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Topic 2

1. What is the different between descriptive and prescriptive grammar? Descriptive grammar refers to the structure of a language as it is actually used by speakers and writers. describe how people use spoken and written language and the knowledge that they use to decide whether something is grammartically correct. Prescriptive grammar is a set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and word structures of a language, usually intended as an aid to the learning of that language. refers to the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used. prescribe the rules of a language. Both kinds of grammar are concerned with rules but in different ways. Descriptive grammar specialist (linguists) study the rules of patterns that underline our use of words, phrases, clauses and sentences. Prescriptive grammar prescriptive grammarians (editors and teachers) layout rules about what they believe to be the correct or incorrect use of language.

2. What is the different between overt and covert approaches? Overt Approach Teacher explains the rules when presenting the new language. Two options available the deductive and inductive approach Deductive approach teacher presents the rules/patterns/generalizations and then goes on to provide practice in the application of these rules.

Inductive approach known as discovery method. The students are first given a number of sample sentences containing the target forms and then the teacher guides the students into deriving the rule for themselves.

A grammar rule presented covertly via comminucative activity can be supported by an explicit explanation students understand the rules. A grammar rule presented overtly or explicitly should be supported by activities encourage students to use the structures for communicative purposes.

Covert Approach Teacher uses the structure without drawing attention to grammartical rules. Focus on activity not the grammar rules. Errors should be tolerated during the course of the activity but should be noted and dealt with at a later session. 3. What is the different between grammar in isolation and grammar in context? Grammar in isolation Teaching grammar in isolation involves learning grammar is presented out of context. Learners are given isolated sentences, which they are expected to internalize through exercises involving repetition, manipulation and grammartical transformation. These exercises designed provide learners with formal, declarative mastery of the language in which they are able to explain rules of using the form of the language. Grammar in context Teaching grammar in contex involves teaching grammar in relations to the context of the situation the utterances are usually used.

Learners are given the opportunities to explore grammar in context, it make easy for them to see how and why alternative forms exist to express different communicative meanings.

Getting learners to read a set of sentences in the active voice, then transform these into passives following a model, is a standard way of introducing the passive voice.

Grammar is contextualized in meaningful language use.

4. Discuss the meaning use form (MUF) framework. M-U-F is a grammar teaching framework (teaching approach) where it stands for M-U-F (Meaning-Use-Form). This framework integrates grammar and its context. It was introduced by Janey Moon (2008) through a British Councils program concerning about the development of English teaching and learning in elementary school in Asia. English teaching and learning should follow the sequence of activities that help students to reach their optimum potentials. For this reason M-U-F framework can be used as a reference. The framework has five important elements to be applied in developing lesson plans. The elements are Topic, Activities, Language Focus, Situation and Sequence. They are known as TAFLSS. TAFLSS.

Meaning What is literal or essential meaning of the word, phrase, functional expression or grammar structure?

What does it mean in the context its being used in? For the first step, teachers introduce a new language to children in MEANINGFUL CONTEXT to help the children understand the meaning of the language that they are learning.

Meaning can be created through situations that are related to childrens life. WAYS TO CREATE MEANING

Set situations or dialogues that are fun for children using dolls or other media. (puppet show).

Using stories. Playing dramas. Using Total Physical Response (TPR) Using pictures. Using childrens experiences as learning materials.

Form How is the vocabulary unit, functional expression, or grammar structure formed? Form refers to the visible and audible parts of vocabulary, functional expressions and grammar units: the spelling, phonemes, syllable stress, words in a phrase, prefixes or suffixes, syntax (word order), choice of noun or verb, etc for a particular place in a sentence, and/or punctuation. Children are subconsciously notice form of language (grammar) and tend to use language naturally in accordance with their need.

Thus, teachers have the responsibility to attract childrens attention to language forms during English lesson, which means that the teachers are making the children aware of accurate language use both orally and written.

Children need certain conditions to make them understand meanings of English vocabularies and to use the language in natural context.

This means that the teachers have to introduce the language form with meaningful context, which to make the children feel motivated to use English as well.

Gameschildren raise their right hands if teacher says singular animals, and their left hands if teacher says plural animals.

Writingcompleting sentences, arranging words into good sentences, or completing dialogues.

Use When or why is the vocabulary, functional expression or grammar structure used? The words, functional expressions, grammar structures we choose to use are determined by the situation we are in and/or what we want to communicate to our listener(s). Use is interconnected with meaning. After children are exposed to English language through the situations manipulated by teachers, they also need opportunities to use English to communicate with others. They may use the language to play or to act in plays. Sample of activities Games Information gap Quiz

Plays Giving and following instructions to do or making something. Creating funny rhythms or songs.

5. What are the issues in grammar teaching? Choose one and give your opinion based in your teaching experience.

Should teachers correct grammartical errors In my opinion, as teachers, we need to deal with errors. The reasons are as follows: Language learners make mistakes. This seems to happen regardless of the teachers skill and perseverance errors. Errors play a necessary and important part in language learning.

Here are the main type of mistakes that need to be corrected:

Grammatical mistakes (mistakes of verb tenses, preposition use, etc.) Vocabulary mistakes (incorrect collocations, idiomatic phrase usage, etc.) Pronunciation mistakes (errors in basic pronunciation, errors in word stressing in sentences, errors in rhythm and pitch)

Written mistakes (grammar, spelling and vocabulary choice mistakes in written work)

The main issue at hand during oral work is whether or not to correct students as the make mistakes. Mistakes may be numerous and in various areas (grammar, vocabulary choice, pronunciation of both words and correct stressing in sentences). On the other hand, correction of written work boils down to how much correction should be done. In other words, should teachers correct every single mistake, or, should they give a value judgement and correct only major mistakes.

However, many teachers are taking a third route these days. This third route might be called 'selective correction'. In this case, the teacher decides to correct only certain errors. Which errors will be corrected is usually decided by the objectives of the lesson, or the specific exercise that is being done at that moment. In other words, if students are focusing on simple past irregular forms, then only mistakes in those forms are corrected . Other mistakes, such as mistakes in a future form, or mistakes of collocations are ignored.

Finally, many teachers also choose to correct students after the fact. Teachers take notes on common mistakes that students make. During the follow-up correction session the teacher then presents common mistakes made so that all can benefit from an analysis of which mistakes were made and why.

There are three basic approaches to correcting written work: 1) Correct each mistake 2) Give a general impression marking 3) Underline mistakes and / or give clues to the type of mistakes made and then let students correct the work themselves.

Correction is necessary. The argument that students just need to use the language and the rest will come by itself seems rather weak. Students come to us to teach them. If they want only conversation, they will probably inform us - or, they might just go to a chat room on the Internet. Obviously students need to be corrected as part of the learning experience. However, students also need to be encouraged to use the language. It is true that correcting students while they are trying their best to use the

language can often discourage them. The most satisfactory solution of all is make correction an activity. Correction can be used as a follow-up to any given class activity. However, correction sessions can be used as a valid activity in and of themselves. In other words, teachers can set up an activity during which each mistake (or a specific type of mistake) will be corrected. Students know that the activity is going to focus on correction, and accept that fact. However, these activities should be kept in balance with other, more free-form, activities which give students the opportunity to express themselves without having to worry about being corrected every other word. Finally, other techniques should be used to make correction not only part of the lesson, but also a more effective learning tool for the students. These techniques include:

Deferring correction to the end of an activity Taking notes on typical mistakes made by many students Correcting only one type of error Giving students clues to the type of error they are making (in written work) but allowing them to correct the mistakes themselves

Asking other students to remark on mistakes made and then explain the rules by themselves. A great technique for getting 'teacher pets' listening instead of answering each question themselves. However, use this with caution!

Summary Correction is not an 'either / or' issue. Correction needs to take place, and is expected and desired by students. However, the manner in which teachers correct students plays a vital role in whether students become confident in their usage or become intimidated. Correcting students as a group, in correction sessions, at the end of activities, and letting them correct their own mistakes all help in encouraging students to use English rather than to worry about making too many mistakes.