is like the one that thin ks things are real. But since no one denies the mere appearance of a self. you are still alive. of the mahayana . because we are talking about beings who have reach ed the noble grounds. That is how they describe it. and of the vajrayana altogether. permanent self-entity does not really exist. it is this dr eam-like self. This is a good way to think about it." Here the enemy is your mental afflictions. then that prevents one from falling into the extreme of nihi lism or annihilation. there is nothing mo re to it than that. and we see that the ultimate nature of the dream is that there is no self and that there is no activity. So when we talk about going from past lives to future lives. and that describes the nature of ultimate reality. whatever you w ant to call it. . then there is no permanent self or soul either. so you are called an arhat with remainder. . Since actually there is no self or soul. If you dream and you know you are dreaming. b ecause there is nothing left. We dream. On each successive ground. RINPOCHE: The second mind generation and the second bhumi mean the same thing. But here we are not talki ng about relative bodhicitta. There is just the expanse of peace. There is no more reb irth in samsara. your kleshas. But really there is no self at all. When yo u first attain that state. Another way to understand these three levels of thinking about it is that if you dream and you do not know you are dreaming. When you die. It is like that. This recognition preve nts one from falling into the extreme of permanence or realism.RINPOCHE: Arhat. then there is nobody to have any mental afflictions. just like the self that appears in a d ream. because when you realize tha t there is no self. And then there is the stage of waking up in the morning and knowing that there is really no difference between knowing you are dreaming and not knowing you are dreaming. an illusory being. as bodhisattvas progress in dev . When we dream and we do not know that we are dreaming. and activity in the same way. then it appears that this activity is real. The Tibetan tradition is to practice the paths of the shravakas. you are called an arhat without remainder. and in dreams we do all kinds of different thing s. that is held to go from one life to the next. . The way y ou destroy that enemy is by realizing selflessness. There is no more rebirth. What there is is a mere appearance of a self. The nature of reality transcends the existence of self. . how do we explain rebir th and karma? . or water that completely evaporates. That which is pointed to by all of these terms that imply a trul y existent. literally means "destroyer o f the enemy. just as you cannot deny the appearance of a self in a dream. When we know that we are dreaming. RINPOCHE: In Buddhism there is no such thing as a self or a soul. and if there is not. phenomena. So it is like that. G enerally you could say that there are many different ways to generate the mind o f bodhicitta.
Before listening to the teachings. There are th ree sections to the explanation of this ground. Sarva Mangalam! . Now we will re cite the verses one more time and then meditate. The sec ond through the tenth grounds are called the path of meditation. The Luminous.] . The first looks at the etymology of the name for this particular ground. Good night. Combining method (never reacting negatively) and wi sdom (non-duality. Then there is an explanation of the qualities themselves that distingui sh this ground. [Students recite the verses and meditate.e. reflect upon. .) . hav ing compassion for them. Rinpoche and the students dedicate the merit. Then at the end of the tenth bhumi you reach the ground of enlightenment. never creating more troubles and bad karma.Patience is based on understanding the conditioning of samsara (the cause of a nger). the need to stop this cycle. with great peace of mind favorable to develop superior concentration. [Students sing. please aspire to attain the state of enlightenment. Realizing the emptiness of the three. their conditioned situation. This i s the precious attitude of bodhicitta. which means that for the benefit of all sentient beings who are as l imitless in number as the sky is vast in its extent. the role of ignoran ce as the root of all unwholesome actions. innate true grasping. . dependent origination). Patience] L3: [The Third Mind Generation: The Luminous (13 verses) . Tonight we will look at the third bodhisattva ground. please give rise to the precious attitude of bodhicitta.elopment through the ten bodhisattva grounds. which abides neither in existence nor in peace. . ¢(i. always understanding others. ¢-. and that has attained a surpassing practice of the perfection of patience f rom within the ten perfections. namely emptiness.) . In orde r to do that we must listen to. on which you be come accustomed to what you have seen and your realization of it grows. ¢(i. . See page 12. please give rise to it and listen. Let us sing The Song of Meaningful Connections. These ten bodhisattva grounds or bhumis are stages in the realization of the gen uine nature of reality. and meditate on the teachings of t he genuine dharma with all of the enthusiasm we can muster in our hearts. there is the c .e. The first bodhisattva ground is called the path of seein g because you see something that you never saw before. through a praise of these qualities. .] . Developing wisdo m instead of reacting. its principal object of abandonm ent. Patience while seeing the emptiness of the three. . The definition of the third ground is a Superior Bodhisattva's path that ha s abandoned middling-big. And finally. . they give rise to ultimate bodhici tta in a progressively more subtle and profound way. which is based on the qualities of this ground. not retaliating because it will only perpetuate it). ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . Resume: The luminosity of being free from all elaborations of dualistic app earance and anger. and the need to stop this conditioning in us and in others (starting with patience.
The first verse reads: .e. The good qualities that characterize this ground] . -----------------------------------------------. everything is a beautifu l copper color.onclusion. \ Because there arises the light of the fire \ That consumes all the fuel of objects of knowledge. \ At this time. (1) . \ /// \ [III. The etymology of the ground. and all dualistic fabrications of something to perceive and a perceiver are completely pacified in the meditative equipoise of the bodhisattva on this bhumi. . and when he rises from meditation he experiences a coppery glow pervading the whole environment. the basis of characteristics] . This is described in Tibetan with an experiential word. The next section is an explanation of the qualities of the ground itself. . . It is said to burn them up because all objects of knowle dge are perceived dualistically. rather like the appearance of the sky bef ore sunrise.1 The surpassing patience on this ground . how it comes to the fore. which is lik e a fire whose light eradicates all elaborations of dualistic appearance during meditative equipoise. and primordial awareness t he wisdom. and fin ally. Because there is a light which comes from this fi re of the bodhisattva's wisdom in meditative equipoise. . in the description of patience. this third ground is Luminous (3).1] \ 28. . And then there is an explanation of the other good qualities that come on this ground. there is an appearance like the copper light of the sun before it rises. Here all objects of knowledge are compared to kindling. \ ### \ Here the kindling of all objects of knowledge is consumed in a fire \ Whose light is the reason this third ground is called The Luminous. The first is an explanation of how the practice of the perfection o f patience becomes superior here. -----------------------------------------------. there is a description of how patience itself becomes superior. the mind of the bodhisat-tvas is compared to a fire which consumes thes e objects of knowledge. For this reason the third ground is called 'Luminous'. L5: [B. L4: [B. The Bodhisattva on the third ground attains a powerful wisdom. an appearance like the copper sun \ Dawns for the heirs of the sugatas. ¢(i.of bodhisattvas] . Then there is a description of how patience is meditated upon. marlamewa. there is a description of the different types of patience. \ At this time there arises for the Sugatas' Son \ A copper-like appearance similar to the sun. First. That is how the bodhisattvas on this ground experience their pos t-meditation. which refers to the light in the sky of a beautiful sunrise.) . In post-meditation. and ha s two parts. L4: [A. the stage of subsequent attainment of the bodhisattva on the third ground. this third ground is cal led The Luminous.
Out of compassion for the mutilator) . .e. From the perspective of ultimate or genuine reality. for the Bodhisattva who has seen selflessness. which refers to what just came before. The first is how they meditate from the perspective of the genuine nature of reality." . \ ### \ For the bodhisattvas who see selflessness. \ Even if someone inappropriately angered \ Were to cut flesh and bone from his body. Realizing the emptiness of the three. cutting off parts of their body. the length of time cut. the third verse reads: . \ Piece by piece for a long time. the bodhisattvas see are just like reflections and nothing more than . if some angry person wants to fight with them and cuts the bodhisattva's flesh down deep to the bones in t heir body. the person who is cutting them. their patience with the one who is cutting them into l ittle pieces will grow even greater. Then there is a description of the way in which the bodhisattvas cultivate and m editate on patience. in order to make it really hurt .e. \ He would generate a superior patience (3) towards the mutilator. and the manner in which it is done \ All these phenomena they see are like reflections. all of these phenomena. cutting them off piece by piece and ounce by ounce in different sections. This has two parts. The commentary reads: "If it should happen that even though there is no good rea son why anybody should get angry at this bodhisattva on the third ground. their style.) . at what time and in what manner . \ The flesh cut off of them. the second verse reads: . the thr ee) \ All these phenomena are seen to be like reflections. (3) . \ Furthermore.. the one who is cutting. slow ly over a long period of time. ¢(i. .e. even if that should happen. \ Therefore he is patient. ¢(i. from the perspective of super ficial appearances or conventional reality. this b odhisattva who is not an appropriate object of anger. \ What is cut. \ /// \ 29. but the bodhisattvas who see selflessness see that the flesh that is cut off th em. . and the second is how they medita te on it from the perspective of relative reality. \ The bodhisattva's patience with the one who is cutting grows even gre ater. and. by whom. The commentary reads: "And not only this. \ And for this reason as well they are patient. since the bodhisattva has such great patience. who is not an app ropriate object of anger. As to the description of how patience becomes superior. and the way in which the person is cutting them. (2) .(i. \ ### \ Even if someone becomes enraged with a bodhisattva. the length of time during which it is being cut. \ /// \ 30. \ And cuts the flesh and bone from their body \ Ounce by ounce over a long period of time.
) .e. "Therefore. in future lives." .2. The second is that anger is illogical because it turns something good into so mething bad. and the third section. \ /// \ 31. 4. and has many flaws. it does not accomplish anything and does cause one suffering. The fourth verse. 1. \ Does that anger reverse what has happened? \ Therefore. anger certainly brings no benefit here.that. \ ### \ Once the harm is done. . because the text goes on to say. The second is to meditate on patience after thinking about the good qualities or the benefits that patience brings. one thinks of the great variety of faults that come about due to anger. These are the two main points.1 The unsuitability of getting angry] . brings these two ideas to gether. And finally.for ordinary beings] . Concerning the faults of anger. \ And will be of detriment in future lives as well. From the perspective of relative truth. because the result of being angry is the experience of unpleasant karma in the future. but only adds to our present troubles. L7: [i. The third is that one thinks about what an incredibly powerful negative state of mind anger is. 3. L6: [B. (4) . 3. ¢(i. . about what is wrong with anger. the faults of anger and the good qualities of patience. \ And contradictory with the world beyond. Not wishing future suffering and retaliating harmfully are contradictor . and beca use it causes suffering in future lives it is also contradictory with our wish f or future happiness. then the question is. there are four different parts. if one becomes angry. is an incredibly powerful state of negat ivity. \ Does our anger undo what was done? \ Thus getting angry is certainly senseless here.2 The way to rely upon other patience . For each of these reasons one meditates on patience. And it is for this reason as well that the bodhisattvas are able to be so incredibly patient. The commentary reads: "If someone does one harm. Anger is unsuitable because it is unnecessary and very faulty] . there are three main subdivisions. It does not bring any benefi t here in this life. getting angry definitely br ings no benefit. 'Does that anger chang e anything? Does it reverse what has already happened?'" This is a rhetorical qu estion. b ecause anger is not a very pleasant state to be in. 2. The first is that anger is illogical because it brings no benefit. it will bring suffer ing. L7: [ii. Anger brings no benefits. 1. . 2." . stating that anger brings no benefit. L5: [B. and also after death. The first is that one meditates on patience after having thought about the fa ults of anger. and then one gets angry at the person who has committed this harm. reads: . t urns something good into something bad. \ If someone harms us and we become angry. . Anger never brings redress. which is a concluding verse.
It is the har m we experience that causes this exhaustion of negative deeds. a Bodhisattva] \ Virtues accumulated from giving and moral discipline \ Over a hundred aeons are destroyed in an instant. This is explained in the fifth verse. \ /// \ 33. \ How can one who wants to assert that he is eradicating \ The effects of non-virtuous actions committed in the past \ Sow the seeds of future suffering \ Through anger and harm towards others? . So the commentary here reads: "If one gets angry at a bodhisattva bodhisattvas who have only great loving kindness and compassion then in an instant this anger des troys all the virtue. The second way to meditate on patience is to think about how anger is illogical because when you get angry. generosity. \ There is no greater negativity than impatience. \ So why would the bodhisattva. you only plant again the seeds for future suffering.y] . which is the exhaustion of negative deeds.e. that is the result of som e negative action that we did to them in the past. So why would you turn something good. then that eliminates the debt. \ Therefore there is no evil greater than anger. not to create more bad karma. which reads: . L7: [iii. right conduct or discipline that one has accum . So we are just getting that h arm in return. (6) . contemplating wh at an incredibly powerful negativity anger is: . \ Through getting angry with Conquerors' Sons [i. \ ### \ Since getting angry with bodhisattvas \ Instantly destroys all the virtue \ That generosity and discipline have accumulated over a hundred eons. And when we experience that harm in return. We should try to stop the cycle. it exhausts the negative deeds we performed in the past. into something bad. ¢(i. We should accept patiently with a positive mind graduall y purifying non-virtue and sowing the seeds of future happiness. .e. through anger and harming another. then why would bodhisattvas get angry at the person who is doing them har m? Why would they bring suffering to themselves through further anger? When you get angry. \ /// \ 32. It is due to our accumulated karma. The sixth verse explains how bodhisattvas meditate on patience. which would be the seed of experiencing suffering in the future? It makes n o sense. \ Again plant the seeds for future suffering to be endured? (5) . Anger is unsuitable because it destroys virtues previously accumulated over a long time] .e. which is why bodhisattvas do not get angry. ¢(i.) ." . it turns something good into something bad. \ ### \ The harm one experiences is said to be the very thing \ That exhausts whatever wrong deeds one performed in the past. but instead practice patien ce. So if that is the case. And the commentary reads: "When somebody harms us now.) . We never know who the other is.
For example. \ Impatience quickly hurls one into the lower realms (7abc) . the path of junction. \ And soon throws us into lower realms. Chogyam T rungpa Rinpoche taught that one instance of anger destroys kalpas and kalpas of accumulated merit. if t he bodhisattva is on the great path of accumulation. we no longer make good decisions. L7: [iv. These flaws of anger affect us in this life. because they can quickly hurl us into the lower realms. but added that one should also know that one instance of pati ence in the face of great anger accumulates many kalpas of merit. contemplating the many flaws of impatience: .* then for as many instances as they had that a ngry mind. This could also be read to mean that it causes you to be reborn as someone who is not a genuine being. bu t just as a mental state. there is no more powerful. So. ~ **Editor's note: In 1982. \ Robs us of our discrimination that knows right from wrong. Whether . ~ *Editor's note: It is taught that when a bodhisattva attains the eighth bod hisattva ground after which they experience no further kleshas and therefore no lo nger create karma they receive a prophecy directly from the Buddhas or from their yidam predicting precisely when they will attain Buddhahood and bestowing on the m a new name." To explain this further it s ays. makes us blind.] . brings one close to those not genuine. leads to the unholy. For that many kalpas do they have to continue to practice. . for that many kalpas do they have to continue to wear their armor [of patienc e]. then for however many instances of angry mind they hav e. Therefore. . but they get angry at a bodhisattva who has already rece ived a prophecy of enlightenment. on the highest level of the first of the five paths leading to Buddhahood. t hen it destroys a thousand eons' worth. and they are ready to progress t o the path of junction.] but if it is an ordinary person who gets angry at a bodhisattva. \ Impatience creates unattractive forms." And if a bodhisattva gets angry at a bo dhisattva in a way that does not even manifest as actions of body and speech. which previously had been translated as holy. The first fault of anger mentioned here is that it makes one look ugly.ulated over the course of a hundred eons. \ ### \ It makes one ugly. no stronger or greater negativity than impatience. Stopping anger having contemplated the many faults of impatience] . [and so it has grave consequences. \ And robs one of the ability to discriminate right from wrong. . Getting angry with somebody is contradictory to that vow. The first three lines of the seventh verse explains how bodhisattvas meditate on patience. Anger also leads you into the company of those who are not gen uine beings. . ~ ***Editor's note: The word genuine is very often now being used to translat e the Tibetan word dampa. think ing about all of these faults of anger. For that many eons they will have to continue training w here they are. for that many eons will they not be able to progress to the next path . You may be a very beautiful looking person. when teaching the paramita of patience. covering over our intelligence or prajna. one meditates on patience. \ /// \ 34ac. Thus. but anger instantly makes your face into som ething repulsive. It agitates the mind. "If it is a bodhisattva who gets angry at a bodhisattva if they are equal bod hisattvas then one instant of anger destroys a hundred eons [of accumulated merit and virtue. but anger and impatience can also affect us in our next life.*** Anger also robs one of the ability to dis criminate right from wrong.** The reason that this is so is that the bodhisattva's vow is to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings.
L6: [B. the practice of patience protects one's intelligence from degeneration. The commentary reads that. L7: [ii. (8) . the text in the last line of the seventh ve rse and in the eighth verse examines the good qualities of patience: . Furthermore. \ Later it brings birth as a human or a god \ And exhaustion of negative deeds as well. The concluding verse of this particular subsection states both the faults of ang er and the good qualities of patience: . birth as a human or god. . enabling one to know even more clearly w hat is and is not appropriate to do. \ ### \ Ordinary beings and heirs of the Victor \ Should realize the faults of anger and the good qualities of patience . . . which are the opposites of the faul ts of anger. \ It brings one skill in knowing what is appropriate and what is not. Patience gives one a beautiful appe arance. . straightforward. A further good consequence of patience is t hat its practice brings one birth as a god or as a human being in the future. Contemplating the many benefits of patience] . \ And the eradication of negativity. \ From patience come beauty. as well as the exhaustion of negative actions and negative mental states such as a nger. (7d) . and non-deceptive is not clear. \ /// \ 35. and the spiritual heirs of the Victor. \ And after this. \ Knowing the faults of anger and the good qualities of patience \ In ordinary beings and Conquerors' Sons. The practice of patience endears one to the genuine beings. \ Skill in knowing the suitable and unsuitable. and always quickly rely \ On the patience praised by the noble ones. \ ### \ Patience makes one beautiful and endears one to the genuine beings.2. or in the ordinary sense of being sinc ere.genuine is being used here in this sense. are listed in the eighth verse. closeness to holy beings. sh . \ /// \ 34d. \ /// \ 36. \ We should quickly abandon impatience \ And always rely upon patience praised by Superior beings. \ Patience produces qualities opposite to what has been explained . (9) . . \ Abandon impatience. "Ordinary individuals. The good qualities that patience brings out. meaning those who do not reali ze the truth. an exhortation to rely upon patience] . \ ### \ Patience brings out the good qualities opposite to these.2 The suitability of relying upon patience] L7: [i. in face one's intelligence will grow stronger. Having examined the faults of anger. In summary. the bodhisattvas who do.
L5: [B. Bodhisattvas understan d that there is no lasting benefit in being reborn in the form and formless real ms. the four absorptions of the formless r ealm. even if one practices this patience as a means to attai n the enlightenment of perfect Buddhahood and dedicates the merit arising out of one's practice of patience to that attainment.e. (11) . \ /// \ 38. (10) . \ When there is no focus. \ And they are ever able to vanquish \ The desire experienced by worldly beings. . and knowing that. Verse ten reads: . \ And he is always able to overcome the desirous attachment of worldly beings. Next is a praise of the other qualities that come on this third ground: . \ ### \ Even though dedicated to the enlightenment of perfect Buddhahood. it is mundane. \ If there is observation of the three. \ /// \ 37. However. it would be better if we did not take these three spheres to be real. \ ### \ On this ground the Victor's heirs gain the samadhis and clairvoyances . meaning that one refrains from being angry at the p erson who does one harm. they still strive to attain the form and formless realm absorptions . When u sed in this way these absorptions are not mundane paths that lead to rebirth as . it is worldly. ¢(i.3 The divisions of the perfection of patience] . \ Although dedicated to the enlightenment of complete Buddhahood. then the Buddha taught that one's practice of the paramita is a transcendent perfection which goes beyond the world. \ Desire and aversion are completely exhausted." . \ This is a transcendent perfection beyond the world. the four immeasurables.4 The other pure qualities that arise on this ground] . still. These are powerful. the Buddha taught. . L5: [B. He or she attains extraordinary concentration and so special realizations o f the four absorptions of the form realm. . However. Therefore.ould both know the faults of ordinary beings' anger and the good qualities of th e patience practiced by bodhisattvas. When one practices patience. Next there is a discussion of the different types of patience. and the five clairvoyances. blissful minds that are always conjoined with mental suppl eness. if while practicing patie nce one focuses on the three spheres as being real. then one's practice is still worldly. Meditation on emptiness with a form or formless realm absorption is much more powerful than it is with a desire realm mind because these minds readily mi x with emptiness. making it much easier to overcome dualistic appearance. \ If it focuses on the three spheres. \ The Conquerors' Son on this ground \ Has the mental stabilizations and clairvoyance \ Attachment and hatred are completely extinguished. \ That is a supramundane perfection. should abandon impatienc e and always quickly and closely rely on the patience praised by noble beings. if there is no such focus on these three spheres as being rea l. \ Buddha taught that if there is no observation.
the collection of wisdom. is equally a cause of both bodies. . The commentary reads: "On this third ground. aversion. the collection of merit. 2. The concluding two verses of this chapter are a common summary of the three para mitas discussed this far in the text and a further particular summary of this th ird ground. ¢(i. The fourth perfection. for the From Body of a Bud dha we need the three first perfections (generosity. Indra is just an example here. for the Truth Body of a Buddha we need the two last perfection (mental stabilization and wisdom). meaning that everything which they give up on this particu lar ground they give up completely. and ignorance which are the three root mental afflictions are completely exhausted. L4: [C. ~ **Editor's note: Indra is one of the gods in the Hindu pantheon. these bodhisattvas are always able to vanquish the desire experienced by ordinary beings in the desire realm. the four i mmeasurables. wisdom. contained in verse twelve. . effor t. (12) .) . moral discipline and patien ce). . \ They are known as the 'collection of merit'. \ ### \ Generosity and so forth these three dharmas \ The Sugata particularly praised to lay people. ~ *Editor's note: As translator Ari Goldfield explained. The reason that they are able to realize the se qualities and to give up what they need to give up is that they have the pati ence which is not afraid of profound emptiness. These cognitive obscurations c ome under the heading of ignorance. giving [moral discipline and patience] and so fo rth. and in this way they become like Indra** in the sense that they are able to lead beings out of the mu d of their desire.* According to the commenta ry." They gain these specia l meditative and mental abilities. that desire and aversion are completely exhausted.a samsaric god. desire. the heirs of the Vict or gain four formless samadhis or states of meditative concentration. according to the root vers e. The common summary. This particular type of patience is able to bear patiently and without being afraid the profundity of the true n ature of reality. . the commentary also m entions ignorance as being exhausted.) . \ They are also the accumulation of merit \ And the causes of the Buddha's form body. \ The cause of a Buddha's Body that is the nature of form. The two collections: 1. but the main point is that bodhisattvas on this ground are able t o lead beings out of the mud of desire and attachment in which they are stuck. as well as the five types of clairvoyance. the root text explic itly mentions desire and aversion as completely exhausted. reads: . Not the last four perfections of the set o f ten are included in the sixth. t he bodhisattvas eliminate more and more of the cognitive obscurations as their r ealization of emptiness gets clearer and clearer. \ These three Dharmas. -----------------------------------------------. . The characteristics of the first three perfections] . Therefore. as well as seeing. The Luminous.e. It is not particularly clear w hy he is used. \ /// \ 39. This is definitely the case on each bhumi. \ Are especially praised by the Sugatas for lay people. but supramundane paths that lead to liberation and enlightenment .
. the darkness. \ /// \ 40. the Conquerors' Son. because the bodhi sattvas' mind-streams are oiled by the good qualities of their compassion. The commentary reads that. Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground] . abiding in the sun. it is impossible for him to lose his patience with faulty beings. because of the brilliance of their luminosity. (See page 43. They do not get angry at beings who still have lots of faults. \ ### \ The heirs of the Victor. so it is a very good song. Milarepa sang this song to Rechungpa when he was about to beat Dharlo.) .e. it is as though the heirs of the Victor who have reached the third ground abide in the sun. They are made soft by the quality of their compassion and because they practice patie nce. how to meditate on patienc . Now let's sing The Anger Cooling Song. and so he never g ets angry. L4: [D. Rechungpa calmed down. Next comes the name of the chapter from the text called Entrance to the Middle W ay. \ First completely removes the darkness within himself. After hea ring it. these accumulations of merit become the cause of the Buddh a's form kaya. ¢(i. these luminous ones. The Third Generation of the Mind of Ultimate Bodhicitta. how to meditat e on patience by remembering the profound meditation. is dispelled by their brilliance the moment they take birth on it. and through teaching the dharma the luminous bodhisattvas are able to cause them to do so. It gives instructions on how to meditate on patience by remembering the profound view. Even so. .] . he never gets angry. \ First perfectly dispel the darkness present in themselves. and patience the Buddha in his teachings particularly praised to lay bodhisattvas.The commentary reads: "Generosity and so forth meaning generosity.) . [Students recite. Because the Bodhisattva's wisdom is very sharp and as clear as the sun. they fervently yearn to remove the darkness in the mind-streams of ot her beings. they do not become angry. T hereafter. and at the time of the fr uition of Buddhahood. which darkness prevents these other beings from reaching the same le vel of attainment. Since they have been able to eliminate the darknes s and the faults that had prevented them from reaching this ground. discipline. Th eir practice also generates the accumulation of merit. abiding in the sun. \ Being very sharp on this ground. Their brilliance first perfectly dispels the darkness of ignorance in thei r own mind-stream. (1 3) . \ This Luminous (3). they do not get frustrated with people who are not so sharp. \ And then strongly wishes to eliminate the darkness of living beings. which was the obstacle to their reaching the th ird ground. Now let's recite th e root verses together. form body. the facultie s of these bodhisattvas are incredibly sharp. The thirteenth verse is a particular summary of the third ground: . . though incredibly sharp. -----------------------------------------------. . \ On this ground. like the brilliance of the rays of the sun. \ And then fervently yearn to vanquish the darkness in others.
In this regard. So. undeceiving and totally dedicated to helping others to realize the same thing. unpretentious. -----------------------------------------------. meditation." But most translators these days avoid the word 'holy. as 'genuine reality. you will find yourself attracting the c ompany of those who do not have this quality of goodness or genuineness. L4: [Now are there any questions?] .'According to the Great Tibetan Dictionary (tshig mdzod chen mo) a 'skyes bu dam pa' is a 'pa gs pa. RINPOCHE: Genuine beings are those one will become close to or by whom one will be well regarded.] . and fruition. or as Rinpoche prefers. but also because 'genu ine' seems more accurate. Here. used to be translated as saint. Does that refer to those who have an understanding of the genuine nature of reality? . of having a quality of genuineness. If you do not meditate on and practice patience. if you get angry. and genu ine. someone who has realized 'don dam bden pa." which is halig. I think. But if you do meditate on patience. which is how Rinpoche picked up on "holy man.' frequently translated as 'ultimate truth. if one returns to the Old English root of t he word "holy. an effort ha s been made to find an alternative translation to the term "holy" that would avo id all the theistic overtones of perfect conventional goodness and righteousness and any notions of elevated status that had accreted in our ignorance to the te rm "holy. but they will stil l fall apart. it means 'close. and how to meditate on patience by rememb ering the profound fruition or result." However.' In English. There is some quality of being good here." but because in our daily western experience there was ve ry little objective frame of reference for the term holy.' but better tr anslated.' 'Dam pa' is also found in 'yi dam' wher e. and yet were able to show one profound dimensions of experience and awarene ss that one had never seen before and could never have imagined existed before m eeting them because these interfaces had so little to do with the notions of holi ness that we had imagined in the absence of genuine examples of it. a holy pers on. So it seems there to have the sense of'genuine' and 'true. Originally it was generall y translated as "holy.' not only because of its theistic religious connotations." One alternative to "holy" is the term genuine. close to your 'yid' or mind. undivided against oneself in the sense of not eng aging in actions of body. to the notion of being undivided in any sense. conduct. we find that it is a cognate of the Old English hal. there is a reference to bringing one close to those not genuine. they will get better and bette r. your view . meditation. Rechungpa thought about the profound view. QUESTION: In verses 7 and 8. . [Students sing. humorous.' meaning. this wo uld be: A 'genuine being' is someone who has realized 'genuine reality. Rinpoc he's translator Ari Goldfield writes: "The Tibetan for 'genuine being" is 'skyes bu dam pa.' as in this case. The adjective 'dam pa' is use d in 'don dam bden pa. and mind that one does not thoroughly believe .e by remembering the profound conduct. speech.' and the refore is genuine and true. Having heard the song. meaning whole. down to earth. and fruition may all be very profound. ~ *Editor's note: Translators into the English language have for some time st ruggled with how to translate the Tibetan term dampa.' 'Holy being" is how it used to be translated. .* . 'sKyes bu' means person. Translator: The Tibetan for a genuine being. Ponlop Rinpoche says. Those who do not have this good quality will regard an angry per son as being good. and because the frame of reference that came from the interface with Tibetan Buddhism the many extraordi nary beings who were so direct. one gets back to the notion of whole. conduct. and this helped him to practice patience.
and affectionate. their intelligence and common sense go away. threatening. On the other hand. the harm we are experiencing. become gods? . . It is very easy to medit ate on and to practice patience when you know that it is all just a dream. so we need to develop the patience that is not afraid of that profundity. The harm we are experie ncing and we ourselves are also just dream appearances. These are samsaric gods living in samsaric realms.in. and/or irrelevant. None of these three spheres is real. Whether or not someone is a genuine being is not something that we can know d irectly. therefore. humorous. Even worldly good qualities diminish through anger. . that is a sign that they are such a genuine being. undeluded. RINPOCHE: It is possible to be afraid of the profundity of emptiness. on whom we fixate as bei ng desirable. Chandrakirti is talk ing about gods in the desire realm who still like to enjoy material pleasures. . that very absence of dualistic clinging and f ixation that makes great beings so totally present. but more importantly. to who se falsely imagined self interest we cling. then you can also se e that the person who is doing us harm is just a mere dependently arisen appeara nce. through watching what happens. and patience and fearlessne ss with regard to emptiness? . friendly. the form realm and the formless realm. more fundamentally. as Rinpoch e indicates in the question and answer period. even though they are experiencing a lot of harm. because it is either the only way or the most effective way of benefiting a particular student. we will not be able to practice patience because we will think t hat the one who is doing us harm. and they are no longer able to know what is right to do and what is not right to do. for instance. and. their beautiful faces turn ugly. that the harm they are doing is just a mere dependently arisen appearance. . and realizing this enables us more easily to meditate on and practice patience. RINPOCHE: The type of god or deity referred to here is not a yidam deity. There are gods in the desire realm. I f somebody practices patience very well. QUESTION: Could you talk a little more about patience when you are listening to the dharma. . We can only know it through inference. no big deal. we know it is just a dream and. so down to earth. but when they get angry. and others. then** we can tell that you are not a genuine bein g. It is. undivided in the sense of not still being subject t o dualistic perception and the fundamental samsaric split between a self. patience with your own mind in practice. If we underst and holy as that fundamental non-conceptual absence of dualistic clinging and fi xation. then when somebody comes along and treats us badly. QUESTION: Can Rinpoche expand on what constitutes a god and when do humans. Here in particular. People in the world like to look beautiful. so alive. and at the same time makes them the embodi ment of primordial. and that we who are experiencing the harm are just a mere dependently arisen app earance. then holy might seem to be quite a good transl ation for dampa. then w e will be able to realize the emptiness that is the nature of reality. If you have this patience which is not afraid of emptiness. If we dream but do not know w e are dreaming. too. O . . and whom we strive to manipulate t o fulfill our most current samsaric agenda for personal happiness. If we do. ~ **Editor's note: Bodhisattvas sometimes manifest anger or wrath. Also. and we ourselves who are the one experiencing harm are all real. not only as it pertains to behavior. and then meditating on and practicing patience will be even easier. That is the difference. if we dream and we know we are dreaming. when people get angry. after all. If you get angry at somebody. transcendent knowing and compassionate skillful m eans. as it pertain s to the very root of perception.
The bodies of deities are similar to our body in a dream. world and beyond the world refers to the individuals or beings. If it is luminosity. so normally w e cannot see them. spacious. but ordinarily we cannot see them. But once you think a bit about how sentient beings appear in dreams with subtle bodies that others ca nnot see. what is the world being talked about here. This i s an analysis of the bodies of sentient beings. Our body in a dream is something subtle that other people cannot see and bodies of deities are just li ke that. If you exist in a system that believes in these things. Of course nowadays there are also a lot of peop le who think that if you cannot see it. it does not exist. it is not like a banana tree.] . [Translator sings. like the reflection of the moon in a pool of water. then slowly one will begin to accept the possibility that there might be sentient beings who exist even though we cannot see their subtle bodies. the great men and women who realized and still realize t he nature of mind have sung a lot of songs about how wonderfully open and spacio us and easy an experience it is. The bodies of these gods are very subtle. do not themselves exist. assert the existence of beings y ou cannot see. . not yidam deities. or under more and more subtle investigation. two o f them live on the earth and four live in the clouds in the sky. If you realize th e nature of mind. Of these six types of gods. Most religious traditions. If there are gods. Our bodies are coarse. but if we do not have the eyes of wisdom that can see that sort of thing. If you analyze beings' minds in contrast to their bodies. and that therefore it is of the nature of great openness and spaciousness and r elaxedness. t hen there can also be yidam deities on which we can meditate. ~ One cannot make definitive distinctions ~ Between transcending misery and not. RINPOCHE: Here. so the gods can see us. the great vehicle of Buddhism. what are they? ~ If analyzed they're like a banana tree. gods and demons. As the bodhisattva Shantideva said in his wisdom chapter of The Guide to the Bod hisattva's Conduct. like illusions . there is nothing on the inside. neither of them really exist. then students sing. But these are samsaric beings. we will not be able to see them. what you find is that the nature of mind transcends all conceptual fabrication as to what it might be. and relaxed. If you do so. If you analyze their bodies. The comparison of beings to a banana tree has to do with their bodies. and it is similar with sen tient beings. Just let go and rest very naturally and loosely. not an analysis of their minds. you only find smaller and smaller par ticles that in the final analysis. and they all ha ve a great amount of attachment to material things. They are attached to objects of pleasure. ~ Then wanderers. in fact. who have subtle bodies. . and that is why they are in the desire realm. beings with coarse bodies and beings with subtle ones are the same in that neither of them are real . In t he tradition of the mahayana. . . then everything becomes open. you have gods on the one hand and demons on the other . We just cannot see them. If you cu t open a banana tree.ne can be reborn in any one of six levels of god realms in the desire realm. so they are just like people in this regard. There are some human beings who can see them. It turns out that there is nothing really there. these dream like beings. and what doe s it mean to say that something is beyond it? . assert that there exist beings. They are all equally like dreams. This verse by Shantideva has been put to song a nd it goes like this: . So everything work s out well. And if there can be gods that you cannot see and demons that you cannot see. there are also demons. QUESTION: When the text talks about a transcendent perfection's being either wor ldly or beyond th world. sooner or later you will s ee why the mahasiddhas.
which is two-fold. In short. In India. an d do not have the same kinds of difficulties. What are ordinary beings able to see? We see the nirmanakaya. Ordinary or worldly beings are like those who do not know that they are dreaming. When not meditating. So how is a Buddha going to relate to us? A Bud dha relates to us through the form dimension of their enlightenment. or something like that. then they are a worldl y person." signifying that this particular king invented lots of things that no one had ever heard of or seen before. or literatu re. or art. and are able to make brilliant contributions and dev elop and invent things that no one was able to invent before. This does not refe r to the people who made the atom bomb. there was a king named Bishokarma. the bodhisattva sees the world lik e a dream. of which there are three different types. like an illusion. and what are its causes? . like a magical display. ~ *Editor's note: In this regard it is important to understand that ordinary beings can have glimpses.both human and non-human. which is the definition o f enlightenment. Worldly beings are beings whose minds are confused and therefore have no independence. As sentient beings the enlightened mind is something we cannot see. At a time when a world is in a particular state of darkness and people in that particular place are not really ready for a Buddha. On the other hand. And then there is also what is calle d the skilled emanation body.* The unmistaken a nd unconfused path starts when someone gains the first bodhisattva ground. Noble bodhisattvas are like those who know they are dreaming. There is the sambhogakaya. one is called a noble or an exalted being. A Buddha's awareness is said to be totally unobscured. At th at point. Then there is also the born em anation body. and the nirmanakaya. the emanation body. or an echo. or some other animal or ordinary be ing to be of benefit to beings in that way. for example. His name means "gr eat variety of activity. is not mistaken. but d ifferent at other times. That king was said to be an emanation of the Buddha. the same d uring meditation and post-meditation. which is the emanation body. . a flash of lightning. The ultimate or actual dimension or body of the enlightenment of the Buddha is the dharmakaya. if someone is not confused. RINPOCHE: This term body comes from the Sanskrit kaya. which refers to the enlightened mind itself. but that these always dissolve. Beings who have gone beyond the world are defined as those whose minds are not confused and are therefore completely open and spacious and relaxed. which is translated as the enjoyment body. a bird. like a rainbow. QUESTION: What is the form body of a Buddha. which only bodhisattvas on the ten b humis can see. and Buddhas are like those who have awakened completely. The sam boghakaya is like the five Buddha families. etc. which is an honorific ter m for body. they make only things that are helpful to peop le. That is its literal translation. then t hey realize the nature of reality and are on the path of greater and greater rea lization. The first is called t he supreme emanation body. because skilled emanations do not make t hings that are harmful to people. like a hallucination. At that point there is no confusion left at all. and various types of suffering. . if a person is confused and mistaken with regard to the way they perceive things. Beginning with the first bodhisattva ground. frustration. like the emanation b ody of a Buddha as it appears to ordinary beings. which is like Shakyamuni Buddha. This refers to a Buddha's body wh en the Buddha takes birth as a fish. the bodhisattva's awa reness during meditation is said to be essentially the same as a Buddha's. leaving one with memories but still living in a samsaric world replete with anxiety. in question. or like the reflection of the moon in water. then Buddhas take birth there as persons skilled in crafts. through the ir form body. . momentary experiences (nyam in Tibetan) of the enlight ened state. These latter beings are said to be beyond the world. When one reach es the level of enlightenment. then all confusion is completely erased or elimin ated. though there is still a lot of confusion left to be purified on the ten bodhisattva grounds. They are completely under the powe r of their karma and experience a vast array of different kinds of suffering as a result. You could also call it a dimension of enlightenment.
and patience praised to la y people in particular? . the faults of being in samsara. and then it is explained that the f aults themselves do not really exist. Thus.. Along with generosity they need right conduct. it is explained to us that faults do not really exist: First it is explained that there is no one to have any faults. but that is something different. and you also need to be patient with those who mi ght do you harm. then the root motivation to benefit others wanting people to have freed om and a decent life is very good. First. it is taught that it i s good to accumulate wealth so that one can give it away to benefit others. So those three are important for lay people. discipl ine. if you are a doctor or a nurse. business tycoons. In such situations there may temporarily be a b it of anger. And then we do get frustrated. QUESTION: Thank you. and there is a tremendous gap between the two of them. but it seems that sometimes as an indirect result som ething good happens. which is necessary to avoid and in refe rence to which it is necessary to practice patience. which cre ates terrible suffering. to be able to endure. Is this the profound requirement of patience you are referring to. right conduct and discipline." and on the other hand. Similar ly bodhisattvas can assume the roles of doctors. and in all cases they need generosity. So we learn about the two types of selflessness just when we are feeling really bad about ourselves as a result of the original explanation of ourselves as defecti . because the root motivation is to do good for others. On the bodhisattva path. RINPOCHE: The reason is that householder bodhisattvas have something to give awa y. ministers. It is not the same type of anger a s that which is being talked about here. So it can be like that. "I am a lousy person and I have all sorts of faults. because there is no self in the individual. disc ipline. maybe not dire ctly because of the anger. They have possessions with which they can practice generosity. I have all of these faults that I am not supposed to have. I am jealous." Then when we are to tally convinced of all the faults we have. you have the actual fact. because phenomena do not really exist. So. When bodhisattvas are in such positions of power and wealth. out of loving kindness and compas sion. RINPOCHE: When you are talking about human rights [and movements to secure human rights]. It seems like the same kind of gap that is taught in al l the other religions that I usually do not associate with Buddhism. and great land owners who accumulated wealth and then gave it away for the benef it of others. That is the path of the householder bodhisattva. nurses. one acts in order to be of benefit to others. RINPOCHE: There are stages in the presentation of the teachings that we need to be aware of. and patience. "I am angry. discipline. things are explained to us from the perspective of our fault s. Before an ord inary being has direct experience of emptiness of self and phenomena then it see ms that trying to follow the paramitas up to that point does not diminish suffer ing but in fact increases suffering. Can Rinpoche please comment on anger in the context of social movements and hum an rights movements? . then you nee d generosity in the sense of wanting to give medicines and medical attention to people. there is an ideal presented to us about the way th ings should be. we do feel inadequate and inferior and think. You need good conduct. and a wide variety of o ther professions and occupations. and that is how i t was taught. . QUESTION: Sometimes getting angry seems to lead to a good result. and patience. too. to be able to persevere through these experiences of inadequacy and all of the oth er things that we feel? . they need to practice generosity. and what is wrong with our status as a samsar ic being. That is why ge nerosity was taught to them. . QUESTION: I have a lot of difficulty with the mahayana in general. Why were generosity. for example. and patience. On the one hand. An example might be when people are experiencing injustice. That is why there were bodhisattvas who were monarchs.
Since a great many people i n this day and age already hold a nihilistic point of view. then it is explained that none of it is real. That is a good way proceed. Finally. . but would be experienced by the equally non-exist ent beings as being very real and immensely painful. what about all of these re lative superficial appearances of happiness and suffering? Where do they come fr om?" They come from karma. in order to get people to give up negative activity. t he cause and result of karma are explained. that it is really true.*** So it is better to explain things that reasoning can accept. So you start there and then go on from there. when we gain certainty in that. then it is explained to us that samsara does not really exist and that nirvana does not really exist either. is something wonderful. they come from good deeds and bad deeds. The causes and results of different karmic acts are explained in detail so that you know that engaging in virtuous a ctivity leads to happiness and engaging in unvirtuous activity leads to sufferin g. things t hat have logical proofs. explained things. . This i s how the noble Aryadeva.] no phenomena. . To explain how the stages of the path work from the perspective of the middle wa y. that in fact there is no real or true existence in anything. then you learn about virtuous activity. For example. which is the explanation of karma. Then it is explai ned to us that samsara is of the nature of suffering and that nirvana. the madhyamaka. "Well then. [no cause and affect . Another way to explain things is that first we have great attachment to our own existence and to what we perceive as the good things about it. First you reverse your tendency towards having no merit. they study a lot and have a lot of an alytical ability. you can prove that there is no self. and so everything turns out very well. Those who understand and have acco mplished all of these are wise. then it is explained that the nature of reality transcends all conceptual fabr ications about what it might or might not be. you then revers e the belief in the self. but then to explain to them that emptines . which is the explanation that reverses the tendency towards not having any merit. when you have gained confiden ce in the law of karma and have given up negative activity.ve samsaric beings. no action. Finally. when you are certain nothing is real. Having started accumulating merit. including cause and affect . an d finally you learn about the freedom from all conceptual fabrications. All experience and all phenomena a re of the nature of simplicity in the sense that they are free of any conceptual fabrication about their nature. the student and heart son of the protector Nagarjuna.** that they are not real. you reverse all views altogether through trai ning in freedom from conceptual fabrications. This is an age when people are very smart. This is all explained as if it were real. First you learn about selflessness. They are explained as bein g of the nature of equality. because they might as a consequen ce conclude nihilistically that since nothing exists. first. ~ *Editor's note: Traditionally it was held in the Buddhist tradition to be v ery dangerous to teach emptiness to beginners. that there is no self. then nothing matters and o ne may do whatever one wants.* First y ou use reason for example the logic which proves that things do not exist because they are neither one nor many to prove that there is no self and no phenomena. Then you can ask. Finally. . Then. At such a time it is permissible to put the second stage first . You c an prove that things do not really exist. that they are of the nature of equality. . y ou explain that the nature of reality lies beyond all conceptual fabrications. And then finally. the state of liberation. This is how Arydeva explained it. Such a conclusion could lead them to engage in neg ative actions which would lead them into hellish states. which would certainly b e empty of inherent existence. It is possible that if you explain the first stage first that if you explain that engaging in negative actions leads to suffering not only in the human realm but also to birth in the hell realms and hungry ghost realms people might get too frig htened. it turns out to be v ery skillful to teach emptiness first.
whic h all seem very real and potentially very painful if one misbehaves. because they are neither one thing. substantial. Since it is not one. exist substantially as we know it. On the other hand it is not many indivisible things because each of these par ts in turn has many parts. page 20 (footnote) and pa ge 28. indivisible. Therefore. because it has many part s. what else could it be. . In fact. (see sections copied here:) [To be "truly existent" something must be uni tary. in fact. both in the las t life and in this life. But if. Vol. This flower is clearly not one. non-conceptual. but are simply the paranoid fantasies of unsophisticated superstitious minds. until one a ctually attains stable "realization" of emptiness in a direct. each can be divided in half.e. they must have ceased. then you cannot prove that they happen with reasoning. the right side of one touches the left side of the other.s is simply the true nature of karmic interdependence and cause and effect. anything that has arisen in dependenc e on other things. No.] . if you posit them as just being like dre am appearances. Any particle of substantial matter. If you try to prove that they are real. they look real. has no characteristics. ~ **Editor's note: See Shenpen Osel. then the five aggregates of the last lif e must be permanent. We can take this flower a s an example of something that is neither one nor many. substantial. indivisible thing. then where did these five a ggregates of this life come from? From space? Did they come without any cause? Y ou cannot posit any relationship between the five aggregates of this life and th ose of the last that makes any sense. then the five aggregates from the last li fe must have been cut. you run into a logical contrad iction. then you can prove with reasoning that they exist. the aggregates of this life are different from those of the last life. But on the other hand. can theoretically be made to touch another particle of matter. v alid way. in which case they may cease to take any further explanation of Buddhist thought seriously. When these two particles touch each other. as far as improving your karma is concerned. i. All of the things that we see in dreams are appearances. RINPOCHE: From the perspective of the great vehicle. illusions like the movement of the moon in a pool of water. indivisibl e thing and since it is also not many unitary. . It is not something that truly exists because it is neither one unita ry thing nor is it the coming together of many things. Well if the five aggregates of this life are the same f ive aggregates as in the previous life. each of them has both a left and a right side and. like the movement of the moon in a pool of water? It is just a mere appearance of a succession of lives that is not really happening but appears to be happening. it does not truly exist. nor a re they many. 2. QUESTION: I am having a hard time with the notion of a succession of lifetimes a nd reincarnation. For examples we have the dependently occurring appearances th at we see in dreams. If so. To be a sentient being you have to have five aggregates. like all phenomena. and independent of causes and conditions for its existence. You can prove that they have that quality. consequentl y. They have no inherent nature. unchanging. If you posit them as being real. By this logic it is demonstrated that matter cannot. indivisible things. unitary. 2. ~ ***Editor's note: It is also possible that the student might have the rathe r common modern-day notion that dimensions of experience like the hells and the realms of disembodied spirits do not actually exist. but in fact they have no substantial essence. on the other hand. which seems to be central to the Buddhist way of thinking. regardless of how small it i s. All dependently occurring appearances have no substanti al essences because they are beyond being either one indivisible thing or many i ndivisible things. Therefore. . which means that it has no substantia l essence.] // [A dependently arisen entity. past and future lives are n ot real. other th an just a mere appearance. At the time we are dreaming. they are infinitely divisible. unitary. Would Rinpoche comment on this questio n? .
relax and let go within your own basic nature. the practice of post-meditation samadhi of illusion. That is how the protector Nagarjuna expressed it. Nevertheless. ~ Free of thinking that anything is real ~ This is perfect wisdom's conduct at its best! . like an illusion. . If you then ask. . And our body during the day is not the same as the body that appears in a dream. . i n the mahayana. ." For example. When we recall again and again our certainty in this way.] . ~ That's how dying are taught to be. . . Sarva Mangalam. the Buddha said. If you know that. We should sing the aspiration prayer for all beings with whom we have a good or bad connection. The protector Nagarjuna said. if you posit past and future lives as being like a moon movin g in a pool of water. ~ Like a city of gandharvas. ~ All you sentient beings I have a good or bad connection with. Good night. ~ Like a dream. They are just mere dependently arisen ap pearances. . our body that appears in a dream is not the same as our body during th e day.] . it is neither real nor false. "Know that every thing is just like the moon's appearance in a pool of water. [Students sing. [Dedication prayers] . On the other hand. ~ That's how birth and that's how living. L3: [The Fourth Mind Generation: The Radiant (2 verses) . [Students sing. Now. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . In the Sutra of the Noble Collection. Effort] . your mind will not be stolen by extreme views. ~ As soon as you have left this confused dimension. and it can be prove n to be like that with reasoning. and then we meditate in emptiness. In the stat e of meditative equipoise we remember again and again the nature of appearances. complete the bhumis and the paths. then there is no logical flaw in that. . ~ Know the five skandhas are like an illusion. [pause for meditation] . then this is called. ~ Don't separate the illusion from the skandhas. ~ And once you're born there.." look at the teachings of the second turning of the wheel of dh arma. As the protector Nagarjuna said in his text The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way. ~ May you be born in the west in Sukhavati. . "How did the Buddha teach it. . they both appear.
) . . . innate true grasping. The first verse reads: . [Students sing. reflect upon. \ The ground on which effort blazes (4) \ Is the fourth. The first explains how the practice of diligence becomes espec ially prominent here. understanding their meaning. The definition of the fourth ground is a Superior Bodhisattva's path that h as abandoned small-big. called the cat egory of the higher states. The first. there are three parts. \ /// \ [IV. In this explanation of the fourth bodhisattva ground. and that has attained a surpassing practice of the perfection of effort from within the ten perfections. ¢(i. The second explains the reason behind this specific name o f this particular bodhisattva ground. called The Radiant. In order to do that.) . And the third explains the extraordinary a bandonment that occurs on this bhumi. one needs to practice virtuous activities that benefits others. \ All good qualities follow upon effort. and meditate on the teachings of the genuine dharma with great di ligence.¢(i. its principal object of abandonmen t. it has two divisions: the transcending perfection of eff ort (of Bodhisattvas) and the transcendent perfection of effort (of Buddha). In order to be born in one of those realms and acquire the good things that come with suc h a rebirth. Let's sing The Song of Meaningful Connections. . The surpassing effort on this ground] . -. Rinpoche will expla in to us the fourth chapter from the text by the glorious Chandrakirti. This is the precious attitude of bodhicitta.Listening to teac hings. laziness. This chapter discusses the fourth bodhisattva bhumi. consists of the good qualities of the happy states i n samsara. From among all the topics which comprise the genuine dharma. \ The cause of the two collections of merit and wisdom. See page 12. closes the door to spiritual attainments. the fo urth mind generation in the generation of the ultimate mind of bodhicitta. (1) .] . please give rise to it and listen.e.e. . principally the good qualities of gods and of human beings. -----------------------------------------------. \ The ground where diligence blazes \ Is the fourth. we must listen to. Radiant (4). The definition of effort is a virtuous mind that delights in virtue.1] \ 41. please aspire to attain the stat e of complete and perfect enlightenment. The definition of perfection of effort is any effort ma intained by Bodhicitta. \ ### \ All good qualities follow after diligence \ It is the cause of both the accumulations of merit and wisdom. The op posite. and gaining experience of them in meditation all depend upon effort. L4: [A. All good qualities basically fall into two categories. Before listening to the teachings please give rise to the precious attitude of b odhicitta. which means that for the benefit of all sentient beings who are as li mitless in number as the sky is vast in extent. The Radiant. called E ntrance to The Middle Way. The .
and it makes them happy and causes them to be ripened along one of the thr ee paths. We need to realiz e that all of the Buddhas who have come before us started in exactly the same pl ace we are now. Without diligence it is impossible. to think. I cannot attain the state of liberation. We can. a paramita. I cannot begin by listening a little and reflecting a little an d meditating a little and moving on the path from there. wealth. First. it fulfills all the needs of sentient beings. and that is laziness. then that is diligence. no sentient being is lacking it while others have it. It can take such firm root in the mind that there is no place in the mind for lazin ess. -. and med itating on the path. profundity of view. They all had to listen. It is all pervasive in the same way that butter pervades milk. of diligence dispels laziness. which has been t here all along. and progress in stages on the path. which means that if you have diligence you can produce these qualities and if you do not. which is without any focal reference. then we cannot accomplish the goal of the path. It pervades every single sentient being equally and in the exact same way.4. no matter who they are whether an animal or any other type of sentient being has Buddha nature in exactly the same w ay. It is not the case that only good sentient beings have Buddha na ture and bad ones do not. It ca n be so strong that there is no opportunity for laziness to remain anywhere. The definition of diligence is to delight in virtuous activity. -. Dil igence is the cause of both the accumulations of merit. and t he accumulation of wisdom. or intellige nce. Four ch aracteristics of diligence are enumerated in the text called the Mahayana Sutra Lankara or the Ornament of the Mahayana Sutras: -. And so that is the f irst defining characteristic. . referring to the three types of enlightenment the enlightenment of shravakas. whether they be samsaric or transcend sam sara. meaning where laziness has been completely eradicated. -. The ground on w hich diligence blazes. called the category of true excellence. It is not differentiated among peo ple according to cast. Diligence is defined by the disappearance of its opposite. The definition of laziness is to be faint-hearted. it is embraced by non-conceptual primordial wisdom. it is able to dispel its opposite. if we think. courage . . and then we will realize our basic nature. . It is just not going to work. ref lect. The basic nature of every sentient bei ng is fundamentally awake and enlightened. gender. Bu . I am not good enough. No sentient being has less of it or more of it. and confidence we need.second category. as sesame oil per vades sesame seeds. . you cannot.3. Every sentient being. The enlightened potential pervades every sentient bein g equally." then that is the type of mental fortitude. it has to have th ese four characteristics. "I cannot really do it.1. the mind becomes completely inoculated with diligence. accomplish the ultimate fruition of enlightenment because every single sentient being has Buddha nature. Buddha nature is undifferentiated. Therefore. The paramita. as pure gold and pure silver pervade gold and silver ore. in fact. The opposite of diligence is laziness. the transcendent perfection. reflecting. which has a focus. and of Buddhas consists of the good qualities. They all had to go through t he bodhisattvas' stages before they became Buddhas. religious tradition. "I can do i t. all we need do is uncover this enlightened potential through the process of listening. meditate. They all started as ordinary beings. . When someone enj oys and is enthusiastic about doing good things. they did it. of pratyekaBuddhas. that follow upon diligence. is the fourth bodhisattva ground or bhumi called The Radiant. For it to be considered a transcendent perfection. philosop hy. Any good qualities we experience arise because of our diligence. I can do it." If we have this feeling of being inferior and being discouraged. I cannot become enlightened. So. the absence or presence or degree of faith. blood line.2.
You can completely denigrate it. . Buddha nature contains the seeds of both compassion and wis dom. There is no ultimate danger [of any being ever being eter nally lost]. wh en the appropriate time comes. when he was still an ordinary sentient being. It can become completely immeasurable like the compassion of the Buddha. and begin to progress gradually on the path of dharma. There was another hell being next to him who was pulling the same wagon. one manifests complete awakening. So he asked the next guard he saw. would it be all right if I p ulled my friend's load so that he could have a rest?" . because of one's great compassion one is able to manifest limitless number s of emanations and perform the benefit of others in a limitless number of ways. . Sir. But you cannot alter your basic Buddha nature. You cannot do anything to your Buddha nature. then when the potential for them to practice dharma awakens. The guard looked down at him and got really angry. the basic n ature of every being's mind is enlightenment. during which the qualities seem to appear greater and greater as one progresses on the path. who calls it all different kinds of na mes. he struck this sentient being who was later to become the Buddha on t he head and killed him. One is the Buddha nature which i s the basic essence of sentient beings. and the other is the Buddha nature that is developed on the path. he was reborn in the god realms. you still have Buddha nature. But because his last thought was a virtuous thought. the basic Buddha essence. When the Buddha was telling the story of his life. At that time the Buddha thought. It does not matter. . who are experiencing immense suffering? Is there any hope for them? Do they have any way out of their horrible state? Definitely they do. If you have faith. no matter who they are or what they are doing . which is the Bu ddha nature that is the basic essence of sentient beings. you have Buddha nature. which was very difficult to pull because it was made out of fire and kept burning them . no matter what they do. can grow until it too becomes completely limitless. He raised his hammer and excl aimed. they will again give rise to faith in the mahayan a and follow the path.ddha nature is completely and fully present in every sentient being. When we have taken our loving kindness and compassion to its complete perfection and our wisdom to its comple te perfection. if you do not have faith. I could do it by myself. You can be somebody who hates the dharma. "You idiot! Do you not know that every sentient being has to experience t he result of their own karma?" . Because of his bad deeds. referring to the second classification of Buddha na ture. When these two qualiti es have grown to their ultimate extent. "Excuse me. "Why do we both have to go through this? It makes no sense. there is no limit to the potential growth of our compassion. there is absolutely no difference among sentient beings. With regard to the first. Is that not wonderful? It does not matter what degree of faith in the dharma a person has. Since every sentient being has as their fundamental nature this Buddha essence. . You can cause the appearan ce of qualities to diminish. Then. He found himself with a rope tied around his waist pulling a wagon. What about beings in the lower realms. and therefore. once took rebirth in a hell realm. You cannot get rid of it. they will begin to practice and can then begin to progress on the way to attaining the state of com plete enlightenment. the Buddha. be reborn in a higher sta te. then that is the definition of Buddhahood. our prajna or wisdom. So saying. ." . he said. n o matter what you do. There are two classifications of Buddha nature. Even if a person is in a state of intense degeneration. In the same way our intelligence. you always have it. no matter what you do. you have Buddha nature." So even beings in the hell realms will eventually give rise to altruism. the omniscience of a Buddha. "This was the first altruistic thought I ever had.
Even the smallest part icle of matter. mental for mations. in fact. one becomes unimaginably. the aggregate of for m appears as matter. Vol. and so c annot be considered independent of causes and conditions. in reality. How do we develop non-conceptual p rimordial wisdom? By continuing to develop a deeper and deeper understanding of the two types of selflessness. the selflessness of individuals and the selflessn ess of phenomena. a true s elf in reality. 2 (A Commentary on In Praise of the Dharmadhatu. middle. No. Therefore. 4. there is no truly existent self anywhere. Since each aggregate i s an ever-changing continuum of different mental experiences. which gives them the mistaken impression that there is. is now just catching up with this fundamental teaching of the Buddha. the five skandhas. skilled. So there is no self in the aggregates taken either individually or together. ~ For further discussions of selflessness and emptiness. the mind which believes in a self is not a self. while sentient beings experience the mistake n impression of an individual self and of material objects and other selves. Then how do we understand the selflessness of phenomena? First we look at all of . and permanent. 2 (MADHYAMIKA TEACHINGS). see Shenpen Osel. which appear to be made up of matter. And finally. No. so none of them can be said to be eith er unitary of permanent. and end. Individually these five aggr egates are not the self. This explanation is of the first quality of diligence. Vo l. If you consider the aggregates all together as a group. perceptions. e ven incredibly. But for a self to be truly existent it must be unitary. one by one. independ ent of causes and conditions. none of them can b e considered permanent. For beginners. and we become very diligent. by Arya Nagarjun a). . so they cannot be considered permanent. even the smallest or shortest moment of exp erience has a beginning. The second quality of diligence is that. All sentient beings experience the appearance of a self. Fur thermore. 1 (Two Articles by Kalu Rinpoche ). . And they all are subject to decay. As groups.500 year s. since logically matter is infinitely divisible. No. there is no room for laziness . 2. Then. . which is that it defeats laziness. then we can understand that there is no self in the individual. Each of the remaining four aggregates the aggregates of feelings. ~ *Editor's note: It is important to remember that the appearance of a self i s not being referred to here. so they cannot be regarded as unitary. in fact. i t possesses non-conceptual primordial wisdom.and because one's wisdom is infinite and unlimited. How do we come to understand the selflessness of individuals? First we look. Vol. the aggregates cannot be considered unitary. an understanding inferred on th e basis of valid reasoning with logical conclusions. you cannot find the self anywhere. This is an inferentia l beginning of an understanding of selflessness. . The thought which thi nks there is an I. Modern science. But all of these material things are ma de up of smaller units. and Vol. do i t. cannot be consid ered unitary. If you isolate and examine each one at them. How do we defeat laziness? By thinking about this and allowing it to f ill us with fortitude and courage and self-confidence that we can. after 2. 3. and so disappears under analysis. 2 (a series of teachings on the Medicine Buddha Sutra). so they cannot be considered as independent of causes and conditions. when it is a transcendent perfection. So if we can understand these two things. at our five aggregates. you cannot find the self anywhere. and consciousnesses consists of a continuum of mental experiences experie nced in time.* . material things our body and the external objects we encounte r. and each m oment of mental experience arises dependent upon causes and conditions. knowing precisely how to benefit all sentient beings in precise and complete detail. No. . 3. They all come int o "existence" by virtue of the coming together of causes and conditions. when there is no doubt that we can do it. is not the I.
smells. and as a consequence. So for example. That is the model of the practice of diligence. which is the understanding of the selflessness of phenomena. we shou ld not at the same time be very harsh and critical towards others. it is impossible to have any type of focus on things as being real. Therefore. the bodhisattva no longer gives rise to kleshas. When we are diligent in a dream and do not know we are dreaming. Understanding conceptually that there is no self in the individual and no self e ntity or inherent existence in phenomena is the beginning approach to gaining no n-conceptual primordial awareness. So. to do things that benefit others. they w ill actually be made happy by what we do. If we practice diligence. we und erstand that they are all of the nature of emptiness. we need to conduct ourselves in a manner opposite to tha t. at all of the odors that appear to our noses. Looking at e very single thing we experience forms. That re quires diligence. we will be of benefit to others and they will be pleased and made happy by our practice. to any form of emotional afflic tion or conflict. . we are trying to help people. at all of the great variety of so unds that appear to our ears. when commenting on the practice of the bodh isattva path through the various bhumis. we are harsh with them and display a displeasing demeanor unpleasant to be aro und. ~ *Editor's note: In this regard. Under certain particular circumstances then . This being said. While strivin g to accomplish their benefit. The commentary further instructs that in being diligent. The person who appears to be d iligent is not real. however. dependent upon causes and condit ions just like things in dreams. Because we know that everything is just a dream appearance. . which is the second quality of the transcende nt perfection of diligence. at a ll of the tastes that appear to our tongues. we only m ake them miserable. if we are a teacher. if it would be of benefit in that particular situation. then there is no focus on th ings as being real. . the Vidyadhara Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche taught that on the first seven grounds of the bodhisattva path. as being tru ly existent. They are mere dependently arisen appearances. It makes beings happy because it fulfills their wishes. then our work will be self-contradictory. developmentally we cut through clinging to the belief in the reality of the three spheres. Instead we should treat them gently and be nice to them. a doctor. their conduc t can afford to be much more direct. while on the other. We need to act and appear in ways pleasing to others and make them happy. and at the time we are working with people . sounds. the bodhisattva's motivation will be totally pure and not self-interested. tastes. The basis o f mahayana practice is to help others. then we believ e in the reality of the three spheres and focus on the three spheres. Understanding this. The third quality of the transcendent perfection of diligence is that it makes p eople happy. the bodhisattva discovers that it is not necessary always to be so polite to samsara. just like illusions. . But how can we begin to bring this wisdom into our p ractice of diligence? We begin by thinking at the time that we are being diligen t that it is just like being diligent in a dream. On the one hand. the bodhisattva 's conduct was characterized by great gentleness. or anyone else involved in a profession beneficial to others. we should not cut them down or speak harshly to t hem. and at all of the things we think about. or speak and act harshly. In this way. But if we know we are dreaming and are diligent in our dream. Beginning with this ground. things to touch. If we do treat the m gently and nicely at the same time we are working hard to benefit them.the forms or objects that appear to the eyes. it should be noted that in general the bodhisattva continues to behave gently and nicely. such a bodhisattva might display anger. a nd the phenomena we think about we can see that they are all just mere appearances . a nurse. in all circumstances.* . but that beginning with the ei ghth ground of actual bodhisattva attainment. at all of the physical sensations w hich appear to our bodies. and the object upon which this activity is focused is not real. when we come into contact with them. One just follows naturally from the other. the activity in which we are diligent is not real.
. The fourth and final characteristic of the transcendent perfection of diligence discussed in this commentary is that it ripens beings in one of the three differ ent ways. If somebody displays the [comparatively limited] potential to follow t he shravaka path [ the path of the "listener-hearers" leading to individual liber ation ] then the bodhisattva's diligence is able to lead them to that fruition. If someone is more suited to following the pratyekaBuddha path, the path of the so litary sages, [leading also to individual liberation], then the bodhisattva's di ligence leads them in that direction. And if somebody is more suited to follow t he mahayana [path, leading to the liberation of all sentient beings], then the b odhisattva's diligence leads them in that direction. The bodhisattva's diligence is able to ripen beings appropriately according to their particular potential a nd interest. . Whatever virtue one is practicing, if it has these four characteristics, then it is the practice of a transcendent perfection or paramita in the practice of the mahayana. In particular, we have been looking at the fourth bodhisattva ground, on which, among the ten paramitas, the practice of diligence becomes predominan t, and so we have explained these four characteristics, which pertain to all the paramitas, from the perspective of diligence. . -----------------------------------------------. L4: [B. The etymology of this ground] . The second section (contained in the first three lines of the second verse) disc usses the etymology behind or the reason that the fourth ground is given the nam e The Radiant: . \ ### \ Here for the heirs of the Sugatas there dawns an appearance \ Even better than the copper light \ It arises from an even greater cultivation of the branches of perfect enlightenment. (2abc) . \ /// \ 42abc. \ There, for the Sugatas' Son, \ There arises an appearance superior to the copper light \ That is produced from superior meditation on the realizations conduci ve to complete enlightenment; . ¢(i.e. The 37 realizations, in seven groups. See the emptiness of definitions bell ow.) . The commentary reads, "On this ground, for the heirs of the sugatas the heart sons and daughters of the Buddhas because they have cultivated to an even greater degr ee what are known as the thirty-seven branches of perfect enlightenment, the app earance of their wisdom is even better than the copper light that was the metaph or that described its appearance on the third ground. On the third ground the ap pearance of wisdom experienced by the bodhisattva is like the copper light that appears before the sun comes up. On the fourth ground it is superior to that, an d so this ground is called The Radiant. The third ground is called The Luminous, but this ground is called The Radiant, like shooting-out light. . -----------------------------------------------. L4: [C. The characteristics of abandonment]
. And finally, in the third section, contained in the last line of the chapter, is a description of the extraordinary way in which the bodhisattva here is able to abandon self and self-entity: . \ ### \ Everything connected with the views of self and self-entity is comple tely exhausted. (2d) . \ /// \ 42d. \ And what is related to the view of self is completely eradicated. . In describing what it means to say that everything connected with the views of s elf and self-entity is exhausted, the commentary literally states, "On this grou nd, 'the view of self is thoroughly exhausted.' This means that the coarse views of the self of the individual and the self of phenomena that are related to the m ore subtle views of these two, including the beliefs that the self is independen t and so forth are abandoned. In short, what is to be abandoned on this ground, th e seeds of believing in the two kinds of self, is vanquished." . So let us recite these verses together three times. . [Students recite verses.] . . ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . L3: [The Fifth Mind Generation: The Difficult to Overcome (1 verse) Concentratio n] . ¢(i.e. The definition of the fourth ground is a Superior Bodhisattva's path that h as abandoned big-middling, innate true grasping, its principal object of abandon ment, and that has attained a surpassing practice of the perfection of mental st abilization from within the ten perfections.) . L4: [A. The etymology of the fifth ground] . Next we move on to the fifth bodhisattva ground and the fifth mind generation, c alled The Difficult To Overcome: . \ ### \ The great beings on the ground that is Difficult toOvercome \ Cannot be defeated even by all the maras. . \ /// \ [V.1.ab] \ 43ab. \ This great being on the ground Difficult to Overcome (5) \ Cannot be defeated even by all the maras. . ¢(i.e. A mara or demon, is anything that obstructs the attainment of liberation or enlightenment. There are four types: the mara of the delusions, the mara of the aggregates, the mara of the Lord of Death, and the Devaputra maras. Of these, o nly the last are actual living beings.) . This ground gets its name because "The great beings on the ground that is Diffic ult to Overcome" referring to bodhisattvas on the fifth ground "cannot be defeate
d even by all the maras."* . Even if all of the maras gang up on them at once, they are not strong enough at that point [to overcome the bodhisattva's wisdom]; the bodhisattva is stronger. . ~ *Editor's note: According to the story of the Buddha Shakyamuni's enlighten ment, Mara was a great demon that appeared to the Buddha just before he attained enlightenment, and in various seductive and fearsome manifestations tried first to seduce and then to frighten the Buddha out of his attainment. In less anthro pomorphic terms, the maras are seen as any negative influences that obstruct spi ritual development. Traditionally they are enumerated as skandhamara, the misper ception of that which is not a self, the aggregates, to be a self; kleshamara, b eing overpowered by, putting up with, or "buying into" the emotional afflictions , rather than seeing them and relating to them as vehicles for attaining enlight enment; mrtyumara, death or the fear of death, which interrupts one's practice u nless the practitioner knows how to make death part of his or her path; and deva putramara, literally the "child of the gods," which refers to the tendency to be seduced by, absorbed dualistically in, and attached to the pleasures and bliss of the gods' realms, specifically the subtle pleasures or bliss of meditation. I n the chod tradition, the four maras are enumerated in a way very useful for med itation as the substantial mara, the insubstantial mara, the mara of elation, an d the mara of fixation. ~ See Shenpen Osel, Vol. 3, No. 1, pages 36-38 (Chöd: Cutting Through the Four Maras, by The Venerable Tenga Rinpoche) (see next box); Vol. 3, No. 1, page 26 ( Mahamudra: the Essence of All the Buddha s Teachings, by His Holiness Kyabje Kalu Rinpoche). . -----------------------------------------------. L4: [B. The surpassing mental stabilization and skill in the truths] . \ ### \ Their meditative stability becomes superior and their excellent minds \ Become incredibly skilled in subtle realization of the nature of the truths. . \ /// \ 43cd. \ His mental stabilization is surpassing (5), \ and he also attains great skill in realizing \ The [gross and] subtle nature of the [noble] truths of a good mind [i .e. they are truths for Superior Beings]. . ¢(i.e. See the detailed discussion about the Four Noble truths, the sixteen aspect s, the sixteen misconceptions, the two types of self-grasping, the two types of delusion, and their links with the two truths ¢-- The attainment of actual true paths and actual true cessation come from an und erstanding of the emptiness, or the lack of inherent existence, revealed by the Madhyamika-Prasangika school. This is the main subject of the present work, and it will now be explained extensively in the following chapters.) . Commenting on the last two lines of the verse describing the qualities of this g round, the commentary reads, "On this ground the transcendent perfection of medi tative stability, the fifth paramita, becomes superior and wonderfully great, an d, as a result, with the excellent prajna of their excellent minds, these noble and exalted beings become incredibly skilled in subtle realization of the nature of the truths. The truths here refers either to the four noble truths the truth o f suffering, the truth of the origin of suffering, the truth of the cessation of suffering and the truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering or, as explained in the mahayana tradition, to the two truths, the relative superficial
~ The horses. ~ Whatever may appear there. the verses by the glorious Chandrakirti from the Entrance to the Middl e Way. [Students sing three times. [Students sing three times. ~ And what does perfect seeing see? ~ It sees the suchness of all things. See page 59. like illusions. These two verses contain the speech of the Buddha Shakyamuni.] . all relativ e superficial appearances are realized as appearance-emptiness. From Candrakirti's Entrance to the Middle Way. like things in d reams. . . Let's recite this verse three times. From the Sutra of the Noble Collection: ~ Know the five skandhas are like an illusion. So it would be good to sing a verse about this from the S utra of the Noble Collection. ~ And it is just like that with everything there is. From Nagarjuna's Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way: ~ Like a dream. . ~ So each and every thing that can ever be found ~ Holds two natures within. [Students recite. When we realize the emptiness that is the nature of genuine reality. . See page 59.] .truth and the truth of the nature of genuine reality. Bodhisattvas on this grou nd become incredibly skilled in the subtle realization of these truths. ~ There are two ways of seeing every thing. ~ Don't separate the illusion from the skandhas. and chariots in his illusions.] . . and that's how living. And we should sing from the King of Samadhi Sutra. ~ That's how birth.] .] . . ~ Free of thinking that anything is real ~ This is perfect wisdom's conduct at its best! . Since we also need to know what the commentaries on the Buddha's teachings said. And next. [Students sing three times. like an illusion. we should first l ook at the verse by the protector Nagarjuna from the Fundamental Wisdom of the M iddle Way. ~ And false seeing sees the relative truth ~ This is what the perfect Buddha said . See page 59. See page 59. And now a verse by the bodhisattva Shantideva from the wisdom chapter of the Gui . know that none of it is real. ~ Like a city of gandharvas. ~ That's how dying are taught to be. [Students sing three times. . elephants. From the King of Samadhi Sutra: ~ All the images conjured up by a magician. . . ~ The perfect way and the false way.
that they equally have Buddha nature. but at the same time. translated by Jim S cott and Ari Goldfield. . This is p articularly so in the vajrayana. August. There is no difference. An example would be in th e provision of health care. Those parts break down into their component parts and finally into particles. that the nature of every s ingle sentient being is Buddha nature. . where in several tantras women are praised as b eing of the nature of wisdom. less passion. [Students sing three times. they are like a banana tree. So it is like that. ~ Under the guidance of Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche. L4: [Now are there any questions?] . When we analyze the body.] . and it is certainly not a vajrayana tradition. less desire. To understand what it means to say that beings are like banana trees. can I ask the question in this way: "When we are in a position w here people come to us for help in our work and we are not in a position where w e can explain to them the nature of genuine reality and we have to stay in the r . And if we look at the particles. RINPOCHE: That hierarchy exists only in the shravaka tradition. the mind's nature transcends all conceptu al fabrications. "If it is true that Buddha nature pervades every one equally. . men and women are regarded as equal. there is really nothing there no pith. no substance. which is sexist? . In both of the la tter two. According to the second turning of the wheel of dharma. If you ask. QUESTION: Rinpoche stated that there is no distinction in Buddha nature between male and female. they are praised for being of the nature of wisdom. The minds of beings are not like banana trees. and you can give them answers from the point of view of relative truth. we need to think of the bodies of sentient beings. it is not an object of conceptual mind. So I am wondering how to bridge the gap between t hese two levels of truth in such practical situations. .de to the Bodhisattva's Conduct. See page 59. They are not denigrated. That is wh at is intended here. in which the tradition of the Buddhist monastic sangha originates." the shravaka tradition s answer is that they have less attachment. In the shravaka tradition. Shantideva is talking about the bodies of beings' being lik e banana trees. Translator: So the question is. 1999. you know that ultimately they will need to understand these same things from the po int of view of ultimate truth. clear lig ht. -----------------------------------------------. on the contrary. we cannot find anything substantial there at all. Translator: So. there is no talk about Buddha nature. while recognizing that people learn in stages. these dream-like beings. ~ One cannot make definitive distinctions ~ Between transcending misery and not. . it breaks dow n into parts. more cont entment. why is there a sexist discrimination in the hierarchy between monks and nuns in Buddhism?" . According to the third turning of the wheel of dharma the basic nature of mind is luminosity. If that is the case. In the mahayana it is explained differently. what are they? ~ If analyzed. then why is there a hierarchy between nuns and monks. So. From Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Conduct: ~ Then wanderers. QUESTION: I am confused about how to answer people who look to you for knowledge or leadership. "What defines a noble being. it is not a maha yana tradition.
on past and future lives. If first people are able to develop confidence in the profound teachings. It would not benefit them to hear about the nature of ultimate reality if they would not be able to understand it. In the shravakayana . This is how I think about things. . So it is better to start with the most profound teachings. because I suspect that if I speak the truth. QUESTION: Regarding the two types of egolessness or selflessness the egolessness o f the individual self and the egolessness or emptiness of phenomena is one realize d before the other? Or are both realized at the same time. etc. . the nature of genuine reality. QUESTION: Yes. Then they can be given teachings on the cause and result of karmic acts. people will just think of Buddhism as another tradition of blind faith that tries to accomplish its ends with scar e tactics. first exp laining that if you do this and that you will be reborn in the hell realms and i f you engage in such and such activities you can avoid birth in the lower realms . and you attain ni . but we all h ave to make the judgment to do so based on the person's intelligence and their a bility and capacity to understand those types of things. you give up your kleshas. and finally to talk about cause and effect and karma at the end. as was the case with certain brands of Chris tianity in the old days. my opinion. It is good first to explain the nature of genuine reality. if the teachings are presented in the more traditional way. then people will think." In that case. RINPOCHE: The different vehicles give different answers to that question. then t hey will also want to hear more about the way that relative truth is explained. most people have very advanced e ducations and have used their reasoning abilities their whole lives. how do you go over that bridge knowing that it might cross your v alues. people will not be interested . actually. . You have to have that first. all followi ng the profounder teachings on the nature of genuine reality. then. Therefore. then explain it to them. it is actually better to reverse the order in which the teachings are given. Buddh a nature is the nature of all beings. they are not going to unders tand it. Otherwise. The nature of everything is that it is all fundamentally the same. . These days at the end of the twentieth century. because they are asking. then to explain the natu re of relative reality. RINPOCHE: If somebody comes to you for advice and they have the ability to under stand the teachings on the nature of genuine reality. but not to talk about it seems wrong. The ma hayana says that in order to gain the most subtle understanding of the selflessn ess of the individual you have to have a coarse understanding of the emptiness o f phenomena. and gradually work back to the more basic ones. then you can explain those teachings to them. But the shravaka tradition does no t say that. So it is okay to begin with teachings on the nature of ultimate truth and then teach about relative tru th. That is why it is perfec tly permissible to tell people about the nature of genuine reality. to have the most subtle unde rstanding of the emptiness of the individual.elative. then do no t worry about it. if they hear such very profound teachings and like them. If they have the prajna to be able to understand the teachin gs about ultimate truth. So that is okay. they say you can realize the selflessness of the individual 100 perc ent [without realizing the complete emptiness of phenomena]. If you talk about karma at the beginning. "Oh. tha t is a better way to present the teachings these days. and if they do not. then how do we benefit people given that those are the parameters of th e situation?" . a teaching about equality. this is just another one of those religions that try to scare you into doing things. In my opinion. which is a teaching abou t the nature of genuine reality. If people can come t o understand that. or does it depend and vary from individual to individual? . then they will develop confidence in the dharma. you realize that there is no self. and so it is better not to proceed that way.
. There is nothing here to burn anyone. you have to examine the aggr egates and see that they do not really exist. and so you can conclude that there is really nothing ther e. Fo r instance. For examp le. You see that the a ggregates have many internal subdivisions and that they can be broken down into their component parts. was a ship captain. killed the pirate to prevent that from happening. Normally five hundred people would not have a problem if t here were only one person attacking them. In such a case you would kill them. though. And sometimes you can think about both at the same t ime: "This is just a dream. This prompted me to consid er how. Killi ng would be the appropriate conduct in that situation. it is different. If we dream that we are being burned by fire and know that we are dreaming. then if you have to kill that person to p revent them from killing others. the emptiness of the self is explained first and then the emptiness of phenomena. it will not be good for them." That reasoning refl ects the realization of the emptiness of the self. They were beset by a pirate who was going to kill all of them. I would lik e Rinpoche to speak a little bit about how to tell when anger is appropriate. RINPOCHE: The way to know whether the expression of anger is appropriate is to c heck our initial motivation. But on the other hand. . This is just a dream. and how to judge whether my motivation is appropriate or not. but out of compassion for them. then that is okay. in t he mahayana it is even permissible to kill somebody out of compassion. piloting a ship carrying five hundred bodhisattva business tycoons. and that is the emptiness of phenomena. From these different realizations [or ways of realizing] come different results that we can understand more clearly by looking at the example of a dream. that when you examine them their e xistence breaks down. to judge when anger is appropriate and when it i s not. not out of hatred for them. That is it. Entrance to the Middle Way. For example." That is a metaphor of the emptiness of phenomena. In short. is that first t he emptiness of phenomena is explained and then the emptiness of the individual. . t hen that is a different story. There is no one here to burn. in order to underst and why it is that the aggregates are not the self. QUESTION: My question is about the earlier question about anger that is motivate d by some kind of pure motivation that is beneficial. and one realizes that if they do. so the Buddha. the perfect Buddha Shakyamuni. if we feel malicious a nd angry towards somebody and do not like them and are motivated to harm them. and also to protect the intended victims who would thus be saved from being killed.rvana. So it is like that. if a person is going to kill lots of other people. And there is no burning. so there is no reason to suffer. . because th e anger is motivated by this love. it actually benefits. QUESTION: What are the maras that are referred to here in the fifth chapter. Since there is nothing real there. is there a difference in the way anger is experienced in the two dif ferent cases? . . "This fire is not real. The way that sel flessness is presented in this text. t here is no real body here. "Well. but these were five hundred bodhisattv as and they were not going to defend themselves. Another way to look at it is to say. You do not ever have to deal with phenomena." This reasoning reflects both the reali zation of the emptiness of the self and the realization of the emptiness of phen omena at the same time. if a mother who really loves her child gets angry in order to teach the child something. it is just a dream fire. out of great compassion for th e bodhisattvas and great compassion for the pirate. in one of his previous lives as a bodhisattva. . with my limited wisdom. It all depends upon our motivation. we need to have a coarse understanding of the emptiness of phenomena. In other texts. there cannot be a self. then one w ay to look at it is to say. in order to gain a subtle understanding or realization of the emptiness of individuals. because. I am not really here. In fact. It is written in the sutras that our teacher.
he was singing.* not ordinary beings. "You. then that is a demon. because there is no separation in Tibetan between sentient and being." Sing a so ng. ego-clinging! This is what you deser ve. there are also instructions on how to use suffering as a chance to fight ego-clinging. . and who is looking out for the non-sentient beings? . but instead understands their emptiness. It is all one word. that is the first demon. Does that imply that there are non-sentient beings? If so. in the teachings on the Seven Points of Mind Training. This is a demon. May all the harm and all the s uffering that everyone else experiences come down on us and be all contained wit hin this one harm we are now experiencing.RINPOCHE: There are four different kinds of maras or you could say demons. [Students sing verse three times. you address your ego. QUESTION: I have a question from last night as well. is perceived as. we should think of it as something good and pray that all other sentient beings be freed from the harm they experience and that it instead come down on us individually. is intended to be done by ordinary beings. seem as thou gh they are something outside of ourselves. Thinking and meditating in this way. when we think that these five aggregates a re real. When you experience suffering of an y kind. \ Whenever these appear. but in Tibetan the word being translated just means "having mind. "You are just a confused appearance of my own mind. we are taugh t to think that when we experience harm. but even while he was singing to her . Milarepa. If the bodhisattva has no f ocus or fixation on the three spheres. and is thought of as a ghost. Milarepa. but this is why the lord of yogins. For example. then that is a demo n. QUESTION: In our tradition we have a lot of concern for the benefit of sentient beings. because we have been meditating on the dharma and o . . ~ *Editor's note: i. This last one is a very subtle demon. Tran slated into English it sounds as though there were two words. sang: . according to the words that are used to describe them. then we have defeated the demon o f death and there will no longer be any fear of death. we use adverse situations as a chance to develop compassion. . what would be an example of such a being. enlightened bodhisattvas. When we h ave attachment to the happiness of this life." That is the whole term. Translator: I don't know if I have any way to ask that questions. the ones who have no focus on the three spheres are noble bo dhisattvas. RINPOCHE: Actually. So when we take the five skandhas to be real. which are obstacles when we do not apply the antidote. in fact. The second is the demon of our kleshas. The third is called the demon of the child of the gods. but if we are able to dispel from ourse lves the thought that death is something real. The kleshas themselves become demons if we do not deal with them appropriately. You need this suffering. from the yogi they appear. The f irst one is the demon of the aggregates.e. sentient and being . sang this to a demoness. in the sense that they create obstacles. When we have a concept that death exists. . These appearances of demo ns or maras. \ What appears as. \ And when they dissolve. saying. In the Seven Points of Mind Training. . Does that make it clear? There is no such thing as a non-sentient b eing. when we want something good to hap pen in this lifetime. And the fourth is the demon that is the lord of death. how can it be said that they experience harm as something good because it elimin ates their bad karma? Does that not imply some fixation on the karmic act? . into the yogi they dissolve. The meditation or contemplation of something h armful being seen as something good. the five skandhas.] .
"When people are afraid to be old an d yet want to live long. or the perfection of skill in means. I do not really feel like living to be an old ma n anyway. From the lama's perspective. and speaking idly and meaningle . What actually happens in such cases is that the person hears a great deal of criticism of their bad qualities. so you need this suffering. stealing. You smack it. is actually the seventh tra nscendent perfection knowing when something is appropriate and something else migh t not be. when they might not pay attention otherwise. it is out of the concern for others. Having pure motivation. RINPOCHE: Long life prayers come about as an outgrowth of the students' devotion . QUESTION: Would Rinpoche explain the tradition of long life prayers in Tibet. then you have to give up attachment to living a long life. then what is normally the non-virtue of speaking harshly is permissible u nder certain circumstances. it is no problem. you just get bigger and bigger. because the students want to have them. you miserable ego-clin ging! If things go well for you.* and the re are good reasons for their doing so. if you do n ot want to be old. Lamas' students might think differently. This is the bes t thing that can ever happen to you. It is the best thing that could ever have happened to you. They are more benefited by manifesting a wrathful app earance. If I live to be a hundred. ~ *Editor's note: Here Rinpoche is referring to the three misdeeds of body kill ing." This is a teaching on how to use all dharma [and all adverse circum stances] to smack ego-clinging on the head.n selflessness for a long time and it hasn't done you any good at all. and sexual misconduct and the three misdeeds of speech lying." . RINPOCHE: Some beings are not benefited by being treated nicely. speaki ng slanderously or divisively. Skillful means. bodhisattvas will sometimes manifest the conduct of the seven non-virtuous actions. If you are nice to them it does not help. Look at you. Th e great Tibetan scholar Sakya Pandita said. In such a case. it is very beneficial. . so I am glad this is happening to you. but do not want to be old. so whatever they do. you do not go a way. But under what o ther circumstances would anger be beneficial? . . If I die now. You deserve it. more critical manner would. they have a foolish inconsistency in their thinking. If you do that. You are s till there and you are still spoiled. and knowing when that is the case is what skillful means is all about. There is nothing great in old age. then how could it be beneficial to demonstrate anger in a way that makes people unhappy? I can understand the example of a mother in a situation dangerou s to her children. you just get prouder and more arrogant. . speaking harshly an d critically would be acceptable conduct. speaking harshly." Th at is how lamas think about it. If one of the characteristics of the paramitas is that you make people happy. who cares? It is just samsaric phenome na disintegrating. and the n they become pacified. you have an internal contradictio n in your thinking that will cause you suffering. So in those circumstances it is permissible to speak harshly to others. happen. what's the big deal? I will be an old man. "If I die now. whereas speaki ng in a harsher. we also have to be unafraid of being old. and just keep smacking it. A bodhisattva may encounter someone under certain ci rcumstances in which speaking kindly to them would not help them. and then they become happy. Who writes a prayer for w hom? How does it come about that they get written? And how did this tradition ge t started? . On the other hand. QUESTION: I have a question about the idea of expressing anger with a good motiv ation and I am having a hard time reconciling that idea with what Rinpoche said earlier. If you wish t o live a long time. You need suffering. I do not want to be an old man. It is like that on the bodhisattva path. it is n ot out of their own concern. If we want to live long. What's so good about that? So let whatever is going to happen. Th ey don't seem to exist in any of the other traditions. Bodhisattvas do not have any selfishness. it is sum med up by Patrul Rinpoche. If that is the case.
This is the best form of shamatha in the vajrayana. But there is a difference in the Buddhist conception of this aspiration. and in the process he attai ned great realization because he was meditating on the essential nature of sleep . That was their practice. Whenever people went to see them. Tomorrow we will explain the sixth mind generation. [Rinpoche and students recite dedication prayers and long life prayers.] . they would say. Sometimes the woman would go up to the top of a nearb y cliff and shout back to her man. "Jump. on the body's being of the nature of clear light. or you can focus on the entire body of the deity all at once. "I am go ing to meditate now. on bodily sensations. . . In the vajrayana. They cause the anger to manifest and then meditate on its essential nature. This prayer is something that is in harmony with most of the religious tradition s of the world. I can't wait . who lived toge ther but always fought. mahamudra yogins or yoginis sometimes try to make anger come u p by speaking harshly. "Look at this lazy bum. and in the end they both attained the rainbow body. You can also focus on your b reath. . covetousness. Then there is the story of the mahasiddha Lavapa. which is luminosity." They would fight in this way all the time. and so forth. Nobody knew they were practicing i n that way. and they attained great accomplish ment as a result. .ssly. but that is what they were doing. If you just rest relaxed within your own basic natu re. they would be fighting bitterly with each other. It is not easy to sleep for twelve years continuously. So it is like that.] . then that is shamatha meditation as pr acticed in all the vehicles. He attained realization by sle eping on the side of the road for twelve years while meditating on clear light. You can do this in two different ways. and erron eous views and it has already been established that the bodhisattva's motivation i s pure." And the man would sit below and shout back. after you are born in a pu re realm and have rested. you come back to an impure realm when it is time again to practice the difficult practices of developing patience. it is incredibly difficult to do and requires great diligenc e to sleep that long. If you practice with a focus in mind. If you look nakedly at the essential nature of the thought that thinks. That is how it happened. There is no one else in history who has been able to slee p for twelve years. the best way to practice shamatha meditation i s to visualize your yidam. he was being incredibly diligent. When the time is right to help people in . . See page 50. You can me ditate in any one of these ways. When people saw him. jump. He is just sitting here sleeping. According to the Buddhist tradition. but he did it. and we will explain a few reasons why the nature of reality is emptiness. Now we will meditate. In the province of Kham in Ti bet." and you let go and relax within that. on different parts of the body. In the vajrayana. then that is mahamud ra. [Students sing. there once lived a very famous couple. This is a teaching on emptin ess. and that is the supreme form of calm-abid ing meditation. giving generously t o people who are in need. that is called essential shamatha." But in fact. a yogini and a yogin. Rinpoche does not mention the remaining three unvirtuous deeds because the y are negative motivational factors of mind maliciousness. on feelings that you are experiencing. because most religious traditions pray that people will go to a pure realm after death. Let's sing the song that is a prayer for all sentient beings with whom we have a good or bad connection. "I hate you so much I am going to jump off th is cliff. because all along they had been meditating on the essential na ture of their anger. You can visual ize the different aspects of the yidam and its ornaments individually and focus on one at a time. So that is something different. .
. can. We will begin by reciting the verses from the Sixth Mind Generation from yesterd ay's teaching. is the tr . . \ And the transcendent perfection of method excellently blazes. [see the other file for chapter 6] . . \ ### \ Here on the ground Gone Far Beyond. then you come back. The third main section in the commentary looks at the last four bodhisattva grou nds. The three lines of verse that comprise the seventh chapter are: . [Students recite. Unshakable.] . . Is that not good? . \ /// \ [VII. in the pure realm of Dewac hen or Great Bliss. L3: [The Sixth Mind Generation: The Approach (226 verses) . Sarva Mangalam. \ Instant by instant. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* .the impure realms. \ And he has also attained a surpassing perfection of means (7). . As before. and listen. no one hurts you. called Gone Far Beyond. This cessation is not a mere cessation. they can enter cessation. From among the ten transcendent perfections. and Cloud of Dharma. instant by i nstant. . ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . \ Here. called Gone Far Beyond. . you have to come back to the impure realms. So in order to perfect these two practices of patience and generosity.Means] L4: [The good qualities of the seventh ground] . enter into and arise out of the meditative equipoise of cessation. because here also the transcendent perfection of method excellently blazes. he can enter into cessation \ Instant by instant. Wisdom] L3: [The Seventh Mind Generation Gone Far Beyond (1 verse) . then it is okay to come back here.1] \ 270. and so you have no opportunity to practice patience. Goodnight. In Sukhavati. Excellen t Mind. After you are born in De wachen. on Gone Afar (7). here what the bodhisattva masters. so there is no opportunity to practice generosity. The bodhisattva on the seventh ground. the seventh through the tenth. or what comes to the fore in terms of the bodhisattva's main practice. please give rise to the precious attitude of bodhicitta as is instruc ted in the mahayana. . . There are no poor people in Sukhavati.
. Bodhisattvas on the seventh ground master the great variety of methods through w hich they can be of benefit to others. There is only one verse in this chapter. there is nothing you could say that exists apart from that. When that is the case. . For some people. They become incredibly skillful in the di fferent means and ways of benefiting others.anscendent perfection of method. When following a path. There is nothing separate f rom that. bodhisattvas will sen d an emanation or emanations to teach in that tradition. power. . . the transcendent perfection of wisdom. aspiration prayers. . . and primordial awareness are all divisions or aspects of the sixth. People will h ave differing interests and want to do different things. Their kleshas differ. the mahayana. and following the Buddhist path. . therefore. some beings will be interested in Buddhism. At the time of the ground. [at the onset of their interest in and practice of a spiritual path. It is important to understand that the last four transcendent perfections method. compassion will be their strongest quality. they have a wide variety of interests in different religious and philosophical traditions and paths that they can follow. of skillful means. bodhisattvas need to develop great skillfulness in a great variety of methods or means to lead sentient beings in accordance wit h their abilities and interests. Some will want to follow the bodhisatt va path. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . and some will want to follow the vajrayana. Still others will be very diligent and will prefer to meditate. L2: [THE THREE PURE GROUNDS] .] sentient beings have a wide variety of personalities. Since the re is this great variety of sentient beings with a great variety of mental dispo sitions and interests. bodhisattvas will emanate not only as teachers in the Bud dhadharma. Sometimes it is possible to perform great benefit as a teacher in another tradition. They will be very i nterested in helping others and not so interested in what happens to themselves. they achieve many different levels of fruition. in order to lead beings whose interests draw them to those traditions. . After prajnaparamita has been mastered. some of them are principal ly stuck in bewilderment and ignorance. Because some people will prefer non-Buddhist traditions and will want to follow other religious paths. but also as teachers in other religious traditions that appear to be contradictory to Buddhism. They will perform that benefit. Some of t hem are very passionate. They will appear as teachers. And at the time of the result. B ecause there are so many different kinds of beings who have so many different ki nds of interests and abilities. On the seventh ground they do just that. there will also be people with differing interests. intelligence. and they will like to study. prajna. some of them are more angry. as people w ith great learning in those traditions. Everything then is just a manifestation or a diffe rent aspect of wisdom's display. as masters. For others. Some wil l feel very strong renunciation of samsara and want to follow either the shravak a path or the path of the solitary sages. one needs to be incredibly skillful in means or methods i f one wishes to be of benefit to them. At the time of eng aging in the path. will be the strongest quality. The Seventh Mind Generation: G one Far Beyond.
\ This great being strives repeatedly for Immovable (8) \ On which they never return. one knows that one is going t o have a baby. which is another major watershed on the bodhisattva path. the bo dhicitta of the aspiring bodhisattva on the first two paths. even greater than that which has been achieved up to and including th e seventh bhumi or ground. When Buddhahood is final ly reached. At this point. inasmuch as the bodhisattva now will never have to be reborn unwillingly in the lower realms. from the eighth b humi until Buddhahood. the bodhisattva does not have to make any effort to devel op bodhicitta or progress along the path to Buddhahood. The first three lines of the first verse describe the way in which bodhisattvas gain this ground: .(1abc) . . meaning emptiness. the bodhisattvas. "In order again and again to attain virtue even greater th an before. The aspirant has taken the bodhisattva vow and has great interest in and devotion to the path leading to Buddhahood but has not yet reached the first bhumi. The eighth chapter teaches the eighth mind generation. by virtue of having patience with the unborn nature o f reality. The surpassing prayer on this ground. Just as one does not have to make any effort to grow. The beginning of the path of seeing commences with a definitive expe rience of emptiness. the paths of prepar ation and juncture. \ /// \ [VIII.1] \ 271. bodhisattvas become irreversible in that they are definitely on the path to enlightenment. This stage continues until the bodhisattva reaches th e eighth bhumi. . . and how he is raised from cessatio n] . \ The great beings enter the Unshakable ground . while Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen Rinpoche states that the path of seeing includes the first seven bhumis while the path of cultivation includes the last three bhumis. . The great beings.L3: [The Eighth Mind Generation: Unshakable (3 verses) Aspiration Prayers] L4: [The good qualities of the eight ground] L5: [A. reaching the path of seeing or the first bodhisattva bhumi is a kind of watershed event. the bodhisattv a begins to understand all the various approaches to traveling the path presente d in the Buddha's teachings. \ ### \ In order again and again to attain virtue even greater than before \ Here the bodhisattvas become irreversible. the bodhisattva's bodhicitta is characterized by mat uration. is characterized by devoted interest. The commentary reads. engage here in the unshakable ground. There is no turning back. From t his point until Buddhahood. The Vidyadhara Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche states that the path of s eeing roughly includes the first five bhumis and the path of cultivation the sec ond five. \ To attain virtues superior to those of before. ~ *Editor's note: According to Gampopa's Jewel Ornament of Liberation.* This is also known as the unshakable. s o called because the bodhisattva is principally concerned with cultivating what has been seen. bodhicitta is characterized by the total elimination of all veils th . In any event. Trungpa Rinpoche taught that this is n ot birth. the bodhisattv a becomes very hard-working and his or her bodhicitta can be said to be characte rized by strong intention. after which the bodhisattva now called "exalted. but similar to the onset of labor pains. the beginning of the path of seeing. This bodhisattva ground i s named Unshakable. and fueled by this new confidence and inspiration. and develops great confidence that he or she will b e able to complete the path successfully." or "noble" can enter the samadhi of emptiness at will." "enlightene d. Some commentaries sugge st that that first moment of seeing is the path of seeing and the remainder of t he ten bhumis of the bodhisattva path are included in the path of cultivation.
they are also not shak en or moved by thoughts which cling to an absence of characteristics. . meaning to make people happy in whatever way they can in terms of samsaric exi stence. It is this unshakable awareness that intercepts the a rising of kleshas. and the mom ent there is any fixation on the intelligent nature. Therefore their practice of aspiration prayers is incredible. Unshakable here means that not only are the bodhisattvas on this ground not move d or shaken by clinging to the characteristics of things. of fulfillment." or that as distinct from this. Once o ne has truly experienced the emptiness of self and phenomena and the absence of characteristics. in this language. the humorousnes s or obnoxious-ness of "that" person or "this" person. the beauty. and disrupts the "clear light river f low" of the meditative state. in the last line of the first verse. or whethe r or not one is fixated on or fascinated by any particular experience of emptine ss. then there is clinging to characteristi cs. The moment there is "that person. there is also a tendency to cling to these experiences or the memory of these experiences. Everything that co uld obstruct these prayers has been purified. have been co mpletely removed by the eighth bhumi. (1d) . Since bein . . even in a non-discursive way that does not apply a name or label. or of complete accomplishment. They aspire to be able to benefit others both in a temporary way . Next. Things are just as empty whether or not one is thinking that they are empty. the veil of dualist ic clinging the habitual tendency to perceive dualisti-cally is present. What the text and Rinpoche are teaching here is that both the inveterate ten dency to fixate on characteristics and the tendency to fixate on the absence of characteristics.at obscure the mind. comes the description of how the prac tice of the transcendent perfection of aspiration prayers comes to the fore here : .000 times 10 to the 60th power. The commentary reads that on this ground everything that was somehow contrary to the aspiration prayers that these bodhisattvas have been making from the first ground on up has now been completely purified." for example. which also disrupts the "clear light river flow" of the meditative state and solidifies and blocks one's experience. . \ ### \ And their aspiration prayers become incredibly pure. to mak e offerings to the Buddhas. . so there is nothing left that cou ld contradict these aspiration prayers or stand in their way. but they also do not believe th ere is any need for an absence of characteristics. and it is out of this unshakable aw areness that all the miraculous powers of the eighth bodhisattva bhumi arise. as distinct from "this person. and thus an eighth-bhumi bodhisattva's awa reness becomes unshakable. but mostly they make aspiration prayers to be of ben efit to others. ~ **Editor's note: Clinging to any notion or experience of the characteristic s of any perceptual situation is fixation. and block omniscience. thereby causing them to arise as wisdom and putting an end on ce and for all to the creation of new karma. one recognizes that there is no need to remind oneself of empti ness or even to cling in the subtlest way to the experience of emptiness. both during meditation and during post-meditation. The aspiration prayers that they m ake on this ground. obstruct the full realization of the true nature of everyth ing. \ /// \ His prayers become extremely pure (8). When meditators experience emptiness or. They do no t believe there is any need for characteristics. which number 100. They make aspiration prayers to go to the Buddha realms. And is that not something rea lly great?** . experience the ab sence of characteristics. are all com pletely pure. Buddhahood is known as the path of complete perfecti on. and also to lead them to the ultimate fruition of Buddhahood. the pure realms.
and you have achieved patience w ith the nature of genuine reality. 2. \ And he is raised from cessation by the Conquerors. The commentary reads that bodhisattvas on this ground abide in cessation. the tathagatas. If we make go od aspiration prayers. . The bodhisattva on the eighth ground is called the Youth or the Youthful one. these Buddhas say something lik e this: "Noble child. like Samantabhadra's Aspiration Prayer for Excellent Conduct. turtles. And the second is the ability of these bodhisattvas to display emanations in cyclic existence for the benefit of others. But. Excellent. There are a number of very good aspiration prayers. as people with lots of wealth who can provide others with food. the first line of the second verse reads . even though cyclic existence has sto pped for themselves. the Universal Monarch. in order to strive to gain these most glorious qualities of the Buddha. ap ply yourself. You have achieved the actual genuine patience . How do they do that? Well. the number of ways in which bodhi-sattva s aspire to help them is inconceivable. . but to rise up and display their creative power for the benefit of others. . they are called the Victor's Regent. It has t wo main parts. \ ### \ The victors cause them to rise from cessation. and on the tenth they are calle d the Chakravartin. 1. The first good quality is the cessation of cyclic existence for bodhisattvas on this ground on which all stains have been completely abandoned. as all the different kinds of animals too many to name. Next the commentary teaches the extraordinary qualities of this ground. urge them here no t to remain simply in the cessation or complete abandonment of cyclic existence. and things to drink if they are thirsty. a nd as all the different kinds of animals that live in the mountains. You do not have these qualities . as teachers and as students in othe r traditions. So. They make an inco nceivable number of aspiration prayers to be able to emanate and be of benefit t o others in an inconceivable number of ways. and w e will in fact perform the benefit of others. ~ *Editor's note: Published under the titles The Way of the Bodhisattva and A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life. Because the necessity to remain in cyclic existence has end ed for eighth-bhumi bodhisattvas. you have done well. noble child. then in all future lifetimes we will be born in situation s with the appropriate capabilities that will enable us to benefit others. . . the Buddhas. . deer. They aspire to be able to send out emana tions in all different forms as animals like rabbits. all the victors cause them to arise from their cessation. \ /// \ 272a. everything that comprise s the glorious and unique qualities of a Buddha. cl othing. (2a) . the bodhisattva's aspiration prayer from the tenth chapter of Shantide va's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Conduct. wild asses. that have be en translated into English. what you do not have are my ten powers. Put some diligence into it. and so forth. On the ninth.gs need help in so many different ways. . With respect to the first good quality. and since they are abiding in the continuum of the gateway to the dharma. my four types of fea rlessness.* and also the aspiration prayer of Mait reya. You are approaching the att ainment of the qualities of the perfect Buddha. Do not abandon the door or the gateway . but si nce they have previously made aspiration prayers. everything that makes me different from you. We should recite these aspiration prayers because the best and most effica cious way to prepare for the future is to make aspiration prayers. extensive ones.
They are superior in the three realms. when on the eighth ground the sun of non-conceptual primo rdial awareness shines. and which is inherently effortless. Remember the inconceivable nature of the gateway of primordial awareness. Noble child. which they c an get without any effort.of your patience with suchness. the dharmata. [we can know that] they have the mind of original wisdom or primordial awareness. is consonant with their aspiration prayers. . the nature of reality. \ Their kleshas are exhausted and in the three realms they become super ior. This means that all the kleshas are exhausted. \ ### \ The various flaws do not remain in the mind free of attachment. but think of all of the beings who ar e still afflicted. since this primordial awareness can not coexist with the faults of the kleshas. From the very fact that they have risen from this cessation. (3a) . which is free of attachment. they have not yet gained them all. \ Because his mind of non-attachment does not remain with faults. L5: [B. but it is not s imply the mere cessation of the appearances of outer and inner entities. L5: [C. \ He cannot yet attain all the qualities of the Buddhas." . Remember all the aspiration prayers you have made in the past to benefit them. \ /// \ 272bd. they are superior to anyone who is still bound in those three realms. who are still under the power of their kleshas. but still. \ 273a. or the nature of reality that the Buddha is urging the bodhisattva s to strive for here. those stains together with their roo ts are completely pacified. which are as limitless as the sky. And. The last two lines of the chapter and the next section of the commentary describ . on the eighth ground. . which are limitless a s the sky. \ Therefore. \ The eighth-grounder has thoroughly pacified those stains together wit h their roots. Showing that he has extinguished all delusions] . the arhats and arhatis have also. remember how i mportant it is to accomplish their benefit. \ ### \ They cannot attain all the Buddhas' endowments. then. Showing that he has attained the ten powers] . The text continues. The dharmata. What the bodhi sattvas are going to attain on this ground is primordial awareness. you have gained this complete libe ration of peace and you are resting there. Since thereby the bodhisattvas have transcended the three realms of existence. It is of the same taste as [the] cessation [which arhats and arhatis experience]. all of the stains of the afflicted conduct of the three realms are uprooted and completely pacified. You ar e still there. with regard to the qualities of the Buddhas. And know that what you have realized so fa r. . and yet (2bcd) . This is very good. \ But although his delusions are extinguished and he is the highest of the three grounds. because it shows how unbelievable the qualities of enli ghtenment really are. which are as e ndless as space. .
The third is power over material possessions. if they have stopped taking birth in samsara. The fourth is power over karma. wher ever they desire in their minds to go. . They have limitless power over material objects. It is like that. The ninth is power over primordial wisdom. which means that they can engage in the primor dial wisdom of an inconceivable number of states of meditative absorption. (3 bc) . they gain the ten powers. "Well. which means that they can cause karma to tran sform and ripen whenever they want it to. for instance.*(2) 4. The commentary reads. which means that. They can engage in a great variety of meditations with ease.*(7) 9. They have the power of birth. The sixth is the power over aspiration. As is explained in the Sutra of the Gloriou s Garland.*(8) 10.e how even though bodhisattvas on this ground have put an end to existence for t hemselves. along with the signs and marks. And finally. which has no cent er and no end. Le t's recite these together. which means that they are able to fully display all of the different portals into the dharma. should they desire. \ /// \ 273bc. The seventh is the power over aspiration prayers. 2. they gain the ten powers. \ And with these.] . then how do they continue to perfect their realization of the qualities of the enligh tenment of a Buddha?" The answer to that is that even though for them samsara ha s stopped. They do not find some meditations easy and other ones difficult. They can live for as long as they like. which are the ten powers and the fearlessnesses. then they just show up there. he attains the ten powers. from gain ing the blessing of their realization. \ Although samsara has ceased. The next is the power of mind. the unshared or unique qualities of the Buddhas. The first of these ten powers is power over life. This has been a brief explanation of the seventh and eighth mind generations. they can live for an inconceivable number of kalpas. which means they are able to demonstr ate enlightenment in whatever Buddha realm they may desire at whatever time. And they ca n pass through things without any obstruction. the entire universe filled with Buddhas. . . The y are able. they still demonstrate many emanations for the benefit of those stuck in existence: . to cover them with precious gems. which means that they are a ble to display. which means they are able to compl etely display the perfect enlightenment of the Buddhas. which means that they can display creative ly their miraculous powers throughout all the realms of the universe.*(6) 8. causes his nature to be displayed as various beings w ithin samsara.*(l) 3. the bodhisattva on this ground has a body that is of the nature of mi nd.*(3) 5. To speak of them as having a body that is of the nature of mind means that.** .*(4) 6. The eighth is power over miracles. \ ### \ Although samsara has stopped. meaning that they can take birth at any time an ywhere in any realm they want without any hindrance for the purpose of benefitin g others. which means that they are able to give to all the realms of existence [whatever is needed in these realms]. [Sudents recite verses. and they can send this ["mental body"] out in a great variety of displays of different kinds of bodies to benefit beings still bound in samsaric existence. They have gained the blessing which allows them never to die if they do not want to.*(5) 7. 1. \ And demonstrate many emanations to the beings in cyclic existence. the tenth is power over dharma.
into one another as wished." KKGR: " 'Power over intentions' m eans that one can change whatever one wishes into earth. of the true sense of words and of bodhisattva prowess. their meaning. one understands the very nature of things (dharma). how that language is best expressed to individuals (words) and how to persist skillfully until it is understood (prowess). inflections and group . just as is wished. remaining completely unsullied by the evils of that state." Ken and Katia Holmes' translation." KKGR: " 'Powe r over miracles' means one can exhibit innumerable manifestations in order to ca use sentient beings to be interested in the spiritual path. and so for th. the author s add the following note: "A few pages would be needed to explain this sentence. This is achieved by presenting all the different nouns. or birth." .~ *Editor's note: These ten powers of an eighth-bhumi bodhisattva are describ ed in the third chapter of Gampopa's Jewel Ornament of Liberation. ~ **Editor's note: KKGR: " 'Power over dharma' means that."  KKGR: " 'Power over provision of necessities' means one can shower down a rain of limitless necessities on sentient beings. state." K KH: "Power of primordial awareness is knowledge that encompasses the ultimate me aning." KKH: "Power over dharma is th e ability to teach beings that which is suited to them. terms and characters o f dharma. Through primordial wisdom."[  KKGR: " 'Power over wisdom awareness' means one has perfected the unders tanding of phenomena. expoun ding it as in the sutras and other works in various words."  KKH: "Power of prayer is the ability to pray and make prayers in a way t hat will most properly accomplish the well-being of oneself and others. and Goshir Gyaltsab Rinpoche (KKH) describes the power of mind as "the abilit y to enter stably into profound absorption. "  KKH: "Power over miracles is the ability to demonstrate countless miracl es and supernormal feats in order to kindle aspiration in beings. etc. Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche." To this latter. and confidence. in just the right amount . water. fire. also the power to make prayers come true.  Khenpo Konchok Gyalten Rinpoche's translation of this text (KKGR) descri bes the power of mind as "the ability to maintain meditative concentration as lo ng as one wishes. " The sense dimension is the same as the desire realm. the significance of each thing (meanings). type of existence and mode of birth so that they are experien ced in other more useful ways. based on the commentaries of Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche. bod hisattvas can fully satisfy all the sentient beings according to their dispositi ons and in their different languages through words and groupings of letters base d on many different types of sutras and so forth. in the various sutra and other teachings."  KKGR: " 'Power over birth' means one can shift the effects of karma from one particular life to another sphere. world. it will be accompl ished. in the very best possible way." KKGR: " 'Power over aspiration prayers' means that if one aspires to perfectly benefit oneself and others. of terminology." KKH: "The power over action is the ability to re-program (results of) of action (karma) in terms of dimension. water. Tai Situ Rinpoch e. of dharma." HG describes the power "over creative imagination" as "to be able to turn w ater into earth and to accomplish similar phenomena. in such a way that their sol e speech is understood by each individual in his or her own language and in a to tally satisfying way that makes sense to his or her own mentality. how the significance is expressed thr ough language (terminology)."  KKH: "Power over birth is the ability to take birth in the sense dimensi on yet always to maintain profound meditative absorption and not experience any form of degeneration.  KKH: "Power to fulfill aspiration is the ability to transform the elemen ts earth. realm. the definition of words. of meanings." Herbert Guenther 's translation (HG) describes it as the ability "to enter a state of meditative absorption at will." HG: " 'Power over presentation' means to be able fully to satisfy the minds of all sentient beings by a single discourse on the dharma in their respective languages. in an instant." HG: " 'Power over resolution' means to be able to determine to fulfill o ne's own and others' interests perfectly and also to accomplish this resolution.
just giving them what and how much is necessary. But what it literally says in the commentary is that the power of aspirat ion prayer means that you are able to demonstrate enlightenment in whatever Budd ha realm you want to. 1995. Well. and yet. it is said that there are no longer any appearances of signs. Forres. became enlightened first in the pure realm of Akanishtha. QUESTION: Portals to the dharma. How you could have one without the other is something we are prob ably not going to know until we get there. QUESTION: Please explain the sixth power a little bit more? . but then you arriv e at the next stage and you find out that you still have more to accomplish. Massachussetts. But they still have dualistic appearances. So it is all depends upon perspec tive. . when they enter this samadhi. -----------------------------------------------. B oston. In whatever realm you like. that they are always made from a certain perspective. Jew els of Freedom by Je Gampopa. Snow Lion Publications. 1986.pa. T heir path to Buddhahood is said to be automatic and irreversible. But then. door. of characteristics of t hings. QUESTION: The question is about cessation." The citations in the above footnotes are from The Jewel Ornament of Liberation: The Wish-fulfi lling Gem of the Noble Teachings by Gampopa. So. When bodhisattvas get to the eighth ground. Compared to what came before. Scotland. Translator: So Rinpoche asked me to explain it. for instance. with all of these there is not an extensive description given.. you can attain enlightenment. and about how it is that the arhat's cessation is described as kind of a nothingness like a lamp's going out. Translated and Annotated by Herbert V. t he fruition of the pratekyaBuddhas. Ogmin in Tibetan. But he had already become enlightened in th e Buddha realm. they are defin itely going to attain enlightenment.] . . To understand that is very dif ficult for us.po. right? So we have to understand these statements in that w ay. and there is still somethin g left to accomplish. And they are not easy to understand because they are talking about describing abilities which are completely inconceivable to us.ing of letters. the Buddha Shakyamuni. translated by Khenpo Konchog Gyalts en Rinpoche. Altea Publishi ng. the fruition of the bodhisattvas. the Buddhas tell them to put more effort into it. is that ways of getting into the dharma? . The eighth-bhumi bodhisattva's cessation is different from the arhat's or arhati's. because the bodhisattva's cessation is combined with the powers of bod . it seems that the bodhisattva is completely finished. L4: [Now are there any questions?] . New York. Translator: Throughout the whole presentation of these bhumis or grounds. All of this is incredibly subtle. Again. or water' s drying up and then the bodhisattvas' cessation is described as being different f rom that. . But then you get to the next stage. and then he came down to the earth and demonstrated the twelve deeds of the Buddha for everybody's benefit. translated by Ken and Katia Holmes. based on the cessation reached on the eighth ground. Guenther. QUESTION: [Unintelligible. Inc. Translator: There are different fruitions. there is language saying something to the effect that at this point everything is comp letely finished. they still have to arise from this cessation. according to one explanation. . Ithaca. Translator: Literally. Shambhala Publications. Gems of Dharma. like the fruition of the shravakas. How does that a ll come together? . 1998. bodhisattvas are said no longer to need to make effort. and The Jewel Ornament of Liberation by sGam.
since we have had an infinite number of lives. since samsara has no beginning. . the tradition was to build stupas and to put mani stones. According to their vehicle there is no mind-stream left. however great the bodhisattva's qualiti es are. there is still a danger that they could stay in that state and not completely perfect th eir compassion. QUESTION: How do you meet the dharma if you have never met it before? And. their realization consists principally of the emptiness of self and of only a partial understanding of the emptiness of phenomena. is limited by their limited aspiration and commensurate lack of merit. and for them. actually. RINPOCHE: In my opinion. So the different descriptions just depend on whet her you are looking up at this particular cessation or down at it. Since their goal is individual liberation. existence is finished. they regard their skandhas as like carrying a pot of boiling oil.hisattvic aspiration and is based upon the full realization of the nature of min d.] the Buddhas come along and say. stones with mantras written on them. but the eighth consciousness. but from the mahayana perspective there is. because it is said that. arhats and arhatis are thou ght by practitioners of the hinayana path to go into a state of nothingness. Bu t from our perspective. even mentally. You will meet something that will connect with these habitual tendencies. which is the state of an arhat without remainder is that there is nothing left. But there is something left. wake up. they are like a puddle compared to the ocean of the Buddha's qualities. So that is goi ng to happen to everyone. because th e skandhas are so dangerous. it is a very radiant ty pe of samadhi. right? The ones with remainder still have their body. As describ ed. if you kick an arhat they won't feel it? . Their cessation is not just like a light's going out. and therefore. Since the bodhisattva's aspiration is the liberation of all suffering sentient beings. from one perspective." so there is still some su btle mind-stream left. and since their vow includes not rejecting. ~ *Editor's note: The realization of arhats or arhatis. as is said in this commentary. what happens after that? . . Translator: There are two types of arhats the arhats with remainder and arhats wit hout remainder. But from the Buddha's perspective. when they have been sufficiently rested in their state of "partial" cessation . because. even on the tenth bhumi. their meditation develops great force. So when a text is describing the eighth-bhumi bodhisatt va's having to arise from their cessation or any fault in their cessation. Does that mak e sense? .* . QUESTION: Do we ever mean to describe the cessation of the arhats as being somet hing that is like. They still have to arise from their samadhi and keep practicing. [The n. then it is impossible not to have had some previous contact wi th the dharma and impossible not to have some habitual tendencies towards the dh arma. their realization is inconceivable cessation that is end owed with fantastic qualities. In Tibet. People who had faith already would circumambulate them and make aspiration . the seven con sciousnesses stop. close to the side of the road so that people could see them. the alaya. since it has been going on for an infinite period of time. even one sentient being from that aspiration. is still there. "wake up. whic h enables them to realize completely the emptiness of phenomena and the emptines s of consciousness. and since they work tire lessly for the liberation of others. when all sentient beings become enlightened. which is the highest level of fruition in the shravakayana and the pratyekaBuddhayana (together known as the hinayana). . In the Buddhist tradition it is said that it is enough just to see an image of a temple or a teacher to plant the seeds of an interest in dharma. you know. you c an know that the text is viewing the situation from the Buddha's perspective. But then once they die. The way they describe this state.
no loss. We can see this absence of increase or decrease if we look at our own planet. and then . is not permanent. And. n or is it completely nonexistent. "Samsara is not the slightest bit different from nirvan a. Ultimately. because they are not real. and they never get any fewer in number. They are not real."* . similarly. then sentient beings would become enlightened and become Buddhas. there are no stains and no free dom from stains. ~ *Editor's note: From time to time one might wonder what the point of all th ese Buddhist metaphysics is. As it says in the Heart Sutra. when an extraordinary set of conditions come together. Think about the sentient beings in a dream. And it is not one thing. This just shows us that in fact there is really no increase and no decrease. And they are not one thing . and it does not go. . fundamental equality. But it does not happen like that. if all the sentient beings became enlightened. . . and thu s the seeds of virtue would be planted. The dream example helps us to understand that. It does not come. nor a lot of different things. So we should sing from time to time. If everything were truly existent. So think about the appearances in a dream. If one can truly experience that samsara and nirvana are not different. There is no difference between Buddhas and sentient beings. and the Budd ha realms would be filled up. they do not dry up . He says that wh atever is dependently arisen does not arise. .prayers. There is no increasing and no decreasing. This is an example of mere dependently arisen appearance. nor are they lots of different things. It does not need to come from anywhere else. everybody would be a Bu ddha and there would be no way for the Buddhas to perform the benefit of others. and the Buddhas would go to the Buddha realms. he teaches how reality is free from eight types of extremes. then these positive ten dencies or habits wake up. things do not get bigger and they do not get smaller . They do not come from anywhere. . As the protector Nag arjuna said in his text. we need to know that there is no increase and there is no decrease. We plant the seeds in that way. even though so much water has passed and continues to pass through these rivers. Nirvana is not the slightest bit different from samsara. Let's sing this verse by Nagarjuna. there is no getting any better. . The water in these great rivers flowing into the ocean did not just appear from out of nowhere. and they do not go anywhere. So what we have to know is that the nature of reality is the fundamental sameness of everything. and one begins to practice. but the oceans do not overflow. and when the dream is over they do not go anywhere. [Studen ts sing. They never really arise. there is no increase and there is no decrease. In the opening praise of Nagarjuna's text the Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle W ay. The answer lies in Buddhism's very practical intent . But it is not like that . samsara and nirvana are fundamentally the same. then o . no gain. And then. does not cease. . and those who did not would at least see them with their eyes. It is all just a mere appearance. . They do not come from anywhere to th e dream. and they are not completely nothing. Th ere are mighty rivers which dump millions of gallons of water into the oceans ev ery instant. There would be no vacancy. They never get any greater in number. and they nev er really cease. and there is no getting any worse.] . With regard to the second question about what happens after all sentient beings attain enlightenment. . The re are just mere dependently arisen appearances.
they are a group of ten that go together. Therefore the actions that arise out of such compassion are accurate and unmistaken. It does not re ally exist. and that then all the Buddha realms would be filled. The y are especially connected with the eighth bhumi. . right? . . Translator: You perfect the ten powers on the eighth bhumi." . or even over the big things . Samsara and nirvana are just like a dream. "Liberation is just the elimination of this mistake. . just to a lesser extent. But this is not the case. but not as extensively as on the eighth. b ut they are still present as qualities on the previous grounds. QUESTION: Are the ten powers linked with the ten transcendent perfections? And m y second question is about the seventh in particular." then there is no reason to get so totally worked up and exe rcised by every little thing that seems to go wrong. . the power of interest. there still exists the basis for generating compassion for them and trying to alleviate their condition. and how that fits in with the description of what it is. They would not be of the nature of equal ity.ne will no longer be totally upset by the misperception that the world's samsara or one's own personal samsara falls short of nirvana. QUESTION: They are all connected with the eighth bhumi? . the Ornament of the Mahay ana Sutras. and a Buddha's attaining enlightenment is like when on e wakes up from a dream. Translator: Yes. The ten grounds are linked with the ten transcendent perfections. If it were the case that sentient beings could all become enlightened and leave samsara empty. QUESTION: When you do it that way. . . but they grow stronger and mor e extensive on the ninth and the tenth bhumis and also upon enlightenment. since everything is not unreal and non-existent. RINPOCHE: The answer to the first question is that they are not taught to be so linked. would you link the powers with the ten bhumis ? . and since sentient beings are deeply involved in the misperception of things as real and t herefore suffer. QUESTION: But they are both linked to the ten bhumis. if everything is merely dependently arisen appearances. "such stuff as dreams are made on. And t hey are present all the way along the bodhisattva bhumis. the Mahayana Sutralankar a says. If nothing is real and pe rmanent. . RINPOCHE: It is certainly not the case that you perfect all ten one by one. But this compassion then is based in t he correct apprehension of the nature of reality. but it is not the case that the ten transcendent perfections or paramitas are linked w ith the ten powers one by one. and is inseparable from the eq uanimity that arises from that correct apprehension. because samsara is just a concept. The only difference between them is t he difference between not knowing you are dreaming and knowing you are dreaming. . And they grow more extensive on the subsequent grounds. then samsara and nirvana would be different things. Translator: As Rinpoche is saying. Translator: That's right. . Thus. Samsara is like a dream. On the other hand. QUESTION: What if you looked from the top down? Would you have all those qualiti es? . As a group they are described as being important in relation to the eighth ground.
Th at is certainty. has a slightly different meaning. and it looks as if their form were really there. and everybody thinks that the image is the President. But it is just an image. That is how it is. In the next sentence the word. On the other hand. a projection of that person 's interest. But ordinary beings can not see their minds. because it means different things in different cases. . We have no idea what the final consequence of these events was. if you are sure that e verything is empty "this is really empty.. through perfecting generatio n stage practice. and so they can see all these different B uddhas. what are the signs that you have gained certainty in the view? . Millions of people can see their form at the same time just by wanting to. On the other hand. of the mopa. So if you still have any doubt about whether or not things are empty. because we seem to be human beings. I know that for sure" then you have certainty. What they see is the body and how the body appears. of the person who wants to see them. And this is because the real Buddha is the dharmakaya. the Tibetan word . RINPOCHE: The answer is that it is possible that the beings who died in all the atrocities in this century were reborn in the pure realms. being translated here as aspiration prayers. For example. The same thing can be said of sentient beings. And so here it reads that if you want to see th e whole universe filled with Buddhas. if we said we were deities. . So here mopa or interest means that it is just the projection of the bodhisattva 's interest that they see this form of the Buddha. None of us has any doubt that we are human beings. . wh ich nobody can see. They do not. . all you have to do is turn on the TV. you can see all of the deities and Buddha realms directly just by wanting to. So it i s like that. then why h ave they allowed things to happen as they have. . " the mind is what sentient beings are really all about. And the form kayas are just things which appear due to the p rojections of the disciples' pure vision and their interest." in the sense that if you want to see the whole universe filled with Buddhas. they just naturally appe ar in your perception or vision. mopa. Bodhisattvas on the eighth ground have very pure vision connected with their wi sh or their longing or their interest. then you have not yet developed certainty. mopa. . On millions of television sets the image of th e President of the United States can appear. whi ch has been translated here as the power of aspiration prayers. is somewhat difficult to tr anslate into English. they are just a reflection. And there is not really much differen ce between the ways in which the second and the third turning would answer this question. You do not really even have to want to. . for example? An d do the second turning and the third turning of the wheel of dharma answer this question differently? . which is d oubt. QUESTION: If bodhisattvas have the ability to transform karma and to cause it to change and ripen differently. It is not that these Buddhas' forms actually exist. RINPOCHE: With respect to your second question concerning the seventh power. in this century. The Buddha does not exist fro m its own perspective. RINPOCHE: The sign of certainty is that you do not have its opposite. That is the analogy. then we would ha ve doubts about that. you can. you can. We all know that for sure. it is just like a dream. . Sentient here means "having mind. QUESTION: When you listen to the teachings on emptiness and you contemplate empt iness. But it does not mean that these f orms are something real. if you want to see somebody. just as. Here it means something like "wish. and they have the wish to help others. They are just projection s of the interest or the wish.
what its quality is. . This we have to know. and to make ourselves look nice. in his song The Eight Flashing Lances. It is similar to when people in the world have a party. If you want to meditate on selflessness. it is better if it lasts just for a short period of time. When we want to understand what it means to say that something is just a depende ntly arisen appearance. [Students sing. . the n it is not very much fun anymore.The changes that can be brought about in karma are not so great. even though that face has no essence. that ego-clinging mind is not the self. For example. . But in the true nature of reality. it is said that when the Buddhas rest in samadhi. when a Buddha teaches. it is very impor tant. is not the self. it would hurt. They have no more reality than that. we can just rest in selflessness. When it is just a dependently arisen appearan ce. Ther e are a lot of different ways of thinking about it. Since there is no self. for ins tance. you can do that by seeing how it is tha t none of the five aggregates is the self. just as we can use the face that appears in a mirror to clean off all the dirt from our face. So for some people it is better for them just to get a taste of something for a short period of time. It is fun if it does not last too long. \ Causes and conditions. There is no dif ference between long time and short time. Sometimes we need to think of the three times. \ Like a lance that flashes free in the open sky. and therefore there is not a single phenomenon that is not empty. like reflections in the water. . All things are just like that. It is also similar to when the lama gives you an empowerment. that through the p ower of the blessing of the Buddha. And. to comb o ur hair. the three times are equality. everything is explained to be mere appearanc e that is dependently arisen. \ Knowing what to do and not. that subtle art \ These are three which make relations fully free. In the middle turning of the wheel. There is no t a single phenomenon that is not dependently arisen. \ The murkiness of clinging clarified. it causes all six rea lms to rumble. says. It all depends upon interdependence. So. that would have been great. We need to know that they are equality. or in a mirror. for example. and the hell realms and the hungry ghost realms are free of suffe ring temporarily. if the party just drags on and on. If it had. that their coming together. It is said. So we should sing this and know that all appearances are just like reflections i n a mirror. When they put the vase on top of your head. and other times we need to know that they do not really exist. . . we can still use them to eliminate faults and bring about good qualities. So it is like that. when Chandrakirti milked the painting of the cow to stave off famine. That needs to be said again and again. . then all of the hell realms and the hungry ghost realms are free of suffering. you get some feeling. but if they left it there for a long time. . But if it lasts too long. . then we should think about reflecti ons shining in very clear water. like reflections.] . even though these appearances have no substantial nature. . The great siddha Gotsangpa. the n he only did that once. . the whole accumulation of them. and they gain temporary happiness. It did not happen over and over again. but it did not and does not. but then for them confused appearances appear again. But just temporarily. and therefore it is all just illusory.
" . . the emptiness dawns. it is divisible into its constituent parts. The way to meditate according to the middle way consequence school. is to realize that the nature of reality cannot be described by a ny conceptual fabrication. which is em pty of duality. Nor are there many things. It cannot be described by any conceptual fabrication. it works quite well. . The result is also f ree from any conceptual fabrications. What the mind looks at in meditation is the dharmadhatu. . and the mind meditating on that does not arise eith er. remaining. which is mere consciousness. We can see that that does not exist either. "There is no ari sing. sang in his song called The Profound Definitive Me aning Sung on the Snowy Range: . at that point there is no projected image. because ea ch one of those parts is divisible into its parts. None of these apply. Since there is nothing real on the outside. So nothing is just one thing. or ceasing. What is left is the ground of mind itsel f. Rest in that. So reality transcends conceptual fabrications. there can be no inner mind to perceive anything either. And these two the meditating mind and the dharmadhatu are undifferentiable. the svatant rika madhyamika. This applies as well to the self-aware. It cannot be said to be existent or nonexistent. Neither a thing. nor nothing. It is divisible into hundreds of thousands of millio ns of parts. \ For the mind that masters view. \ In the content seen. If you like to meditate according to the middle way autonomy school. real or something that ceases. \ A seer and seen. "At the time when there is neither thing nor non-thing to oc cupy a place before the mind. and the mind meditating on it is free from any focus or reference point. . then you analyze everything in samsara and nirvana and see that nothing is just one indivisible thing. As the bodhisattva Shantideva says in the wisdom chapter of the Guide to the Bod hisattva's Conduct. that is like space. In the Entrance to the Middle Way. the prasangi ka madhyamika. This la ck of reference point is perfect peace. The lord of yogins. Th ey are all undifferentable within the freedom from conceptual fabrications." So the object meditated upon is free from conceptual fabrications. Since that is its na ture. then the mind that meditates upon it has nothing to focus upon. and the mind meditating on it transcends all conceptual fabrications too.. because whatever it is. refined until they're gone. \ This way of realizing view. This is th e nature of reality freedom from all conceptual fabrications. we rest in the emptiness that is like the s ky. The dharmadhatu is neit her something existent nor non-existent. . or however many aspects of it you wish to describe. If you like meditating according to the mind only school that reality is empty of the duality of perceiver and perceived then you first look at outer appearances an d know that they are just confused appearances that are projections of habitual tendencies. not even an atom exists. . you cannot find anything to b egin counting in order to find many. it does not matter. lum inous mind which was posited by the mind only school as being the nature of genu ine reality. And so there is no duality of perceiver and perceived. And having cut through everything that needs to be refuted. mere luminous clarity. just like appearances in dreams. So however many layers you want to put int o it. The freedom fr om fabrications rests within the freedom from fabrications. That is the way to meditate according to the middle way autonomy school. Therefore the mind meditating upon it has no reference point. Milarepa. something or nothing. there is a verse which says. Resting in that is the way to meditate according t o the middle way consequence school.
] . which means that they have perfe ct knowledge of all of the distinctions between different types of phenomena. Of the ten strengths. literally called the awareness of etymology. \ Likewise he also attains the completely pure qualities of the correct cognizers of phenomena. -----------------------------------------------. what need to mention the strengths o f the bodhisattvas. please give rise to the precious attitude of bodhicitta. as is instru cted in the great vehicle. The third. . and listen. become completely pure. describing the ninth bhumi or ground: . They are c ourageous in teaching because they never forget anything that they have learned. L3: [The Ninth Mind Generation: Excellent Mind (1 verse) Forces] L4: [The good qualities of the ninth ground] . \ Similarly. \ ### \ What need to mention the strengths they gain on the ninth ground. [Students sing.1] \ 274. and furthermore. . Here the practice of the paramita or transcendent perfection of strength comes to the fore and becomes completely perfect.e. This description of view is in harmony with that of the middle way consequence s chool. specific characteristics of every single phenomenon. 4. \ /// \ [IX. The Ninth Mind Generation: Excellent Mind (1 verse) Forces] . which means that they know th e individual. All the strengths of the bodhisattvas are completely pure. . an d different types of dharma teachings. And finally there is the awareness that is the quality of courage. \ On the ninth (i. \ They all become perfectly pure. . These four dharmas of perfect awareness are described as follows: 1. . means that they are p erfectly able to teach everything in the dharma distinctly and clearly without c onfusing any dharma teaching with another." . their own qualities. Let's sing this together. As before. they develop the qual ities of the four dharmas of perfect awareness.] . \ the dharmas of perfect awareness. The commentary reads. The first is called the awareness of phenomena. We have come to the Ninth Mind Generation . 2. "On the ninth ground. Sarva Mangalam! . [Students begin by singing the Song of Meaningful Connections and by reciting th e verses from the Seventh and Eighth Mind Generations. These are the four qualities of perfect awareness that are perfected on the nint h bhumi. The next is called the awareness of meaning. Dedication of merit. They have no fear of forgetting something because they remember everything. Good Intelligence (9)) all his forces become compl etely pure (9).. 3. .
And the third describes the qualities that are the reason for giving this gro und its particular name. 10. which is the absence of any conduct in fluenced by the kleshas. and the y do not give up any aspect of that conduct. It is an empowerment of great rays of light. which means that they are approaching or on the verge of the om niscient. In order to kn ow so much." . primordial wisdom. the mental afflictions. The seventh is the strength of love. which mea ns they manifest the nature of reality. \ ### \ On the tenth ground they receive the genuine empowerment from all the Buddhas. because it means that all of t he bodhisattvas' wishes are perfectly fulfilled. The eighth is the strength of compassion. which causes them t o be undifferentiable from the omniscient primordial wisdom of the Buddhas. The first describes the extraordinary quality particular to the tenth ground. 2. or literally. which is described in the first part of the verse: . \ /// \ [X. he receives holy emp owerments from Buddhas in all directions. The third is the strength of power. 9. Cloud of Dharma (10)). The sixth is the strength of the paramitas.1. The fourth is the strength of learning because one is skilled and expert in a ll of the different divisions of the dharma taught by the Buddha.000 times 10 to the 59th samadhis. the first one is the strength of will. 1. . \ On the tenth ground (i. which means they clear away the suf fering of all sentient being. the dharmata. Finally.1] \ 275. 7. 3. 4. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . which is Cloud of Dharma. which they receive at the end of having resided in 100.e. the tenth is the strength of having received the blessing of all of the tathagatas. which means that the qualities of the Buddhas become perfectly ripened in the mind stream of the bodhisattva. you have to study and learn a lot. and there are three sections to the comment ary outlined here. . . which means that they do not abandon in the slightest way the conduct of protecting all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas on the ninth gr ound must apply themselves to practicing the conduct of all the Buddhas. 5. The fifth is the strength of aspiration prayers. receive the genuine empowerment from all the Buddhas of the ten direct ions. The first is about the particular quality of this ground. The second is the strength of perfect resource or resourcefulness. The second describes the way in which the transcendent perfection of primordi al wisdom becomes pure. 2. which mean s that one is skilled in all the limitless numbers of different types of conduct which worldly beings present or display. the Cloud o f Dharma. The ninth is the power or the strength of pure being. (la) . 8. We have arrived at the tenth ground. of having crossed t o the far shore. 3. . 6. literally. The commentary reads: "The bodhisattvas abiding on the tenth ground. which is like an illusion. L3: [The Tenth Mind Generation: Cloud of Dharma (1 verse) Primordial Awareness] L4: [The good qualities of the tenth ground] .
Each lotus is as big as the body of t he bodhisattva seated upon it. but perceives genuine reality as being of the same taste as relative reality. "What is the difference between wisdom. and in that way they receive the empowerment. or a big bodhisattva on a little lotus. And all of this light enters into the m ind-streams of these bodhisattvas. On the subsidiary. so you do not have a little bodhisattva on a big lotus. . All these bodhisattvas have the powe r of clairvoyance and other extraordinary mental abilities. where there is primordial wisdom. and there is no longer any distinction at all between . \ ### \ And their primordial wisdom becomes supreme.. and on each of the main lotuses sits a tenth-bhumi bo dhisattva. So the tenth-bhumi bodhisattva does not get this empowerment alone. The su tra further explains that surrounding each of these ten gazillion main lotuses* there are additional lotuses circling the main lotuses equal in number to the co mbined number of atoms in all of original ten gazillion main lotuses. There are ten gazillion main lotuses. b ut in the company of a vast assembly of tenth-bhumi bodhisattvas who receive emp owerment at the same time. They all fit just right. prajna or wisdom . So the ultimate cognition. And furthermore. which is the sixth transc endent perfection. which says that t here are one hundred-thousand billion precious lotuses a gazillion lotuses. (lb) . which is described in the second line of the root verse: . there is no reason why this cannot happen.1] \ 275. One might ask. They are flowers made out of light and they are empty forms. The bodhisattvas do not need to do anything to set up this particular arrangeme nt. B ut this commentary does not really like that explanation. each of which is surrounded by an even vaster retinu e of [subsidiary] lotuses. with the main bodh isattvas sitting on the anthers of the lotuses and an inconceivable number of bo dhisattvas sitting on the outer petals. what has just been described appears. Since all o f these bodhisattvas and lotuses are merely empty forms. and primordial wisdom. smaller lotuses sit bodhisattvas f rom the seventh. . sherab. that for wisd om there is still dualistic appearance and for primordial wisdom there is not. The next section in the commentary describes the transcendent perfection of prim ordial wisdom. These flowers. only perceives the nature of genuine reality. ~ *Editor's note: The translator seems to have become confused here between o ne gazillion and ten gazillion. we have to understand. dualistic a ppearances have dissolved. . a nd then from all of the Buddha realms from the white curled hair in the middle of each Buddha's forehead come rays of light. which is this primordial wisdom. does not merely perceive the nature of genuine reality. are not ordinary flowers that grow from a seed in the ground. So what does that mean? Well. \ /// \ [X. whereas primordial wisdo m perceives genuine reality and relative reality both together. . eighth. surpassing exalted awareness (10). and ninth bhumis.b \ And he also attains a supreme. and they ta ke part in it and receive this empowerment. At the e nd of this particular samadhi. which is the tenth transcendent perfec tion?"* The commentary explains that in some places it is explained that wisdom (prajna) faces outward and primordial wisdom (jnana) faces inward. It quotes the Sutra of the Bodhisattva Bhumis in saying that primordial wisdom is the wisdom that know s all phenomena just as they are. This empowerment is described in the Sutra of the Tenth Bhumi. So all these bodhisattvas are seated in the way described. In Praise of the Dharmadatu it is explained in a similar way. They do not make any preparations. . the whole thing just appears.
. literally means prim ordial knowing. the direct knowledge of the true nature of things. transcending all d ualistic conceptualization." Sherab. in the last two lines of the verse. just as in the world gentle rain falls from clouds."(NTC) Trungpa Rinpoche has also said that the differ ence between what is being translated here as wisdom and primordial wisdom is th e difference between "being wise and being wisdom. . without a self. \ /// \ [X. there is the description of the qualities that give this ground its name: . \ ### \ Just as rain falls from clouds. which includ es two levels: one that. nuclear physics. whi ch is sherab in Tibetan. and of the nature of suffering. sees or experiences emptiness. Thus.** They are of the same taste. and higher or spiritual knowledge.cd \ Just as rain falls from rain clouds." The Sanskrit jnana. "Prajna is the natural sharpness of awareness that sees. and is the "wisdom-activity of enlightenment. This primordial wisdom is the res ult of the practice of wisdom.the two truths.1] \ 275. which is yeshe in Tibetan. in accordance with the hinayana teachings of the Buddha . according to the NTC. the bodhisattvas on the tenth ground. Yeshe. The commentary reads: "For example. \ A rain of Dharma spontaneously falls from the Conquerors' Son. . and at a higher level. etc. . the translator is translating as "primordial wisdom. ~ **Editor's note: relative truth and absolute truth. in accordance w ith the mahayana teachings." ." Again. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . literally means the best knowledge or the best knowing. as "wisdom." Trungpa Rinpoche and the Nalanda Translati on Committee (NTC) have translated this term as "knowledge. . and also sees through conceptual discrimina tion. the result of the practice of prajna. . L2: [THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE TEN GROUNDS] . " This term Trungpa Rinpoche and the NTC have translated as "wisdom" or "primord ial awareness. this ground is called the Cloud of Dharma. so for the sake of living beings ' virtuous crops. ~ *Editor's note: Here the translator is translating the Sanskrit prajna. from the bodhisattvas falls a spontan eous rain of dharma \ So that the harvest of beings' virtue may flourish. in order to produce within the mind-streams of beings the excellent harvest of virtue the fruit which yields temporary and ultimate benefit and happiness from the great beings. one that. (1cd) . discriminates. the Tibetan for prajna. sees the self and external physical phenomena as impermanent. ." . so it is that. there spontaneously which means here without any effort or contrivance falls the rain of t he genuine dharma. And finally. and it is traditionally divided into lower or worldly knowledge whi ch would include everything from cookery or how to sweep a street properly to br ain surgery. the Tibetan for jnana.
Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche Under the guidance of Khenpo Tsultrim \ Gyamtso Rinpoche.] . \ They can meet a hundred Buddhas and receive their blessings. "Oh yes. . you will know all the things you can do. There is a tune that goes along with these verses. through his magical emanations he can cause a hundred livin g beings to ripen. [Students sing verses. When we sing all together. . to mak e this easier for us to understand. called summarizing verses. \ Likewise. \ They can travel to a hundred pure lands. L4: [A." . open a hundred doors of dhar ma. Translator: Rinpoche has composed some verses. . \ /// \ 278. and illuminate them. These are much easier. . Next the text describes the twelve qualities shared by all bodhisattvas that inc rease exponentially as they progress from ground to ground. . I remember I can do this and this and this. or twelve h undred altogether. 1999. because you will have recited this verse and yo u will say. The good qualities of the first ground] . And you will not have to ask people. \ And visit a hundred Pure Lands. RINPOCHE: The verses in the text of the Entrance to the Middle Way are more diff icult to understand and to memorize. \ At that time he can see a hundred Buddhas \ And realize their blessings. \ They can stay for a hundred eons. On the fi rst bhumi the bodhisattva has these twelve qualities a hundred fold. October 31.1] \ 276. translated by Ari Goldfield. [copied from another file:] . [See box on this pag e.. \ He can cause a hundred worlds to shake. . it makes a very good connection. \ They can fill those hundred worlds with light and ripen a hundred bei ngs. future hundr ed too! \ They can enter a hundred samadhis and move a hundred worlds. \ /// \ 277. \ This Wise One can enter into and rise from the absorptions of a hundr ed concentrations.] These verses describe what happens on the first bodhisattva bhumi. which woul d be good for us to sing and to memorize. \ He remains alive for a hundred aeons \ And engages perfectly in the ends of the former and the later. \ /// \ [XI. \ They can emanate a hundred bodies with a hundred in each beautiful re tinue! . . "What does it mean that I can meet a hundre d Buddhas?" You will know exactly what that means. know the past hundred. Then when you reach the first bodhisattva ground.
bcd] \ 279bcd. \ These qualities are attained by the Wise One abiding on Very Joyful ( 1). . The good qualities of the three pure grounds] . \ /// \ [XI. \ And then ten million one hundred thousand million multiplied by a hun dred. and this Son of the Power ful Able One \ Can cause bodies to be displayed throughout his body. and this Son of the Power ful Able One \ Can cause bodies to be displayed throughout his body. . \ He attains qualities equal in number \ To however many atoms there are \ In a hundred thousand of the three thousand worlds. a hundred ten million. \ The Bodhisattva abiding on the ground Good Intelligence (9) \ Attains the previously mentioned qualities \ Equal in number to the atoms in a hundred thousand countless \ Perfectly increased by ten. . . \ And in just the same way they are perfectly attained in thousands \ By the abider on Stainless (2). the qualities of the tenth (i. L4: [B. Immovable (8). thousand ten million. \ /// \ [XI.6] \ 281. \ Abiding on the ground. \ /// \ 284. \ /// \ [XI. L4: [C. \ /// \ 282. \ /// \ 280. \ There being as many as there are atoms \ In all the inexpressible . the Bodhisattva attains . \ On the next five grounds. free from conceptions. \ And revealing a hundred Conquerors' Sons.a] \ 279a. .e. \ He can completely open the doors of Dharma. \ Briefly.4. Cloud of Dharma (10)) \ Have passed beyond what can be expressed in words. \ A hundred thousand of these. \ Each body being endowed with and beautified by its retinue.4. \ /// \ 283. \ a thousand ten million. and further multiplied by a thousand. The good qualities of the second to the seventh grounds] .\ He can completely open the doors of Dharma. . \ Then a hundred.
They can meet a hundred Buddhas and receive their blessings. Bodhisattvas n eed somebody initially to listen to the teachings to get the whole thing rolling . In the last line. and humans. They can stay for that long. They too are just appearance-emptiness. Then people say. They eliminate the problem of getting the whole thing off the ground by emanat . you can have as many reflections of the moon as you have different containers filled with water. . -----------------------------------------------. QUESTION: And open a hundred doors? What is a door of dharma? . each surrounded by a hundred of whomever they like. So to s ay that something has no inherent existence or to say that nothing ever happens means that just as events in a dream do not really happen. QUESTION: Are you translating dampa when you say genuine? . Sim ilarly. because they are appearance-emptiness. They can know everything that happened in the past hundr ed eons and everything that will happen in the future hundred eons. but there is nothing real there in either case. To say that nothing happens does not me an that they are nothingness. dampa. The image of the moon appears in the water and e vents appear in a dream. nothing in any other dimension of existence really happens. th at they can happen. "Oh. .\ Moment by moment he can display in his hair pores \ Perfect Buddhas beyond number \ Together with Bodhisattvas. That is what bodhisattvas know. I want to go too. The moon will shine in all of them effortlessly. meaning that if they want to stay for that long on this bhumi they can. there would be nobody to listen to t hem. Translator: Rinpoche says it would be better if I answered the question. But it is precisely because they are empty of inherent existence. When all the causes and conditio ns come together. They are just mere appe arances. QUESTION: If they know the next hundred lives and they know the past hundred eon s. They appear to happen. it would be impossible for such things as described in these verses to happen. bodhisattvas can aid as many disciples. If you ask why they emanate a retinue around them. but they neither happen or will happen. so they emanate a hundred students to listen to them. RINPOCHE: The many qualities ascribed to the various bodhisattva bhumis are not real either. demi-gods. . the reason is that often time s they want to go to places where the dharma has not been taught before. . It can do so because it is all just appearance-emptiness. a mere appearance of emanations for the benefit of students ap pears. like a water moon. yes. what is the point in knowing the next hundred eons if nothing is going to happen anyway? ." means that they can send out a hundre d emanations of themselves. Translator: It means they can teach in a hundred different ways. "They can emanate a hundred bodies. It is v ery helpful to remember the examples of a dream or a water moon. . . Both the past and the future are like that. inherently existent. For example. but they do not re ally happen. it means that they are just mere appearances. \ And likewise gods. But if they were just to go to such a place alone. if things were solid. They stay for a hundred eon s. L4: [Now are there any questions?] . because they "t each" the nature of appearance. If they were real. Translator: Maybe I can just say a few things about what we just heard." In that way more people come and listen. Translator: Yes.
. then they would not want to go through all of [what is entaile d in following the path and being a good student." And so everybody else can enter into the dharma in the same way." The translators. 2. . etc. the Mahayana U ttara Tantra Sastra enumerates "four kinds of fearlessness: 1.* . ." The translators further comment on these four last point s: "These four points refer to the four sublime truths. translated from the Tibetan under the guidance of Khenchen the IX T hrangu Rinpoche and Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche by Ken and Katia Holmes. Among the students there were many emanations. they give a very good example of how to be good students. in teaching the path and 4.-Mahayana Uttara Tantra Sastra byArya Maitreya and Ac arya Asanga. such as determining who could come to the teachings. in stating th eir achievement of cessation. Some know that they are emanations and some do not. If they knew that they were emanations fr om the beginning. Are they real? A re they sentient beings? Or are they just simply empty emanations? And do they k now that they are emanations or do they think they are sentient beings? . 3. and th e truth of cessation 'the goal to be achieved'. Ken and Katia Holmes further com ment on the first fearlesness that "When enlightenment is reached. taught by the Buddha in the first turning of the wheel of dharma." The s hastra further comments on "the function of these fearlessnesses. Since the origi nal hundred students are all emanations. and things like that. There is no fear of being able or not able to lead disciples. it would just b e like a movie. 2. And then everybody else who i s not an emanation can see how it is done and do the same thing. and how to practice on the path. Pa'i). Sometimes called "Four Noble Truths. because they are em anations of the bodhisattva.Pa) 'of the realised' ('Phags. "Oh. 3. But. QUESTION: I was curious about these emanations of the students. how to listen. knowledge of thei r perfect enlightenment with respect to every phenomenal domain. Scotland. because they themselves have relinquished and help others relinquish those things which must be relinquished. everybody would just be playing a role. how many people would fit.'" From The Changeless Nature. because they have attained and help others attain the utterly stainle ss highest attainment. they probably do not know. and they probably have the thoughts of o rdinary beings. He was in charge of making various arrangeme nts.ing their own students to come and start showing other people how to be a studen t. And so it is probably no t like that. The truth of the origination of suffering. 1. RINPOCHE: The commentary just mentions the four fearlessnesses without explainin g what they are. that is how we s hould do it. There are four such divisions. Because the y themselves know and help others know every aspect of the knowable. there is no fear of whether or not one has ga ined realization as a Buddha. 1985. 'what is to be given up' ka rma and the defilements. and so forth.].) since these truth s are only perceived by realised beings. He had among his many students an a ttendant called the siddha Orgenpa. Ka rma Drubgyud Darjay Ling. ~ *Editor's note: Amongst the various qualities of Buddhahood. There is a story about the siddha Gotsangpa. Why should I listen to him? Why should I listen to her?" If they did know. The truth of suffering is 'what is to be known'. The terms [sublime truths] literal ly mean 'the truths' (bDen. 'Sublime' means 'aloof from and raised far above the ordinary' (Oxford Diet. "We are both emanations of the same bodhisattva. everything to be purified has been purified and everything to be realised is realised. The truth of the path 'what is to be relied upon'. They would look at thei r teacher and think. for example. QUESTION: What are the four fearlessnesses? . Everybody else watches them and thinks. because they teach and make taught what ought to be tau ght and 4. but it is better if they do not know. Dumfriesshire. RINPOCHE: These emanations are not ordinary sentient beings. in teaching the obstacles and how to stop them. T hat is a very good reason to send out emanations of students. Eskdalemuir. not ne .
they get their red tigli from their mother. we think it is the same. . there he is. in that these emanations are not their own separate beings. . deer. Whatev er is necessary. But the story recounts that the students did not necessarily know that they were emanations. they a re all emanations which lack inherent existence. fish. So given the bodhisattva on the first bhumi and their hundred emanations. The Buddha told very specific stories of such bodhisattvic inca rnations. and the namshe or consciousness of the individual being in the intermedia te state between death and rebirth who is being impelled by karma towards concep tion and rebirth. what is t here in place of a namshe. So we look at the image of the person and say. bodhisattvas take birth as ra bbits. "Oh. they do not have any in herent existence. but they are not different either. . then that somebody else's image can show up on countless television sets. there she is. and you are that emanation. but just emanations in general. And Milarepa sang in a song called The Eight Wonderful Forms of Happiness. because they are just mere depe ndently arisen appearances like images on television screens. But the way we think about it is that the image is the person. in order to benefit them. They are just mere dependently arisen appearances. . When a person is talking on television and showing up on millions of televis ion sets. exactly what happened in a great many lives. or like the reflections in water of the moon in the sky." He did not tell them that. Emanations are just mere dependently arisen appearances. it is not different from the person. so somehow to try to distinguish us from emanation s by saying emanations are mere dependently arisen beings is a little confusing. "To g ather emanations as a retinue is E Ma Ho! He was singing about his own experienc e. were these emanations which are n ot now ordinary sentient beings ever at one time ordinary sentient beings? Or we re they like a movie that is projected? I think a lot of Westerners have the not ion that emanations are sort of holograms that are produced in space. In order to tame beings. . "Oh. QUESTION: If I may follow up on his questions.cessarily emanations of Gotsangpa. and all different kinds of animals. because we are all mere depend ently arisen illusory beings. When we turn on our television and see a person's image there. If we look at it from the standpoint of their birth. and there is probably a good reason for that. ~ *Editor's note: According to the Buddha's teachings. turtles. If somebody puts a television camera in front of somebody else. like the reflectio ns of the moon in many pools of water. antelope. Th ey are just emanations. They are literally emanations of the basis or ground for the emanation. That is probably how it is. you are this emanation. QUESTION: Incidently this seems a little strange. He told th ese stories in great detail. the images of this person on all these television sets are not the sam e as the actual person talking. the red element or bindu from the m other. which is also present when we are born?* . this image is not the same as the person. but he did not go around saying to his students. which is a particular bodhisattva abiding in the pure realms. it's just a mere d ependently arisen appearance. . or I gave my flesh to that animal. they get the white tigli ( bindhu) from their father. ." . three constituents mus t be come together in the womb for the conception of an ordinary being to occur: the white element or bindu from the father. RINPOCHE: It is in fact like television. He said that at such and such a time I took birth as that animal and h ad my head cut off by that person. That is how emanations a re. . .
like water moons and illusions. If we can understand that deities. \ Obtaining high rebirth or liberation and \ Falling into the three unhappy destinations. clean and dirty. but all of these are just me re appearances. are fundamentally th e same. Friends and enemies. 2 (MADHYAMIKA TEACHINGS -. . So it is like t hat. . There is no difference between friends and enemies. Gotsangpa sang: . You might dream of meeting the noble Tara. it is easy to understand how sentient beings and Buddhas are fundamenta lly the same.RINPOCHE: To answer the first question. then sentient beings and B uddhas are fundamentally the same. \ Wonderful visions of yidam deities and \ Fearsome apparitions of obstructing demons. And relatively the appearance of the two is just like a dream. There is no difference between Buddhas and sentient being s. So this is an expression or an example of the ten types of equality. The example that helps us to understand this fo . . the appearances of the demons are not real. The appearances of the deities are not real. The way that demons and deities are the same is that ultimately the nature of bo th of them transcends all conceptual fabrications about what they might be. there is no difference between us and emanations. they are both equally like dream appearances. things are fundamentally the same. .Me lody of the Eight Types of NonDuality). things are also the same. whi ch we discussed earlier in the course. Since samsara and nirvana are fundamentally the same. \ These distinctions don't exist in the pure expanse \ So how joyful! How happy! Sudden Victory! * .] . and we need to use these ten types of equ ality in our practice and in our post-meditation experience. [Students sing. \ These distinctions do not exist in the pure expanse \ So how joyful! How happy! Sudden Victory! . Fundamentally their nature is equality. . And we also nee d to know the way in which. . ~ *Editor's note: See Shenpen Osel. Vol. . you might dream of meeting Manjushri. yidam deities.] . or you might dream of meeting some horrible demon. page 10 (see next box). No. There is no difference betwee n samsara and nirvana. like illusions. and like water moons. Sing a song! . which is that the nature of everything tra nscends all conceptual fabrications. As Gyalwa Gotsangpa sang in his Melody of the Eight Types of Non-Duality. from the perspective of their relative appearances. from the perspective of genuine reality. too. which is that they are equally like dream appearances. Singing about the ways in which ordinary beings and bodhisattvas and Buddhas are the same. Ordinary beings and noble bodhisattvas are fu ndamentally the same. So we need to know the way in which. 2. . and demons are fundamentally t he same. [Students sing verse. So let's sing that verse. It is beyond conceptuality. from the perspective of their genuine natur e. and therefore it is expla ined that all appearances are the display of the three kayas.
RINPOCHE: The root of it. It is mainly the sam adhi of the bodhisattva. it does not arise from something other than itself. If you examine. It is just not there. is that. there is no half way." since it appears frequently in the translator's syntax. So since you only have one at a time. In the chapter called the Examination of Coming and Going. . A nd at the time of the cause. the substitute for the consciousness is the samadhi. . If they do not coexist. there is no flower. because at the t ime of the result. the protector Nagarju na looked at process. . because the result has not arisen yet. Translator: So could Rinpoche please go over again the reasoning that refutes arising from other? . It just does not happen. . you cannot say that the flower arises f rom the seed. When you examine subtly. when you have a seed. given an entity. . . there is nothing. you will see that in between the time when birth has not yet happened and the time after birth has happened. It is like that. given an entity. ~ **Editor's note: The structure of this sentence. beginning with ".again] . This is something very imp ortant for us to understand. . there is nothing. The way he looked at it in this chapter was that. we have left it in this form. which is the best way to understand it. QUESTION: I would appreciate hearing again the reasoning that refutes the notion that things can arise from other than themselves. How do you account for pro cess then? . QUESTION: But then where does process come into . So mething is either born or it is not. in between. [Refuting production from others -.** Why? Because that cause has gone out of existence. must reflect a structure of logical reasoning in Tibetan philosophy or debate. thi s is what you find out. So since you only have one at a time. be cause the other is not there. You cannot posit something as being born because it is either born or it is not.. And s o there is no process of going. though it seems a bit awkward in English. something that serves as a substitute for what we have as conscious ness. . the cause does not exist as something different from the resu lt. there is nothing. The seed and the flower do not exist at the same tim e. and the compassion of the emanating bodhisattva. for an emanation. cause and then result since cause and result do not exist at the same t ime then you cannot say that something arises from something other than itself. t he red bindu from the mother. and the consciousness from the previous life. From those you get something like co nsciousness. then in between the part of the path that you have al ready walked on and the part you have not walked on yet.rm of equality is the example of things and occurrences in dreams. he refuted process. RINPOCHE: Actually there is no such thing as process. there is no arising. t here is no process of birth. if you are walking on a path. which is other to it.. Since there is no process of birth. By the time the flower ha s arisen. As to your second question What is the substitute for the consciousness in an eman ated being? whereas ordinarily we are born with the white bindu from the father. because they do not coexist. He looked at "ing. the result does not exist as something different fr om the cause. For example. For that reas on. There is nothing to be other from. how could they be different from each other? You have to have two thing s existing at the same time for them to be different from each other. In between. Accompanying the samadhi is the power of the compassion and aspiration prayers of the bodhisattva. the aspiratio n prayers. that there is no such thing as the process of birth [or arising]. . there is no seed." going and coming and he proved that this " ing" state does not exist.
you could be sic k in a dream. . if you ask whether that person is moving or staying still. So we should sing the song we sang yesterday.. so there is no movement. You might then say. In between the moment when all the pain you have experienced in the past has elapsed. . If we did not have that type of confidence there wo uld be no reason to yelp like that.] . the other leg is staying still. Another way to look at it is to look at the individual and see that when they ar e moving one leg. There is all the time when you are alive. . That is the main reason why we are not he roic. You are either alive. or you are dead. and the moment when all the pain you are going to experience in the future begins. . "Is this person a mover or a stayer?" And you cannot answe r that question. Since this is the way that heroes sing. imitating the trans lator's periodic yelping during the song. There is actually no movement happening. and there is no time there for you to experience any pain. And then when that leg is stay ing still. and that is the going. \ I've gained confidence that there is no arising. I reall y am sick. It is the same with death. . because somebody's legs are movi ng on this path. Sentient beings normally are not very heroic . I really am sick. Just to have the experience does not prove anything." But that does not prove that your sickness is real. See page 116. He had confidence th at there was no birth and no death. So the whole no tion of moving breaks down. So then you must ask." you might say. When we join these two together. there is nothing. and all future movement has yet to happen. there is nothing there. "Well. you find yourself in a contradiction: one person is bo th moving and staying still. and then after that you are dead. and thereby saw that there is no point of birth or death. you are wrong. We can see that the songs of Milarepa and the reasonings of Nagarjuna are comple tely in harmony with each other in this regard. Therefore. So there is no point where death happens. . not two. Why? Because we are afraid of death. they makes our understanding very profound. . There is no in between. yes. There is no point of death. This is why Gyalwa Gotsangpa sang. \ And cut right through believing all too much in birth and death. \ Exposed all six realms' appearances as false. . there is going. The logic is the same with sickness. whic h is why Milarepa sang. "I feel it myself. Since Milarepa examined and saw that there is nothing in between the time before you die and the time after you die. with a hero's confidence. the time before you are born and the time a fter you are born. the first leg is moving. . because part of them is moving and part is not. \ The illness and its painfulness have neither base nor root. In between the time that all past movement has finished. \ This swept away my taking past and future lives as two." But somebody's leg can only be in one p lace at one time. [Students sing Three Kinds of Confidence in Genuine Reality. we need to yelp a little bit as heroes d o. . "No. Mil arepa knew that there was no such thing as birth and death. . . so there is no experience of pain hap pening.
Those are easy reasonings to under stand. These days. nothing else. . Among the eighty-four mahasiddhas of India. So if they know that small particles do not really exist. And so.] . ~ *Editor's note: See Eight Cases of Basic Goodness Not to be Shunned. how would you describe Buddhism? How would you define Buddhism to an infant? . then time goe s by very fast. but when they are having a tough time. And other times when they are feeling happy. \ Don't shun them. and so they can see that everything just depends upon their own frame of mi nd. you should expla in to them the true nature of reality. . and they are taught in school that small particles do not really exist. when we find things difficult we can understand that i t is just our own thoughts that are creating this difficulty. there were two children. Explain that things neither come nor go. So let's sing that together. . And then they just took . because when they play and are happy. page 1 28. children study a lot. They heard only a couple of verses of dharma and gained liberation. They can study well. QUESTION: Like a young child. If it is a child with great faith.\ Relax into it. how this planet has no top or bottom. then everything seems to go very ea sily. . You should sing that song a lot. and h ow beings are the equality of self and other. then time seems to go ver y slowly. . and the whole perspective of the world changes. and in that way they can see th at it all just comes from thoughts. in the last part of the twentieth century. \ Revealing dharmakaya way beyond all speech and thought. and to get angry wit h their teacher or with their father and mother. fresh and uncontrived. They can understand this easily. teach them how to meditate on Chenrezig or Ma njushri. Translator: You mean a small child at least capable of understanding your speech ? . QUESTION: Speaking to an infant. RINPOCHE: If it is a small child with exceptional intelligence. Children can look at their minds and see how that sometimes feelings of hunger o r bodily discomfort cause them to lose their patience with. -----------------------------------------------. [Students sing. . they can see f rom that that it is just an imputation of thoughts creating one situation or ano ther. then understanding the rest about emptiness will not be so difficult. pain and illness are basically good. . They have a lot of diligence. They have a lot of frie nds. Children can also come to understand easily how it is that difficulty is just a creation of our own mind. L4: [Other questions ?] .* . .) . It is also pretty easy to understand how it is that space has no center or end.
the more hardship the better. he had no teeth. So if you arouse yourself in anger [Rinpoche dem onstrates the appearance of anger]. attained siddhi. Their names were Tonglo pa and Singlopa. the essential nature of aggression. And when you do that. the more fee ling we have that samsara really is not worth it after all. but he requeste d Barotsana for instructions. These days children are also very smart. . So the fact is that being old or young just depends on thoughts. He was an eighty-year-old beggar when Barotsana met him on the side of the road. And when you chewed you had to chew like this. . and his hair was all white. whose name was Mipham Gompo. [Ri npoche imitates chewing without teeth. and transformed herself into a sixteen-year-old girl. But you do not try to get rid of passion as a mahayana practitione r. He recognized the nature of mind and attained the rainbow body. you try to get rid of passion. She met her teacher. She i s still sixteen. On the path of the shravakas . Some siddhas are able to see her directly. . passion is something very good.off and went up into the trees and played in the trees. because passion is very close to loving kindness. which then impelled them to pr actice the dharma. So it is like that. It is very sharp. . . Sukha Siddhi. But do not be discouraged because you think you are too old. RINPOCHE: Actually. So these two are related to each other. the more renunciatio n we develop for samsara. it is just like being old or young in a dream. Translator: The question is about sex and sexual energy in the human experience and how to take it to the path. so when you lost all your teeth your mouth looked like a big cave. The point is that the more hardship we have when practicing dharma. even today. They could attain siddhi as young children because they were in credibly smart. C ould Rinpoche speak a little bit about the right effort or use of sex and sexual energy as it pertains to meditative equipoise? .] Nowadays people get false teeth and go a round smiling to show everybody. What is the connection between sex or sexual ene rgy and right conduct? . and then look at the nature of that angry mi nd. practic ed. H e could barely see. There was a student of the translator Barotsana. . In the old days there were no false teeth. So if you look at anger specifically. it does not matter if you are old either. then there is no difference between old and you ng. and that seems pretty strong. . and the essential nature of s tupidity. All the great siddhas first experienced great suffering. the wisdom dakini of the Shangpa Kagyu line age. . whi ch he did. If there are no thoughts of being old or young. QUESTION: Rinpoche talked a little bit about the dharma path and the presence of the human experience of sexual energy. was sixty years old when she was kicked out of her house by her husband and son. you can attain the state of arhatship. and she is still sixteen-years-old. She developed great renunciation for samsara. In the mahamudra meditation of the vajrayana. . So it is like that. where you m editate on the essential nature of the experience of passion. Barotsana taught him to meditate on guru yoga. We spend a lot of time either being caught up in it or trying not to be caught up in it. In the vajrayana there are a number of different means to use passi on and sexual energy on the path and one is the method of mahamudra. then you will have a beautifully luminous experience. you meditate on the essential natu re of passion. then anger has a very brilliant and clear aspect to it. . So that is good.
how can it be a knower? \ That is a contradiction.10] \ 285.******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . L5: [A. you realize all objects of knowledge in an instant. \ Previously you strove again for the ground that generates the ten for ces. ultimate good qualities of the supreme state of pacification. Thinking emptiness means non-existence. \ /// \ 286. copied from another file. \ So thatness has no divisions made by things. ¢(i. \ O Good Knower. ¢(i. any view. beyond any marks and discrimination. \ Without knowing anything.2 Rejecting an argument] L6: [A. L1: [A PRESENTATION OF RESULTANT GROUNDS -. Rejecting the argument that a knower of thatness is unacceptable] . The Union of The Two Truths. \ /// \ 288. \ Therefore.) . \ And with no mind engaging.2.] . beyond any view. but copied from an other file] . no action. L4: [A. HOW BUDDHAHOOD IS FIRST ATTAINED] L5: [A. Alwa ys knowing the real nature of everything as they arise. any perception. \ /// \ [XI.e.2.2 Refuting this position] L7: [i.1 Stating the other position] . any concept. . certainly an object-possessor of the objec t of knowledge is not possible. wisdom does not engage in it.not covered here. bey ond any conceptualization. So how could a Buddha teach others ?) . perfectly realizing them to be of one taste. \ Since non-production is thatness. \ /// \ 287. . beyond c ausality space & time. \ In Akanishta you accomplished the aim for which you strove\ All those unequalled. \ Just as the moon in a stainless sky illuminates clearly. and the mind has freedom from produ . \ If there is no one who knows. any uncontrolled karma formation. [Not covered by Rinpoche s commentary. Beyond any description. \ Just as space has no divisions due to the divisions of vessels. Enlightenment is not caused. \ 'If pacification is thatness. L6: [A. rejecting everything. Free from any attachment . how can you teach others 'It is like th is'?' . beyond any duality.e.1 The actual meaning] . it is sudden.
. is he who resides in a body with the nature of Dharma. \ /// \ 289. . Emptiness of inherent existence doesn't deny dependent origination. . like a wish-granting tree . \ /// \ 291. \ Sounds that reveal the Dharma of thatness arise from space and others . L6: [B. \ This pacified body is resplendent. free from any uncontrolled karma formation. when a mind possesses any aspect it knows that object th oroughly. inter-dependence. \ At that time there is no production and no disintegration . \ Due to these. \ Just as here a potter with great strength \ Expends much energy for a long time turning the wheel. Rejecting the argument that a person knowing thatness is unacceptable] . \ Through the power of his Complete Enjoyment Body maintained by merit. An explanation of the truth body] . -----------------------------------------------.e. \ That pacification that comes from the burning of all the dry tinder o f objects of knowledge \ Is the Truth Body of the Conquerors. \ For example.1.1 A Presentation of Buddha s bodies] L6: [B. ¢(i. it is experienced directly by the body. . L4: [B. An explanation of the complete enjoyment body] . \ And of its Emanations.1.ction. but nothing is really produced. \ /// \ 290.) . it does n't mean complete non-existence. \ And then while he is not generating effort \ It turns and is seen to be a cause of a pot. . \ Without generating any effort now \ He engages in deeds that are completely beyond thought \ Due to the special qualities of his prayers and the virtues of beings . A PRESENTATION OF BUDDHA'S BODIES AND GOOD QUALITIES] L5: [B. L7: [ii. functionality. free from any attachmen t. \ /// \ [XI. \ /// \ 293. \ By depending upon that aspect it realizes thatness. worldly beings can also realize thatness. this knows by depending upon a nominality. self-liberating. \ Since minds have ceased. There is dependent origination.2. \ So like that.17] \ 292. but he is not non-existent completely. and has not rejected anything at all b ecause everything is already pure. \ In just the same way. The Buddha is empty of inheren t existence.1.
and Hearers of the three times. \ Knowing these things to be the nature of illusions. for the fort une of the world. \ He displays clearly all these deeds without leaving anything out. and powers were like. \ What the Dharma was like. \ He displays all of these at one time in one pore. \ Likewise what moral discipline. . \ He displays them all clearly at one time in one hair pore. in one Form Body \ Corresponding to that cause. \ And those of the present dwelling in the world. \ Revealing Dharma in a loud voice carrying to the ends of space \ And bestowing breath on living beings tormented by suffering.3. . . \ /// \ 295. like a wish-fulfilling jewel. . and what they were like. those who are yet to come. \ /// \ 296. \ What the Buddha Lands and their Powerful Able Ones were like.1 How he displays all his deeds in one pore of his body] .3. \ /// \ 300. \ The Powerful Able One. L7: [B. and what he was like then. \ And appear to those who are free from elaboration. patience.1. . clearly and without disorder \ Makes a complete and exquisite display \ Of everything that happened during his previous lives now ceased. effort. \ And all the activities of the remaining beings. concentration.2 How he displays all the deeds of others there] . \ /// \ 299. \ All their deeds from first generating the mind \ Through to the essence of enlightenment. L6: [B.3. deeds.1. \ In just one hair pore of his body. An explanation of the body corresponding to its cause] [emanation bo dies] L7: [B. \ Solitary Realizers. \ Likewise the deeds of all Superior Bodhisattvas. \ How much giving was practiced towards them \ All these he displays in one body. \ /// \ 294. .\ And without conception. \ /// \ 298. and wisdom \ He practiced during previous lives. at one time.1. \ What forms the Bodhisattvas took there. \ What their bodies. \ How many assemblies of I fearers there were. \ /// \ 297. . . \ What deeds were performed from listening to Dharma. \ Buddhas who have passed away. \ It will remain always until living beings are liberated.
\ As many countless different deeds \ As there are atoms in all the worlds. \ The knower of infinite objects of knowledge that has abandoned obstru ctions is said to be a force (1).31] \ 306. \ Likewise knowing full ripening of actions (2). \ The desirable. \ /// \ 305.. \ Likewise knowing death and birth (9).1 Briefly presenting the ten forces] . \ [Concentrations of] perfect liberation. \ And an atom filling the directions of infinite worlds. L5: [B. \ And the force knowing the mental stabilizations (3). \ Knowing recollections of previous places (8). and so forth.28] \ 303. concentrations.2 An extensive explanation of the ten forces] . \ /// \ [XI. \ Likewise knowing supreme and non-supreme powers (6). \ Not being governed by conception.3 An explanation of his completely excellent mastery of his wishes] . \ Any cause from which something is definitely produced \ Is said by the Omniscient Ones to be the source of that. the reverse of these. L7: [B. . \ And the force knowing the various elements (4).3. by enacting his wishes.. \ Understanding the various desires (5). \ The opposite of what is explained is not a source. .1. absorptions. \ /// \ 304. \ And the force knowing the cessation of contaminations (10) \ These are the ten forces. . L6: [B. \ /// \ [XI.2.2. \ /// \ 301. \ Without the atom becoming larger or the worlds becoming smaller.2 A PRESENTATION OF THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE FORCES] L6: [B. \ This Pure One. \ /// \ 307. . actions of aban . . \ Displays the worlds throughout space on a single atom. . the undesirable. \ /// \ 302. \ Until the end of samsara. \ The force knowing source and non-source (1). . you will show in each instant.. \ Going everywhere (7).
\ However many there are. able. \ /// \ 310. \ Of conceptualization and so forth. gods. \ The limitless knower of complete Buddhas \ Realizing the distinctions of all types of element is said to be a fo rce (4). and especially superior desire s \ The knower of these and others besides them \ Encompassing all living beings of the three times is known as a force (5). . \ /// \ 312. \ /// . \ Buddhas say that whatever is the nature of eyes and so forth is an el ement. . \ And their full ripening . only the very sharp are accepted a s supreme. unobstructed knower engaging individually. and the nine that are absorptions. \ Others to hungry ghosts. \ For as long as there is confusion. \ /// \ 313. \ Some paths lead to the very state of a Conqueror. is said to be a force (6). hell beings. . \ Middling types and the dull being explained as non-supreme. \ /// \ 308. a limitless number. \ /// \ 311. \ Those that are tranquil abiding. . animals. . . \ The unobstructed knower of these is said to be a force (3). \ That encompasses objects of knowledge of the three times is said to b e a force (2). humans. there is abiding in samsara. and their ability to support each other. middling. \ /// \ 309. \ The knower of all aspects free from attachment \ That understands the eyes and so forth.a great variety \ The powerful. \ The different types of Yogi throughout limitless worlds \ Have the mental stabilizations. \ Through their skill in perfectly distinguishing the elements. \ Oneself and each and every living being of samsara now past. \ Desires arising through the force of attachment and so forth\ A great variety of inferior. and so f orth. \ Some to the enlightenment of a Solitary Realizer or the enlightenment of a Hearer. their origins and places of birth \ The knower of these is said to be a force (8). . the eight [concentrations of] perfect liberation. \ The knower of these that is free from attachment is said to be the fo rce going everywhere (7).donment.
\ The Conquerors' swift destruction of delusions together with their im prints \ Through the force of the knower of all aspects.4 The benefits of understanding the two good qualities] . EXPLAINING EMANATION BODIES] . \ Just as a bird does not turn back due to lack of space. \ The many varieties of death and birth of every single living being \ Inhabiting the worlds as extensive as space \ The limitless knower without attachment and completely pure \ That apprehends all aspects of these at one time is said to be a forc e (9). . \ And the vast are the other good qualities. ------------------------------------------------ . . you lead to a state beyond sorrow \ All worldly beings who have deceitful behavior. \ /// \ [XI. \ But returns when its strength is consumed.\ 314. \ And the cessation of delusions by wisdom in the disciples and so fort h\ The limitless knower of these that is free from attachment is said to be a force (10). \ You who possess an immovable Body visit the three worlds again with y our Emanations. . \ So how could one such as I \ Understand or explain your good qualities? \ However. . L4: [C. -----------------------------------------------. \ So the disciples and Sons of the Buddhas \ Turn back when describing the good qualities of \ Buddha. \ Through understanding the ways of the profound and the vast \ These good qualities will be attained. which are as limitless as space. since they were explained by Superior Nagarjuna.2.41] \ 316. L6: [B. and the wheel of peace \ In this way. \ The profound is emptiness.3 Why all the qualities cannot be described] . \ I have overcome my apprehension and mentioned just a few. \ /// \ 315. . . \ /// \ 318. birth. \ /// \ [XI.2. out of compassion. enlightenment.44] \ 319. and who are bound by the many nooses of attachment. L6: [B. \ /// \ 317. \ And show descent.
-----------------------------------------------. \ So how could you have a solitary peace? . \ /// \ [XI. \ But these secrets of yours should not be explained. \ The worldly cannot engage in the extremely profound object experience d by Buddhas.48] \ 323. \ Just like the skilful one traveling to a jewel island \ Who relieved the fatigue of his company by emanating a beautiful city on the way. . L4: [E. \ Because phenomena do not depend upon different types of thatness. \ Because. \ Because there are these impurities that give rise to faults in living beings. \ /// \ [XI. since you possess both wisdom and the methods of compassion. however many atoms there are among the tiniest atoms \ In all the Buddha Lands in all directions.1 The duration of enlightenment] . \ /// \ [XI. PROVING THAT THERE IS ONE FINAL VEHICLE] . \ /// \ 322. here. .45] \ 320. \ /// \ 321. \ But you taught separately those who have attained isolation and train ed minds. L5: [E. \ And because there are not different wisdoms that are the object-posse ssors of thatness. \ You presented this vehicle to the minds of disciples as a means of pe ace. apart from understanding thatness. holy enlightenme nt. L4: [D. there is no princip al eliminator of all stains. \ O Conqueror. \ You revealed to living beings an unequalled and undivided vehicle. \ /// . for as long as all worldly beings have not gone to the m ost sublime peace.2 The duration of remaining] .. \ And since you have promised 'I shall liberate living beings'. \ You who are born from the mother of wisdom and nourished by compassio n will perform your deeds. \ And for as long as space has not been destroyed. \ O Sugata. EXPLAINING THE DURATION OF ENLIGHTENMENT AND REMAINING] L5: [E.49] \ 324. \ For that many aeons you enter into the most supreme. \ Therefore O Sugata. .
. \ The wise should understand this clearly. \ /// \ [XI. O Blessed One. . . due to the nectar from the opening of the kumuta which came from the unfolding of these verses. . \ By the monk Chandrakirti.52] \ 327. \ This system has been extracted from the treatises on the middle way. \ And has been presented exactly according to \ The scriptures and the oral teachings. . \ Likewise the system presented here \ Is not found elsewhere. . \ The hopes of Chandrakirti have been completely fulfilled. you will never go to the most sublime peace. . . \ This profound and frightening thatness just explained will be realize d by those with previous familiarity. these worldly beings are ob jects of compassion. \ Frightened by the colour of the great ocean of Nagarjuna's wisdom. ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . \ Now. out of compassion you have turned your mind away from peace and do not possess a nirvana. \ Some beings have kept this excellent system at a great distance. \ Because the unskilled who have minds conceiving things and non-things \ Experience suffering at the time of birth and death. \ Therefore O Protector. \ And because the evil experience rebirths. L1: [CONCLUSION] L4: [How the treatise was composed] . \ Therefore.\ 325. \ /// \ 330. . \ The worldly beings who through the faults of confusion eat poisonous food. \ /// \ 329. \ /// \ 328. . . \ The distress of a mother for her child pained by eating poison \ Does not compare to your mercy for your family. . \ /// \ 326. and when separat ed from the pleasant and meeting the unpleasant. \ A Dharma such as this is not found elsewhere.
and quickly attain the groun ds of the Sugatas. It is easier to understand if we break it down into these sixteen things to which we have a lot of attachment. \ You should abandon the mind that likes their treatises as you would s ystems that assert a self. so the number of emanations they have is inconc eivable. In a previous visit.* . it will be easy for me to explain more of it. which have now been p ublished in Shenpen Osel. . so we selected the mos t important verses to explain. L4: [The meaning of the conclusion] . The protector Nagarjuna attained the first bhumi.56] \ 331. \ That is as white as autumn stars in the sky of my mind darkened by de lusions. \ And that is like a jewel on the hood of the snake of my mind. s o it is better to study them piece by piece by piece. . . We sang two verses about the twelve qualities of the bodhisattvas to heighten ou r interest. \ /// \ [XI.200 qualities. The sixth chapter contains many logic al reasonings which are difficult to study all the way through in one sitting. the eight mahayana heart disciples of the Buddha Shakyamuni are all b odhisattvas on the tenth ground. It would be very good for us to recite all of the se verses again and again. even though they may have listened extensively. . . . ~ *Editor's note: See Shenpen Osel. \ Through the merit encompassing all directions that I have received fr om explaining the excellent system of Master Nagarjuna. Similarly. The sixteen emptinesses are explained from the perspective of the sixteen things to which we are most attached. If I come here again. having seen these other systems made up by one's own mind. -----------------------------------------------. 1. L4: [Dedicating merit from composing the treatise] . \ May all worldly beings realize thatness. Vol. There is a lot to it. The sixth chapter is quite long. and so it would be very good to recite those verses ag ain and again. Each one of those is explained to be empty. we have explained all of the verses from nine of the ten mind generations. . 3. The sixth mind generation is very long. which was composed by the glorious Chandrakirti. RINPOCHE: From this text. then we will be m ore enthusiastic about attaining those states ourselves. so he had these 1.\ But it will not be comprehended by others. Perfect Joy. and that helps us really to understand emptiness. Entrance to the Middle Way. If we know about the bodhisattvas' good qualities. No. . Emptiness is difficult to understa nd if we just lump everything together and say everything is empty. . pages 55-62. -----------------------------------------------. \ Therefore. we explained the sixteen emptinesses.
practice emptiness and compassion in union. the middle way. These are what we have to think about again and again and again. When the madhyamika. so we need to hear that they aren't real again and again to r everse our attachment to them. Of these equalities. We have explained the ten equalities from the Sutra of the Tenth Bhumi. and not short? Where is the thing th at is only short and not long? When we realize we cannot find any such thing. When we have great suffering. "I see this life to be like a dream and an illusion. or what the g reatest suffering possible could be. and to develop compassion for those who s uffer because they do not realize that. an illusion. Suffering and happiness exist only in dependence upon each other. the king of sw ans soars ahead to lead the flock. the two phrases heard most of ten are. and as existing.. We can only kn ow happiness in dependence upon suffering. is explained. . as Milarepa sang. which teach from the perspective of existence and things existing. The king of swans has two wings: one the wing of knowing that things are not real. . that exists only in dep endence upon an idea of what great suffering is. Long exists only in dependence upon short. In short. just like appearances in an illusion.e. and I have compassion for those who do not realize that. we can see how important it is to practic e the dharma. Thinking this. Then there are other dharma explanations that presume the existence of things. And this shows that suffer ing and happiness are of the nature of equality. are made i n order to inspire us to accumulate merit.** With his broad white wings of the relative and suchness. understanding this. . Everything is comp . and a water moon. . Reality and falsity are fundamentally th e same. the other the wing that posits the existence of things existing in a certain way is the wing of the relative. . Short exists only in dependence upon long." He was singing from h is own experience. To sum it all up. We can only know suffering in depende nce upon happiness. . he can attain the enlightenment of Buddhahood. These explanation s. it is not short. we have no idea. th en we see the equality of long and short.Knowing about the qualities of Buddhas and bodhisattvas is a means of heightenin g our interest in dharma and also of causing us to have even greater respect for and be in greater awe of the bodhisattvas on these grounds. And when we tr y to think or conceive of what the greatest joy possible could be. It is not long." We hear these again and agai n because we have such great attachment to the things in this life as being real . Long and short are fundamentally the sa me. s uch as the explanation that wherever there is space there are more sentient bein gs. it is not false. Where is the thing that is only long. he crosses to the far shore of the ocean of the Victor's perfect qualities. By the power of virtue's wind. "It does not exist." and "It is not real. that they do not exist is the wing of suchness. ~ **Editor's note: i. Flying on these two wings he can soar to the far side of the ocean of the Victors' qual ities. . When we have a great feeling of joy. and it should be our practice as well to train in the realiza tion that all the appearances of this life are just like appearances in a dream. . and wherever there are sentient beings there is suffering. the most important are the way that everything is the same from the perspective of its genuine nature freedom from all conceptual fabrications and the way everything is the same from the perspective of its relative nature that everyt hing is equally just like a dream. t hat can exist only because we have a notion of what great joy is. This life is not real. . .
Sarva Mangalam! . ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* ******************************************************* . .lete within that. translator. [Rinpoche. and students dedicate merit.] . [End] .
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