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By Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA
Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
My name is Maleshwane Mauco I am a Learning and Behavior Specialist here in Cape Town and have a small private practice in Rondebosch I serve kids with autism, aspergers, adhd, odd, PDDNOS, and neuro-typical children, one child at a time My job: fix real problems with real kids; problems that involve behavior in some way; educational or home life
Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
Skills Assessment Program Development, Implementation, Monitoring, & Maintenance Parent / Caregiver Support Individualised Family Support Plans Guidance in implementing positive, respectful, and effective family / school supportive behaviour management strategies Child School Assessment Individualised Behaviour Support Plan and Implementation Behaviour Plan Management (Maintenance and Monitoring) Inclusion Adaptation Training (self-management, self-monitoring, coping mechanisms) Professional and Para-professional Training / Support
Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
Specialized group interventions/setting specific systems Children without serious behavior problems (80-90%) All Children in proffesional Settings Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. .The Continuum of Behavior Support Children with chronic/intense behavior problems (1-7%) Children at risk for problem behaviors (5-15%).
1995 .Effective Behavior Support Across Settings Across Settings Setting Specific Systems Home/Com munity systems School Systems Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. From RTC on Positive Behavior Support.
. It focuses on developing adaptive repertoires of behaviour and reducing those behaviours that are problematic.What Is Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)? Behaviour Analysis is the scientific study of behaviour. Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
3. . F.A Brief Introduction to ABA 1. ABA is the science of human behaviour that began with the work of B. Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. Skinner over 50 years ago ABA concentrates on determining the “causes” of behaviour by investigating environmental factors Effective teachers arrange the environment to produce effective learners 2.
It seeks to improve behaviour whilst demonstrating a reliable relationship between the procedures employed and the behavioural improvement. . observable behaviours. ABA focuses on objectively defined.Introduction The answer lies in its focus and methodology. Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
.Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
Examples of Reinforcement 1. When Mary watches TV and the picture gets fuzzy she puts a piece of tin foil on the aerial and the picture becomes clearer. A teacher smiles at John and praises him when he stays in his seat. As a result the child cries more often. 3. . 2. A child cries at night after being put to bed and her parent’s come to her room to calm her down. Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. As a result John is more likely to stay in his seat and pay attention. Now she is more likely to put tin foil on the aerial when the picture goes fuzzy.
Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. .Behaviour and Labels A diagnosis or label. “Autism” is given based upon observations of behaviours that occur or don’t occur.
.Behaviour is Communication Behaviour does not occur in isolation Behaviour occurs for a reason Behaviour is often maintained by: o Access to a material reinforcer o Access to a social reinforcer o Avoidance of aversive stimuli o Physical stimulation Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
often without specifically defining what the behaviour is.Defining behaviour Summary labels.a word or phrase used to describe a set of behaviours. . Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
Behaviour has certain physical features (topographical) Behaviour can be measured Frequency Latency Duration Percentage correct Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.Describing Behaviour Behaviour consists of specific categories of actions people perform. .
Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.Selecting a target behavior Relevance of behavior rule Habilitation Social Validity Is it age Appropriate? Is the behavior under treatment the target behavior? Provide an adaptive behavior When the goal is not a behavior. .
.Be Constructive!! Behaviour analysis is most successful when it takes a constructional approach to behaviour change by defining what behaviours are desirable and to be encouraged Identify desirable behaviour Catch the child being good Reinforce the desirable behaviour do not reinforce the undesirable behaviour (EXTINCTION) Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
Strengths of child & family .Determine when behavior is or is not likely to happen .Determine what happens after behavior occurs Develop specific and global hypotheses Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.Determine what happens before behavior occurs .Basic Steps of an FBA Gather specific and broad contextual information . .Define behaviors of concern .
i. social contexts.e. All behaviors are learned. Effective support plans are based on a thorough understanding of the student’s strengths. people. Positive behavioral support is grounded in personcentered values. 2. Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. 3. Behaviors are related to the context. 4.Guiding Principles 1. activities. and the function of the problem behavior. 5. Problem behaviors serve some function or purpose for the student. and environment in which they occur. .
Summary of Methods of Behavioral Assessments Indirect Assessment Descriptive Assessment Functional Assessment Procedure Subjective verbal report of behavior under naturalistic conditions Quantitative direct observation of behavior under naturalistic conditions Efficiency and ease of application Advantages Quantitative direct observation of behavior under preselected and controlled conditions Objective and relevant Objective. high degree to everyday events of control allowing for identification of functional relations Questionable reliability and validity Disadvantages Complex. inability to identify effects of subtle or intermittent variables. . potential insensitivity to highly idiosyncratic events. potential “masking” by irrelevant events Complex. potential risk of establishing new behavioral function Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
circle “Yes”. etc. Then use the results as a guide for conducting direct observations in several different situations to verify likely behavioral functions. The behavior usually occurs when the person is alone. social interaction. 13. During a “high -cycle”. The person engages in other annoying behaviors (crying. YES NO 8. such as body rocking. The person usually complains or resists when asked to perform a task. The behavior occurs in cycles that last for several days. object twirling or mouthing. 1. The behavior usually occurs when the person has to perform a task. The behavior usually occurs when the person is being ignored or when preferred activities or items have been taken away.” the behavior occurs rarely. the behavior problem usually decreases. When the person engages in the behavior you usually ignore it (you rarely attend to it). tantrums.) to get attention. during a “low cycle.) 17. YES NO Informant-Client Relationship Indicate your relationship to the person: ____Parent ___Therapist ___Teacher/Instructor ___Residential Staff How long have you known the person? _____Years _____Months Do you interact with basis?___Yes ___No the person on a daily 9. The behavior occurs at high rates regardless of what is going on around the person. 15. YES NO 4. etc. Administer the FAST to several individuals who interact with the client frequently. snacks. It should be used only for screening purposes as part of a comprehensive functional analysis of the problem. you usually try to calm the person down or distract the person with preferred activities (leisure. . The person does not engage in appropriate forms of play. YES NO 10. 16. or identify factors not included in this instrument. The behavior occurs more often when the person is sick. YES NO 6. identify the task: __self-care __academic __vocational ___________other) When the behavior occurs. The person has a history of recurrent illness (ear infections. YES NO 2. The behavior usually does not occur while the person is getting lots of attention or when the person has his/her favorite items. The behavior usually does not occur when no demands are placed on the person. you usually give the person a “break” from ongoing task. 11. If a statement accurately describes the person‟s target behaviors problem.” circle the corresponding number below. When the person has medical problems and they are treated. (if „Yes‟. allergies. hand or finger waving. 1996 The Florida Center on Self-Injury YES NO YES NO In what situations do you usually interact with person? _____Meals _______Academic Training _____Leisure ______ Work/vocational training _____Self-care ___________________(other) SCORING SUMMARY the YES NO YES NO For each statement that was answered “Yes. 12. circle “No”. Then read each item carefully. the behavior occurs frequently.F A S T Functional Analysis Screening Tool Client:____________________Date:__________ Behavior Problem: ________________________ Informant:______________Interviewer:________ To the Interviewer: The FAST identifies factors that may influence the occurrence of behavior problems. etc. The person engages in repetitive “self stimulatory behaviors”. 18. Items Circled “Yes” Total Likely Maintaining variable Social reinforcement (Attention/preferred items) Social reinforcement (Escape) Automatic reinforcement (Sensory stimulation) Automatic reinforcement (pain attenuation) YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 ____ YES NO 1 6 7 8 9 ____ YES NO 10 11 12 13 14 ____ YES NO 10 15 16 17 18 ____ YES NO **Reproduced with author‟s permission Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. or leisure activity. dermatitis. When the behavior occurs. YES NO 7.). clarify ambiguous functions. To the Informant: Complete the section on “Informant -Client Relationship”. 14. The behavior usually occurs in the presence of other persons. If not. YES NO 5. YES NO 3. etc.
Three Hypothesized Functions Of a behavior Positive Reinforcement: behavior maintained by attention/social Negative Reinforcement: behavior maintained by escape from task/avoidance Automatic reinforcement: behavior maintained by automatic/sensory stimulation/psychological/medical. Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. .
“Make the environment effective for this kid.” Positive Behavior Support plans define changes in the behavior of those who will implement the plan. .” Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.Design a Behavior Support Plan Following the Pathway Effective Behavior Support Plans… Behavior support is the redesign of environments. NOT the redesign of the individual. “BSPs describe what WE will do differently.
.Build a Competing Behavior Pathway Desired Behavior Setting Event Triggering Antecedent Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
” To be effective. to build a precise hypothesis statement.Build a Competing Behavior Pathway Behavior Support Plans are only as effective as our understanding of the context of the problem behavior. Therefore… “Invest the time it takes. for each child. . Behavior Support Plans must include specific components that PROMOTE positive behavior and DETER problem behavior. Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. The whining becomes so disruptive to the class that the teacher tells Taylor to just do some of them. .Let’s Meet Taylor When the teacher gives Taylor work to do. Taylor whines and cries about too much work to do. Taylor then does about half of them.
Behavioral Intervention Plan Model for Taylor Uses social skills Attention Work Assigned Taylor whines Control/Escape Give choices & Precorrects for following directions Use enforceable statements Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.ignore whining. Making deposits by giving choices. . Teacher attention & praise.
Delays completing assignment & gets teacher or peer to assist with work .Build a Competing Behavior Pathway Asked to do fine motor task alone for more than 15 minutes Completes task Difficult AM routine Or trouble sleeping the night before Plays with materials in desk/makes noises Gets to participate in group activity Raises hand and asks for help or break Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
DRA. Visual supports Social Stories • • • • Pair work area with high rates of reinforcement Gradually fade in demands Place simple demands you can prompt Teach manding (requesting) skills • • • • Teach manding (requesting) skills Enrich environment (music. NCR. NCR. Extinction . toys) Engage child in preferred activities during day Teach child functional play skills Evidence Based Antecedent Techniques When behavior occurs • • FCT. DRI. color. DRI. Redirect to another activity once behavior has ceased for 5-10 seconds. Social Stories • Continue with demand unless behavior will cause serious bodily harm. Visual supports Social Stories • • Teach manding (requesting) skills Set up routine and schedule reinforcing activities frequently throughout the day FCT. Time-Out.Attention Access to Tangibles Escape/ Avoidance Automatic – Self/Sensory Stimulation Prevention Strategies • • • Teach manding (requesting) skills Set up routine of regular attention delivery. Give 8 positive comments to every negative 1. Schedules Replacement Ignore mild behaviors that will not cause injury. Ignore behavior/ walk away Short time out from reinforcement (with supervision) then redirect to a neutral activity. Interruption. Physically prompt when necessary. DRA.management. self Monitoring Extinction . DRA. self . selfmanagement. DRO. Visual supports. NCR. DRI. Short time out from reinforcement (with supervision) then redirect to a neutral activity. Block access to reinforcement until compliance is gained. NCR. • • • FCT. selfmanagement. DRO. selfmanagement. self Monitoring Extinction . self Monitoring • • • Evidence Based Consequent Techniques Extinction . DRO. self. Visual supports. DRI. Redirection. DRO. Block potentially harmful behaviors such as self-injury. FCT. • • Count to 5 to yourself after problem behavior ceases then provide opportunity to mand. Analyze own behavior after each episode to prevent future behaviors. DRA.
Case Study Timmy learned to like sleeping in his own bed Timmy was an 8 year old boy with Asperger’s disorder with near-typical language abilities Timmy had slept in his parents’ bed every night of his life Previous attempts to get Timmy to sleep in his own bed had all failed due to tantrums and parental guilty feelings (“mommy. I love you. . why can’t I sleep in your bed?”) Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
Case Study Timmy Why did Timmy refuse to sleep in his own bed? Was it because of his diagnosis? The simplified answer: because he was better off in the shortterm. and maybe a little bit scary at first Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. • Sleeping in parents’ bed = comfort and constant attention • Sleeping in his own bed = less comfort and less attention. .
.Case Study Timmy Why did Timmy’s parents let him sleep in their bed? • Were they bad parents? No • Did they not know how to stop it? No Their lives were also better off in the short-term by allowing the behavior to continue • They avoided tantrums • They avoided feeling guilty for making their child with Asperger’s sad Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
the longer the habit goes on for Damaging to Timmy’s parents’ marriage Timmy’s parents were aware of all this. .Case Study Timmy But what were the longer-term consequences of Timmy sleeping in his parents’ bed every night? • Delaying Timmy’s development: he won’t always be able to • No time alone No life outside of parenting sleep in his parent’s bed and it will only get harder to learn. that’s why they called us for help Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
Case Study Timmy So what to do? Teach Timmy to be proud of himself for sleeping in his own bed How? Here was the plan: • • • • • • • Decorated his room with all his favorite themes Put on his favorite lullaby music Talked to Timmy about it everyday for several days Told Timmy the rules: “Mommy will read you three stories and then you need to sleep in your own bed like a big boy” Don’t let him out of his room If he wakes up after falling asleep. and then say goodnight again Throw a big party to celebrate Timmy’s achievements the next day Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. . give him a hug and kiss. check on him.
. for the first time in his life Timmy posted a sign on his bedroom door the next day that read “Bed for sale” Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.Case Study Timmy Did it work? Yes Timmy cried for two hours and said many things that broke his parents’ hearts (“I’m going to cry forever”) Timmy tried to run out of his room several times Timmy ended up sleeping through the rest of the night in his own bed.
Case Study Timmy Okay. Timmy began to like sleeping in his own bed and was outwardly proud of himself for doing it Two years later. but was this actually practical for his parents when they didn’t have any outside help? Yes Within a few weeks. . Timmy had slept in his bed every night for two years Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.
. and was easier than the problematic behavior? Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.The take home point: People do what they do because they get something they want or need out of it Would your child keep doing the problematic behavior if he/she didn‟t get what they want out of it anymore? What if he/she was able to get what they want for doing something more appropriate? What if the appropriate behavior got them what they want.
com 074-101-7641 Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA. .maucom@gmail.
Iwata BA.26(2):183–196 Journals: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Journal of Experimental Behavior Analysis Journal of Positive Behavior Supports Delaware Websites: www.delawarepbs.de. Carr EG.doe.edu) Presented by Maleshwane Mauco MSc ABA.pent. J Appl Behav Anal.gov Special Connections (http://www.Select “Facilitator’s Guide” www.Applied Behavior Analysis.fmhi. An analysis of maintenance following functional communication training.ku. Heron.org www.PBIS. Experimental analysis and treatment of multiply controlled self-injury. 1992 Winter.card. Zarcone JR.specialconnections. . and Heward. J Appl Behav Anal.References and Resources Articles and Books Cooper.edu/resources_indstudents.usf.state. 2nd Edition.us National Resources: http://flpbs. 1993 Summer.ku.25(4):777–794 Smith RG. Durand VM. Vollmer TR.ca.org www.edu .Select “Behavior Support Plans” . 2007.org www.specialconnections.asp http://www.
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