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THE THIRD ROME, 1870-1950: AN INTRODUCTION

Demolitions at the Markets of Trajan, ca. 1930. [Museo di Roma, 0/104J.

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The Third Rome,

Preamble
Rape ... The third sack ... Betrayal of historic patrimony. For many who know and love Rome, what has happened to it in the last one hundred years can only be characterized in such terms. After the Goths and the Vandals, after the mercenaries of Charles V in 1527, the fateful city succumbed one final time to a spectacular ravaging. lt carne at the hands of its own people-politicians, landowners, speculators-who destroyed a third of its built environment and more than half of its green in the name of progress and urban renewal. For others, what has happened was necessary. Rome too, despite the Colosseum and the imperial fora and St. Peter's and Piazza Navona, had to become a modern city. lt had to cope with implosive population and the motor caro This exhibition is not designed to justify the stance of one side or the other. On this issue, it is too easy, too simple, to be polemical. Rome is everybody's city. lts monuments and its great _public spaces ha ve been a staple of the Western experience, like the Bible and the plays of Shakespeare. Man-handling this experience excites and angers us alI. Understandably so. We are choosing not to be polemical. Our aim is to represent and to explain what happened. The period since 1870, which saw the most extensive transformation in the fabric of Rome, is also the least known period of its physical history-in this country at any rate. This' lacuna deserves to be filled properly, dispassionately. The story is interesting not only for its own sake, but also because it conditions the historic Rome that is the object of our reverence and pilgrimage. For what we see and study of its architectural history has been pre-selected, edited, and staged for us by the rulers and planners of modern Rome. The exhibition presents the documents, sets up the debate. Recrimination, compassion, or praise-these are the viewer's privileges. The term Third Rome is a convenient way to refer to the city as the capital of ltaly, following upon the Romes of the emperors and the popes. It has a neat beginning: 20 September 1870, when the Royal ltalian Army breached the classical Walls at Porta

1870-1950:
An lntroduction
Spiro Kostof

Porta Pia today, with the monument to the Bersaglieri by 1. Mancini and P. Morbiducci (1932). This exterior facade of the gate is by V. Vespignani, 1865; the tower behind it belongs to the inner facade by Michelangelo. [F.Rigamonti]. The Walls at Porta Pia, with the breach to the right; taken by L. Tuminello on 21 September 1870. [Museo di Roma].

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Pia and put an end to the one-thousand-years-old temporal rule of the see of Peter. It was the crowning act of the unification of Italy that had been in the making since the collapse of the Napoleonic order. For Rome, it meant the rude awakening of a picturesque, backward, but immensely prestigious town of some 230,000 people, through the influx of a massive government apparatus; a new middle class ofbureaucrats, bankers, and speculators; and working people drawn to the capital of the young Kingdom by the promise of unusual opportunity. It meant housing facilities for tens of thousands, accommodation for government offices, new roads, and 'public services. It meant, beyond alI this, the fashioning of a national image-the iconography of unity. Actually, at least for the physical history of Rome, the Breach of Porta Pia was not a brusque startingpoint. The architectural and planning activity of the last pope-king Pius IX constituted one of the more progressive elements of a notoriously reactionary .- administration. This activity must be considered as the exordium for the planning of the Third Rome. The expansion of the city toward the eastern hills and the intent to do so north of the Vatican, in the flatland of Prati di Castello; the placement of the main railroad station on the Viminat by the Baths of Diocletian; the attempt to link this reactivated part of town with the traditional core by means of a major new artery (the precursor of Via Nazionale) -these and other initiatives of Pius' regime prejudiced planning decisions after 1870. This is why we open the exhibition with the sunset years of papal Rome. Our aim in the introductory section is not only to recreate, by way of contrast, the image of the city at the time of the Breach, but to suggest connections and continuities. In the main, the theme of the exhibition is the updating of the historic fabric since 1870-its uses and abuses. This imposes an obvious and welcome circumscription on the otherwise immodest subject, the planning history of modern Rome. Geographically, the area within the Walls becomes our prime concerno The development of the distant

periphery, planless and undisciplined, occurred generally .speaking on historically virgin land; it ha s, therefore, little bearing on the theme. Suburban architecture is represented, for the most partI by the residential typologies which are included in the section on housing. Only three extramural installations receive detailed treatrnent, due partly to their special importance, and also, at least in the case of two of them, for the conscious attempt in their design to emulate the forms and programs of classical Rome. These are: the university complex to the northeast, now called Città Universitaria; the Foro Mussolini, now Foro Italico, to the northwest, beyond Prati di Castello and Quartiere Mazzini; and, about five miles south of the old center, the monumental complex of the Universal Exposition of 1942 (EUR) which was never held.
Chronologically, our story ends with the disintegration of the Fascist regime. The city within the Walls has been, on the whole, undisturbed since then, and the latest Master PIan, approved finally in 1962, prohibits any future changes. We have extended the terminus of the exhibition to 1950 only to be able to illustrate the execution of Via della Conciliazione leading to St. Peters-a project started in 1937, in celebration of the earlier accord between the Vatican and Mussolini's government, but completed only after World War It in time for the Holy Year of 1950 which was to celebrate his fallo

Rome, New and Old
On the 2,677th birthday of Rome, 21 Aprii 1924, when he wasimade honorary citizen at the Campidoglio, Benito Mussolini pronounced his official view on the physical future of the city he had conquered. I should like to divide the problems of Rome, the Rome of this Twentieth Century, into two categories: the problems of necessity and the problems of grandeur. One cannot confront the latter unless the first have been resolved. The problems of necessity rise from the growth of Rome, and are encompassed in this binomial: housing and communications. The problems of grandeur are of another kind: we

must liberate aH of ancient Rome from the mediocre construction that disfigures it, but side by side ~ith the Rome of antiquity and Christianity we must also create the monumental Rome of the Twentieth Century. Rome cannot, mustnot, be solely a modern city, in. the by now banal sense of that word; it must be a city worthy of its glory, and that glory must be revivified tirelessly to pass it on as the legacy of th~ Fascist era to generations to come.l

Via XX Settembre (formerly Strada Pia) about 1868; from Fontana delI'Acqua Felice in the foreground to Michelangelo's Porta Pia. The building on the right-hand side of the street, just behind the fountain, is the Granarone of Urban VIII, demolished in 1937. Between it and Porta Pia, the Villa Bracciano. [Museo di Roma]. Aerial photograph, including this same stretch of Via XX Settembre as it appears today. On the right side of the street, the large mass of the Ministry of Finance by R. Canevari, 1877, the first major government building to be built after the Breach. At the lower right-hand corner of the picture, Piazza dell'Esedra by G. Koch (1896-1902) and the beginning of Via Nazionale. [Fotocielo].

This grandiloquent program encapsuiates the pIanning philosophy of nationalist Rome during the entire period reviewed by the exhibition. From the start, the city's post-papai destiny was envisaged in terms of expansion and modernist aggiornamenfo on the one hand, and the conjuring of a new image on the other, an image that would speak of Italianness, of unity, of grandeur. The two goals were, in fact, one. Residentiai quarters far a dramatically swelling popuiation, roads to connect them to the oider center, improved means of communication throughout the expanded metropolis-these were at Once the product of the new exigencies and a conspicuous part of the new image. They accommodated the daiIy life of the capitai which embraced over 500,000 peopie by 1900, more than twice the number at the Breach of Porta Pia; and they proved, in additiorl, that it was worthy of holding a pIace of distinction among the great cities of modern Europe. The other part of the image was the past-and it too was caught in the duai fury of progressivism and pride. Large chunks of it disappeared to make room for traffic and the monuments of the Third Rome. The rest served as show and foiI. Far the Third Rome was competingnot only with its neighbors in Europe but with itseIf: and the pastI in this earnest contestI was an asset, a hindrance, and a challenge. It is in this light that we must view the fatefui choice to build the Third Rome on the carcass of the other two, to revive this carcass, revise it, and stretch out from it aiong predetermined paths. There were, from the outset, proposais such as that of Baron Haussmann to build the new Rome outside and at some distance from the old; or, at the least, to set up a new monumental core of government buildings and other public institutions so as to dislocate the rituai

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Piazza Venezia today with the Vittoriano, and Palazzetto Venezia moved to the west. [Courtesy of F. Quilici].

Piazza Venezia fram the Campidoglio, about 1870. The immediate foreground is the roof of Santa Maria Aracoeli, behind which, at center, Palazzetto Venezia. Left and right of the piazza, Palazzo Venezia and Palazzo Torlonia, the latter demolished ca. 1900 to make raom for the present PalaZizodelle Assicurazioni Generali di Venezia of.1911. [Museo di Roma, Parker series].

. Quintino Sella.eet structure. atter the Rome of the popesj there will come the Rome of the People. TheMinistry of Finance. a bust by Scipione Tadolini. The other was the fact of Rome. of which he was for a' timein charge... the historic center was to be abandoned or downgraded.. becomes the splendid C"pital of the ltalian Kingdom. "Rome or death!" was the Garibaldian battlecry. _ . adillinistrative. axis. 419]. And the mastermind af unity. a passage Mussofini was fond of quoting in his own speeches? ' With this emotional background.. 12 King Vietor Emanuel II. Rome had to transform itself into the capitill of Italy with frantic haste. ifwould hay'e been remarkable indeed if. Camillo Cavour.Iled sventramenti. 'Butt1l1s' is -anIy one partof the argument.-v .~Ùggering. 1925. The east was favored. entailed by the . piecemeal adjustment seemed the prudent thing to do. in' the hopes that it would ad as . Re sawthe modern structure develop with Via XX Settembre as its backbone. .. "Atter th~ Rome of the emperors. was installed in 1877 m a vast he.' he said in 1860. Through the long struggle of unification. __ ~' __ '. the brain of Italy. new ones cut through by.. _. Qn th~ contrary.architectural magnet far the momentous dislocation.. MiDi~!riesaI1d other gov- ernmenLolfice. Risorgimento rhetoric of every persuasion had trumpeted thehistoric fatality of Rome. soughtto demystify Rome and redefine it as a center of science and the intellectual life.meansof massive... dedeveJstruction-the so-ca. _ . andthe Porta Pia which had already assumed the status of a nationalist martyrium.take .. Mazzi:" nian republicans._~'_' __ ' .is to see to it that the Eternal City. and did so once again both for the sake of expedience and for the sake of historicimagery. Marcello Piacentini project for a new metropolitan 1916. .. [E Rigamonti]._ . now the officiarì:esidence of the King.. statesman and Comptian positivist.w building along this artery.) The finances of the city admin7 istration' were quite unequal to the task..s''Yere. fihancial and human. [From Capilolium. atter the Bn~àch of Porta Pia. It did not work. and the royalists of Piedmont alI recognized that ltalian unity was impossible without occupying Rome. inwhich twenty-five centuries have accumulated every kind of gIory. it was imperative to. and the parsimoniousness of thefirstgavernments brought little relief. and the suburban sprawl used the radiaI disposition ofthe consular highways 'of antiquity for some semblance of order. Garibaldini. compared to the vast ultimate cost. Expedience was two-pronged: economy and the pressure of time. was honest enough to recognize the inevitability of Rome even when this meant thedemption of hisnative Piedmont and its chief city Turin.center of the city and create a separate umbilicus. lt is conceivable'that a totally new city or a new .haveproved more economical.Jhellewly -oped residential quarters werehooked up to this amplified stJ. I. ~ . But under the immediaté' circumstances of haste and penury. and ineffectual without designating it the national capital. bU5>iness.' Giuseppe Mazzini declared. a stret=t that joined the Quirinal palace. The Third Rome preferred promiscuity to independence. (The official transfer of the government from Florence took pIace on 1 July 1871. "Our fate . program'Of ~~propriation and demolition.housedin older available buildiitgs/ existent streets were widened and straightened up.anq cultural complex would. in the elld..

War development of EUR in the south. -against the Capitoline hill . but there is as yet little evidence of the asse attrezzato. during the preparatory debate leading up to the Master PIan of 1931. to the east of Porta Maggiore) and a northem station beyond Piazza del Popolo... This spina dorsale would pass through Piazza delle Terme (Baths of Diocletian) and Piazza Barberini. cannot be explained away in terms of its availability and size. and the Master PIan could do no other but to -recognize the irrevocable centrality of Piazza Venezia. in the open country. and the phenomenal post. rose ln--Pi. the Arx .~- . it would siphon off alI major traffic from the older town. which had for centuries been identified with the sporadic populist rule of the commune.Emamielè--ffitne-1870s -aria lS80s.li. Barbieri proposed to supersede the focal interest of Piazza Venezia. In a book of 1927. securely strapped to the old center by Via Cristoforo Colombo and the subway. the Palatine. the aet was symbolic of the shift of power. ·Only atter World War II did the idea of abandoning the older city for a new eastern nucleus return -and embodied formally in the ìy1aster PIan of 1962.. Via dell'Impero and Via del Mar~. 1/5 Later. Oario Barbieri argued for dislocation from aI/scientificI/ viewpoint._-_. a conscious statement of new intentions.possession ai the city properly._. may well have preempted it forever. and along But to no avail. Ibe Fascist arteries of Viadell'lmpero and Via del Mare were more or less completed by .. th~ winter palace of the popes. the stock exchange.. presenting it as a geographical and topographical inevitability..• •••••• _ . and the theater of Marcellus-with which the young Kingdom was anxious to establish spiritual affinity._.•• _ -. and will remain as the Citadel. a group of architeets headed by Piacentini put forth anew his abiding pIan far the transplantation of the urban center. 1931. running between the centraI railroad station (to be moved outside the Walls. In 1916. app. the Colosseum.. reaffirmed this cen-'::tralization and identified it with the famous orator of the balcony at Palazzo Venezia-and this.. Marcello Piacentini had proposed a monumental new backbone for the city. to make visible the c~Qfiua~d=--()ut otfheinillermial administratio~ -af Sto Peter a~d. and the late nineteenth-century department store Bocconi . It was profèeted some distance beyond the edge of the built city. more often than not. Mussolini's highways of grandezza.with the establishment of a large piazza around the Baths of Diocletian situated more equitably between the older city and the modem expansion outside the Walls. A variant of this idea was incorporated into the major revision of the Master PIan of 1909.ship of King Vietor Emanuel 11. and would serve as the setting for the ceremonial and administrative buildings of the Third Rome. developed by a commission appointed in 1923 and never sanctioned by law. far example. Roundabout lay the most concentrated remains of imperial Rome-the fora. despitea return since World War I to the philosophy of Sella and the dislocation eastward of the urban center.turne_d Piazza Venezia into the prime tra. lnto· thé sfeward..6 Again. 'The old city would thus gradually lose its vitality and commerciaI value . with the Altar of the Fatherland..iiia:' venezia. ern extensioIl. . as the presence of --trtl:Vitt._-. __ •. Nor is it merely praetical that govemment offices commonly occupied church property expropriated under the bill of 1866.beQ1)_e!ltI'Kof Via Nazionale and its west. d t()_RQme. I. --------------------------------_. that abolisheq ownershìp'prTvileges of ~eligious groups known col-:fectìvely as the asse ecclesiastico~ To deemphasize the ritual centers of papal Rome and repossess the spirit of the city. The Master PIan is due to expire this year. in 1873. spina dorsale was now called'--asse attrezzato.oriano. and its rival Piazza Colonna-which formed a secondary node as the public space of a cluster of important buildings including the Parliament (Palazzo di Montecitorio). Tne installation of the royal house at the Quirinal. the top of the Spanish stairs. as opposed to the enduring absolutism of Peter's temporal power.-•• u. monuments to the new saints of the Risorgimento flooded the traditional iconography of the Roman empire and the Church. Their placing was.Cor~o VJ:ttoTlO._----~--_ . newspaper offices. .fTic nucleus of the Third Rome._Jbe_ stone pile in memory of the arch-hero Victor Emanuel II . stretching between Pietralata and Centocelle.e . had turned it into a ritual nucleus. Ihe .

OfficialIy. The rest. Dothbecauseof their intiinslc value as monuments and also because their visual fcirmcoùld . in generaI. But . it is quite natural that this character will vanish in time when the epoch itself comes to an end. [Alinari. In The so-called tempIe of Vesta. certain picturesque motifs dear to painters of cityscapes. ..8 The defense for the contrary view became less outspoken than wistful under Fascism but was never silenced throughout the period under review.tsthe'1!ving testimony of the glory of old Rome. or some feature of detail-the formaI cohesion of old and new. The first was of universaI value and must at alI costs be respected. conservation}:vas viewed' as a'futÙ::tionofrrionumeI1taIity. rn addition.. to wàtercolorists and. as well as the historical sense".. had no daims to survival. 1870s. looking north.'be manipulated to erihance mban perspectives. or a given period of-history.? The later spokesman is no other than MussoIini. j"both in the strictly artisti c and archaeological. The old fabric had two aspects: that which was monumental. and that which was characteristic. In 1886. color. in an open letter to the eminent historian of medieval Rome Ferdinand Gregorovius. The second was only of momentary value. ruins. are one thing. standard construction that surrounded or overlay the monuments. If one means certain accidental peculiarities. Andrea Busiri Vici. [Gabinetto Fotografico Nazionale. He enunciated at every possible occasion that hisage "must respect to the l1ighest degree th<:itwhiChreprE~sen.HighIights in the built ~hvironment of the past merited the effort to preserve them. articulated the position of this venerable congregation of humanists and artists in the folIowing terms. their presence would inspire the production of dignified modem neighbors that emulated their scale and reflected-in materials. who had deplored the on-going destruction of the older fabric of the city. another" (speech "of 18 March 1932).41787]. EI16057]. the growth of a city like Rome. lf [by characteristic] one means the character of a given epoch. with the socalled tempIe of Fortuna Virilis and the house of the Crescentii immediately behind it. the health.Monuments and Local Colar Building the mode m tissue of Rome and fashioning an iconography of national unity through the glorification of the statesmen and soldiers of the Italian struggI e had very quickly compelled municipal authorities to formulate attitudes toward the older structure of the city they inherited (attitudes-one cannot honestly calI them policy). Two statements. some fifty years apart. and that it would be so much better if they could somehow be preserved.. one cannot sacrifice to such peculiarities the convenience. But monuments. And again: "The millennial monuments of om history must 100m gigantic in their l1ecessary solitude" (speech of3TI5e-cember 1925). I would not deny that it hurts to see them disappear. illustrate the tenacity of this official point of view toward conservation. To plead its case opened one to derisive charges of sentimentality. 14 The same area in 1935. the picturesque and so":called loeal color. taken from the campanile of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. One thing was always dear. . to lovers of art and poetry. the president of the Accademia Romana di San Luca.

and then there will no longer be any motive for annoying the public with useless honking" (speech of 18 March 1932).~~re worthy of preservation because urban envi~0I"!ment was a physica!.c01:lVenknçe. Whatever the means of transportation. with a tramway system.li?:_Q. From 1920 onward the city converted its public transportation into a system of buses.Fascism added to "fhema-familiar argument: demolition and new construction made jobs for many hundreds. the major ne~d un. socia!. In 1930 Rome had about thirty thousand motor vehicles. beginning in 1882. relegating streetcarsto the periphery. health.. it was a foregone conclusion from the start that the older town could not be traversed for long without cutting through it some more direct and wider routes than it had available. The question of convenience usualIy amounted to easy passage through the older city on a scale consistent with the steady increase in population and the improving means of surface transportation. actual and projected. G/566].". and growth --:prevailed _tl1r. Il lO Traffic on Via Nazionale in the early part of the century.o).fire many more vehicles on the streets.that entire sections of the old fabric . His solution for ending the noise: more cars! In a rare miscalculation of the Italian character. after which it shifted gradually to electric traction. [Gabinetto Fotografico Nazionale. and cultural entity. with a noise problem notable enough to occupy Mussolini himself. A private company calIed the Società Romana Omnibus operated a few lines of public transit by horsedrawn carriages which easily negotiated the traditional network of streets. also horsedrawn until 1890. the Duce asserted that when there ..9 But Busiri ViçfLmtionfl. Scheme of major traffic routes._tiQns=.til 1900was-effident èommunication betWeen the new quarters around the railroad station . "all must channel themselves one after the other. 15 . These vehicles were slowly replaced. !n an east-west direction. The fixed tracks for the streetcars encumbered principal streets and squares.Gustavo Giovannoni.j~.Ùisirio:'. for thecor~c~pt ofàmbTé. At first the problem was simple enough. through the historic center. that monuments derived their authority and scale· from coexistence with humbler construction.:'" ~?:: . and became increasingly undesirable with the proliferation of motor vehicles. it found at least one eloquent vOlce thaTafguea~-15eyoÌld nostalgia.lgho_ut.

toin the mid-1930s are two disjointed 'stretches that did get done. C/2231]. As for the question of health. t Interior court of a tenement in the block bounded by Piazza della Consolazione. the placement of t~ Vittoriano on axis with it formalized this famous avenue that linked Piazza del Popolo} the ceremonial entrance to the city in pre-railroaddays. The principal north-south thoroughfare continued toube Via del Corso. on the one hand} and on the other} the Borgo on the right bank with St. lt recommended pulling down old and decrepit houses with no "interior passages:' . had been developed through private initiative into a thriving guarter with à population of about thirty thousand by the end of the first decade of this century.gm~d PiaZza Venezia. Neither artery was realized} but the problems remained on the boards until the end of the Fascist era-and even beyond it. in its report. The new Galleria Colonna} in its form and location} acknowledged the growth of this piazza as the major commerciaI and business node of the Third Rome. àn:athé'now redési. ?econdly1Prati di Castello} the flatland north of the Borgo. A direct line was clearly out of the question: ideally both the Capitoline and the Palatine should be skirted. the tenements along the Tiber.di Spagna to Prati} through the continuation of Via della Croce in a straight line running by the Mausoleum of Augustus. a late nineteenthcentury street. 1930. put pressure for east-west arteries fUrther north. of vice. against hasty or extravagant cuts. beyond Piazza Colonna toward the Borgo by means of a widened Via dei Coronari. Foro Olitorio and Via della Consolazione. If anything. Points of stress for the traffic pattem were probed with some concem for curtailing destruction and coaxing the fabric into shape. The Commission of Five set up by the city council to review the final version of the Master Pian of 1873 cautioned. They were scenes of neglect and unseemly congestion-and} by implication at least. lesser north-south outlets were constantly being searched. Older rundown sections of town-the Ghetto. To bring light and air into alI parts of the city organism and improve the density quotient-not to mention the imperati ves of grandezza that dictated the liberation of historic monuments-the pick must have its way. -Piazza' 'Colonna. Mussolini's Via del Mare and Via dell'Impero could be justified} at one leve as having filled this need. Peter's and the Vatican} the up-changed goal of pilgrims and tourists. it carne up in the obvious manner. By then} however} two Sìg:rlhcantcievelopments. in favor of a remodeled and enlarged Palazzo di Montecitorio where the house of deputies had been meeting on a temporary basis since the transfer of the capita!. [Museo di Roma. Piazza Colonna} as we have mentioned already} gained in stature (and traffic) with the decision to abandon projects for a new Parliament building at Magnanapoli above the imperial fora. Via Monte Caprino. before its demolition ca. and (2) to create still another east-west axis} from Piazza 16 At first the scope of this urban surgery tended to be reasonable} if not exactly modest. What had to be solved was the extension of the Corso southward beyond Piazza Venezia. To meet the needs of these two foci} the Master PIan of 1909 proposed: (1) to extend the line of Via Tritone. And of course the lungotevere proved of immense value for north-south t~afJic on either side of the river. Among several daredevil solutions that were threatened in the course of the decades} Via Arenula in the 1880s and Corso del Rinascime. the area around the theater of Marcellus-were lived in by the poorer classes. West of the Corso. the west and south slopes of the Capitoline. Yia NazionaÌe and Corso Vittorio Emanuèlè joined' bv Piazza VeneZIa}provided the answer.

.':'. Roma nuova nell'icnografia delle grande strade . Goffredo Narducci.2. Progello di una nuova via centrale . . 1871... alternate solution to Corso Vittorio Emanuele. master pian.. 1881. fold-out pian]. [From Narducci. fold-out pian]. Aurelio MartineIli. [From Martinelli. 1 ..

here. the street responded to a principle of public morality of which the State was the interpreter.-----12 Providing for the d'isplaced population. mostly for single families. a number of lowcost houses. at his own cost and within a period of three years. By 1885 the high-rise development of the surrounding area put extraordinary economic pressure on the fledgling community.050 square meters of its land on the Esquiline to Senator Alessandro Rossi. we might cite the experiment of a private firm to build a popular quarter at Testaccio in relation to developing an industriaI zone 17 -~--- 18 . Gioyan. and especialIy the one between Porta Pinciana and Porta Salaria ILWhich. Yòu -'couldnot reconcile tortuous narrow streets with active traffic and sufficient light and air. touches on the subject almost casualIy. Aurelio Martinelli. _s~entr.. there is a fervent pIea by one councilman that the Banca Tiberina. Its author.?. Le.15 posing and powerful. contracted to rebuild this area. the law of speed (prompt and fast f')(f'nJtion). the mayor rendering ritual assurances that something is being done.• md. By contrast. What is more. be forced to include in its scheme some housing for the four thousand inhabitants who were being evicted. the repair and regularization of the 'èxisting fabric in preference for abstract surgery. "Dd thp Roman aw. "the linear path that does not lose itself in the meanders of Hamlet-like thought:' There were.Housing the Dispossessed The new arteries need not be straight or uniformly wide. The straight line was the best. The administration cavalierly dismisses this request by referring to some new residential developments on the boards.tl1~n the city! or else ended up in shanty-towns at the edges.o Vittorio Emanuele. the council gave up 25.~mento. shaped up soon afterward as one of the most prestigious upper class districts of the Third Rome. who agreed to build upon it. The touncil paid Rossi back for the cost of the operation. the Third. The city council. . architecture. in its deliberations. developed some years later a variant proposal for the center-a swashbuckling array of connections celebrating the superiority of directness over deviation. it had to compete with immigrant workers who arrived from alI parts of Italy by the thousands to provide the labor force for the building boom.noni' s unttriI1g aq. and urban planning included: the law of health. Rome comes under the Fascists. Since 1867 a non-profit organization called "Società anonima edificatrice di case per la classe pove.18 For the rest. in actuality. and resold buildings and land to speculators.ra e laboriosa" provided very limited low-rent housing. the planners of the new regime found the example of the Martinellis and the Narduccis more congenial to the Fascist mentality. the victims of J!lonymentality anci the PQlicy ofsventmmentçdidnot 'l1ave priority.vocacy of diradamento in pIace of. Ii~o~i~g the~elatively fìex~ l5tepfec@erifonFLe'Hist MasteLPlans . Neither was exclusively geared to the victims of the pick. Two official efforts supported by the council were. only of symbolic value. The true Ha uss:rrElJJl1Lz~!ionof.Ell!~!i?~vy~?absorbe4yvi. This last was the insistence on the grandiose. in sum. In the ear1y decades of the Third Rome.14 In comparison. _!bis_p. ~ccording to Fascist theory. straight and wide avenuis-wer-e:-lnaispensable. To give one example: during the debate of 20 April 1885 for the demolition of the Ghetto. the council was beset by insistent Haussmanns advocating the logic of the straight-edge and the "grand scheme~' An alternative design to the official PIan recreated and amplified the famous "star" of Sixtus V (1585-1590). one Goffredo Narducci proposed a straight avenue of twenty to twenty-five meters width running singlemindedly from the Campidoglio stairs to Ponte SantAngelo. In another responsible mood. notin the sense of the spectacular but of the imimponente e possente.13 To solve the problem of east-west passage through the Renaissance section of town. places like Mandrione and Porta Porte se. three principal laws that informed Fascist design. but could be irregular and discontinuous fQr the sake of sparing bits of extant construction. perhaps with a guilty conscience. in the end. is a masterpiece of common sense-a graceful curve from Piazza Venezia to the river that honors the course of the historic Via Papale and utilizes a string of great monuments in an eventful sequence of revealing prospects and pleasant stops. supported its work through the cession of free land and the guaranteeing of bank loans. The council. the city's solution Cor<.

Dispersement agreed.. o'. '._-~-------------------- .inistratian af the.__. [Archivio di Stato di Roma. the more distant periphery af the suburbi. __ . living in one and commuting ta the first for their livelihaad. . . CLXXXVIII. with the advent af Fascism.SQOhaQga.~"?. ~~ .---. They cansisted af rows af plain single-family dwellings which.~.]. Ufficio 39. ten miles or more away fram the city praper and tied ta it anly by railroad lines. urban surgery returnecl with a vengeance. _. _a.ggI9EI}~r~!ionsor shacks or baracche multipIied. Far twenty years demolitian af the alder sectians af tawn went an at an unprecedented scale. •• ••__ Group of low-cost houses with shops designed for Senator Alessandro Rossi. . Cancurrently._ . built rapidly in the apen country té. [M.here.the._. 1940. ._._.. voI.h· . 1877._ . ·--··-0 __ .~.. the residents af the borgate led an ambivalent existence between city and country.. sJlstained program af sUbsÌdized nousing.um òf Augustus cleared.~' .236ff.thé'èast.The projectÉar the isalatiau.'.e_M. that embraced the newer past-1870 Rome. .te_J~§_QsLtb~gemglitiQn f~Y~r subsided.OOO square meters'ofbuiit"'èriviranmeilt c~ntaining 'at -least 120 multi:':starIid tÈ~nements. .._..pprgate.lsQle._m. shared cammunal services such as water and sanitatian facilities.. the Raman cauntryside or Agro romano. The result. 30 Notai Capito lini. wauld nat be considered a madel community. Byi920 there were pernàps aver fiftY "thausand baraccanti an the main approaches ta Rame far wham autharities expressed apen disdain.aèsti"oYèdS.al. Neither arganically incorparated inta the urban structure nar true agricultural settlers."._~_ . _ . at least in the beginning. After the crash52f tb~:Ja. __ ~. rendering hameless thausands af lawer class Romans. _ . an the 19 ------~----.. ~ar IrPisfÒ NatharqJ:90?~I9I3). And then.'_~'_~_.-""'r ~ •• "_ The refugees af the~. The apening af Via dell'Impe~9_?:laIle. m_ .__ ~ o.'< •.-inspired -ari'oi~ggrly. ._ •• .ina ruthl~ss:straight linef_rom théTolosseum ta Piazza Venezia. the immediately adjacent quartieri. ancl finally. _.~. --.•. "··. especiaily uÌ1der' thè adrrÌ. Fascist ratianaIe for this massive transplantatian suffered fram paradax. bath within and withaut the classical Walls. literaIly "scraps af city.a leftward shift in city goy" ernment. thirty years in the making.-. """-. Naneth~!e~~.' did nat fit in any af the faur regians inta which greater Rome had been divided since 1924. Administratively the borgate...ple uniti>. .regLm~ in~'ieries ()f ersatzcail1mu!lities called .. 19 Detail of frieze on east building of Piazzale Augusto Imperatore.Qf1:!lm~e!!tL~er:~ll()""JJ()1JseJi Jjy. Treib].28.in the mid-1930s.~ .. These were: The rioni af the alder city.oLth.

So it seemed that the sventramenti which could be advocated far reducing density and airing the city organism also helped to increase the population by giving rise to the fecund environment of the borgate. Later. population growth. the city set up an impressive monument to Garibaldi and rows of busts of lesser Risorgimento heroes. and some anti-derical malice was demonstrably at work. and Michelangelo's ramp to the Campidoglio. unarguably. it is true. Whole sections of town like the Gianicolo were consecrated as memorials to the struggle against papal forces. which joyfully called far the sacrifice of S. Martina e Luca. Many small churches succumbed. by definition as it were. By 1930. an uncommonly short life far a public building of Rome. and stop the flow into the major cities. Cola di Rienzo's image was raised in 1887 in me mory of his brief defiance of papal dominion aver the city in the mid-fourteenth century. But Mussolini had a different figure: He spoke of the Augustan city with its population of four million! (speech of 11 March 1923). Beyond the vulnerability of the recent pastI no. however. Church architecture presented something of a dilemma in the beginning. Francesco Azzurri's Hotel Bristol in Piazza Barberini. renowned sinners against the. the one million mark had been rea che d. Adriano and 55. scene of his burning at the stake in 1600. and Museo Baracca on Corso Vittorio Emanuele. it became Fascist policy to deprecate what was built sin ce 1870. been the enemy. Borgate were extolled far their benefits to physical well-being and their promise of bucolic bliss-the Virgilian plough tilling the sacred land. 20 The most blatant expression of anti-Church feeling carne in the form of statues intended to antagonize the Vatican. and celibacy was frowned upon. But more pointedly. was only the principI e that all churches did not.Ì'Amici next to Santa Susanna. We might cite the gracious stairs of the Port of Ripetta 1?uilLunder Clement XI in 1704. and his inauguration of the ill-fated Roman Republic. with the party's urban philosophy: to thin out the population of the congested centers. Cosma e Damiano. Many buildings of substance from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuriés disappeareèl williauYmuch fuss in the first decade"s ofthe Third Rome. The abolition of the asse ecclesiastico led to the seizure of much church property.one hand. far Rome at any rate. induding a number of well-known monasteries and palaces. after all. Masterworks of the period-for example. period was generally disparaged. as we have said. . unhealthy and cramped. On the slope of ground between Michelangelo's ramp and the stairs of Santa Maria Aracoeli. there. . Francesca Romana. Gaetano Koch' s Palazzi. The theory was that unhealthy. Peter's. in that it encouraged child-begetting. the less likely it was to be respected. was a basic tenet of Mussolini's revival of the Augustan age. SS. also by him-were condemned after barely half a century of existence. At Campo dei Fiori. S. 21 How Safe Is a Monument? Having opted far the monumental approach to conservation. al Living in borgate could therefore be justified as positive support for the aims of the regime. Fecundif:y_W51~ n~warded byth~ regim~. authority of the Church were allowed to claim in triumph the stages of their disgrace. The pope as temporal ruler had. qualify as monuments. What characteristics made a particular structure a monument worthy of preservation. under Trajan and Hadrian if not earlier under Augustus. in the first wave of demolitions. the more recent the structure in question. What was established by all this. in plain view of the dame of St. which was probably dose to the population of ancient Rome at its height. the authorities found themselves agàinst a thomier issue. by systematically resettling the countryside. And what the pick brought down was. and who decided the case? On the whole. cramped living conditions adversely affected the birth rate by forcing fathers to stay away and neglect their family duties. One antidericalist submitted a proposal to the city council far the wholesale liberation of antiquity in the Romàn Forum and the Capitoline. and the TeatroMetastasio grandly rebuilt in 1840 according tò the designs of Nicola Carnevali. But by and large·these were merely remodeled and pressed into service far 5tate and city functions.as it had been under the first emperor of ancient Rome. and theTeatro Drammatico Nazionale to the east of Piazza Venezia. But at the same time.

as Mussolini had promised in his report to Parliament on the Lateran accords (14 May 1929). The problem was to decide which among the hundreds of monuments that survived from this vast period had precedence. Fabbri. The sculptor is Ettore Ferrari. in seating a commission to draw up the new Master PIan of Fascist Rome.22 The following year.sec. When it finaUy -'came. {nthe historic Lateran accords of 1929. 23 Passeggiata del Gianicolo. modern Rome.State was.m~dernissimao'(Jf:l:.structed. In the case of 21 . should be brought clown. busts to Risorgimento heroes. Th~xa. subdivided into Roma antica and Roma cristiana-rinascimentale.ista.it was also inescapable. it was officiallyagreed since 1870 that the historically significantarchitecture of Rome extended from antiquity to the end of the seventeenth century. [Photograph by T. as it had been by Napoleon the Great 'in 1809 during his occupation of Italy. then. in Museo di Roma]. The commission was in-.Giordano Bruno was now honored with an eloquent statue. Not only that.t. to revive the monuments of the classical phase and restore those of the Christian-Renaissance phase. rècognized.QD$idereçl in three vast categoriesof-e. from 1870 to the start of the regime. The"statues of Bruno and Garibaldi held their ground. Rome was to be .. in relation to the first C)fthese. AIthough financed by private donations. and through new buildings for its own use and heavy surrogate speculation. the -extraterritoriality of the Vatican and (conditionally) ototner"prlnC1pàl CithoIic installations was formally·' .s.'~ironmeili (1) Roma monumentale. Through its custody of these monuments. (2) Roma moderna. the Church continued its active part in the shaping of the Roman environment. 9 June 1889. but next to the great knight rose the exuberant equestrian monument to his wife Anita Garibaldi. the new Master PIan must accommodate what it safeguarded of the past to present trafficneeds. . [F.0Il4.c. the governor Principe Boncompagni conveyed to the members this prescription of the Duce.oLChurchand . and (3) Romà ·_. slo~ and difficult. By and large.pprochemeI). As '-for the third. 18805. hooded and standing on a base decorated with reliefs celebrating other famous heretics. Tl1e. The inauguration of the monument to Giordano Bruno at Campo dei Fiori..Rigamonti]. the agreement of the city council to provide public space for it in the heart of papal Rome and the decision of the mayor to attend the unveiling ceremony caused violent riots between modem guelphs and ghibellines.

ancient ruins belonged to the city and the State.. and a sum of about fifteen million lire would be needed by the city to renounce building plans and isolate the ruins. additionally. on 28 October 1928. expansive of mood. Archaeologists clamored that the work be stopped. The Commission was formed in 1870 to repIace the old Commissariato delle Antichità e Belle Arti. The law of speed and the mentality of the straight line encouraged liberties. But control over them became nebulous when they happened to reside in private property.The temples appeared doomed when. Back several years later to inaugurate the Foro di Largo Argentina. commonly. usually nothing was said. was to abolish the elective nature of city offices and appoint a Governar responsible directly to the Minister of the Interior and through him to the head of State. one couldsimply ncitafford careful archae'ological record. Soon afterward. ti of the twenties ~ thir. heard claims like a modern Solomon. and large-scale programs of conservation-e. Mussolini appeared on the site. The pace of the gre4.fre--neti~ that. he would at most be obliged to shelter them in a basement or to build around them.tieswas so . The State had its own apparatus within the Ministry of Public Instruction. effacing ~nd distorting as much of the ancient fabric as was revealed. on occasion. during the clearing of the site. Even that which gualified. But the city was committed to private enterprise. When he did.24 It should be evident that the developer might. to photograph or sketch what obstructed the path of grandeur was allone had time for. the rejection of a proposaI to run a tramway line down the ancient Via Appia. as obverse. The change is dramatically illustrated by the case of Largo Argentina. the approvaI of Parliament. For everyconservational victory against entrepreneurs in the first decades-the saving of a stretch of the so-called Servian Wall whose demolition was sought by the Società delle Ferrovie Romane for extending the railroad station. One of the first acts of Mussolini in POWE.. two more temples turned up. the license to destroy unimpeded. the anniversary of the FascistMarch on Rome.g~. A modern building was being projected for this site. land acguisition had been legaI. through the Commissione Archeologica. the insistence on the inviolability of the classical Walls during the development of the Quartiere Ludovisi north of Piazza Barberini-the city council could be held accountable in tens of other cases where inadeguate legislation or reluctant enforcement of it worked against the glory that was Rome. But of non-portable finds. Theoretically. the birth of the Passeggiata Archeologica in 1887 (realized only in 1911). Major contracts with developers sometimes provided for work stoppage in the case of the unearthing of "vestiges of monuments which should be preserved"-two months for the project to rebuild the land of the demolished Ghetto. Only withthe establishment of centralized government after the War could the battle against the de- veloper be won uneguivocally. Even on property disposed of by the city. In 1911 remains of two Republican temples carne to light during excavations undertaken by the Superintendency of Monuments. and soon afterward merged with the separately instituted Consiglio d1\rte. The Governatorato consolidated in itself the surveillance of Roman patrimony. an articulate and impassioned lobby of archaelogists exerted considerable pressure on public opinion and. the Duce commented (through righteous anger and not meaning it literally. a park that embraced the area south of the Palatine and the Colosseum-reguired. and the ideological dedication of the Duce to the classical past assured it of effective backing.' for a definite pIace in the new urban scenography might be maimed in . checks were halfhearted.r..classical remains. and declared: "I would feel dishonored if it is allowed to erect even one meter of new construction on this site:' And that was that. and the owners were now reguested to agree to preserve these remains in a cortile of their building. be tempted not to report such vestiges. The buyer of municipal land was contractually obliged to recognize the city's proprietary rights over alI objects of historical or artistic value found upon it. again in emulation of Augustus. in accordance with "the Roman law. we are assured): "I should like to have brought to me here those who opposed this work. to have them shot on the SpOt:'25 The license to preserve unimpeded has. also on the city administration.t sventramen.

Demolition of historic building at the corner of Via MarForio and Via Chiavi d'Oro.View of the temples of Largo Argentina. during the building of the Vittoriano. D/1046]._. [Museo di Roma. 1930. ___________________ o. ca. n__ . C/4103]. [Gabinetto Fotografico Nazionale._- .

The city could expropriate high---. and then reassembled on the new site. a somewhat more thorough. Not unti! the mid-1880s do we hear of a list of "private edifices with monumental character. and used successfully in the transplantation oJ Santa Rita da Cascia. Two more aspects of the monumental approach should be underscored.it altogether for their own gain. those who favor demolition compromise is reached try to downgrade it. next to the classical remains sometimes identified with the porticus Minucia. 24 . Their disposition could not be regulated unless they were officially desig- nated as monuments and so rendered untouchable. The most lamented 10ss carne in the first two decades after the Breach of Porta Pia.. may be spared despite the humble nature of their program. Monument.. nie 6wners could transform their property or liquidate . to the authorities of the Third Rome. of course. Renaissance and post-Renaissance palaces and villas. continued to be lived in beyond 1870. but by no means exhaustive. ancestral homes of patrician families. not remodeling within. whereby the blocks would be numbered during the dismantling. among others. the Albergo della Catena near the theater of Marcellus. the residential center of papal Rome. not every high-style building enjoyed the immunity of a monument. The section called the Wanderers in the exhibition documents some sampIe cases. From the distant past. 0tt~I1. disappeared under the grids of speculative housing. They would be isolated nonetheless-and thereby monumentalized. With masonry structures a method had been developed. from Porta Pinciana to Porta San Giovanni. Requests that the city take precisely this course were met with cries about the sanctity of property rights. They boil down to this: that those who are against demolition assert the hTstorical or architectural importance of the . its originaI composition. Thè arguments in these cases are uniformly unedifying. artistic and historical:' And even then what could be prohibited was exterior transformation. The main impediment to the conservation of highstyle buildings was. in defiance of the logic of . The Tower of Paul III and the cloister of Santa Maria Aracoeli were allowed to be felled in the mammoth operation that prepared the north slope of the Capitoline to receive the substructures of the Vittorianobut not the church itself. razed an entire residential nucrèus to display the imperial forafor posterity now divided this complex into 'fwo incongruous parts.building in question. list is appended to this catalogue. and across the way. and. private ownership. Furthermore.. are: the insula at the foot of the Capitoline. an imperial apartment-block (insula).styJe buildings when its own plans required it. But even with monuments under its sole jurisdiction. The thoroughfare that. did not imply only the highstyle. Examples of this vernacular monumentality. The straight line of Via dell'Impero knowingly drove a diagonal slash through the right-angle layout of this monumental core of antiquity. If the structure is brick. a medieval house or inn.27 And with it vanished the chance fo control the city's promiscuous growth by interposing a natural barrier between the older town and the suburbs. moving means 5imply reconstmction ex nODO. this time under the intractable coat of asphalt that paved the thirtymeter-wide thoroughfare. A string of patrician villas on the eastern hills that "createda continuous green belt beyond . at the same time. anywhere from one-half to three-quarters of what was excavated carne to be buried again.26 Ih~ laissez-faire proved advantageous both to the city and the owners. The case of the imperial fora is instructive.a when it is decided tO save the building by moving lt elsewhere. a medieval house of the twelfth-thirteenth centuries. so to call it. the city showed no consistent reserve. wedged between the giant flank of the Vittoriano and the Aracoeli stairs.the process of its exhumation.

1232. pp.!Y. Manuallabor was exalted.. begt. and. because.. it was obligatory for an ar'~chìtea t6l)e affiliated withhis professional syndicate (tantamount to being a party member). and that seems to be the principle of the Mussolini governmentwork for everybody even though it has to be thinned out in the operation.have a chance at major commissions.ali?J!l'.s. the identities of the State and the city coin2ldedfor the firsttimé: The Fascist regimehad at least two motives for its intense concentration on the refurbishing of Rome.. [International PhotosJ. with.). One was practical. 2<. officially em- braced by the mid-thirties._to. The rewards were commensurate with loyalty to the regime.I. the Duce "knows the ?ifiic.. the latest example being Giuseppe Pagano's physic-.. as it was economy. La Grande Roma With the dismissal of the elected city administration and the institution of the governorship of Rome in 1925. . At any rate. expropriation programs. 'oi:Ìcal'alld lnflationary formallanguage. democracy at the Capitoline also found it impossible to resolve the housing problem and the financial difficulties of the city. Building contracts. They are pursuing the work of excavating ruins with great fervor about Rome . The prohibition of strikes of labor unrest began to ment in the building of now called.. Everything there is under the jurisdiction of a most intelligent leadershi p. put building trades squarely under State control. To. and mechanization spurned. In 1930. Speroni.express_puhlic disaPPIQval JO~the "transalpine ~~ti2n. In competitions for major building programs. we are told. and simultaneously coerced major institutions into supporting public works. competitions were dispensed with. and the architects hand-picked.llit art of judgi!lg IIlen~orrectlY:'31 The second motive for the Roman ventur~. AlI hand labor. But it is too glib to equate anticlericalism or populism' with the public interest.subsidized housing for the lower classes. at least to the extent of distinguishing between areas of low and high density. Everybody is at work .1J.nning . But I didn't see a steam shovel or a sucking dredge or anything else of that kind at work. Marcello Piacentini was appointed principal architecÙoiihemonumental project of the . Everything is regulated.j. Vaselli..~icje~l()g!ç~L We have touched on this subject already. The capital must be the showplace of the great public works progTilmlaunched ìn 1926 to alleviate a serious crisis 'of unemployment. 1935. " March of Fascist troops under the Arch of Constantine. j~ri~s in favor of this rhet-were now invariably ~tacked . Corporative and virtual disappearance encourage private investla grande Roma. a new tax on the land of speculative building that forced the entrepreneur to acknowledge that developing a certain urban area constituted a privilege for which he must pay. Kenneth M. a Master PIan that advocated the conservation of green space and introduced zoning. The State poured vast sums into 'the early projects such as Via del Mare and Via dell'Impero. Murchison wrote in the Architectural Forum (October. Often. 407-408): Mussolini and his lieutenants have made a marvelIous change in Italy.li'l~E?i!Y by no less an authority than Mussolini l:1imself. as one of twenty-two corporations. The program was much àdrnired ··abroad.'9f the International Style. such as the Consorzio di Credito per le Opere Pubbliche or the Istituto di Credito per le Imprese di Pubblica Utilità. Monies were pooled into credit foundations. was overwhelmedby'the triumph ofthe neo-imperial style. The' perrnissiveness of form which had produced some public buildings of note in the progressive idiom of the Modern Movement.. the construction of streets and residential complexes went to selected firms of proven faithfulnessTudini Talenti. And on the subject of sventramenti.uildi~g at the new University compIe x (1933ff. the PIan of 1909 was not exemplary in its restraint.

in Risorgimento battlegrounds. Marinetti. a reporter describes a moonlit concert under the great barrel-vaults of thè Basilica of Maxentius. "to show Rome to the Romans" 34 and through them to the rest of ltaly and the world. The new ltaly was Milan. On this issue Futurists and Fascists. in one form or another. and imbuing them " with a programmatic fervor that transcended beautification and the reviyal of forms. the living reality of the ancient fabric must be disengaged from the environmental obfuscation of the irrelevant years and made to breathe and function again. closely linked at first. light frocks of Roman girls. magnificently frame d. alI part of the pageant of the Rome of Mussolini. The classical spirit had been invoked before: in the court of Renaissance popes. Nerva. Augustus.. Ancient Rome was not being mechanically resurrected. parted ways. soldiers' tunics. In a feature article in the New York Times (25 August 1935). The point is that Mussolini succeeded in having them realized. the Markets of Trajan humming. single-mindedly and passionately. mostly on backless benches... 3 ApriI 1921). the Duce set about.33 Once instalied in the city of his ambitions. black shirts. the mausoleum of Augustus recovering its originaI circular form which had been encrusted and buried since antiquity. the city that has given two civilizations to the world and will yet give a third" (Bologna. Rome. indicates boundaries. Genoa-cities of velocity and the Kingdom of the Machine?2 For Mussolini. Rome that traces streets. The strains of the Eroica pour out toward the deep hollow of the Roman Forum which . Rome "is the name that contains ali of history for twenty centuries . of the past environment of Rome in the making of the modern metropolis. but used. to make the mystic manifest. in which the past is not only unearthed. at night Cis]restored to a semblance of the Civic Centre it used to be when disputatious gentlemen in togas paced the pavement of the Sacred Way . For Filippo P.also because of its mystic power around which the' new order could be forged.The idea of Rome obsessed Mussolini's mind sincethe end of World War I. lt had. lt was not ltalians alone who were dazzled by the Roman legions marching again in triumph under the Arch of Constantine and past the fora of Caesar. and gives to the world the eternallaws of its immutable destiny" (speech at Trieste. before the advent of Fascism. white shirts. not only because it was the seat of government he sought to capture but . after eighteen centuries. lt is "eternal Rome. made to work. reeked of passatismo. in a fundamental sense. Much the same holds true for the projects of la grande Roma: most of them had been proposed.but should now particularize it further since it pertains to the main concern of the exhibition-the use.. like Venice and Florence. in shoring up the confidence of the young Kingdom after the Breach of Porta Pia. Mussolini's task lay in readjusting the course and carrying ono By the same token. workers' blouses.. never died: it had merely been diverted from its destiny. And the conjuring worked. Rome was a universal tonico The West marveled and exulted. 20 September 1920). We sat close together.. with the activity of a trade fair. political and military. tapped to .

r9ited. Their role in the past had been advisory. perhaps unwittingly. It would be inaccurate to imply a polarization between engineering as a science and architecture as a fine art. with stylistic matters. the colossal work of establishing new water and sewage systems. the MasterJ?laIls of 1873 and 188~. For one thing. the engineers made substantial inroads.this magisterial program of urba!1 rehabil. perhaps one of the main reasons why the influential conservation society. _élswell as numerous working plans "for specific urban projects (piani particolareggiati). The two professions were. derived his stand on the transformation of historic fabric from a thorough grounding in both engineering and architecture. For the first two decades of the Third Rome. ex officio. g. here as elsewhere in Europe.e~r~. at least insofar as it was equated with civic and landscape design. Not that the problems of engineering were any less acute in the projects of Mussolinian grandezza. started .they were no Ionger the stars. The competition for restoring the Piccola Famesina (Famesina dei Baullari) on the Corso Vittorio was won by Enrico Guj. in Rome more than anywhere else. past buildings were the raw materia! of the process of urban renewal. the projection of a subway system. Sella selected a hydraulics engineer. distinct enough in education and outlook. public works. adrnire the moral content as well. because in so doing he hopes to revive the old virtues of the rugged men who under iron discipline once fashioned Roman power. nonetheless. But . and the engineers. and mainIy. Mussolini wishes to resuscitate the material vestiges of ancient Rome because they are beautiful and invaluable. the Ufficio Tecnico was headed by the engineer Alessandro Viviani who.feed the national pride and energy as literally as the sources of the Tiber and the Arno are transmuted into electric power for modern industry. who is also responsible for the museum of agriculture (now Ufficio Geologico) nearby. required the supervision of gifted engineers. Even in the architect's traditional domain. could compete seriously before World War I with the official planning organs of city government may have been the fact that its guiding spirit. and since. the observers. Several departments within city hall-water.35 In approving of the material theater and the pageant. and to ally the historian and the archaeologist with the secondo The Istituto di Belle Arti did provide technical education for its architecturaI students by reqùiring that the program be completed with coursework at the E. And finally.Qut as engineers. the Ministry of Finance on Via :xx Settembre. Raffaele Canevari. Sventramenti. carne to be identified . On the contrary. on Jl:ljs Jlistory. To design and supervise the first major govemment building. and other problems of this nature. occupied themselves.egia Scuola di Applicazione per gli Ingegneri. it is clear that the engineer dominated the councils of decision-making.ent and as a consequence credit was distributed according to a different order of responsibility. archaeologists and historians of architecture assumed a position of erninence. two rnen whose political lives had a lasting impact. uì-ban planning. the construction of Via dell'Impero which involved earth removal on a vast scale and retaining walls for the part that cut through the eminence called Velia. the single piazza. The Mast~r pIan of 1909 was also drawn up by aI" engineertpe Milanese Edrnondo Sanjust di Teulada. and edilità-were the natural provinceof men with a background in engineering. Giovannoni. The dominant discipline since 1870 had been engineering. but also. one of the earliest iron buildings in the city. the isolation of the Capitoline. delicate operations such as the tunnel undemeath the Quirinal hillthese were considered outside the competence of the academically-trained architect whose domain continued to be the single building. alongside the _a~·ch~t. roads. the Associazione Artistica tra i CuI tori di Architettura.itation. bridges across the Tiber. Neither could afford to be innocent of history since the concept of style was locked in the dialectic of historicism. and in the first phase of the planning history of the Third Rorrie. Now the priorities of Fascist planning were differ. and embankments against floods. Sella and mayor Ruspoli. The faith beyond the form does not escape these observers from the outside. In . who taught "technical architecture" at the Scuola di Applicazione.

freestanding again after at least twelve hundred years. We have faith that on September 23.' the giant bones of antiquity which were to stand "in their necessary solitude" in fact 32 . on 22 October 1934 which marked the beginning of celebrations for the twelfth anniversary of the Fascist March on Rome. 'as the recorders and interpreters of monumental topog"i-àphy. admire the great ruin [of the mausoleum completely isolated and surrounded anew by those groves that Augustus bequeathed to his good people of Rome?7 l The year was 1930. I contain multitudes. enter the planning process in a primary role.Fascist planning is more pedagogica l. ai"id ()f course Piacentini. Four years later. the Duce climbed on the roof of a building on Vicolo Soderini and raised a ceremonial pick to start the demolition that would liberate the great mausoleum from the accretions of centuries. Ricci can now supervise in eamest the unearthing of the imperial fora.Master PIan of 1931.). In these early modem streets of the capitat monuments were single episodes of historical and visual interest. Thu5 Roberto Paribeni and Antonio Munoz figure prominently in the commission that prepared the . Sometimes the architect would be made to play second fiddle to the historian or archaeologist. or be absorbed in their identity. He was present by grace of Mussolini's directive that projects such as the liberation of the mausoleum were not mere havens f archaeology but modem urban spaces "where flows the imposing and continuallife of the city. Q. Giglioli. In the new Scuola Superiore di Architettura founded in 1921. a project that he worked out on paper in 1911 and had an architect named Lodovico Pog- liaghi "translate it into design:'36 Another archaeologist.Jeast dogmatic. such as the parallelism between the deeds of the regime and its classical precedent. No cohesive program of iconography bonded them contextually except in the most generic sense. not the engineers and architects who were also involved. on the bimillennial of the birth of Augustus. G. never materialized .as a branch of architecture. But it can also "undertake to convey more involved meaning. poses a challenge to the regime which he knows will be heeded. At _its. Armando Brasini. The scholar embraces the chance to become the man of action. the first emperor of Rome. Here and everywhere else in the planning of Fascist Rome. The bimillennial of his birth was brilliantly honored. the sylvae et ambulationes in Suetonius' description. an open space larger than Piazza del Popolo had been carved out of dense urban fabric around the mausoleum of. alorig with the architects Ces'ire Bazzani. a chair was created for this subject revealingly called "Edilizia cittadina ed arte dei giardini:' The first to hold it was Piacentini. When the pick had don e its work. 1938 the Duce of the new Italy could. could not be attributed to an individuaI designer. It is this notion of the street as a total design of architecture that makes possible the attachment of specific names to Fascist-initiated arteries-Foschini for Corso del Rinascimento. with Giglioli in charge of the eventful pageant and the elaborate memorial exhibition.' namely traffic?8 With typical Fascist cussedness reminiscent of Walt Whitman' s /'00 I contradict myself? Very well then I contradict myselt (I am large. the apotheosis of history was thwarted only by the traffic expert. in the process of excavating within the heavily built up area of the mausoleum of Augustus. Piacentini for Via della Conciliazione-in a way that post-1870 arteries like Via Arenula or Corso Vittorio. conceived as the collective effort of private clients and public enterprise. who will later prove so ubiguitous as to qualify for the role of Mussolini's Speer. Only the groves of Augustus. It is Corrado Ricci and Munoz we recall first for Via dell'Impero and Via del Mare respectively. il regìsters""as"historica:lscenog\ raphy. ~ince monuments acguire thereby narrative weight !he archaeologist and the historian òfarchitecturè.

conlerItJor itsexhumation and pro per display. And it was his power. the fate of a parking loto In other cases. when credit has been apportioned among architects. to be authentically ancient. victimized for forty years by the tremors of furious Roman driving. engineers.?. the city must recapture its former self. archaeologists.':lpreme pla~!l~r_. grandezza returned. the marriage of traffic and glory succeeded too well. and diverted toward it the energies of all the major routes into the city.·It was his decision to move his office from Palazzo Chigi on Piazza Colonna to Palazzo Venezia that made the urban space in Front of the Vittoriano the indisputable heart of FascistRome. the unfinished work of opening these arteries doomed the new piazza to.' he said in 1932. [Courtesy of G. ~'Ì consider myself without false modesty the spiritual father of the Master PIan of Rome. The . SantoroJ. as the now threatened structure of the Colosseum. confused and misguided in hindsight. will testify.-'Centralizedand unequivocaI. But in the end. 1he population must match that of anci~. In the case of the mausoleum. 4371]. paths of glory cut through the most recalcitrant of urban tissue according to schemes that previously would have languished in the familiar Roman thicket of special interests and involved legislation. th~gj?Q:n:e. we might distinguish three successive attitudes of the Duce toward history:Thefiist is évident' in' the opening decadé of Fascist power: a reverence for the classical past. Rome extended once more to the utmost limits of its physical size and imperial power. that made possible staggering urban operations concluded in a matter of a year or two. historians. Demographically as well as physically. the determination. [Fototeca Unione.9f~qgrandeRoma:Benito Mussolini. Aerial view of the same area today. and he was right:'l It was his vision that was being concretized: that misery and mediocrity will be made to disappear from Rome. In the planning of his city.ntRorpe. F" 33 . and traffic experts.area of the Mausoleum of Augustus at the start of demolitions in 1934.carne to be nodes of clamorous traffic at the confluence of major arteries.

Via dell'Impero. 34 .Aerial view of Piazza Venezia. Via del Mare.

The built environment must spread out to touch the outposts of its originaI myth. with port facilities developed just south of this new point at Fiumicino. . the secondI never executed. or by car on the new autostrada of Via del Mare. to make contact with the Alban hills and the sea. Qn one side. The Third Rome must spread onto other hills along the shores of the sacred river until the beaches of the Thyrrhenian Sea. in the direction of the Alban hills.' Mussolini said. By the end of World War l there was a royal decree for the creation of the port and the promise of fortyseven Ìnillion lire in State aid. Tens of new guarters have sprung up in the periphery of the city which has thus hurled its advance guard of houses toward the healthy hill..Jtdrnanifests itself in the emulative juxtaposition of Classical 'and Fascist monuments. PauI' s outside the Walls. Beyond the basilica of St. heading south along the Ieft bank of the Tiber. Mussolini was saying: Rome has already a different aspect. wenfpastfhe theater of Marcellus and the so=called TempIe of Fortuna Virilis ("This is my tempIe. . ordered.' Mussolini would say. a small community of one hundred and twenty-fishermen and their families-constituted the town of Ostia. 6.46 3 . At the time of the Fascist March on Rome. the porttrom. and Iinked up with Via dei Trionfi for its dash to Ostia and the sea.41The site varied. The first started out with the Arch of Constantine and a redesigned Via San Gregorio.500 within a decade. The urban section of Via del Mare.. toward the reconsecrated sea . As early as 1925. Via dell'Impero shot out of Piazza Venezia toward the Colosseum like a straight arrow. powerful as it was in the time of the first emperor Augustus. with the major port in the promontory at the foot of Monte Argentario. tWe] will continue to free the trunk of the great oak from everything that stains it stilI. thinking of the duai blessings of itsputative dedication.44 But for Mussolini the choice had to be Ostia. "to have reconducted Romans to the sea:'45 The second attitude develops around 1933. in 1905. But these innocuous office blocks pretend to Iittle more than defining a street whose planes suffer badly from the discontinuity caused by the practice of isolating the historic monuments on alI sides. manliness and good Iuck). But the beaches drew many more thousands of Romans every summer. proposed abandoning Ostia and moving the mouth of the Tiber to Coccia di Morto to' the north.. In five years Rome must appear marvellous to all the peopIe of the world: vast.. and Ostia was not the favorite. was to reach the Walls by means of a widened and monumentalized Via di San Giovanni Laterano and spill into the open country to the southeast.. A straight highway which must be the longest and the widest in the world will move the incentive of mare nostrum [the Mediterranean] from the resurrected port of Ostia to the very heart of the city~O An aeriai view of southem Rome conveys well the image of this expansive vision. This is not to say that modem buildings did not rise on the newly carved arteries before. lt formed an integraI part of projects for the Tiber embankments and the taming of its course. They carne by train on the line opened in 1924. Archaeology and modem construction both assisted in this romantic view of regenerating history. Via del Mare Ieft Piazza Venezia and skirted the liberatèd flank of the Capitoline. Beyond this first point of arrest it forked into Via dei Trionfi and Via dei Monti. and a master pIan was drawn up for its future growth. This resident population rose to 3. for exampk had a series of them at the end toward Piazza della Bocca della Verità.42 Dario Carbone preferred Fregene on the mouth of the Arrone. Suggestions of encroaching formally upon antiquity would be turned down. The idea of a maritime port had been around since 1870. site of the ancient Portus HerCUliS.which tIle fleets of ancient Rome had conductE~d 1he' business of its overseas empire.43 There was even an elaborate scheme to create a long Iand canal that would follow the coast northward for some sixty miles. "Of one thing l am proud. Cesare Cipolletti. A 1907 proposai for the liberation of the Capitoline had envisaged replacing the sordid tenements along the slopes with upper class villas and terraced gardens. Via del Mare tumed into a fourteen-meter-wide tree-lined highway that ran parallei to the ancient Via Ostiense unti! the porto It was inaugurated with great fanfare in 1928.t the opposite end.

s 36 of architecture in the thirties-the InternatiQnal ~e =:rnd--the rreo:. D/553]. Istituto Nazionale Fascista della Previdenza Sociale enclose the north and east sides. but there was talk of setting up on the hollowed interior of the monument. the Oioscuri of the same constitutional and political crisis:' Both established authoritarian mIe after years of civil strife. and in the other. The presence of three churches on the Piazzale Augusto Imperatore assisted in weaving this Christian content into the marriage of Fascism and antiquity. at least for the latter of these contests the outcome. sharpened the program of interfused mean- . an eagle to represent the Roman legions of antiquity.47 That tower. Now. in thé eyes of the regime. shortly thereafter. Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso. hanging garden. but could not be regularly occupied.ern R.fhe theater oi Marcellus before restoration.on Via dell'Impero. to serve as headquarters for the Fascist party. strengthened the moral and religious fiber of the State. the triumphant standard of Fàscist dominion that was projected for "thecenters of manyltalian cities. next to the fora of the emp~rors<lnd the Basilica of Maxentius.a}~zi . was r\ot indoubt: That the palaé'e of Fascism never stood where it was intended to may be taken as the somewhat circumstantial triumph of neighboring antiquity in the other contest. retained the Senate as a symbolic institution. Augustus by reviving the cults of ancestral gods and the respect that is due them. and concert hall.of "his ()VJn. and inscriptions underline here the progressively irnperial charaçter of this iconogrélphy since 1935. The Piazzale Augusto Imperatore would be an excellent starting point. This Palazzo della Rivoluzione. The win'ning designs prove that. the "national" church of Lombardy in honor of the two great saints of Milan.another the specific confrontation of the two mode. It was decided toconstiilct a nE'Wbuilding onVia: dell'Impero across -g()m the Basilica of Maxentius. too. and added the melodramatic detail of two cages at the foot of the Tarpeian Rock with a she-wolf in one of them in memory of the she-wolf that had suckled Romulus and Remus (a practice that goesback to 1818). ennobled labor. toys. or Palazzo del Littorio. bullring. where the two men are represented as "heroes of the same story. secoIlduphase. The Markets of Trajan would house weekly shows of books. Again. or peasant embroideries. They are the material equivalent of contemporary tracts. abolished elected offices. a Torre della Littoria. Mosaics. was to equal the çOlòsseum in size and height. and rewarded productive marriages. was never raised. sculpture panels. and the fact that one of the three was 55. ~hen Mussolini acquired an empire.and the parallelisrrl between Augustus and the Duce. A widely publicized c'ompetition in 1934 yielded sev~nty-one spectacul?T entries which. however. a competiti\(e or even combativesprrit takes hold. and recognized the benefits of public works.:imperi~l or nationalist style. at one leve!. and cQnj:aintwehLe hundred rooms on nine floors. In the Piazzale Augusto Imperatore around the liberated mausoleum. but the humble shops that for centuries had foundshelter in the ground-story arcade of the theater of Marcellus were deemed insulting to the noble frame and torn down. tll~__ idea of erectingrn()g. disapproved of celibacy. and at . illustrated the millenni al 'strtiggle of thè modern against the ancient. which had been in continuaI use since the Middle Ages as fort. [Museo di Roma. The iconography of Fascist architecture has not as yet been studied. Mussolini by appeasing the Vatican. was rejected. !l1 this. such as Emilio Balbo' s Protagonisti dell'Impero di Roma. "''The liberated monuments could be used on occasion for activities approximating their initial functions. Munoz' executed scheme merely landscaped these slopes after the demolitions. not only did the modern buildings of the .

fE~shproj~ct?IllUstproduce th~ Fascistenvironment.n. Word carne down that over au area of about one thousand acres a small city was to materialize by 1942.. Piacentini said that it was destroyed.ni. Victory in Abyssinia.The competition for Palazzo del Littorio. and his retai.. Tradition carne to cramp his will: he spoke of tl1e Church as a Durden. the Roman emperors turned surrogates of his own greatness. Mussolini resolved to supplant the past. The idea of an international audience suggested an exposition which would bring the world toRome. To display the achievement of the Rome of Mussolini. a concrete step in its march toward the sea. are alI certainties for him. which he had used and amen.ded. In an ultimate hubristic chapter of his extraordinary '_career. AIld ai the close ofthe festivities the city would be transformed into the new monumental core of Rome. and would form one half of a vastly extended new north-south axis. with Piazza Venezia. An enormous model was now built of this Rome. 1934. .the Esposizione Universale di Roma or EUR was to be m6w1i. and rejecting plans to disperse the exposition into various parts of the city where space and facilities were available. at Abbazia delle Tre Fontane. Under construction since 1927. -beàconed the Duèe' s newfound goal to set up the -unadulterateCl'Rome of his own empire. For Pius XI who signed the Lateran Accords was once Achille Ratti. specialissue]. a solemn affirmation of its will to act. ff49 A highway called Via Imperiale would connect EUR Project by E. the white mass of the Palazzo del Uttorio. the affirmation of the Italian will in the world. Project by B.ing of the mon~rchy as a mistaKé. and to fashion pristine theaters or Fascist grandeur. Its whereabouts have been unknown since the end of the War. The Master PIan of 1931 did not meet the image of an imperial capital which Rome had once again become . EUR ffis above alI an act of faith in the destiny and constructive capacity of the Italian Nation. the Duce approved of a hilltop five miles south= east ofPiazza Venezia. and V. the Foundation of the Empire. it was to be the companion 37 . 1934.forum was 'an imposing compIe x of stadia and' cultur~rbuild'ings foc:used by an obellsk anCl decked with dozens -Of heroic male nudes representing the spring oJ Fascist youth. Del Debbio. thi:>. Folin. Morpurgo. inclusive of the two emerging anchors of the Foro Mussolini and EUR. In June 1935 he gave the order Uto obtain a concrete international adherence to [the] idea [of an exposition]. G.9f this cardo would terminate exactly five miles away frornPiazza V~nezia to the north. . moved here from -its intendèd site across the way from theColosseum. ings. so that he is able to anticipate the celebration of them with mathematical security. Jhe other half . This city of permanent buildings would house ffthe Olympic Games of Civilization:'~? . Qverl()Qking the Forum. !o compare. The standing on the shoulders of illustriousancestors.J At any rate. at the Foro Mussoli. [From Architettura. Errera. Del Giudice. archbishop of Milan and an early supporter of the Fascist cause. and the world must be asked . it was tempting to go outside the theaters of past grandeur. the date of the universal exposition. A.ff48 Turning down sites in the immediate periphery. Foschini. uplifting and inspirational at finitI seemed to hamper now his historical progress. A.

On 19 July 1943 the first Allied bombs fell over Rome. The prototype was of course the Greco-Roman city. following a polite lult continued to grow. like the embodiment of some ghostly classical ved(Jta by De Chirico. renamed Foro Italico. The Foro Mussolini."51 The grand axis of Via Imperiale entered the city at the Porta Imperiale. There was.Foro Mussolini. overlooking the Tiber valley. now as a controlled residential community. brought it back piece to a model of ancient Rome which survives. me dream tumed nightmare and soon was over. in addition. the church of St. They hit the suburb of Tiburtino. A planning commission ap=-pointed in 1946 formally renounced thè remaining projects of sventramenti in the historic center. with an artificiallake serving as its focus. The rest is a familiar story. The mechanism devised by Costantino Costantini far the erection of the obelisk. municipal govemment was~ reinstituted in Rome. but not a rigid . and the autonomous corporation which directed it could therefore resume their development of it. held in Rome. The cross-axis climbed the sides of the valley and terminated with a group of communications museums to the east. the main propylon of the Exposition. It had been planned from the start outside the jur~sdiction of the Master Plan. EUR. the private residence of Victor Emanuel IIt for consultations: he was arrested and shipped off to the island of Ponza. The world did not have the chance to compare. From 1937 on. A secondary east-west axis was framed by the Palace of Labor and the Palace of Congresses. but the Master PIan of 1931 remained otherwise in effect. [Vasari]. during construction. after the end of the hostilities. ing frigid masses. [and] the guiding conception has always been lo see it grandly and as a single whole. Then the Olympics of 1960. and the new University. with a span of two hundred meters and a height of one hundred. Stadio dei Marmi. EUR started to take form in the open country. Eatly photographs of it show a spectral image of gleam38 . until the new one was adopted fifteen years later. The Olympics of Civilization were never held. a formal city of marble and travertine. 1934. a residential section. Lawrence outside the Walls. after the Grand Council had voted for his resignation. on the rise overlooking Via Laurentina. the Duce appeared at the Villa Savoia. fell into disuse for a time. For our purposes what is important is that. it was framed at the opposite end by an enormous semicircular arch of reinforced concrete. grido "The exceptional character of this new arm of Rome has been kept in mind. and with a church to the west. On 25 July.

But in our age even that may stilI prove plenty to be thankful for. and the fasces chiseled or painted out. a kind of Roman Williamsburg. insulating it forever against the encroachment of the suburbs and destroying the centripetal dependence of their street structure upon it. The Duce's damnatio memoriae was halfhearted. Pascoletti. This may dry up the native life of the èity. and also reactivated the great cardo of the Fascist city.. The Master PIan of 1962. to life. The law is lenient about interior remodeling. like the asse attrezc . Postlude The story of the Fourth Rome is not ours. Tobias]. for better or for worse. He had said that Rome's glory would be revivified by him "to pass it on as the legacy of the Fascist era to generations to come:' And this. [R. the fabfit. and Peressutti). in which _~lS mduaed. is the more probable alternative. The Rome of the"Romans is the periphery. 3S ----------------------------------- . has provided categorically for the conservation of this city. detail (architects: Guerrini. But that is what it is already. The urban battles ofthe post-War decades are fought essentially outside the Walls.z~to of the latest Master PIan. seems destined to remain at the theoretical plane. La Padula. The immediate and modest hopes of most of us extend no further than a ban on cars within the older city and vigilance in the restoration of the historic buildings. from here to EUR.of the ThirdRome.52 Some form of extraurban relief.--. His name disappeared from most inscriptions. Museo della Civiltà Romana.. !t is unlikely that anything dras~ tic or flamboyant will be lmposed upon the historic c:ity by future planners. and turn the center into a ghost town for tourists and pilgrims. he had done.wiselyind inevitably. in a fundamental way. .. But his imprint upon the Eternal City was ineradicable.. principal entrance (architects: Aschieri. and externalIy the skin can be demolished provided that it is reconstructed in the originaI formo We may end up with an urban illusion. Palazzo della Civiltà del Lavoro. -. A recent scheme by Leonardo Benevolo to pull down much of the Third Rome in order to create a green belt around the pre-1870 city... as we mentioned at the beginning. . now a tiny fraction of the untidily sprawled metropolis. twoviews taken in 1968.. it swamps the nugget within the WalIs. Bernardini.. Romano).EUR.

offered by the Ministry of Public V'{~!:k.aths ÒfDlocletian. its alien 52 striped patterns and non-Catholic affiliation testifying the tolerant internationalism of the young Kingdom of ltaly. a. on. was completed until Via delle Quattro·Fontane.9 .yAI?~il . E. The Ufficio Tecnico under Alessandro Viviani now drew up a proposal to continue the artery up to Via del Quirinale.?:!!~le:"Tts width was twenty-two meters. was eompleted. . and others advoeating the PiazzaVen€zia alternative.SOME PRINCIPAL EXHIBITS Via Nazionale The inception of this first modern artery of Rome is due..873._Monsignor . The first building of the new artery rose at the corner of the present Via Torino. On 22 Aprii 1875 it took under submission projeets by Luigi Gabet. now baptized ViaNazionale. prominister of arms under the administration of Pius IX. t9_. a part of the ancient'l:..!. Mario Moretti. The Viviani proposal was approved by the city 'couneil on 5 July 1872. the Albergo Quirinale. In Aprii 1867.~ .. Then.quent variant to end Via Nazionale at Piazza Venezia instead.a 'di Teiinini. agreeing furthermore to build the streets and maintain them . the city returned to the agreement and ratified it. unaeeountably. under construetion sinee 1878. On IS'September the Viviani pròjeet was proclaimed in the publie interest by royal deeree and expropriation began.'amajor reversal. street's High Victorian ehurch.s.>' The area at 1860.territorY.~. earrying traffie from the railroad station into the heart of the eity. st.was turned do""n.Francesco Sa veri o De Merode. azzo delle Esposizioni by the arehitect Pio Piacentini.' thi.1872 Via Nuova Pia. before the laying out of Via Nazionale. and its final ratification by the government carne on 9 July 1876. In 1882 the Pal.l2... . along the present Via Marco Minghetti).g~jd2f several blocks depenclent on a main ~fieeCc'aned Via Nuova PLI'affertftl~ reigning J'ope"which p~gaIl.until it ITl~T:\11aar:siij1. oceupied the eorner of Via Napoli. Ijaving acquired extenslv. In 1874 a first hotel. Paul's. And two years later G. detail of the offidal eensus map of 1860. De Mer()de laid ou~.~itèrn~tive was now aoopTéduln. f-. and extended in a straight Line.arouncl-Ùie 'iailròad station. subs.at Piazz. the city couneil decided to reopen the issue. By then Via Nazionale was already a busy thoroughfare. De Merode reached an agreement with the city whereby he vvould cede free' of charge the land of this and adjacent streets and the eity would buy the land within the exedra at the start of Via Nuova Pia.Ma~ -:j. with the option for a future extension until the Pantheon. .. between 1868 and 1870. was inaugurated. After the Breach of Porta Pia.. and then divert it northward to the Trevi fountain and from here west until it met Via del Corso at Piazza sciarra (south of Piazza Colonna.

Two alternate solutions. . Via Nazionale terminated at Piazza Sciarra and at Piazza Venezia.

Piazza SanPantaleo. the -averlUefolIowed the path of the old Via Papale. Apostoli and Piazza Venezia. in favor of resolving the street in Piazza Venezia. They were: (1) a projed by Goffredo Narducci calling for an. Two decisions. we might mention Palazzo Pacelli and Museo Baracco by Gaetano Koch.other reached Ponte Santi\ngelo by means of the extant Via Banco di Santo Spirito. aside from being wider. Unlike Via Nazionale.Starting at the point where Via Nazion'aIe made its sharp northward turn to réach the Trevi fountain. the choice of this piazza for the monument to Vidor Emanuel II supplied the monumental accent for this crossing. and (3) Aurelio Martinelli's scheme of short cuts hom Piazza Venezia to Campo dei Fiori to Chiesa Nuova. One branch followed a widened Via de'Cimatori until the iron suspension bridge at San Giovanni dei Fiorentini. Three alternate projects were rejeded. had improved the status of Corso Vittorio. The path. (2) a project by Augusto Marchesi and Sante Bacciarelli. Philip Neri by Francesco Borromini. The Baedeker of 1904 describes it as "always crowded and busy. the complex of Chiesa Nuova and the adjacent oratory of St. From here te. The PIan of 1873 charted a modest course . which could be straight and uncomplicated for most of its length because it was being driven through what was. interseding the northsouth axis or cardo (Via del Corso) at Piazza Venezia. and use the monuments to piduresque advantage. Then on 31 May 1880. would create a bottleneck for the traffic arriving on the amplified Via Banco di Santo Spirito. to twenty meters. in the meantime. rich in historic monuments of the first order. was essentially that of the PIan of 1873.But within a year city authorities propos!. the fIank of Palazzo della Cancelleria. Along this stretch stood the palace of the Massimi with its elegant convex facade. The State aid bilI of 14 May 1881 sp~~ifi~d' that the avenu~ was to be completed until the river. At the old mint. in 1870. Secondly. because of the financial hardship of the city. Exprop~iation began on 1 February '1-_~84. the new avenue cut through urban tissue in a line designed to assimilate the Piccola Farnesina. joined to Via Nazionale.d a variant fodhe west erid of 'Corso Vittorio. Between San Pantaleo and Banco di Santo Spirito. Palazzo Sora. but. Of the new buildings which define the avenue on either side. the main east-west axis or decumanus of the city with a total length of 3. in anticipation of massive State aid. designed by Paolo Emilio De Santis. The variant took cognizance of the fact that the forked solution with the two termini of Ponte San Giovanni and Po~te Sant'Angelo was impractical. however. and Palazzo Sforza Cesarini. a mere eight meters wide. this was approved by' the council in the sessions of 23 February and 5 July 1886. and Palazzo Venturi by Giulio Podesti.500 meters. a patchwork of narrow Streets which had served as the main ceremonial thoroughfare through the papal city. and then employed the existing Via del Plebiscito (formerly Via del Gesù) to arrive at the church of the Gesù. it still presents an unfinished appearance:' Ponte Vittorio. especially toward the end. and the splendid Baroque pile of Santi\ndrea della Valle. The projed was shelved. along with the rest of the PIan of 1873. . and made official by a royal decree dated 9 December 1886. with an even longer direct connedion. the council approved anew the segment from the Gesù to San Pantaleo. was not opened until 1910. Corso Vittorio was thereby transformed into the principal western line of communication and. Corso Vittorio had to traverse the densest residential -section of papal Rome. The PIan of 1883 incorporated Corso Vittorio. The northern jog of Via Nazionale had been abandoned in 1876. the second.Corso Vittorio Emanuele This avenue was envisaged from the start as the western extension of the line of Via Nazionale until the river. the . The expressed goals of the early city proposals were to keep down the da mage to this fabric. the papal mint since the sixteenth century. provided for by the PIan of 1873. and work on the new avenue was slow. an essentially countrylike area of fields and 'lilla gardens. 54 . between the royal residence at the Quirinal and the monument to Victor Emanuel which they placed on the Gianicolo. uncompromisingly straight line from the stairs of the Campidoglio to Ponte Santi\ngelo. The first bridge lay too far south to be useful in the passage to the Borgo. it passed through Piazza SS. the avenue forked. and that its width increased from sixteerÌ meters. By now the crash had settIed in. To expand the roadway of this famous bridge would do harm to its historic formoThe variant resolved these problems by a direct single route ham the olci mint to the river and passage across by means of a new bridge called Ponte Vittorio Emanuele.

5S . detai! of the census map of 1860. Map of 1870 with 1883 solution for Corso Vittorio. Variant of 1886.The Quartiere del Rinascimento before the Breach.

6 .Map of 1870 overlaid with present lines of Piazza Venezia and the Vittoriano.

died on 9 January 1878. the Father of the Country. site _':':. by the project of Pio Piacentini and EtE/3314]..di~. and these men were asked to subinit revised proj57 .?'2JJn~11were exhibited in December -1881 at the new Museo Agrario next to Santa Susanna. The French architect building of the Vittoriano.d~.th~.. Vietor Emanuel Il. those of Count Giuseppe Sacconi of Montalto. and authorized an international eompetition (bili of 25 July 1880). and on its new site. /'2è. arches. a sité. to appease France for the anti-French riots over Tunisia.> "S-chmitzd Diisseldorf.é)~DgEjo'~ Campidoglio. it was variously asserted that Nénot had based his project too obviously on his 1877 Grand Prix design for an atheneum.~çZ_ .e. -Piacentini-Ferrari project fo}: the fiI:~.Ìmber òrentries'.The Vittoriano and Piazza Venezia The first king of Italy. 1910.88T-fb.cDOsenby. and that the award was made for political reasons at the insistence of Prime Minister Depretis.. and within two years it had raised nearly two million lire through private donations. _Brune.~ }Z0n:1arl.9E!b_?lQI2~. Pii'ul-Henri Nénot placed first. often in superlative or mad combination.the.P. and Manfredo Manfredi were singled out. only a month ahead of his illustrious rival for the sovereignty of Rome. equestrian statue s. The large n1.' Foruman.QfJ:he Capitoline. 41229]. Galletti in third pIace. tore Ferrari. [Alinari. The State undertook to eontribute an additional eight million. In the furor that ensued. The siteand f()IIll.nty entries. Ali major monumental types-triumphal columns.. Pope Pius IX.ct MicJi. Two sites predominated: the exPalazzetto Venezia being eonstructed edra ofthe Biths of Diocletian. ca. The Royal Commission now announèed asecond international'coÌTl'" petiti~~'~on '-iT'J5~S'eii1ber~:~. and the last stages of Pìa:Ùii Venezia.~.a. towers-were represented. in dose ~roximity to ~~. In May. and the sculptor Stefano Periphery of the Vittoriano in 1929. of the rnonument were'ie-ft' open. followed [Gabinetto Fotografico Nazionale.t 'competition: The program calied for ~Nah equestrian statue with an architecturaI backdrop and suitable stairs:' Of about ~eve. a Royal Commission was ereated to oversee the ereetion of a monument in honor of the gallant King. .

A variant pIan.ull-down the Palazzetto Venezia and 'rebuild it further to the east. so that the space. shortly after the resumption of building. proposed to put up a modernpalazzo reflectingthe -form oLPalazzo Venezia on the east side. Site difficulties and the choice of the white stone which had to be brought in at great expense from quarries at Brescia pushed the estimated budget to 26. by Pio and Marcello Piacentini. But an alternative solution of landscaping. A large area had been cleared around the construction. But mounting costs and the disastrous ltalian venture in Africa interrupted all activity throughout the last decade of the century. was laid aside. Via del Corso from the north entered it at this eastern corner. Later projects. and the PIan proposed to set up two framing columnar exedrae that would echo the order of the top story colonnade of the monument. a~ the Tower of Paul III.!€r--òf Santa'Maria Aracoeli.streets and buildings of consequence such. Meanwhile. the clois:.5 million lire by 1891. fO!. and Manfredi-was appointed to supervise the remaining work. however. cçmld be symmetrically disposed in relation to the Corso. A competition was held in 1913 to decide on a final designo The victorious scheme. including one by M. a separate competition for the equestrian statue was woa by Enrico Chiaradia. disap~ 'peared. riano was inaugurated during the Universal Exposition of 1911 (4 June) but work on it continued sporadically until 1930 when the quadrigas were hoisted into pIace. who was officially appointeg "Direttore sopraintendente" of the work on 30 December 1884. because of the War. and by a special bill of 21 February the monument was placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Works. its adjunct the Palazzetto Venezia to the south. . prevailed instead. enclosed by the fifteenth-century Palazzo Venezia to the west. The PIan of 1883 went further . Crimini and A. and on the east side the later pile of Palazzo Torlonia. 58 . The Vittoriano required digging into the slope of the Capitoline and reorganizing the area between it and Piazza Venezia. sanctioned on 6 ApriI 1908. the Corso was to be widened in part. According to the PIan of 1873. The laying of the cornerstone took pIace on 22 'March 1885. so as to 'open up the south end of Piazza Venezi~ toward the monumento The Vitto. by Raffaele De Vico. The PIan of 1931 returned to the question of the periphery.r'ally uriiform. Gaetano Koch. The Royal Commission was dissolved in 1900. Additional demolition cleared the two flanks of the Vittoriano. Lavagnino to create a trident of streets at Piazza Venezia recalling the trident at the other end of the Corso. the piazza was to be nearly doubled with the destruction of thePalazzo Torlonia. Civico and R. and demolition started soon thereafter. Piacentini to redesign the flanking blocks to the Corso. remained on the boards. and executed in time for the inauguration of Via dell'Impero (28 October 1932). A trinity of well-known architects-Pio Piacentini.. AltI-lough its approvaI preceded the decision to pIace the. The PIan of 1909 incor'porated this idea. At this time the piazza had a long and narrow shape. What did go through was the proposal of the PIan of 1909. thus rendering the piazza bilatl. and its eastern pIane lined up with the facade of Palazzo Torlonia. as well as a project by the engineers G. Testa for the reordering of the neighborhood. Sacconi died. Vittoriano against the Capitoline. and the socalled house of Giulio Romano. By the time of the PIan of 1909. the monument was still unfinished.ects for a final run-off. The winner wa~ Sacconi. and one by V. In the fall of 1905.

QuiIici].The same view today. . (Courtesy of F. after the demoIitions of the early 1930s.

Piazza Venezia. called Via dei Colli and Via dei Monti at first. but a year later a second version of it came around to the total razing of these buildings. The imperial fora of antiquity were known to lie beneath a dense neighborhood bounded by the RomanForum. After the Breach. and 12. started the excavations at the Forum of Trajan that uncovered the Basilica Ulpia. and San Lorenzuolo ai Monti-were pulled down. In 1828 part of the hemicycle of the Markets of Trajan came to view. as much as 84% of this was covered over in the end by the modern roadway. nine . and stone maps of the growth of Roman power. Sant'Urbano dei Pantani. By the time it was inaugurate d. an iron suspension bridge in form. ostensibly to minimize damage to the fora and to allow the continued use of these streets as tramways (Francesco Mora. Independent projects. it was also envisaged that Via Cavour would cross the Roman Forum by means of a viaduct. and the Basilica of Maxentius. A commission named by the Ministry of Public Works (in accordance with the Ministry of Public Instruction and the city) in 1919 to study the systematization of the Capitoline adopted the widening of Via Cremona and Via Alessandrina. created by the Napoleonic administration in 1811. while a briefer stretch would take off for the Colosseum along 60 the north flanks of the Basilica of Maxentius and the tempie of Venus and Rome. nearly the entire span of the fora (over 80. But according to one estimate. as finally executed Via dell'Impero was a straight line.500 units of housing demolished. by the engineers Missiroli and Monaco. Three churches . a major artery (Via Cavour) would climb in the direction of Santa Maria Maggiore and the railroad station. There were archaeological and topographical impediments to any solution. At the orders of the Duce. for a direct artery that would extend Via del Corso unti I the Colosseum.g. or else the route was made to pass behind the Forum of Augustus and diagonally across that of Trajan (Arnaldo Tolomei.000 cubic meters of retaining walls erected to shore up what remained of the Velia on the two sides of the road. 1907). From this point. as well as the base of the colossus of Nero and the ancient fountain called Meta Sudans which impeded the viewof the Arch of ConsJantine. 1903). Either a route between Via Cremona and Via Alessandrina was favored. and head toward the river and Trastevere. At first. Against the recommendation of the Pian of 1931 to have the road V-shaped for half its length. By 1932. under Pius IX. the revelation of the fora became the paramount concerno Corrado Ricci was entrusted with this project. excavations in the area of the Forum of Augustus revealed its south exedra (1888-1889). were affixed to the northern wall of the Basilica of Maxentius.. and then Via dell'Impero. No further excavation could be undertaken without destruction of the overlying post-Renaissance tissue.Via dell'Impero (Via dei Fori Imperiali) The effort to ameliorate circulation between Piazza Venezia and the Colosseum antedates the Breach of Porta Pia: It should be sufficient to cite the treelined avenues and parks projected in the early nineteenth century during the Napoleonic interlude. the southern slope of the Quirinal (Via Magnanapoli). with the residential buildings in between left intact. Two principal streets ran lengthwise through this tissue: Via Cremona and Via Alessandrina.Santa Maria in Macello Marlyrum. 280. bronze statues of the emperors associated with the fora were lined up along the new road. but passage was nonetheless difficult because of the presence of the Velia. e. advocated the enlargement of Via Cremona and its extension Via Salara Vecchia up to the tempie of Antoninus and Faustina. hundred meters long and thirty wide. but the magnitude and identity of this splendid edifice remained unsuspected. Unofficial alternatives to the Via Cremona solution were of two kinds. and the 1857 scheme by the Anglo-French firm York and Co. from antiquity to the Fascist present.. In the meantime.000 cubic meters of earth and 50. The Pian of 1909 reiterated this scheme. an eminence occupied by villas anci fields. preferred a system of tunnels under the Capitoline.000 square meters) had been dug up. when the Forum of Caesar had been excavated in part. on 28 October 1932. The Commissione per gli Abbellimenti di Roma. .000 of rock had to be moved. concerned more with traffic than the exposing of history. With the advent of Fascism. from the eastern flank of the Vittoriano to the Colosseum.. The Plans of 1873 and 1883. the Variante Generale of 1925 agreed with this latter solution. 5. The area between the Basilica and the Colosseum was not as built up. and work was begun in 1924.

61 .Via dell'Impero as seen through a second-story arch of the Colosseum. [Gabinetto Fotografico Nazionale. E/ 41220].

[Alinari.Aerial photograph of the region between the Vittoriano (extreme right) and the Colosseum in 1929. 62 . [From A. Tolomei. 1903. The Tolomei project. before the construction of Via dell'Impero.41242]. La Via Cavour e i fori imperiali].

The York Company project. 63 . Disegni e Mappe I. 1857. no. [Archivio di Stato di Roma. [Museo di Roma]. 369]. Cartella 82. The arteries of Via dell'Impero and Via del Mare cut through existing urban fabric. pIan.

Via del Mare (Via del Teatro di Marcello) There were three historical nodes of importance which thi§ Fascist avenue was designed to bring into harmony: ·the Capitoline. porticoes. Mora-that would clear the hillside of alI recent structures.. and this axis riveted. ancient ag:9P()li. AlI previous projects for terraces. The last of these. The PIan of 1873 prescribed the widening of Via della Pedacchia (later Via Giulio Romano) and Via Tor de' Specchi that ran along the base of this western slope. The Bocca della Verità ensemble figured in the plans for the improvement of the Tiber banks. Finally.e. the medieval house of the Crescentii immediately to their north. the eastern side toward the Roman Forum received some attention between 1941 and 1943. Santa Maria in Cosmedin was restored by the Associazione Artistica tra i Cultori di Architettura (1894-1899. During the last decade of the century. and the temples of Vesta and Fortuna Virilis-were to be freed of accretions. ramps. For Bocca della Verità. the so-calledtemples or For'tuna Virilis and of Vesta. The PIan of 1909 returned to the initial solution of 1873. Three of the ancient monuments-the arch of Janus. T~~. Next to Santa Maria in Cosmedin. in the spirit of authenticity current at the time. and so the need to skirt the hill now became more urgent and its scope more ambitious. with a view toward sparing Santa Rita da Cascia between the Aracoeli stairs and the flank of the Vittoriano. at the crossing of the artery with Via dei Cerchi. Giovenale as director). Between 1929 and 1931 the west slope was completely cleared of the modern fabric of tenements and churches. The Variante Generale was never officially approved. the tempIe of Fortuna Virilis and San Giorgio.!b"~ Viff6fÌano built agaj~st itsn·ortfi~. the laurei. and the cypress. Michel- 64 . became merely a section of this route. the arches of the Argentarii and of Janus Quadrifons. while Giovan Battista Milani directed the restoration of the tempIe of Vesta. beginning between the church of the Gesù and Palazzo Venezia and swooping toward the renovated Ghetto past Piazza Margana and Piazza Campitelli. Since the presence of the Roman Forum along the east slope of the hill severely circumscribed the scope of anytraffic solution there. the liberation of the theater of Marcellus from encroaching structures was steadfastly promulgated. and a group of rrionum~nts surIQunding Piazza della Bocca della Verità. modern buildings acting as propylaea. the isolation of the Capitoline was included in alI efforts to open up circulation routes south of Piazza Venezia. its Baroque facade by Giuseppe Sardi was ripped off in order to re-establish the Romanesque prospect. but nevertheless from 1926 onward work started on alI parts of Via del Mare. the Variante Generale embraced a study by Giovannoni. By contrast. and.!' ~~c~. But the Variante Generale of 1925 -1926 adopted a bolder scheme-proposed independently also by the engineer T. the medieval churches of Santa Maria in Cosmedin and San Giorgio in Velabro. The arch and the tempIe of Vesta were to form a lateral axis for the new artery from the north.nQW stoo(rFiee Ior the first time. the committee named by the Ministry of Public Works to study the problem of the Capitoline and its vicinity modified this proposed artery along the western slope. Giovannoni proposed for it a stripped serial facade inspired by ancient warehouses or horrea. with G. and next to San Giorgio. and a grand staircase with terracing was to provide a formaI ascent to the arx terrarum of the Capitoline and the city offices at the top. B. Immediately after the War. opened up at either end. Orsola e Caterina and Sant'Andrea in Vincis most especially) that defined the side of Via Tor de' Specchi toward the hill. i. was favored. which was accomplished in the 1880s. with its more demotic and therefore more dispensable fabric. and the ground levellowered by as much as eight meters to reach the tuffa core.s also entrusted with the complex task of the isolation of the Capitoline.oLRQme . the rude mass of the pasta factory called Pantanella had been acquired by the city with the intention of remodeling it for use as a museum. A modified version of the Giovannoni pIan for Bocca della Verità was executed under the generaI supervision of Clemente Busiri Vici. and Santa Maria Aracoeli. Fasolo) were rejected in favor of understated landscaping based on classical trees such as the pine. the PIan of 1883 chose a route more to the west. as these were becoming known from the excavations at Ostia. it was soon transformed into a palace front. and the like (see. Next carne the southern slope. but by this time the Vittoriano was in irreversible progress. . and Antonio Munoz. with the renovation of Via della Consolazione (the ancient vicus ]ugarius). the west slope.. the city's Inspector GeneraI for Antiquities. The project was related to the demolition of the adjacent Ghetto area and its transformation into a modern quarter. and set in an open space lowered to the originaI classical level and landscaped. and headed toward Piazza della Bocca della Verità by means of an amplified Via della Bocca della Verità. with . a large built area around it slowly su ccumbed to its devouring agoraphilia. as well as the string of Renaissance houses and churches (SS. for example. Since the first Master PIan. by means of tw. Instead. commissioned by the city in 1924. Munoz wa.~. which peeled off to the right. The enlarged Piazza Montanara before the theater of Marcellus was to be monumentally framed. the contemporary designs by V. the theater of Marcellus. And last of all. Alberto Calza Bini took charge of the restoration of the theater of Marcellus (completed by 1932). past the theater of Marcellus. and the clearing of the church of Sant'Omobono (1931-1933).

Ripa Giudea. Rome. and the neo-Gothic church of S.The embankments and the 'lungo/evere today: stretch along Castel Sant'Angelo. Sis/emazione del Tevere. Palazzo di Giustizia. detail at Castel Sant' Angelo. Vescovali project for embankments and the lungo/evere. P. 1875. [From O. 67 . [Museo di Roma]. [F. the left bank at the Ghetto. Conti. Cuore del Suffragio (1890). before the lungo/evere. as seen from Ponte Fabrizio (Quattro Capi). 1876].Rigamonti].

and Felice Nori for the southem section.§tructures. into a circle that echoed the monument's formo But whereas the project of the Ufficio Tecnico of the govematorate defined the circle by a ring of modem buildings. What' is mare. a diagonal avenue took ofE from the northwest corner merging with the traffic along the river.became the new propylaea along Via di Ripetta. so the mausoleum could be viewed directly from Via di Ripetta. the. Starting east of Via del Corso with a widened Via della Croce. New porticoed buildings of the National Fascist Institute of Social Insurance (Istituto Nazionale Fascista della Previdenza Sociale) were to define the piazza on the north and east sides. and an action pIan (piano parin agreement with these ticolareggiato) provisions was approved on 2 May 1932. Matching this northeastern feature of the piazza. It had been a fort of the Colonna and the Orsini. Via di Ripetta to the west. The Pian of 1931 enlarged the area of the piazza. Vicolo del Grottino to the south. but a V-shaped opening west of the Corso guaranteed a better view of the mausoleum from that side. At this point. Q. Azone of silence around these monuments was to be ensured by burying the existing tramlines underground. San Girolamo and San Rocco. the commission set up to revise the PIan retained and improved upon this scheme (Variante Generale 1925-1926).ancf 5an Girolamo degli Schia: vani and San Rocco fronting on Via dì Ripetta. Only the exterior form of themausoleuin would be revealed by freeing the circumference wall along most of its orig~~al line. At the time the mausoleum was functioningas a·còncert haìl. the decision to make a major pageant out of the upcoming bimillennial of Augustus' birth suggested further changes. Giglioli. The eastern approach from the direction of Piazza di Spagna was shifted from Via della Croce to a widened Via Vittoria. The mausoleum of the emperor should be returned to its originai state within as well. Bothaltered the odd-shaped 'polygonal piazza with exedrae. in harmony with the three churches and without competitiori from large-scalenew .d by a twO-part bridge. A wide "street-piazza" passed between the churches of San Girolamo and San Rocco. the piazza should be enlarged stili further to unite the mausoleum more firmly with the masses of the three churches. two rival projects for the piazza arolin'd the mausoleum were being circulated. the freeing of the mausoleum of Augustus from parasitic construction that concealed its circular form was first advanced in the PIan of 1909. In 1927. laid out as a hanging garden by the Soderini who had acquired it in 1546. Vittorio Ballo Morpurgo was appointed architect in charge. The initial design of 1934 retained the V of the northeast corner. The mausoleum was provided with two propylaea-blocks on the south side. The eastem approach into the piazza was still through a widened Via della Croce. between Via di Ripetta and the river. the artery continued in a straight line un~ til the river. and settlèd for an underground museum. transformed into a bull-ring in the eighteenth century.Piazzale Augusta Imperatore If we discount a proposal of limited scope by Giuseppe Valadier in the early nineteenth century. which had it remodeled as a concert hall. After the War. One last change was the rejection of the northeastern V in favor of a gentI e convex curve that would continue the line of the widened Via Vittoria into the piazza. except for Palazzo Correa abuttlng' ohthe north. and ended with the splendid tribune of San Carlo al Corso now freed of ali attachments. three '" churches roundabout.and finally ceded to thecity in 1907. Everything except the mausoleum within these boundaries was to be leveled. The project was viewed as a side benefit of the new artery provided for in the Pian that would link Piazza di Spagna and the quarters above with the thriving residential area north of the Borgo. In additioI1 to the mausoleum. were also substantially to be freed. joine. and gave it a rectangiilar formo ]t was to be limited by Via dei Pontefici to the north. Grazioli block along the 'lungotevere was now slated for demoÌition. The Pian of 1909 did not propose to end this latest activity. but the projected building to the west was cancelled. 68 Furthermore. and occupied for some years by the sculptor Enrico Chiaradia as workspace for his equestrian of the Vittoriano. so that the piazza could be reoriented and opened up toward the river. . by pulling down the concert hall. at the express orders of MussOlini. with a line of building between it and the mausoleum and the new block by Grazioli beyond. . the commlSSlon advocated the formaI planning of the lungotevere from the Accademia di Belle Arti ali the way down to Piazza Nicosia. specified in the Variante Generale. the last of a series of designations that had kept it in continuai use since the Middle Ages. and a smaIl polygonal piazza opened around it. His revision of the action pian proceeded in two stages. and work on this part of their proposal was actually begun shortly thereafter based on designs by Carlo Grazioli for the northem section until Ponte Cavour. Also in 1926 the first serious excavations within the mausoleum were undertaken under the direction of G. now to be completely disengaged from surrounding construction including Palazzo Correa. ~d to thlòeast. Enrico Del Debbio's project for theFedt:Iazione Fas'cista dell'Urbe ~vVasconcemed with showing off the mausoleum to best advantage. San Carlo al C5r'so. serving as a museum for Augustan art including the fragments of the Ara Pacis. taken over by the State in the late nineteenth century. _by a line that passed aIong-iEe west ~ae~CifPiazza degli Otto Cantoni. The final Morpurgo project of 1935 did away with the propylaea-blocks.

By 1940 the building of the Piazzale was complete d. The last to be c1eared were the buildings along Via Tomacelli and Via di Ripetta. exactly one year later. with the last major structure to rise being the Collegio degli IlIirici on Via Tomacelli in a line with San Girolamo. Palazzo Correa followed suit in March.Demolition began on 22 October 193L.F. this too was done. •. First Morpurgo project. at the c10sing of the ceremonies.Soon afterward the foundations far the LN. buildings were laid. Santoro]. The last concert was held in the mausoleum on 13 May 1936.P. 1934. [Courtesy of G. was brought down. When the bimill~l1nial celebrations startèdeJn 23 Sep~ tember 1937. PIan over pre-existing urban fabric. Palazzo Valdambrini (Soderini). In ]anuary 1937.L and -proceeded from th~ periphery ~nward.s. a final décision was made to set up the Ara Pacis in a glass cage pn the river side of Piazzale Augusto Imperatore. 69 . built by Cardinal Riminaldi in 1774. But Via Vittoria was never enlarged and the circulation rationale of this vast and costly square was thus thwarted.

Boncompagni./bùttoward St..side ~f fFie street.Via della Conciliazione The idea of creating an open axis to 'the complex of St. But the reconcilia. 1hrough which the facadè of-St. St.ructedon the north . if at all. Toward the river end. the "open" solution was feasible. Peter's couId be seen ali the way from the river. the projects differed.butdisà. The church cOmplex must be separated from its new axis but not isolated from it. Peter's with a cross wing. toward the Piazza of St. Others would correct this axis and block the wider end of the V. interrupted the solid mass of building. As executed.873 . represented by the projects of Cosimo Morelli (1776) and Valadier-Camporesi-Stern (early nineteenth century). . would leave the axis as this demolition exposed it. and slow down the perspective view towàrd the church.XII before one enters. and in aTIÙle morethana yiar it was ready "T6-rpréséntatio~. According to Piacentini and Spaccarelli. and halfway down another piazza. the construction of two modest blocks that would redefine Piazza Scossacavalli and Piazza Rusticucci. obstructing the view of St. Peter's the spina started with Piazza Rusticucci. Peter's it {so i::6nshicféd by twa projecting blocks that introduce the secondary Piazza 1"io . Two rows of obelisks serving as lampposts conceal the irregular line of these two sides. to correct the inverse perspective of the V. The palazzi Rusticucci and Convertendi were rECç9!lst.The follow70 ing year the two architects were charged by the new governor Giuseppe Bottai to collaJ?or<ite on a joint scheme. The demolition of the spJna was GlcTude.. with unparallel sides and slightly offaxis with St. was under construction during the War years. The new street. The spina would have to be demolished -that much there was agreement ono Beyond this. usually along the east side of Piazza Rusticucci (Carlo Fontana. approved by the Duce on 20 June 1936 and by Pope Pius XI a week later.. and the Duce respectively.tion of the Church and the Italian government encouraged fresh thinking on the issue. the double portico was left out. employed two large portico-buildings lined up one behind the other along the demolished spina. )?rescribed a doubleportico across the demolished spina. attributed to Bramante. the opening up .nri "the Plahòf1. pèàrea 'tram all subsequent Plans indÙding that of 1931. In 1934 two separate projects by Marcello Piacentini and Attilio Spaccarelli were presented. Within three months expropriation proceedings were completed and on the first day of 1937 the Duce lifted his pick to signal the start of the demolition. Of two alternatives within this solution. only with the two sides of the demolished spina made parallel. Scossacavalli. symbolically. the line 'of Ponte Vittorio Emanuele is continued by the straight line of Via San Pio X emerging obliquely in front of the facade of Santa Maria in Traspontina. fronting on Piazza Scossacavalli. to the governor of Rome.. The so-called "open" solution. Peter's from the city and obstructed the view of the church facade except for the dome. One post-1870 solution. one. and defined by a combination of new building blocks and alder buildings such as Palazzo Torlonia and Santa Maria in Traspontina on the north side and Palazzo dei Penitenzieri on the south side. with the. Peter's. 1694). was rejected on the grounds that it isolated St. toward the city seemed . Toward St. and Palazzo dei Convertendi. final stages of the work concluded between 1945 and the Holy Jubilee year of 1950. Peter's the axis was occupied by four irregular blocks forming a narrow V with Borgo Nuovo and Borgo Vecchio for its two arrns-the 50called spina.i?~. by Andrea Busiri Vici. The convergent sides of the street were brought closer to a parallel alignment. Peter's had been around since the time of Bemini. Peter'~. So the final project. Two important palaces stood back to back between these piazze: Palazzo Rusticucci of the late sixteenth century. Peter's. called Via della Conciliazione in memory of the rapprochement between Church and State. at aboutthe eastend of Piazza Rusticucci. and the way to achieve this was'a maÙei:of consensus. The generarwidth is àbout fitty"fiÙiFers.of St. Their own preference was for the closed solution. .now most appropriate. Between the river and the piazza of St. Peter's from the river. . the piazza of. Le.

the opening Fotografico 71 -----------_._--. before of the artery._ .Aerial view of Via della Conciliazione today._---- .. [Gabinetto Nazionale. B/741]. [Courtesy of F. Quilici]. _--~-------~_. View of the spina.

The entrance to the complex at this southern point was now formalized with a piazza and a reception building that would also accommodate the three hundred students of the biennial fencing course. between the river and the hills of Monte Mario and Macchia Madama. Its designers were Mario Pani coni and Giulio Pediconi. now destined for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Stili another bridge.underplayed Academy. but the building. and the winning design by Vincenzo Fasolo and the engineer Antonio Aureliwas built in 1938-1939 (Ponte Duca d'Aosta).000. to the Foro Mussolini. In 1935.B. one large and one small. Groundbreaking was on 28 October 1937. in the space between this stadium and the Stadio dei Cipressi. swimming pools. capable of holding 600. The building by Del Debbio. for the bridge on axis with the fountain. In contrast to the sober . was to be erected. which also retains the southern bridge. as specified in the competition of 1934. the rest was of shining Carrara marble. This version extended the area of the Foro Mussolini ali the way from Ponte Milvio to the edges of the residential quarter of Piazza d'Armi. was to connect this piazza with the left bank. the decision was taken to move the site of the Palazzo del Littorio. made largely of exposed brick. the Fascist party's system for the training of Italian youth. and Vittorio Morpurgo. the obelisk. was finished only in the late fifties-minus the tower and the bridge. and the obelisk were ali completed. a bridge was projected further south. The axial bridge makes its first appearance in the 1930 version of the scheme. this building. in a vast rectangular piazza one hundred and fifty by two hundred meters. instead.000 square meters. between Ponte Milvio and the new Ponte Duca d'Aosta. from the corher of Via dell'Impero across the Colosseum. was completed in 19341936. a train station was now projected. and the ceremonial entrance. meant for the instructors of this emerging national program. is linked to the institution of the Opera Nazionale Balilla. known as Casa delle Armi. At this stage the ceremonial entrance along the river was not as yet linked with the left bank by means of an axial bridge. (Assigned to the architect Luigi Moretti in 1932. Enrico Del Debbio's first project of 1927 consisted of an Academy for Physical Education. was now designed to stand north of the two stadia. each four meters high. In pIace of the open-air theater. Arnaldo Foschini. in line with the swimming pools and the open-air theater. with adjacent fields. The Stadio Mussolini. was placed behind the obelisk. The seventeen-meterhigh monolith of the obelisk stood toward the river. More peripheral modifications were introduced in 1932. the larger stadium (Stadio dei Cipressi) whose seating grades consisted of landscaped terracing. headquarters of the Fascist party. Its long axis ran through the two symmetrical wings of the Academy building. had ten rows of marble seats topped by sixty statues of male nudes. the Torre Littoria. a fountain comprised of a monolithic sphere three meters in diameter set in a sunken circular basin. Undersecretary of National Education and head of the O. and an obelisk. The ceremonial entrance was roughly equidistant to this new bridge and the ancient Ponte Milvio to the north. In 1928 a second project by Del Debbio already encompassed most of the major elements of the later complex: two stadia. between the Academy and the covered swimming pool by Costantino Costantini. Eighteen projects were submittèd. ·AIso in 1935. The same year a competition was held. It was Costantini who was also responsible for the feat of erecting the obelisk. for a total of 850. with a capacity of 20. contributed by individuaI Italian cities. 72 . The notion for a grander scheme should be attributed to Renato Ricci. the small stadium called Stadio Mussolini or Stadio dei Marmi. In the middle a Fascist tower. The planning of this area for the Rome Balilla began modestly. educational facilities.) The theater was moved north of the stadia.N.Foro Mussolini (Foro Italico ) ? The origin of this monumental complex on the right bank.000 people. under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Public Works. By 1934 the originaI core building of the Academy. The southern bridge wasnever built.

In the subsequent revision of this pIan. that would rival the physical greatness of the historic city and act as the stag-. otherwise. and covered with reIiefs ì1Iustrating the theme of communication history. Arnaldo Foschini. In front of the palace. from the cross-axial arrangement of ancient Roman castra and colonial foundations. The grouping of major buildings emulated openly the monumental complexes of Rome itself.. and Lodovico Qua~ roni.which had meanwhile been slated for erection at thesouthern en-dof Via dei Trionfi. Piazza Imperiale. t m a t?ìx-foranewè:'enfer Ci f Rom~. Ettore Rossi.Esposizione Universale di Roma (EUR) In the introductory essay we have outlined the circumstances that led to the conceptionof EUR'. that by Luigi Moretti and that by the team of Francesco Fariello. The main cross-axis carne halfway between Piazza Imperiale and the now formaI lake. and the pala ce of Italian Civilization (Iater Palace of Labor) were now set up as terminaI features of a secondary cross-axis immediately within the north entrance. In recognition of the fact that the northsouth axis of EUR was only one stretch of this highway. the Ente held competitions. and (3) to provide the perm an en Ethiopia in 1937. specifically the imperial fora at the other end of Via Imperiale. had li~. marrying the possibilities of an irregular site with the rigor of a hierarchical grido The basic scheme was cross-axiaI. it functioned completely independently of the administrative and juridical control of the Pian of 1931.War activity of the Ente. The preliminary master pIan for EUR was drawn up in ~il.Mar: cello Piacentini. both cerem~nial and residenti~I. Saverio Muratori. and was framed by a complex of communications museums to the east and the church to the west. highway that was to Iink Piazza Venezia with EUR and head on to Ostia and the sea. and groundbreaking ceremonies were held on 28 ApriI. Piazza delle Forze Armate. through the twentysèven centuries of its histQry. Giovanni Guerrini. opened up in the revised pIan.The theme was to be "The Olympics. a marble slab was to be dedicated to the memory of Guglielmo Marconi. balancing the Arch of Constantine at the opposite end. (2) to celebrate wìth ah international audience the twentieth anniversary of the Fascist regime in a rnonumental theater that would refIect the scope and splendor of its accomplishment. The post. The corporation. instead. Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana.The initial decision to hold a universal exposition was reached in the spring of 1935. a glass structure called the Palace of Light overIooked an artificial lake of picturesque outline which the axis crossed by a bridge. The inspiration carne. For others. and the generaI c1assical grid of Hippodamian towns Iike Miletus and Priene. respectively. Dìrectly under Piacentini carne Gaetano Minnucci. Adalberto Libera the winning architect. It was approved by the Duce on8. The grand hall fronted a long piazza focused by the obeIisk of Axum brought from this holy city of calle dEnte Autonomo Esposizione Universale di Roma. and surrounding buildings. the Porta Imperiale. the church of Saints Peter and PauI. and Luigi Vietti. is outside the scope of this exhibition. It was not to be that ofAxum. Some of the buildings more or less completed between 1937 and 1943 were assigned to specific architects by the Ente Autonomo.of Civilization. a major objective of MussoIini's program. and individuaI structures. Minnucci himself did the offices of the Ente. .' each nation displaying its own share in the progress of humanity. surrounded by museums and a theater and leading out into the two arms of the mai n cross-axis. The grand hall (palazzo dei Ricevimenti e dei Congressi). 'Aprii. The obelisk was moved to Piazza Imperiale. the great. its ends were. ifs special contribution to the field of art and science. with two winning designs by Mario De Renzi and Gino Pollini (not executed). named Superintendent of Architecture by the corporation which had been created through a special bìII of 26 December 1936 to direct the development of EUR. the winrring team. gardens. and negotiations with participating nations began in June 1936. the way in ali efforts of human knowledge and action.~:IyI937bya team consisting of Giuseppe Pagano. Major buildings c10sed off the main north-south axis at either end -the grand hall for receptions and congresses and the pala ce of Italian CiviIization. the picturesque elements disappeared in favor of a rigidly orthogonallayout. the most important are the following: Palazzo dei Ricevimenti e dei Congressi. was overseen by an advisory Commissariat with senator Vittorio Cini as its president. Ern~sto La Padula. in charge of the execution of parks. Both were set on high ground. Mario Romano. executed according to a finaI design by the two projects that placed first. ìng area for the extensio'n of Rome toward the sea. This revised pIan was the brainchild of Piacentini. The pIan was a mixture of picturesque and formaI design. For Mussolini's own purposes the a~j1l of tlie project was three-pronged: (1) to show how Italy. Of these. selfsupporting since 1951. even though it was heavily subsidized by the State. This Piazza Axum opened into a stìII larger Piazza Imperiale. of course. and finally.

[Courtesy of F. .Aeria! view of centra! EUR today. Quilici).

1938. [From .Final PIan.

1934. .GeneraI view from the air. Construction photograph of the Academy for Physicai Education. [Vasari).