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# Physics 213 Final Notecard 1

1.1

· Energy Storage U= · Energy Density

Electric Charge and Field
Coulomb’s Law
1 Q1 Q2 F = 4πǫ0 r2 ǫ0 = 1 = 8.85 × 10−12 C 2 /N · m2 4πk

1 1 CV 2 = QV 2 2 u= 1 ǫ0 E 2 2

· Dialectrics (K) (C0 is capacitance in vacuum) C = KC0

2.2

Currents and Resistance
∆Q ∆t

1.2

Electric Field
F E= q E= 1 Q 4πǫ0 r2

¯ · Electric Current: I = · Ohm’s Law · Resistivity (ρ)

or I =

dQ dt

V = IR l A

Continuous Charge dE = E= 1 dQ 4πǫ0 r2 dE Conductivity: σ =
1 ρ

R=ρ

· Power: P = IV = I 2 R =

V2 R

2.3 1.3 Gauss’s Law
· Electric Flux ΦE = EA⊥ = EA cos θ · Gauss’s Law Qencl ǫ0

DC Circuits
1 Req

· Resistors in Series: Req = R1 + R2 + R3 · Resistors in Parallel: · Voltage Divider · Kirchoﬀ’s Rules – Sum of currents entering junction must equal sum of currents leaving. – Sum of changes in potential around any closed path of a circuit must be zero. · Charge on a discharging capacitor E · dl · Charge on charging capacitor =
1 R1

+

1 R2

V = V0

R2 R1 + R2

E · dA =

1.4

Electric Potential
Ub − Ua = q(Vb − Va ) = qVba

· V related to E
b

Vba = Vb − Va = − Vba = −Ed · Single Point Charge V = 1 Q 4πǫ0 r

Q = Q0 e−t/RC

a

Q = CV (1 − e−t/RC ) = Q0 (1 − e−t/RC ) τ = RC

Time Constant (time to reach 63% of max. value)

2
2.1

Circuits
Capacitance
C= A Q = ǫ0 Vba d · Parallel Plates

3

Magnetism
F = Iℓ × B applying the RHR Magnitude: F = IlB sin θ = qvB sin θ F = qv × B

· In parallel: Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 · In series:
1 Ceq

E Particle Selector: v = B Both ﬁelds: F = qE + qv × B

=

1 C1

+

1 C2

+

1 C3

B=

µ0 I [outside straight wire] 2π r

1

3.1

Ampere’s Law
B · dl = µ0 Iencl = µ0 B = µ0 nI = µ0 J · dA

3.4.3

LR Circuits (series) I= V0 (1 − e−t/τ ) [charging] R

N I [solenoid] l

I = I0 e−t/τ [discharging] τ = L/R

3.2

Biot-Savart Law
µ0 I dl × ˆ r 2 4π r µ0 Idl sin θ dB = 4πr2 dB =

3.5

Electromagnetic Waves
dΦE dt

Displacement Current ID = ǫ0

3.3

3.5.1 Maxwell’s Equations ΦB = B⊥ A = BA cos θ = B · A

Magnetic Flux [ B uniform ]

Non-uniform B ΦB = B · dA dΦB dt dΦB dt

E · dA =

Q ǫ0

B · dA = 0 E · dl = − B · dl = µ0 I + µ0 ǫ0 3.5.2 dΦE = µ0 dt dΦB dt J · dA + µ0 ǫ0 d dt E · dA

· Faraday’s Law of Induction V =− · Enclosed Loops N V = −N

Waves and Speed E = Ey = E0 sin(kx − ωt)

3.4
3.4.1

Inductance
Mutual Inductance M21 N2 Φ21 = I1

k = 2π , ω = 2πf , f λ = ω = υ λ k Speed of the Wave (Light)

B = Bz = B0 sin(kx − ωt)

V2 induced in coil 2 due to change in current in coil 1 V2 = −N2 V2 = −M21 3.4.2 dΦ21 dt 3.5.3

1 E = 3.00 × 108 m/s =υ=c= √ B µ0 ǫ0 Energy in EM Waves

dI1 [emf due to mutual inductance] dt

· Energy Density u= 1 1 B2 ǫ0 E 2 + 2 2 µ0

Self Inductance

Self-Inductance

N ΦB L= I emf due to self-inductance dI dΦB = −L V = −N dt dt Energy stored in Magnetic Field P = IV = LI Energy density in a magnetic ﬁeld u = energy density = 1 B2 2 µ0 dI dt

u = µ0 E 2 [in terms of E only] u= u= · Poynting vector B2 [in terms of B only] µ0 ǫ0 EB [both E and B] µ0 1 (E × B) µ0

S=

Averaged value of S is the intensity ¯ Erms Brms S= µ0

1 U = LI 2 energy stored in inductor 2 2