Introduction to Digital Image Processing:
   Vision allows humans to perceive and understand the world surrounding us. Computer vision aims to duplicate the effect of human vision by electronically perceiving and understanding an image. Giving computers the ability to see is not an easy task - we live in a three dimensional (3D) world, and when computers try to analyze objects in 3D space, available visual sensors (e.g., TV cameras) usually give two dimensional (2D) images, and this projection to a lower number of dimensions incurs an enormous loss of information.    In order to simplify the task of computer vision understanding, two levels are usually distinguished; low-level image processing and high level image understanding. Usually very little knowledge about the content of images High level processing is based on knowledge, goals, and plans of how to achieve those goals. Artificial intelligence (AI) methods are used in many cases. High-level computer vision tries to imitate human recognition and the ability to make decisions according to the information contained in the image.   This course deals almost exclusively with low-level image processing, high level in which is a continuation of this course. Age processing is discussed in the course Image Analysis and Understanding, which is a continuation of this course.

1.1 History:
Many of the techniques of digital image processing, or digital picture processing as it was often called, were developed in the 1960s at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MIT, Bell Labs, University of Maryland, and few other places, with application to satellite imagery, wire photo standards conversion, medical imaging, videophone, character recognition, and photo enhancement. But the cost of processing was fairly high with the computing equipment of that era. In the 1970s, digital image processing proliferated, when cheaper computers Creating a film or electronic image of any picture or paper form. It is accomplished by scanning or photographing an object and turning it into a matrix of dots (bitmap), the meaning of which is unknown to the computer, only to the human

viewer. Scanned images of text may be encoded into computer data (ASCII or EBCDIC) with page recognition software (OCR).

1.2 Basic Concepts:
 

A signal is a function depending on some variable with physical meaning. Signals can be
o o o o

One-dimensional (e.g., dependent on time), Two-dimensional (e.g., images dependent on two co-ordinates in a plane), Three-dimensional (e.g., describing an object in space), Or higher dimensional.

1.3 Pattern recognition
Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. Alternatively, it can be defined as "the act of taking in raw data and taking an action based on the category of the data" . As such, it is a collection of methods for supervised learning. Pattern recognition aims to classify data (patterns) based on either a priori knowledge or on statistical information extracted from the patterns. The patterns to be classified are usually groups of measurements or observations, defining points in an appropriate multidimensional space. Are to represent, for example, color images consisting of three component colors.

1.4 Image functions:
 

The image can be modeled by a continuous function of two or three variables; Arguments are co-ordinates x, y in a plane, while if images change in time a third variable t might be added.

 

The image function values correspond to the brightness at image points. The function value can express other physical quantities as well (temperature, pressure distribution, distance from the observer, etc.).

The brightness integrates different optical quantities - using brightness as a basic quantity allows us to avoid the description of the very complicated process of image formation.

The image on the human eye retina or on a TV camera sensor is intrinsically 2D. We shall call such a 2D image bearing information about brightness points an intensity image.

  

The real world, which surrounds us, is intrinsically 3D. The 2D intensity image is the result of a perspective projection of the 3D scene. When 3D objects are mapped into the camera plane by perspective projection a lot of information disappears as such a transformation is not one-to-one.

 

Recognizing or reconstructing objects in a 3D scene from one image is an ill-posed problem. Recovering information lost by perspective projection is only one, mainly geometric, problem of computer vision.

The second problem is how to understand image brightness. The only information available in an intensity image is brightness of the appropriate pixel, which is dependent on a number of independent factors such as

Object surface reflectance properties (given by the surface material, microstructure and marking),

o O

Illumination properties, And object surface orientation with respect to a viewer and light source.

Today's technology allows digital media to be altered and manipulated in ways that were impossible twenty years ago. We are feeling the impact of this technology in nearly every corner of our lives, from the courts to the media, politics, business, and science. As this technology continues to evolve it will become increasingly more important for the science of digital forensics to keep pace. This presentation will describe state of the art techniques in digital image forensics. Digital watermarking has been proposed as a means by which an image can be authenticated. This approach works by inserting at the time of recording an imperceptible digital code (a watermark) into the image. With the assumption that tampering will alter a watermark, an image can be authenticated by verifying that the extracted watermark is the same as that which was inserted. The major drawback of this approach is that a watermark must be inserted at precisely the time of recording, which limits this approach to specially equipped digital cameras. In contrast, recent advances in digital forensics operate in the absence of any watermark or specialized hardware. With the assumption that tampering disturbs certain underlying statistical properties of an image, these forensic techniques can detect specific forms of tampering. Air-brushing or re-touching can be detected by measuring deviations of the underlying color filter array correlations. Specifically, virtually all digital cameras record only a subset of all the pixels needed for a full-resolution color image. Instead, only a subset of the pixels is recorded by a color filter array (CFA) placed atop the digital sensor. The most frequently used CFA, the Bayer array, employs three color filters: red, green, and blue. Since only a single color sample is recorded at each pixel location, the other two color samples must be estimated from the neighboring samples in order to obtain a three-channel color image. The estimation of the missing color samples is referred to as CFA interpolation or demosaicking. In its simplest form, the missing pixels are filled in by spatially averaging the recorded values. Since the CFA is arranged in a periodic pattern, a periodic set of pixels will be precisely correlated to their neighbors according to the CFA interpolation algorithm. When an image is re-touched, it is likely that these correlations will be destroyed. As such, the presence or lack of these correlations can be used to authenticate an image, or expose it as a forgery. A digital composite of two people can be detected by measuring differences in the direction to the illuminating light sources from their faces and body. By making some initial simplifying assumptions about the light and the surface being illuminated, we can mathematically express how much light a surface should receive as a function of its position relative to the light. A surface that is

Digital watermarks may be used to verify the authenticity or integrity of the carrier signal or to show the identity of its owners. With identical and highly similar blocks neighboring each other in the re-ordered sequence. Since it is statistically unlikely to find identical and spatially coherent regions in an image. the signal may be audio. For marking media files with copyright information. digital watermarks are only perceptible under certain conditions. whereas in digital watermarking. It is typically used to identify ownership of the copyright of such signal.directly facing the light. the hidden information should. DIGITAL WATERMARKING A digital watermark is a kind of marker covertly embedded in a noise-tolerant signal such as audio or image data. but does not need to contain a relation to the carrier signal. will be brighter than a surface that is turned away from the light. a region growing algorithm combines any significant number of neighboring blocks that are consistent with the cloning of an image region. Traditional Watermarks may be applied to visible media (like images or video). a fragile watermark would be applied. for example. Like traditional watermarks. It is prominently used for tracing copyright infringements and for banknote authentication. standard techniques can be used to determine the direction to the light source for any object or person in an image. and imperceptible anytime else. 2. The blocks are then re-ordered so that they are placed a distance to each other that is proportional to the differences in their pixel colors. The needed properties of a digital watermark depend on the use case in which it is applied. a digital watermark has to be rather robust against modifications that can be applied to the carrier signal. their presence can then be used as evidence of tampering. pictures. after using some algorithm.1. Unlike metadata that is added to the carrier signal.e. If a digital watermark distorts the carrier signal in a way that it becomes perceivable. Duplication or cloning is a simple and powerful form of manipulation used to remove objects or people from an image. Instead. i. Any inconsistencies in lighting can then be used as evidence of tampering. This form of tampering can be detected by first partitioning an image into small blocks. a digital watermark does not change the size of the carrier signal. Once expressed in this form. "Watermarking" is the process of hiding digital information in a carrier signal. if integrity has to be ensured. video. texts or 3D models. . A signal may carry several different watermarks at the same time. it is of no use.

and common signal processing alterations used to make the data more efficient to store and transmit. including intentional attacks to remove the watermark. In particular. and transparent. it should be robust. ownership. then the watermark may be retrieved from the copy and the source of the distribution is known. The media of focus in this paper is the still image. a watermark should adhere to a few requirements. If a copy of the work is found later. Since a digital copy of data is the same as the original. Within this category. It just marks data. but does not degrade it nor controls access to the data. Transparency requires a watermark to be imperceptible so that it does not affect the quality of the content. digital watermarking tries to control the robustness as top priority. by pirates less possible. this method is useless in the digital world. A watermark is embedded into a digital signal at each point of distribution. The signal. But whereas steganography aims for imperceptibility to human senses. can be used later to identify the owner of the work. known as a watermark.1 Principle of digital watermarks A watermark on a bank note has a different transparency than the rest of the note when a light is shined on it. the owner can still be identified. However.Both steganography and digital watermarking employ steganographic techniques to embed data covertly in noisy signals. and makes detection. One application of digital watermarking is source tracking. This technique reportedly has been used to detect the source of illegally copied movies. There are a variety of image watermarking techniques. and source. and therefore removal. . Watermarks of varying degrees of obtrusiveness are added to presentation media as a guarantee of authenticity. falling into 2 main categories.2. The effectiveness of a watermark is improved when the technique exploits known properties of the human visual system. This is so that afterwards.1. . quality. To be effective in its purpose. These are known as perceptually based watermarking techniques. and to trace illegal copies of the work. the class of image-adaptive watermarks proves most effective. depending on in which domain the watermark is constructed: the spatial domain (producing spatial watermarks) and the frequency domain (producing spectral watermarks). digital watermarking is a passive protection tool. Robustness requires that it be able to survive any alterations or distortions that the watermarked content may undergo. to authenticate the content. Digital watermarking is the process of inserting a digital signal or pattern (indicative of the owner of the content) into digital content.

Another scenario in which the enforcement of copyright is needed is in newsgathering. digital cameras. and satellite-delivered video. whether their music is released over the Internet or on DVD-Audio". image and video databases.1. surveillance imaging. Furthermore. Embedding a watermark should not result in a significant increase or reduction in the original data. 2. They are of the opinion that any encryption system can be broken. However. and that digital watermarking is needed to indicate who the culprit is. image's origin and content can be verified. Digital watermarking is being recognized as a way for improving this situation. Copyright owners can incorporate .3 PURPOSES OF DIGITAL WATERMARKS Watermarks are a way of dealing with the problems mentioned above by providing a number of services:  They aim to mark digital data permanently and unalterably. 2. the images must be watermarked as they are captured. which has resulted in pirating. This is so that later. including writers. and is therefore probable that duplication on the Internet occurs without the rightful owners' permission. including Internet imaging. It is easy to duplicate audio and visual files.Currently there are various techniques for embedding digital watermarks. digital libraries. sooner or later. An example of an area where copyright protection needs to be enforced is in the on-line music industry. Digital watermarks are added to images or audio data in such a way that they are invisible or inaudible Ñ unidentifiable by human eye or ear. so that the source as well as the intended recipient of the digital work is known.2 IMPORTANCE OF DIGITAL WATERMARKS The Internet has provided worldwide publishing opportunities to creators of various works. video-ondemand systems. these same opportunities provide ease of access to these works. they can be embedded in content with a variety of file formats. This suggests that there are many applications that could require image watermarking. RIAA reports that "record labels see watermarking as a crucial piece of the copy protection system. Basically. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) says that the value of illegal copies of music that are distributed over the Internet could reach $2 billion a year. Digital watermarking is the content protection method for the multimedia era. musicians and artists. When digital cameras are used to snapshot an event. medical imaging.1. photographers. they all digitally write desired information directly onto images or audio data in such a manner that the images or audio data are not damaged.

Common Signal Processing Operations: They include the followings. Recompression Linear filtering such as high pass and low pass filtering. 2. owners are able to find illegal copies of their work on the Internet. The various applications are:    Authentication Broadcast Monitoring Copy Prevention . Addition of a constant offset to the pixel values Local exchange of pixels other intentional attacks: Printing and Rescanning Watermarking of watermarked image (rewatermarking) 2.  Some more recent techniques are able to correct the alteration as well.  Watermarks can be used to identify any changes that have been made to the watermarked data. In addition. That is.  With a tracking service. The presence of a watermark in a work suspected of having been copied can prove that it has been copied. they demonstrate the quality and assure the authenticity of the work. any unauthorized copies that s/he has distributed can be traced back to him/her.5 DIGITAL WATERMARKING APPLICATIONS Digital watermarking is rapid evolving field. because each purchaser of the data has a unique watermark embedded in his/her copy. scaling and cropping.1. A/D conversion Resampling.identifying information into their work. watermarks are used in the protection of ownership.4 ATTACKS ON WATERMARKS            Lossy Compression: Many compression schemes like JPEG and MPEG can potentially degrade the data’s quality through irretrievable loss of data. D/A conversion. this section identifies digital watermarking applications and provides an overview of digital watermarking capabilities and useful benefits to customers. Geometric Distortions: include such operations as rotation. Requantization.1. translation.  By indicating the owner of the work.

[2][3] In some countries. . a broader term that refers to any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature. 2. partial encryption. Digital signatures employ a type of asymmetric cryptography. Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects. video e. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender such that they cannot deny sending it (authentication and non-repudiation) and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity). audio. Digital signatures can also provide nonrepudiation.  Forensic Tracking E-Commerce/Linking 2. and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering. while also claiming their private key remains secret. For messages sent through a nonsecure channel. Digimarc: For document verification.c. the signature is valid. copyright protection. Signum: Allow digital fingerprints to be embedded into grahics. meaning that the signer cannot successfully claim they did not sign a message. Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures. Stegnosign: For creating. some non-repudiation schemes offer a time stamp for the digital signature. embedded messages and more. embedding and detecting watermarks. MediaSec: Provide software for various media types.2 DIGITAL SIGNATURE A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. further. electronic signatures have legal significance. India.[4] and members of the European Union. including the United States. and internet tracking. but properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type.t. and must be implemented properly to be effective. financial transactions.6 WATERMARKING SOFTWARE&SREVICES      Alpha-Tec: watermarking software for copyright protection and infringement tracking. Digital signatures are commonly used for software distribution.[1] but not all electronic signatures use digital signatures. Digital signature schemes in the sense used here are cryptographically based.1. so that even if the private key is exposed. a properly implemented digital signature gives the receiver reason to believe the message was sent by the claimed sender.

1 Uses of Digital Signature As organizations move away from paper documents with ink signatures or authenticity stamps.Digitally signed messages may be anything representable as a bitstring: examples include electronic mail. Two main properties are required. and congressional bills with digital signatures.2. When ownership of a digital signature secret key is bound to a specific user. a valid signature shows that the message was sent by that user. First. either accepts or rejects the message's claim to authenticity. University of Chicago. contracts. Universities including Penn State. that information may not be accurate. public key and a signature. The algorithm outputs the private key and a corresponding public key. 2. or a message sent via some other cryptographic protocol.1 Authentication Although messages may often include information about the entity sending a message. Digital signatures can be used to authenticate the source of messages. and status of an electronic document as well as acknowledging informed consent and approval by a signatory.  A signature verifying algorithm that. produces a signature.1.2. Secondly. A digital signature scheme typically consists of three algorithms:  A key generation algorithm that selects a private key uniformly at random from a set of possible private keys. a signature generated from a fixed message and fixed private key should verify the authenticity of that message by using the corresponding public key. it should be computationally infeasible to generate a valid signature for a party who does not possess the private key. For example. given a message. Below are some common reasons for applying a digital signature to communications: 2. suppose a bank's branch office . The importance of high confidence in sender authenticity is especially obvious in a financial context. public and private laws. given a message and a private key. digital signatures can provide added assurances of the evidence to provenance. The United States Government Printing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of the budget.  A signing algorithm that. identity. and Stanford are publishing electronic student transcripts with digital signatures.

2.1.sends instructions to the central office requesting a change in the balance of an account. is an important aspect of digital signatures. Although encryption hides the contents of a message. it may be possible to change an encrypted message without understanding it.2 Integrity In many scenarios. If the central office is not convinced that such a message is truly sent from an authorized source. The device signature may be in the form of  sensor pattern noise (SPN)  camera response function  Re sampling artifacts  Color filter array  Interpolation artifacts  JPEG compression  Lens aberration  sensor dust .2. Furthermore. an entity that has signed some information cannot at a later time deny having signed it. there is no efficient way to modify a message and its signature to produce a new message with a valid signature. but others do not. (Some encryption algorithms.1. or more specifically non-repudiation of origin. By this property. acting on such a request could be a grave mistake. any change in the message after signature will invalidate the signature. because this is still considered to be computationally infeasible by most cryptographic hash functions (see collision resistance). if a message is digitally signed. access to the public key only does not enable a fraudulent party to fake a valid signature. the sender and receiver of a message may have a need for confidence that the message has not been altered during transmission. known as nonmalleable ones. prevent this.) However.2. 2. Similarly.3 Non-repudiation Non-repudiation.

The spectral transmittance of the CFA elements along with the demosaicing algorithm jointly determine the color rendition. Since sensors are made of semiconductors they obey solid-state physics. Color filters are needed because the typical photosensors detect light intensity with little or no wavelength specificity. . or color filter mosaic (CFM). so a color translation is required to convert the tristimulus values into a common. The sensor's passbandquantum efficiency and span of the CFA's spectral responses are typically wider than the visible spectrum. absolute color space. thus all visible colors can be distinguished. the Bayer filter (shown to the right) gives information about the intensity of light in red. and therefore cannot separate color information. The raw image data captured by the image sensor is then converted to a full-color image (with intensities of all three primary colors represented at each pixel) by a demosaicing algorithm which is tailored for each type of color filter. a color filter array (CFA). The color filters filter the light by wavelength range. For example. Color filter array The Bayer color filter mosaic. In photography. 1 blue and 1 red filter. Each two-by-two submosaic contains 2 green.CHAPTER 3 COLOR FILTER ARRAY 3. each covering one pixel sensor. is a mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the pixel sensors of an image sensor to capture color information. such that the separate filtered intensities include information about the color of light. and blue (RGB) wavelength regions. The responses of the filters do not generally correspond to the CIEcolor matching functions. green.

One cyan. green. Bayer filter RGBE filter CYYM filter CYGM filter RGBW Bayer RGBW #1 2×2 2×2 2×2 2×2 RGBW #2 RGBW #3 Three example RGBW filters from Kodak. with 50% white. used in a few cameras of Kodak.  List of color filter arrays Pattern (pixels) 2×2 size Image Name Description Very common RGB filter.The Foveon X3 sensor uses a different structure such that a pixel utilizes properties of multijunctions to stack blue. (See Bayer filter#Alternatives) 4×4 2×4 3.1 Manufacture of the CFA . and red sensors on top of each other. one red. With one blue. This arrangement does not require a demosaicing algorithm because each pixel has information about each color. one green. used in a few cameras. One cyan. one yellow. Bayer-like with one of the green filters modified to "emerald". and one magenta. Dick Merrill of Foveon distinguishes the approaches as "vertical color filter" for the Foveon X3 versus "lateral color filter" for the CFA. and two green. two yellow. used in a few Sony cameras. Traditional RGBW similar to Bayer and RGBE patterns. and one magenta.

but nowadays. At least one early example of an on-chip design utilized gelatin filters (Aoki et al. while other sensors have the CFA manufactured directly on the surface of the imager. CMCR106G. Theuwissen makes no mention of the materials utilized in CFA manufacture. and subsequently dyed. durability. the color filter was fabricated on a separate glass plate and glued to the CCD (Ishikawa 1981). . CMCR101B. Color photoresists sometimes used include those with chemical monikers CMCR101R. Adams et al. Filter materials are manufacturer specific. all single-chip color cameras are provided with an imager which has a color filter on-chip processed (Dillon. Ensuring that the dyes have the right mechanical properties—such as ease of application. CMCR106R. Some sources indicate that the CFA can be manufactured separately and affixed after the sensor has been manufactured. First.". Nakamura said that materials for on-chip color filter arrays fall into two categories: pigment and dye. Pigment based CFAs have become the dominant option because they offer higher heat resistance and light resistance compared to dye based CFAs. and resistance to humidity and other atmospheric stresses—is a challenging task. aliasing effects. at best. 1978) and not as a hybrid. state "Several factors influence the CFA's design. though solutions have been found for this problem. with the G filter being an overlap of the Y and C filters.Diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ)-novolacphotoresist is one material used as the carrier for making color filters from color dyes. This makes it difficult. and optimal manufacturing processes of color filter arrays. Theuwissen says "Previously. via photolithography. A few sources discuss other specific chemical substances. and spatial frequencies of the absorptive filters. There is some interference between the dyes and the ultraviolet light needed to properly expose the polymer. moire patterns. thicknesses ranging up to 1 micrometre are readily available.. attending optical properties. to fine-tune the spectral responsivities." He provides a bibliography focusing on the number. For instance.[15] The gelatin is sectionalized. 1982). Aoki reveals that a CYWG arrangement was used. CMCR101G. and CMCR106B. types. In either case. the individual CFA filters are usually layers of transmissive (absorptive) organic or pigment dyes.

of Fuji Photo Film company. organics would be preferred over glass. or Colour Index numbers.P.501. and is usually an aspect of electronic noise.3 IMAGE NOISE Image noise is random (not present in the object imaged) variation of brightness or color information in images.I.. Gersteltec sells photoresists that possesses color filter properties. mainly azo dyes and pyrazolone-diazenyl. Image noise can also originate in film grain and in the unavoidable shot noise of an ideal photon detector.P. Solvent Blue 36. the later stages of the integrated circuit manufacturing line). #12715. Ocean Optics has indicated that their patented dichroic filter CFA process (alternating thin films of ZnS and Cryolite) can be applied to spectroscopic CCDs. In U. .S. where a low-temperature regime must be rigidly observed (due to the low melting temperature of the aluminum metalized "wires" and the substrate mobility of the dopants implanted within the bulk silicon).S. 3.096.I. some CVD silicon oxide processes are low temperature processes. Image noise is an undesirable by-product of image capture that adds spurious and extraneous information. AKA Solvent Red 8. On the other hand. Carl Chiulli cites the use of 5 chemicals. 3. # 61551. Solvent Yellow 88.2 Some pigment and dye molecules used in CFAs In U.# 4. list some 150-200 chemical structures.801 Koya et al. # 5. and C. It can be produced by the sensor and circuitry of a scanner or digital camera. CAS Registry numbers. but fail to provide chemical names.808.Given that the CFAs are deposited on the image sensor surface at the BEOL (back end of line. three of which are C.

Noise clearly visible in an image from a digital camera The original meaning of "noise" was and remains "unwanted signal"." Image noise is. independent at each pixel and independent of the signal intensity. including that which comes from the reset noise of capacitors ("kTC noise"). Gaussian.4 Types o o o o o o o Amplifier noise (Gaussian noise) Salt-and-pepper noise Shot noise Dark current noise Quantization noise (uniform noise) Read noise Anisotropic noise 3. By analogy unwanted electrical fluctuations themselves came to be known as "noise. unwanted electrical fluctuations in signals received by AM radios caused audible acoustic noise ("static"). In color cameras where more amplification is used in the blue color channel than in the green or red channel. inaudible.4. The magnitude of image noise can range from almost imperceptible specks on a digital photograph taken in good light. 3. that is. to optical and radioastronomical images that are almost entirely noise.2 Salt-and-pepper noise . from which a small amount of information can be derived by sophisticated processing (a noise level that would be totally unacceptable in a photograph since it would be impossible to determine even what the subject was). 3.1 Amplifier noise (Gaussian noise) The standard model of amplifier noise is additive.4. caused primarily by Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise). of the constant noise level in dark areas of the image. Amplifier noise is a major part of the "read noise" of an image sensor. there can be more noise in the blue channel. of course.

and hot pixels appear as salt-and-pepper noise.Image with salt and pepper noise Fat-tail distributed or "impulsive" noise is sometimes called salt-and-pepper noise or spike noise. or if the exposure time is long enough that the hot pixel charge exceeds the linear charge capacity. This type of noise can be caused by analog-to-digital converter errors. etc. If dark-frame subtraction is not done. and the noises at different pixels are independent of one another. 3. Shot noise follows a Poisson distribution. bit errors in transmission. This noise is known as photon shot noise. of the leakage. Shot noise has a root-mean-square value proportional to the square root of the image intensity. there can be additional shot noise from the dark leakage current in the image sensor. An image containing salt-and-pepper noise will have dark pixels in bright regions and bright pixels in dark regions. Dead pixels in an LCD monitor produce a similar. The variable dark charge of normal and hot pixels can be subtracted off (using "dark frame subtraction"). It can be mostly eliminated by using dark frame subtraction and interpolating around dark/bright pixels. but non-random. which is usually not very different from Gaussian.4. the noise will be more than just shot noise. variation in the number of photons sensed at a given exposure level. Dark current is greatest at "hot pixels" within the image sensor.3 Shot noise The dominant noise in the lighter parts of an image from an image sensor is typically that caused by statistical quantum fluctuations. In addition to photon shot noise. . or random component. leaving only the shot noise. that is. this noise is sometimes known as "dark shot noise" or "dark-current shot noise". display.

3. The read noise of a camera affects how well the image represents the actual data. The efficiency of a generation center depends on its energy level. and is present in all images taken and recorded by a camera. from which they are emitted into the conduction band. For example.4 Dark current noise: Dark current is the result of imperfections or impurities in the depleted bulk silicon or at the siliconsilicon dioxide interface. providing a path for valence electrons to sneak into the conduction band.4. with states near mid-band generating most of the dark current.5 Quantization noise (uniform noise) The noise caused by quantizing the pixels of a sensed image to a number of discrete levels is known as quantization noise. adding to the signal measured in the pixel.6 Read noise Read noise is a property that is inherent to the CCD of digital cameras. These sites introduce electronic states in the forbidden gap which act as steps between the valence and conduction bands. 3.[13] 3. it will be signal independent if other noise sources are big enough to cause dithering.5 In digital cameras . image sensors are sometimes subject to row noise or column noise. 3. Calibrating the read noise allows us know more about the quality of the CCD as well as the data distortion due to the reading of images. 3.7 Anisotropic noise Some noise sources show up with a significant orientation in images.4. robbing electrons of the thermal energy required to reach an intermediate state. The generation of dark current is a thermal process wherein electrons use thermal energy to hop to an intermediate state. Though it can be signal dependent. the most effective way to reduce dark current is to cool the CCD. For this reason.4.4. It has an approximately uniform distribution. or if dithering is explicitly applied. since high read noise decreases the quality of the image.

6 Effects of sensor size The size of the image sensor. can be introduced through brightening shadows or through color-balance processing. Banding noise. or effective light collection area per pixel sensor. The relative effect of both read noise and shot noise increase as the exposure is reduced. or that the f-number or focal-plane illuminance is held constant. In low light. In the case of images bright enough to be in the shot noise limited regime. similar to shadow noise. The image on the right has adequate lighting and 0. so larger sensors typically create lower noise images than smaller sensors. For images at lower signal levels (higher ISO settings). the sensitivity of an imager scales roughly with the sensor area. is the largest determinant of signal levels that determine signal-to-noise ratio and hence apparent noise levels. more pixels within a given sensor area will make the image noisier if the per pixel read noise is the same. longer shutter speeds lead to increased salt-and-pepper noise due to photodiodeleakage currents. correct exposure requires the use of long shutter speeds. when the image is scaled to the same size on screen. At the cost of a doubling of read noise variance (41% increase in read noise standard deviation). On most cameras. or printed at the same size. or both. this salt-and-pepper noise can be mostly eliminated by dark frame subtraction. That is. . the pixel count makes little difference to perceptible noise levels – the noise depends primarily on sensor area. where read noise (noise floor) is significant. for a constant f-number.1 second exposure. since fewer photons are counted (shot noise) and since more amplification of the signal is necessary. corresponding to increased ISO sensitivity. not how this area is divided into pixels.Image on the left has exposure time of >10 seconds in low light. assuming the aperture area is proportional to sensor area. higher gain (ISO sensitivity). 3.

it is likely (but not certain) to be spurious and noise. since there is little important fine chroma detail that one risks losing. There are many procedures for this.5" compact camera sensor (with roughly 1/16 the area) at ISO 100. 3. if it is irregular.7 Sensor heat Temperature can also have an effect on the amount of noise produced by an image sensor due to leakage. However. low-contrast detail that may have characteristics similar to noise. so there is often a tradeoff made between noise removal and preservation of fine. but not strictly noise). If this is a single pixel. no algorithm can make this judgment perfectly. But a definitive answer is not available. many people find . it is known that DSLRs will produce more noise during summer than winter. but all attempt to determine whether the actual differences in pixel values constitute noise or real photographic detail.For instance. whether in-camera or on a computer. Furthermore. 3. This ability to produce acceptable images at higher sensitivities is a major factor driving the adoption of DSLR cameras. A simplified example of the impossibility of unambiguous noise reduction: an area of uniform red in an image might have a very small black part. With this in mind. and that produced by a 1/2. if it covers a few pixels in an absolutely regular shape. the noise level produced by a Four Thirds sensor at ISO 800 is roughly equivalent to that produced by a full frame sensor (with roughly four times the area) at ISO 3200. Many cameras have settings to control the aggressiveness of the in-camera noise reduction. it may be more likely to be a true feature of the image. Most noise reduction algorithms perform much more aggressive chroma noise reduction. This decision can be assisted by knowing the characteristics of the source image and of human vision. involve some form of noise reduction.8 Image noise reduction Most algorithms for converting image sensor data to an image. An example shows a DSLR sensor at ISO 400 creating less noise than a point-and-shoot sensor at ISO 100. and average out the former while attempting to preserve the latter. it may be a defect in a group of pixels in the image-taking sensor (spurious and unwanted. which tend to use larger sensors than compacts.

luminance noise less objectionable to the eye. seeking small regularities in massively random data. most camera manufacturers increase the noise reduction aggressiveness automatically at higher sensitivities. such as astronomical images of very distant objects. The high sensitivity image quality of a given camera (or RAW development workflow) may depend greatly on the quality of the algorithm used for noise reduction. techniques are different. In cases of extreme noise. This leads to a breakdown of image quality at higher sensitivities in two ways: noise levels increase and fine detail is smoothed out by the more aggressive noise reduction. . it is not so much a matter of noise reduction as of extracting a little information buried in a lot of noise. Since noise levels increase as ISO sensitivity is increased. since its textured appearance mimics the appearance of film grain.

it may vary with integration time. degrading the image. a long exposure (integration time) emphasizes the inherent differences in pixel response so they may become a visible defect. . pixel dependent photo response nonlinearity (PRNL) and is often simplified as a single value measured at almost saturation level to permit a linear approximation of the non-linear pixel response. occurring only at certain. and fixed pixel locations. integration time) but no external illumination and the PRNU (photo response nonuniformity). etc. imager temperature. The latter can be described as the local.CHAPTER 4 FIXED PATTERN NOISE Fixed pattern noise is the term given to a particular noise pattern on digital imaging sensors often noticeable during longer exposure shots where particular pixels are susceptible to giving brighter intensities above the general background noise. imager gain and incident illumination. Although FPN does not change appreciably across a series of captures.[1] One is the DSNU (dark signal non-uniformity). material or interference with the local circuitry. it is not expressed in a random (uncorrelated or changing) spatial distribution. The term "fixed pattern noise" usually refers to two parameters. exposure times. which might strongly deteriorate if additional electrical gain (and noise) is included. Fixed pattern noise (FPN) is a general term that identifies a temporally constant lateral nonuniformity (forming a constant pattern) in an imaging system with multiple detector or picture elements (pixels). which describes the gain or ratio between optical power on a pixel versus the electrical signal output. It might be affected by changes in the environment like different temperatures. It is characterized by the same pattern of 'hot' (brighter) and cold (darker) pixels occurring with images taken under the same illumination conditions in an imaging array. which is the offset from the average across the imaging array at a particular setting (temperature. This problem arises from small differences in the individual responsibility of the sensor array (including any local post amplification stages) that might be caused by variations in the pixel size. Pixel noise therefore gives a number (commonly expressed in rms) that identifies FPN in all permitted imaging conditions. Sometimes pixel noise[2] as the average deviation from the array average under different illumination and temperature conditions is specified. In practice.

2 Methods To characterize the PRNU. and we also checked to ensure that the camera is focused before taking the pictures. PRNU is the pixel variation under illumination. we use the camera to take multiple images of a uniform scene. since the maximum value of the Opt linear device is around 4 candelas.1 Background Photo Response Non-Uniformity. We expect the PRNU to increase with increasing illumination.1. The calculation of the PRNU is as follows:  Obtain the average image over the 100 images taken:   Subtract the DSNU image from this average image to eliminate the contribution from the DSNU. Like DSNU.1 PRNU (Photo Response Non-Uniformity) 4. is one source of pattern noise in digital cameras. 4. We kept the illumination level fixed at 3. One of the few engineering definitions for PRNU or "photoresponsenonuniformity" is in the photonics dictionary. since increasing the illumination level will enhance the difference in the photo-response of the pixels across the image and lead to a higher PRNU. and increasing the illumination level increases the non-uniformity of the illumination . And it is for CCD only. it is seen as the variation in pixel responsively over the CCD.1. 4. while DSNU occurs as a variation in pixel responsively when the CCD is not illuminated.5. We took 100 exposures each for three exposure times: 1/10. However. 1/4 and 1/2. or PRNU for short.00 candelas since the brighter light is more easily detected by the camera. Repeat the calculations for the different exposure times to compare the PRNU. In our measurements. produced by the Optoliner. Obtain the spatial variance of the pixel values over the entire CCD   Divide the spatial variance by the average image from (ii) to obtain the PRNU as a percentage of the actual pixel values.

For most digital cameras.s andr are random noise and is the fixed pattern noise (FPN) that is associated with every camera and can be removed by subtracting a dark frame from the image taken by the same camera.produced by the Opt linear. and . In acquiring an image. the lenses let through the rays of the three colour components of the scene. primarily the JPEG format.455) is the gamma correction factor. shot noise. read-out noise and quantization (lossy Compression) noise. (1) and keeping the first two terms of the expansion where  is the denoised image and is the ensemble of the noises. After the conversion. the PRNU can be contaminated by various types of noise introduced at different stages of the image acquisition process. This colour interpolation process is commonly known as demosaicking. The PRNU pattern noise K can then be formulated as . and B). (= 0. R. This colour filtering is determined by the CFA. after applying Taylor expansion to Eq. and is the input signal of the scene. A colour photo is represented in three colour components (i. g is the colour channel gain. a colour interpolation function generates the electronic signals of the other two colour components for every pixel according to the colour intensities of the neighboring pixels. K is the zero-mean multiplicative factor responsible for the PRNU.. However. As formulated in [11]. respectively. . Since is the dominating term in Eq. G.e. Figure 1 demonstrates the image acquisition process. a camera output model can be expressed as where I is the output image. these signals are stored in the camera’s memory in a customized format. (1). In Eq. we chose to increase the exposure times to mimic the effect of increasing illumination levels. including . during the image acquisition process. The dominating component of sensor pattern noise is photo response non-uniformity (PRNU). stand for dark current. The signals then undergo additional signal processing such as white balance. Finally. (1). but for every pixel only therays of one colour component is passed through the CFA and subsequently converted into electronic signals by the sensor. the signal will inevitably be distorted when passing through each process and these distortions result in slight differences between the scene and the camera-captured image. gamma correction and image enhancement.

i.e. where S is the number of images involved in the calculation.e. this inevitably introduce noise with power stronger than that of the genuine . the noise residual WI of image I under investigation is extracted using Eq. (5) from a number of low-contrast images taken by device d and then the PRNU is estimated using the ML estimation procedure adopted by Chen et. (5) and compared against the reference PRNU Kd of each device d available to the investigator in the hope that it will match one of the reference fingerprints. for each imaging device d.2 Use of PRNU in Device Identification The basic idea of using the PRNU noise pattern in device identification can be described as follows. (6). The normalised cross-correlation is the noise residual extracted from . Since for most cameras. is the gamma correction factor .. (6) is element-wise. 4.. Although various denoising filters can be used. al. instead of using against the reference fingerprint . Again the multiplication operation in Eq. where is the mean function. we used . Given the PRNU-based approaches‟ potential in resolving device identification problem to the accuracy at individual device level. only one of the three colours of each pixel is physically captured by the sensor while the other two are artificially interpolated by the demosaicking process. the discrete wavelet transform followed by a Wiener filtering operation). as suggested in [11].is the noise residual obtained by applying a denoising filter on image I. 1) First. is used to compare the noise Note in Eq. (5) is element-wise. 2) Secondly. the wavelet-based denoising process (i. has been reported as effective in producing good results.. the noise residual patterns are extracted using the s-th image taken by device d and Note the multiplication operation in Eq. it is important that the PRNU extracted is as close to the genuine pattern noise due to the sensor as possible. thus identifying the source device that has taken the image under investigation.

Eq. Section V concludes this work. In Section IV. interchangeably whenever there is no need to differentiate them. Most modern digital cameras acquire images using a single image sensor overlaid with a CFA. 4. in the rest of the work we will use the two terms. Because the PRNU is formulated in Eq. In this work. allowing the interpolation noise in the artificial components to contaminate the real PRNU in the physical components. such as chromatic aliases. It is also known as CFA interpolation or color reconstruction. Addressing this shortcoming is the motivation of this work. The aim of a demosaicing algorithm is to reconstruct a full color image (i. rather than using the camera's built-in firmware. (4)). We can see from Eq. (3) and (4) that the accuracy of both PRNU K and noise residual W depends on the denoising operation applied to I in obtaining the most common method of obtaining . The algorithm should have the following traits:  Avoidance of the introduction of false color artifacts. PRNU and noise residual.. (3) and (5) as a function of the noise residual W (i.PRNU.3 DEMOSAICING A demosaicing (also de-mosaicing or demosaicking) algorithm is a digital image process used to reconstruct a full color image from the incomplete color samples output from an image sensor overlaid with a color filter array (CFA). a full set of color triples) from the spatially under sampled color channels output from the CFA. we will look at the impact of demosaicking on PRNU fidelity in Section II and propose an improved formula for extracting PRNU in Section III. we present some experiments on device identification and image content integrity verification to validate the proposed PRNU extractionformula. as a result. zippering (abrupt unnatural changes of intensity over a number of neighboring pixels) and purple fringing  Maximum preservation of the image resolution . (2).e. However. as mentioned earlier that I is to apply the discrete wavelet transform followed by a Wiener filtering operation directly to the entire image I without differentiating physical components from artificial components and.e. Many modern digital cameras can save images in a raw format allowing the user to demosaic it using software. so demosaicing is part of the processing pipeline required to render these images into a viewable format.

we call the colour components physically captured by the sensor as physical colours and the ones artificially interpolated by the demosaicking function as artificial colours. which contains both artificial and physical components. in a homogeneous area. the colour variation between neighbouring pixels is greater. the existing method for extracting PRNU as formulated in Eq. in the red colour component/plane of an image taken by a camera with a Bayer CFA. in one noise residual extraction process. The main problem inherent to Eq. When wavelet transform is applied during the noise residual extraction process the interpolation noise residing in the artificial components propagates into the physical components. edge-adaptive or non-adaptive.. and is called demosaicing. Most demosaicking approaches group the missing colours before applying an interpolation function. demosaicking has been rigorously investigated. Due to the fact that demosaicking is a key deterministic process that affects the quality of colour images taken by many digital devices. As a result the interpolation noise gets diffused from the artificial components into the physical ones. However. (1) does not take this into account. each coefficient of the wavelet transform used in the noise residual extraction process involves multiple pixels and thus both artificial and physical components. (4) and (5) based on the definition of the output image model in Eq. For example. (4) and (5). in inhomogeneous areas. To extract the PRNU using Eq. This indicates that the PRNU in physical colour components is more reliable than that in the artificial components. only one fourth of the pixels‟ red colour are physical and for each pixel with physical red colour all its 8 neighbours‟ red colours are artificial. e.4 DEMOSAICKING IMPACT ON PRNU FIDELITY In this work. 4.g. (4) is that it involves the whole image plane. hence the accuracy of colour interpolation result is also content-dependent. Therefore it is desirable to devise a noise residual extraction method that can . a form of interpolation is needed to fill in the blanks. the discrete wavelet transform followed by a Wiener filtering operation is applied. thus the interpolation noise is also more significant. because of the low variation of the colour intensities of neighbouring pixels. Conversely. the interpolation function can more accurately generate artificial components. For example. The mathematics here is subject to individual implementation. The grouping process is usually content-dependent. Low computational complexity for fast processing or efficient incamera hardware implementation  Amenability to analysis for accurate noise reduction To reconstruct a full color image from the data collected by the color filtering array. However.

prevent the artificial components from contaminating the reliable PRNU residing in the physical components with the interpolation noise. .

(7). the second part of Eq. Otherwise. According to Eq. 5. i. (7) means that if the colour component c is the same as the colour that the CFA pattern F allows to pass. except that it is a 2 × 2 square array. For each colour component of a pixel . (7) is artificially applied to calculate the colour. to make the proposed CD-PRNU versatile and applicable to cameras adopting different CFA patterns. Let be an interpolation matrix with 2N+1 × 2N+1 coefficients and be a X × Y-pixel input signal from the scene consisting of three colour components. (1) proposed in can be reformulated as . That is to say that for each pixel . then no demosaicking is needed because c has been physically captured by the sensor.2 Mathematical Model of CD-PRNU A generic demosaicking process is to convolve an interpolation matrix with an image block of the same size centred at the pixel where the artificial colour is to be calculated. Although the 2×2 Bayer CFA is the most common CFA pattern.e . G (green) and B (blue) before colour interpolation.1 FORMULATION OF COLOUR DECOUPLED PRNU (CD-PRNU) In this section. a mathematical model for the CD-PRNUis derived and then an extraction algorithm is proposed to extract the noise residual that is to be used for estimating the final CD-PRNU. we makes no assumption about the CFA pattern. F. can be determined according to The first part of Eq. First.CHAPTER 5 CD-PRNU (Color Decoupled Photo Response Non-Uniformity) 5. without prior knowledge about the CFA. only one of the three colour components takes a value physically captured by the sensor and this colour is determined by the colour configuration of the CFA pattern F. R (red). The other two colour components are to be determined by the demosaicking process. the image output model of Eq. we will discuss the formulation and extraction of CD-PRNU.

Eq. That is where is a low-passed filtered version of the artificial components and is the corresponding ―sensor pattern noise‖. 5.. We can also use the same ML estimate as in Eq. the PRNU is actually the interpolation noise P while. (9) suggests that in the artificial components.3 CD-PRNU Extraction Algorithm . the PRNU remains unaffected by the interpolation noise.B. (5) to extract the reference interpolation noise d from S low-variation images taken by d such that for a particular device where is the artificial colour components of the s-th low-contrast image taken by device d and . in the physicalcomponents. (3)). which is actually the interpolation noise. We will discuss how the physical and artificial is the interpolation noise extracted from colour components can be decoupled in simple manner without a priori knowledge about the CFA pattern in Section III. (9) that the physical components and artificial components have similar mathematical expression. Eq. Hence if the physical and artificial colour components can be separated / decoupled. P can be extracted in the same way as the sensor pattern noise K is extracted (i. It can also be seen from Eq.e.

manufacturers usually do not provide information about the CFA used by their cameras. . only one of the three colour components is physical and the other two are artificial. The framework of the colour decoupled noise residual extraction process is shown in Figure 2 and the procedures are listed in Algorithm 1. But by decomposing into four sub-images. Eq. However. so the second step is. from the physical and artificial components if the CFA is known. For each colour channel. Eq. . . we perform a 2:1 down-sampling across both horizontal and . several methods have been proposed to estimate the CFA. and mod is the modulo operation. In this work. we know that each of the four sub-images either contains only the physical colour or only the artificial colours. Unfortunately. By decoupling the physical and artificial colour components in this fashion before extracting the noise residual. Therefore. (4) is then used to obtain noise residual from each sub-images . for each pixel of I. Most CFA patterns are of 2 × 2 elements and are periodically mapped to the sensors. without knowing the CFA pattern used by the manufacturer. To estimate the CD-PRNU Pd of a particular device d and use it as the reference signature of d. Note that Algorithm 1 is for extracting the noise residual pattern W from an image I. exhaustive search is by no means acceptable. we can prevent the artificial components from contaminating the physical components during the DWT process. We know that. we do not know (actually we do not have to know) which pixels carry the colour captured physically by the hardware and which are not. Finally the CD-PRNU Wc of each colour channel c is formed by combining the four sub-noise residuals such that where. these methods have to exhaust all of the possible CFA patterns in order to infer/estimate the „real‟/optimal CFA. we can extract the sensor pattern noise and interpolation noise. for each channel . we first separate the three colour channels of a colour image I of pixels. However. such that vertical dimensions to get four sub-images. (10) and (11).According to Eq. to extract the CD-PRNU. respectively. (11) is applied.


5. Source Camera Identification We have carried out source camera identification tests on 300 2048×1536-pixel photos of natural scenes taken by six cameras(C1 to C6). Noise residual extraction algorithm Input: original image I Output: colour decoupled noise residual W Noise residual extraction algorithm 5. each responsible for 50.4 Algorithm 1. 5. ) of each camera Ci is generated by taking the weighted average of the PRNUs extracted from 30 photos of blue sky according to Eq. For device identification purpose. The six cameras are listed in Table1. The reference PRNU (i. we need clean PRNUs (which appear as high frequency bands of images) as device .e.1.5 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS In this section. we carry out experiments on source camera identification and image content integrity verification to validate the feasibility of the proposed CD-PRNU in a comparative manner. Cameras used in the experiments. (11).5. Table 1.

other images with low-variation scenes (i. WI. of the image I under investigation. the normalised cross-correlation has to be greater than a specified threshold for a camera to be identified as the source camera. Therefore. We suspect that the reason C2 does not perform as expected is because the CFA pattern is not a 2 × 2 square array as we have assumed. its reference PRNU (or CD-PRNU) is most similar to the PRNU (or CD-PRNU). except for a few cases when images are of full size (1536 × 2048 pixels) and the identification rates are close or equal to 100% (1. PRNU performs equally well as CD-PRNU when the image size is 192 × 256 pixels and slightly outperforms CD-PRNU when the block size is 48 × 64 pixels. Our empirical experience suggests that an average of 20 blue sky images is accurate enough. Therefore.0000).. Table 2 lists the identification rates.e. The reason blue-sky images are chosen in this work is because blue sky contains less scene details (high frequency signal). in this experiment. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the capability of the proposed CD-PRNU in dealing with the colour interpolation noise. which has been proved to be a more stable detection statistics than normalised cross-correlation when applied to the scenarios in which the images of interest may have undergone geometrical manipulations. normalised cross-correlation formulated as in Eq. Actually. so geometrical transformations will not be applied in order to prevent biased evaluation from happening. C3. (6) will be used to measure the similarity between PRNUs (CD-PRNUs). if out of the six reference PRNUs (or CDPRNUs). Generally speaking. thus giving better chance of extracting clean PRNU. For C2. C4. Source camera identification requires similarity comparisons among PRNUs (CD-PRNUs) and therefore the feasibility of the chosen similarity metrics is important. the less data is available. in the following experiments. such as rotation or scaling. where smaller image blocks have to be analysed. because the smaller the images. . we also compare the performance of the proposed CD-PRNU against that of the traditional PRNU [11] when they are applied to blocks of 5 different sizes cropped from the centre of the fullsized PRNU (CD-PRNU). a camera is identified as the source camera. C1. However. C5 and C6 perform significantly better when CD-PRNU is used in all cases. the key point is about demonstrating the different performance of the traditional PRNU and the proposed CD-PRNU.fingerprints for comparison against the PRNU extracted from individual images under investigation. Fridrich suggested the use of the Peak to Correlation Energy (PCE) measure in [15]. scenes without significant details) can be used instead. Another reason is that. Because PRNU is often used in content integrity verification. In practice. Individually speaking. Taking the average of the PRNUs from 30 blue sky images is to further reduce variation. therefore identification results become less reliable.

we can see that CD-PRNU still outperforms PRNU significantly. a ROC curve of the performance of PRNU and CD-PRNU are demonstrated. Figure 3. This has been graphically presented in Figure 3(a).when the statistics of the six cameras are pooled together. Performance comparison of source camera identification a) Overall identification rates when CD-PRNU and PRNU are used as fingerprint In Figure 3(b). We can see that the CD-PRNU outperforms the PRNU because at all fixed False Positive rate the CDPRNU‟s True Positive rate are always higher than that of the PRNU. as listed in the Total column of Table 2. .

it takes 0. The amount of data processed during the extraction of PRNU and CD-PRNU is the same. these two operations are trivial and only incur negligible increase of time complexity. .526 seconds to compute the similarity between the PRNUs of two images of 2048 × 1536 pixels and 0.3G CPU and 3 GB RAM. Performance comparison of source camera identification b) Overall ROC curve when CDPRNU and PRNU are used as fingerprint For a system with a Pentium Core II 1. Although extracting CD-PRNU requires down-sampling and up-sampling.Figure 3.567 seconds to calculate the similarity between a pair of CD-PRNUs of the same size.

5. Source camera identification rates using traditional PRNU and proposed CD-PRNU.2 Content Integrity Verification We also carried out the following three content integrity verification experiments on 640 × 480-pixel images. and pasted it at approximately the same location in Image I.5.  In the first experiment.2 in Figure 4(b) to create the forged Image I. .1 in Figure 4(a).Table 2. The images in Figure 4(a) and (b) are taken by Olympus C730. we copied a 160 × 390-pixel area from Image I.3 as shown in Figure 4(c).

3  In the third experiment.1 (b) Original Image II.Figure 4. (a) Original Image II. we slid a 128 × 128-pixel window across the PRNU extracted from the image under investigation and another window of the same size across the reference PRNU of the cameras that have taken images I.2.2 in Figure 6(b).2 (c) Forged Image II.3 To detect the manipulated areas. II. pasted it at the area where the face of another person is in Image III.2.3  In the second experiment. (a) Original Image I.1 (b) Original Image I. we cropped a 60 × 80-pixel area from Image III. The original image. source image and forged images for the content verification experiments. to create the forged Image III. The original image.2 and III. Figure 6.1 (b) Original Image III. which covers the face of the person.2 in Figure 5(b) to create the forged Image II. (a) Original Image III.1 in Figure 6(a) taken by Canon Power Shot A400. the windows are .2 (c) Forged Image III. we cropped an 80 × 100-pixel area from Image II. pasted it at the area where the face of another person is in Image II. Figure 5. source image and forged images for the content verification experiments.1 in Figure 5(a). The original image.3 in Figure 6(c). which is taken by Olympus C730. source image and forged images for the content verification experiments.3 in Figure 5(c). which covers the face of the person.2 (c) Forged Image I. In Chen’s method [11]. The images in Figure 5(a) and (b) are also taken by the same camera.

To decide whether a block centered at the window superposed on the image has been manipulated or not. Therefore. FP = |{B | M(B) = 0 and Md(B) = 1}| and FN = |{B | M(B) = 1 and Md(B) = 0}|. the sliding step/displacement is set to 5 pixels in order to reduce the computational load without sacrificing the accuracy of the integrity verification. therefore. while higher TN and FN. where and are the mean and standard deviation of the correlations distribution. we use various thresholds defined as to analyze the performance of PRNU and CD-PRNU. the block in the centre of the window is deemed as manipulated. Higher TP and TN.0 to 3. Number of manipulated and non-manipulated areas in each image (unit: block). TN = |{B | M(B) = 0 and Md(B) = 0}|. which incurs a high computational load. Let B be an arbitrary block and M(B) and Md(B) be defined as TP. By varying the value of t. Moreover. If the cross-correlation is lower than a predetermined threshold t. the cross-correlation of the PRNU patterns inside the two windows at the same location was calculated according to Eq. and T(t) is the threshold. Table 3.0 and use the four metrics.moved a pixel at a time. In the following experiments we will allow t to vary independently in the range from 0. false positive (FP). Table 3 lists the number of manipulated and non-manipulated blocks of 5 × 5 pixels in the forged images. we will obtain lower TP and FP. true positive (TP). in our experiment. As discussed in [11]. . and lower FP and FN indicate better performance. this method is not accurate at the pixel level [11]. we can evaluate the integrity verification performance across a wide range of correlation thresholds T(t). FP. As t grows. true negative (TN) and false negative (FN) to measure the performance of integrity verifications based on PRNU and CD-PRNU. (6). the cross-follows the Generalized Gaussian (GG) distribution. TN and FN are defined as TP = |{B | M(B) = 1 and Md(B) = 1}|. respectively.

Let α be the number of manipulated blocks and β be the number of authentic blocks. therefore the PRNU pattern noises in the two areas are almost the same. By . We can see from Figure 7(a) and 7(b) that CD-PRNU generally achieves higher TP and TN while maintaining lower FP and FN.1 Experiment on Image I. FP and FN.2. Thus. we use the raw data without any filtering to calculate the TP. TN. TN. an algorithm with better performance will have a higher true positive rate ().3 is illustrated as Figure 8.3 across a range of correlation threshold T(t). which is marked vertically. a low threshold also results in the situation where more authentic blocks are mistakenly detected as manipulated. However.3 demonstrate that CD-PRNU-based method significantly outperforms the PRNU-based method when the tampered area is about one quarter of the sliding window. giving rise to a higher FP. the experiments on III. As a result. In order to simplify the comparison and to obtain a fair result. A lower correlation (similarity) allows the algorithm to detect more manipulated blocks. This is because the area we copied from the source image I. the performance of the filtering / dilation operation strongly depends on parameter setting and hence many experiments must be run to obtain the best parameters for filtering. the scheme cannot detect the manipulated area based on PRNU.3 Figure 7 shows the performance of the PRNU and CD-PRNU in terms of TP. we remove all simply connected tampered regions from Z that contain less than 64×64 pixels (one quarter of the number of pixels in the block)‖. which means the authentication result is generally as unreliable as that of a random guess. FP and FN when authentication is carried out on image I.2. ―the block dimensions impose a lower bound on the size of tampered regions that our algorithm can identify. As a result. the ROC is formulated as At the same false positive rate . Chen applies erosion and dilation operations with a square kernel in order to filter small areas identified as tampered with. It is clear that the ROC curve of the PRNU-based scheme mostly overlaps with that of Random Guess. The ROC curves for the integrity verification experiments on image I. Therefore a ROCcurve of TP rate with respect to FP rate can be used to evaluate the overall performance of the PRNU and CD-PRNU.1 is at approximately the same location as the original area in image I. The final authentication result is a image with the dilated areas highlighted as the tampered areas. which is marked along the horizontal axis of the ROC curve. leading to higher TP.According to Chen‟s predication. However. 5.5.

across a range of correlation threshold T(t). the CD-PRNU-based scheme results in a curve much higher than the PRNU-based method.3. which means that by using CD-PRNU manipulated blocks can be detected more reliably. Figure 8. Authentication results on image I.3 .3: Integrity verification performance of the PRNU and CD-PRNU in terms of a) TP. The ROC curve of Truth Positive Rate with respect to False Positive Rate of PRNU and CD-PRNU when authentication is performed on image I.2. b) TN.5. Figure 7. with t varying from 0.0.contrast.2 Experiment on Image II. 5.0 to 3.

c) FP and d) FN across a range of correlation threshold T(t). both PRNU and CD-PRNU can effectively detect the manipulated blocks as their ROC curves have suggested in Figure 10. as shown in Figure 9(a) and 9(d). Figure 9.0 to 3. with t varying from 0. . However. Albeit their mixed performance in terms of TN and FP.3.3: Integrity verification performance of the PRNU and CD-PRNU in terms of a) TP.0. b) TN. mixed performance in terms of TN and FP can be seen in Figure 9(b) and 9(c). again indicate its superiority to PRNU. Figure 10 also shows that the ROC curve of CD-PRNU is still slightly higher than that of PRNU. indicating a slightly better performance of CD-PRNU. Authentication results on image II. CD-PRNU‟s consistently higher TP and lower FN.When verifying the integrity of image II.

This poor performance is also reflected in the PRNU’s ROC curve in Figure 12 and is due to the fact that he manipulated area is too small (60 × 80 pixels).3 Experiment on Image III. the PRNU cannot correctly detect any manipulated blocks (i. and therefore areas smaller than this should be filtered in order to remove the falsely identified noise. the manipulated blocks can be effectively detected by the CD-PRNU-based scheme because the areas in question are from two images taken by different cameras and thus contain different interpolation noise. respectively. although the performance of PRNU and CD-PRNU in terms of TN and FP are mixed. 5. approximately one quarter of the window. the CD-PRNU-based method can identify smaller areas.3.2. As a result.3 When authenticating III.e. Since the tampered area is 60 × 80 pixels. Chen predicated in that one quarter of the sliding window is the lower bound on the size of tampered regions that our algorithm can identify. as demonstrated in Figure 11(a).3 conforms to Chen’s observation. .3. When the threshold t is higher than 1. which is only about one quarter of the sliding window (128 × 128 pixels). By contrast. The experiment result on III. The ROC curve of Truth Positive Rate with respect to False Positive Rate of PRNU and CD-PRNU when authentication is performed on image II. as can be seen in Figure 11(b) and 11(c).1. CD-PRNU‟s significantly better performance in terms of TP and lower FN can still be seen again in Figure 11(a) and 11(d). the method based on PRNU can perform no better than a random guess.Figure 10.5.

3: Integrity verification performance of the PRNU and CD-PRNU in terms of a) TP. c) FP and d) FN across a range of correlation threshold T(t). Authentication results on image III.Figure 11. b) TN. with t varying from 0.0.0 to 3. .

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