Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century Jeffrey Dach MD

Although cannabis was a medicinal plant for thousands of years, its medical use was suppressed and banned throughout most of the 20th century. Banned in England, Canada and the US in the 1930's, medical cannabis represents the first casualty in a war against natural medicine waged by the pharmaceutical industry. While banned in the US, there have been major scientific breakthroughs in Israel, Spain, Italy and Brazil over the last two decades. These breakthroughs have made cannabis "the wonder drug of the 21st century". The Father of Medical Cannabis Research The greatest cannabis researcher is unquestionably Raphael Mechoulam from Isreal. He discovered THC in 1964, the psycho-active component of cannabis. Mechoulam also discovered the first endogenous endo-cannabinoid in 1992, Anandamide, a sanskrit word translated as "bliss". A Treasure Trove Waiting for Discovery When asked why he devoted his entire lifetime studying the biochemistry of cannabis, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam said the following: "The three major illicit drugs derived from plants were then (at the beginning of my career), and still are, opium, coca and cannabis. Morphine had been isolated from opium early in the 19th century and structure elucidated in the 1920s by Robert Robinson. Cocaine was isolated from coca leaves in the middle of the 19th century and structure described by Richard Willstatter in the last decade of the 19th century. I believe that the cannabinoids represented a medicinal treasure trove which waits to be discovered." Just Like the Opiate Receptor Story In a story very similar to the discovery of opiate receptors in the brain, cannabinoid receptors have been discovered along with their endogenous cannabinoids, representing the largest neurotransmitter system in the brain and immune system. This neurotransmitter system went undetected for decades because it involves an unheard of concept, retrograde transmission, or reversed flow of information from the post synapse to the pre-synapse. The Cannabinoid Receptor Story In the 1970s, Morphine was isolated from the poppy and found to bind to opiate receptors in the brain. Scientists eventually discovered that people make their own opioids, called enkephalins and endorphins. Morphine simply hijacks the receptors for the brain's opioids. It seemed likely that something similar was happening with THC and the cannabinoid receptors in the brain and the immune system. The health implications of the endo-cannabinoid system are staggering. Cannabinoids act as a bioregulatory mechanism for most life processes. Medical Uses of Cannabinoids: Relieves Chronic Pain Reduces need for narcotics in chronic pain or Narcotics Addiction Anti-Cancer (Breast, Colon, Pancreas, Brain-Glioma) Relieves Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Phobias Relieves Nausea and Vomiting associated with Chemotherapy Improves Appetite in Wasting Syndromes Relieves Migraine Headache Relieves Glaucoma

Relieves Bladder incontinence Used as Anti-convulsant Used as Anti-depressant Used as Atypical anti-psychotic Used for Bi-Polar Syndrome Used for Multiple Sclerosis, ALS Timeline for Cannabinoids and Receptor System 2,000 BC to 1,800 AD Medicinal Cannabis used in Ancient China, Egypt, India, ancient Greeks. 800 AD to 1,800 AD Medical Cannabis was used extensively in the medieval Islamic World. 1800-1900 Medical Cannabis commonly used entire world as primary pain reliever until the invention of aspirin. 1925, England bans cannabis with Dangerous Drugs Act, and non-medicinal cannabis made illegal in Britain. 1927 Canada bans all forms of cannabis. 1937 Even though there are 28 cannabis pharmaceuticals on the American market, Cannabis banned in US with federal law, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act. 1964 THC, tetra hydro cannabinol, the psycho-active component of cannabis, isolated by Raphael Mechoulam at Weizmann Institute in Israel. 1970 Marijuana fully outlawed in US by Controlled Substances Act of 1970. 1975 Munson shows anti cancer effects of cannabis in Lewis Lung Tumors. 1980-2000 Cannabis research banned in US (de facto). 1985 FDA approves Marinol drug, a pure THC drug. 1992 First endo-cannabinoid isolated by Hanuš and Devane in Raphael Mechoulam's lab at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. This new substance is named Anandamide. 1990 endo-cannabinoid CB1 receptors cloned and found in brain. 1993 endo-cannabinoid CB2 receptors cloned and found in the immune system. 1998 Di Marzo's in Naples Italy group found that cannabinoids (anandamide) inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation. 1999, Marinol (THC) was rescheduled from Schedule II to III of the Controlled Substances Act, 2000 Guzman's group in Spain found that cannabinoids inhibit the growth of C6 glioma cells. 2005 Sativex approved in Canada. Sativex is a whole cannabis plant extract, mouth spray approved for multiple sclerosis patients to alleviate neuropathic pain and muscle spasticity. 2006 Cannabindiol found useful as anti-psychotic drug São Paulo, Brasil. 2007 Sean D. McAllister - Cannabidiol inhibits aggressive breast cancer cells.

Cannabinoids are usually well tolerated. 2009 Two components of cannabis plant identified. serves as an anti-depressant. The respiratiry depression from opiates does not happen with cannabinoids. 14 states that have passed laws legalizing medicinal cannabis. Cannabinoids. the active components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives. and inhibits cancer cell growth. Rimonabant (also known as SR141716) first CB1 receptor blocker suspended from the UK market because of adverse effects of suicidality. Y.pdf Cannabinoids: potential anticancer agents : Abstract : Nature Reviews Cancer Nature Reviews Cancer 3. relieves pain. and has numerous other medical uses. Call or write your congressman today. Safety of Marijuana: There has never been a documented human fatality from marijuana. despite having no psychoactive effects and no known abuse potential. Cannabidiol relieves convulsion.. 1964. Am. Join the movement to legalize the medicinal use of cannabis. but did not inhibit leucine uptake into tumor protein. Cannabinoids exert palliative effects in patients with cancer and inhibit tumour growth in laboratory . delta8-THC. and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish. Cannabinoids represent a novel class of drugs active in increasing the life span mice carrying Lewis lung tumors and decreasing primary tumor size. Structure.10 million people arrested for marijuana since 1967. [Cancer Biochem Biophys. At 24 h after treatment. Cannabidiol as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia. 13 states have approved medical use of cannabis. the effects of delta9-THC. and do not produce the generalized toxic effects of conventional drugs.. Legalize Medicinal Use of Cannabis In the US. nausea. that activate specific cannabinoid receptors. and cannabidiol on tumor macromolecular biosynthesis were studied.2(2):51-4. http://americanmarijuana.PubMed result Cancer Biochem Biophys.April 1964 In vivo effects of cannabinoids on macromolecular . anxiety. Chem. Soc.org/Guzman-Cancer. Review articles in medical literature Isolation. R. vomiting and pain and by stimulating appetite. The active ingredient in cannabis is Cannabidiol. Structure. a Schedule I drug in the USA. Mechoulam J. depression. pp 1646 –1647. This agent blocks the endo-cannabidiol receptors. inflammation. 1977. In the present studies. 745-755 (October 2003) CANNABINOIDS: POTENTIAL ANTICANCER AGENTS by Manuel Guzmán Cannabinoids — the active components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives — exert palliative effects in cancer patients by preventing nausea. 2009 . 86 (8). In the US. leucine-3H uptake into protein or cytidine-3H into RNA. these compounds have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumour cells in culture and animal models by modulating key cell-signalling pathways. act in the organism by mimicking endogenous substances. These drugs inhibit thymidine-3H incorporation into DNA acutely. Gaoni. and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish . Reform the Laws. Cannabidiol kills cancer cells. 1977] . cannabinoids did not inhibit thymidine-3H incorporation into DNA.2008 Acomplia.. the endocannabinoids.Journal of the American Chemical Society (ACS Publications) Isolation. In addition. In vivo effects of cannabinoids on macromolecular biosynthesis in Lewis lung carcinomas. and the non-psychoactive Cannabidiol "CBD" represents up to 40% of extracts of the medical cannabis plant. Friedman MA. THC which is psychoactive.

Cannabinoid Receptors: "there is overwhelming evidence to suggest that cannabinoids can be explored as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. in a variety of tumor types." http://www.PubMed result Mini Rev Med Chem. Spain http://www.68(2):339–42] Cannabinoids for Cancer Treatment: Progress and Promise.org/english/. have also proven to be potent antioxidants (Hampson et al. nontoxic. In particular. If this could be established.brainlife. and cell survival. It is probable that cannabinoid receptors regulate cell-survival and celldeath pathways differently in tumour and non-tumour cells. In view of the fair safety profile of most cannabinoids together with their antiproliferative action on tumor cells. Kogan NM. Hebrew University..com/cannabinoidscience/Cancer._2006_02_1.pdf [Cancer Res 2008.animals. Madison.cannabis-med. Cannabinoids are selective antitumour compounds. but were little pursued until recently. nonhabit forming cannabinoids could be developed as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. They do so by modulating key cell-signalling pathways. . 2003). Cannabinoids and cancer.pdf Cannabinoids: potential antitumoral agents? Manuel Guzmán Madrid. both in vitro and in vivo (Guzman. we review recent work that raises interest in the development and exploration of potent. as well as by inhibiting tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. 1998). Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products. as they can kill tumour cells without affecting their non-transformed counterparts. thereby inducing direct growth arrest and death of tumour cells. THC and cannabidiol. Cannabinoids inhibit tumour growth in laboratory animals. Cannabinoids and cancer.. then one can hope that nontoxic. Israel. Pharmacy School. The best-established palliative effect of cannabinoids in cancer patients is the inhibition of chemotherapyinduced nausea and vomiting.az_s080115.. Wisconsin Cannabinoids are a class of pharmacologic compounds that offer potential applications as antitumor drugs. based on the ability of some members of this class to limit inflammation. following the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors.org/reprint/200. cell proliferation. Today.geocities.5(10):941-52. There is now abundant evidence that cannabinoids can inhibit tumor growth. clinical trials are required to determine whether cannabinoids could be used for the inhibition of tumor growth in a clinical setting. capsules of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol (Marinol)) and its synthetic analogue nabilone (Cesamet) are approved for this purpose. emerging evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors expressed by tumor cells may offer a novel strategy to treat cancer. [Mini Rev Med Chem. Surprisingly. Here. which may reduce some types of cancers.. promising experimental results were first reported by Munson et al (1975) over a quarter or a century ago. 2005] .html Cannabinoids as Anti-Cancer Agents. and nonhabit forming cannabinoids for cancer therapy. http://www. Sami Sarfaraz et al University of Wisconsin. 2005 Oct. Their results showed THC dose-dependent increase in survival time and inhibition of tumor growth in mice with Lewis lung adenocarcinoma. Cannabinoids have favourable drug-safety profiles and do not produce the generalized toxic effects of conventional chemotherapies. The primary cannabinoids in cannabis.

its major psychoactive component. McAllister. Research Institute. The California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute team are hopeful that cannabidiol or CBD could be a non-toxic alternative to chemotherapy. it took another decade until the first report on its antineoplastic activity appeared. However. when almost simultaneously two groups initiated research on the antiproliferative effects of cannabinoids on cancer cells: Di Marzo's group found that cannabinoids inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics reports. The chief events of endocannabinoids in cancer cell proliferation are reported highlighting the correspondent signalling involved in tumour processes: regulation of adenylyl cyclase. Rigel T. California BBC NEWS | Health | Cannabis compound 'halts cancer' Cannabis compound 'halts cancer' BBC News Nov 2007. further investigations in this area were not reported until a few years ago. Robert Ramer. Amaia Garcia and Pierre-Yves Desprez California Pacific Medical Center. San Francisco. "There is compelling evidence that endo/cannabinoids may regulate the growth and spread of normal and neoplastic tissues. Targets. 2007 Inhibition of Cancer Cell Invasion by Cannabinoids via Increased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1. endocannabinoids and the enzymes that regulate their biosynthesis and degradation. and Guzman's group found that cannabinoids inhibit the growth of C6 glioma cell. Antiproliferative action on some other cancer cells was also found.pdf Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 6. Maxx P. University of Rostock. their endogenous ligands. Shortly thereafter it was synthesized and became readily available. has drawn a great deal of scientist attention during the last two decades. and Development Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. cyclic AMP-protein kinase-A pathway and MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling cascade. Other groups also started work in this field. and some mechanisms involved have been elucidated. CBD works by blocking the activity of a gene called Id-1 which is believed to be responsible for the aggressive spread of cancer cells away from the original tumour site . comprising the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. invasion and metastasis of thyroid. In spite of the promising results from these early studies.Marijuana has been used in medicine for millennia. Italy The ‗endocannabinoid system‘. US scientists believe. In 1975. Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours Endocrine-Related Cancer 15 (2) 391 -408 Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours Maurizio Bifulco et al.a process called metastasis. The mechanism of this action was shown to be inhibition of DNA synthesis. breast and prostate tumours. A compound found in cannabis may stop breast cancer spreading throughout the body. Research Articles: Therapeutics. Sean D. a wide array of cancer cell lines that are affected is known." Inhibition of Cancer Cell Invasion by Cannabinoids via Increased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1 Journal of the National Cancer Institute December 25. and today. was isolated in pure form and its structure was elucidated. Napoli. but it was not until 1964 that delta9tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC). November 1. Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells http://safeaccess. Germany . they are able to inhibit cell growth. 2007. In particular. Horowitz. 2921. Unlike cannabis. CBD does not have any psychoactive properties so its use would not violate laws. Munson discovered that cannabinoids suppress Lewis lung carcinoma cell growth. Burkhard Hinz Affiliation of authors: Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology. Christian. Rostock.ca/research/cbd_breast_cancer.

Napoli. Italy August 7. vomiting and pain.. in colorectal cancer and to provide new insight into the molecular pathways underlying the apoptotic activity induced by their activation. Cianchi F et al. The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of the two cannabinoid receptors. cell migration and metastasis in different types of cancer. In conclusion. Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma. and are already used in cancer patients as palliatives to stimulate appetite and to prevent devastating effects such as nausea. However. sativa contains at least 400 chemical components. [Clin Cancer Res. is at least in part responsible for this effect. PMCID: PMC20983 The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation. CB1 and CB2. Naples. PURPOSE: Cannabinoids have been recently proposed as a new family of potential antitumor agents. Napoli. JPET 318:1375-1387. pointing to a potential role of the endocannabinoid system as a target for a therapeutic approach of such malignant diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. 2008] .PubMed result Clin Cancer Res.. Cannabinoid receptor activation induces apoptosis through tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. Italy Cannabidiol is nonpsychotropic. see Robson. two common side effects that accompany chemotherapy in cancer patients. synthetic. we have shown that anandamide is a potent and selective inhibitor of the proliferation of HBC cells and that activation of a cannabinoid receptor. injection into athymic mice of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma or rat v-K- . There is increasing evidence that endocannabinoids are able to inhibit cancer cell growth in culture as well as in animal models. Endo-Cannabinoids as Anti-Cancer Agents Endocannabinoids as emerging suppressors of angiogenesis and tumor invasion (Review) Endocannabinoids as emerging suppressors of angiogenesis and tumor invasion (Review) MAURIZIO BIFULCO et al. 2005). Italy. and endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) are able to exert a growth-inhibitory action on various cancer cell types. whose occurrence had never been described previously in these cells. C. 2008 Dec 1. 2006 The ‗endocannabinoid system‘ is involved in a broad range of functions and in a growing number of pathological conditions.c. Luciano De Petrocellis and Vincenzo Di Marzo et al. regarding toxicity. Italy. 95(14): 8375 –8380. Nevertheless. the use of cannabinoids in oncology might be somehow underestimated since increasing evidence exist that plant. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Results obtained in a panel of tumor cell lines clearly indicate that cannabidiol is the most potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth. of which 66 have been identified to belong to the class of the cannabinoids To date. endocannabinoids are now emerging as suppressors of angiogenesis and tumor spreading since they have been reported to inhibit angiogenesis. Both cannabidiol and the cannabidiol-rich extract inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors obtained by s.Cannabinoid receptor activation induces apoptosis . University of Florence. The anti-proliferative effect of anandamide was not due to toxicity or to apoptosis of cells but was accompanied by a reduction of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle.14(23):7691-700. cannabinoids have been successfully used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting (for review. Florence. 1998 July 7. The potential use of cannabinoids to retard tumor growth and spreading is even more appealing considering that they show a good safety profile. Indeed. 2006 Vincenzo Di Marzo et al.

our data indicate that cannabidiol. Finland.[32] Cannabis (drug) .Wikipedia. you need to watch Rick Simpsons videos. If you never watch another youtube video in your life.5 million) daily. It thus represents the first non-toxic exogenous agent that can lead to down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness. use. the Netherlands. the free encyclopedia Removal_of_cannabis_from_Schedule_I_of_the_Control led_Substances_Act Cannabis and schedule I COntrolled Substance Medical cannabis . CBD represents up to 40% of extracts of the medical cannabis plant. our experiments indicate that cannabidiol effect is due to its capability of inducing apoptosis via: direct or indirect activation of cannabinoid CB2.[5] although in the 20th century there was a rise in its use for recreational. Cannabidiol exerts its effects on these cells through a combination of mechanisms that include either direct or indirect activation of CB2 and TRPV1 receptors and induction of oxidative stress. anxiety. nausea.6 percent (22. Judging from several experiments on its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of action. Austria. religious or spiritual. and inhibits cancer cell growth. Medical cannabis . Belgium. the free encyclopedia Humans have been consuming cannabis since prehistory. and 14 U. Mice treated with either pure cannabidiol or the cannabidiol-rich extract exhibited significantly smaller tumors in comparison with control mice. via his youtube channel . including Canada. In conclusion. the free encyclopedia Cannabidiol Main article: cannabidiol Cannabidiol structureCannabidiol. OMD February 23. Please visit Phoenix Tears Still sceptical? Rick Simpson introduces you to the people he has cured of cancer.[27] Cannabidiol relieves convulsion.[30][31] It is also a neuroprotective antioxidant. also known as "CBD". 2008 For the astonishing and true story of hemp.S. In particular. for a highly malignant human breast carcinoma cell line. represent a promising nonpsychoactive antineoplastic strategy. we propose that cannabidiol lacks a unique mode of action in the cell lines investigated. Wikimedia Links Wikipedia. and possibly Cannabis extracts enriched in this natural cannabinoid.ras-transformed thyroid epithelial cells and reduced lung metastases deriving from intrapaw injection of MDA-MB-231 cells. as told by Rick Simpson.[28] Recent studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia. is a major constituent of medical cannabis. A strong and statistically significant antitumor effect was observed The Rick Simpson Story Hemp Oil and Cancer . or sale of psychoactive cannabis products became illegal in most parts of the world in the early 20th century.. and medicinal purposes.[29] In November 2007 it was reported that CBD reduces growth of aggressive human breast cancer cells in vitro and reduces their invasiveness. the man who cured cancer with hemp oil. states. It is estimated that about four percent of the world's adult population (162 million) use cannabis annually and 0. Israel.[6] The possession. inflammation. At least for MDAMB-231 cells. Spain. all contributing to induce apoptosis. Our data support the further testing of cannabidiol and cannabidiol-rich extracts for the potential treatment of cancer.Wikipedia. we have shown here that cannabidiol and a cannabidiol-rich extract counteract cell growth both in vivo and in vitro as well as tumor metastasis in vivo. the free encyclopedia the medical use of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories. however. Cannabis has been used for .NHF Hemp Oil and Cancer By Mark Sircus Ac.Wikipedia.

Cannabinoid receptor . inhibitors of FAAH lead to elevated anandamide levels and are being pursued for therapeutic use. responsible for the anti-inflammatory and possibly other therapeutic effects of cannabis. Tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older chemical nomenclature). the free encyclopedia The American Medical Marijuana Association (AMMA) is an organization formed to promote and protect the legal access to medical marijuana. Cannabis as a medicine became common throughout much of the world by the 19th century. delight". It thus represents the first non-toxic exogenous agent that can lead to down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness. and amide. CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain. .Wikipedia. responsible for the euphoric and anticonvulsive effects of cannabis.Wikipedia. and other related compounds known as endocannabinoids resembles the discovery of the endogenous opiates (endorphins. Cannabidiol. American Medical Marijuana Association . Egypt. anandamide levels in the body and brain are elevated. mainly in AIDS patients. at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. termed CB1 and CB2. It was isolated and its structure was first described by Czech analytical chemist Lumír Ondřej Hanuš and American molecular pharmacologist William Anthony Devane in the Laboratory of Raphael Mechoulam. or dronabinol.Wikipedia. also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA. to treat vomiting and for enhancement of appetite. nausea.A. the free encyclopedia Anandamide.[1][2] It is degraded by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme which converts anandamide into ethanolamine and arachidonic acid. Tylenol pain relief comes from inhibition of FAAH which increases endogenois cannabinoids.[32] Anandamide . India. which means "bliss. Israel in 1964.) functions as a FAAH inhibitor. Paracetamol. It was isolated by Raphael Mechoulam. An advertisement for cannabis americana distributed by a pharmacist in New York in 1917.000 years in Ancient China. CB2 receptors are almost exclusively found in the immune system. inflammation. Cannabinoid . This action may be partially or fully responsible for the analgesic effects of acetaminophen. or acetaminophen (in the U. is a major constituent of medical cannabis. also known as "CBD". As such. Subsequently.S. enkephalins.[28] Recent studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia. The discovery of anandamide. ancient Greeks. Dronabinol is THC. anxiety.[27] Cannabidiol relieves convulsion.[30][31] It is also a neuroprotective antioxidant.Wikipedia.[29] In November 2007 it was reported that CBD reduces growth of aggressive human breast cancer cells in vitro and reduces their invasiveness. is the main psychoactive substance in Cannabis plant. Israel in 1992. the free encyclopedia There are currently two known types of cannabinoid receptors. Yechiel Gaoni. after the realization that morphine and other opiates bind to specific receptors in the brain.medicinal purposes for approximately 4. It was used as the primary pain reliever until the invention of aspirin. and dynorphin). The name is taken from the Sanskrit word ananda. is an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in animal and human organs. Medical Cannabis was used extensively in the medieval Islamic World 8th century to 18th century. and Habib Edery from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot. the free encyclopedia Synthetic Δ9-THC is prescribed today under the generic name Dronabinol. especially in the brain. sold as Marinol (Solvay Pharmaceuticals). CBD represents up to 40% of extracts of the medical cannabis plant. 2-arachidonyl glyceride (2-AG). and inhibits cancer cell growth.

disorientation.In addition. Brownie Mary. and Brownie Mary was free to help Peron open the Cannabis Buyers Club and advocate for Prop 215. anxiety. Drug War Chronicle. was arrested and charged with drug distribution for baking pot brownies and giving them to AIDS patients. Smith.[8] The mechanism of endocannabinoid synaptic transmission is believed to occur as follows:this form of neurotransmission is termed retrograde transmission. The charges were dropped. Sativex contains tetrahydrocannabinol together with cannabidiol. through an unknown mechanism._says_attorney_g eneral/?page=2 Marijuana Milestone: No More Raids on Pot Dispensaries. Canadian authorities approved the marketing of Sativex. Says Attorney General By Phillip S. a mouth spray for multiple sclerosis patients. Marijuana Milestone: No More Raids on Pot Dispensaries. fatigue. Marinol has been approved by the U. Posted February 28. 2-arachidonyl glyceride (2-AG). Says Attorney General | Drugs | AlterNet marijuana_milestone:_ no_more_raids_on_pot_dispensaries. Other effects include relaxation. Pages 125-133 . the free encyclopedia anandamide. The effects of the drug can be suppressed by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A) as well as opioid receptor antagonists (opioid blockers) naloxone and naloxonazine. who can use it to alleviate neuropathic pain and spasticity. Mary Jane Rathbun. and other related compounds known as endocannabinoids. the medical-marijuana movement had received a significant public-relations boost in the form of an elderly San Francisco General Hospital volunteer.1517/13543780802691951 Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs February 2009. and appetite stimulation. No.S. precipitating a dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. as she became known. who'd realized that marijuana eased the suffering of AIDS patients and allowed them to eat. it has been shown that cannabinoids. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of anorexia in AIDS patients.Wikipedia. activate endogenous opioid pathways involving the μ1 opioid receptor. as the signal is carried in the opposite direction of orthodox propagation THC has mild to moderate analgesic effects. Federal DEA RAIDS on Medicinal Marijuana Dispensaries Holder Vows To End Raids On Medical Marijuana Clubs Obama's Attorney General. demanding a jury trial and creating a media disaster for the district attorney. Vows To End Raids On Medical Marijuana Clubs Mary Jane Rathbun Two years before. as well as for refractory nausea and vomiting of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Rathbun refused to take any plea bargain. Safety of Marijauana: There has never been a documented human fatality from marijuana. Mainstream Medical Journals PAIN An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie doi/abs/10. 2. It is marketed in Canada by GW Pharmaceuticals. altered senses. euphoria. 2009. Holder. 18. and medical cannabis can be used to treat pain. In April 2005. Vol. Tetrahydrocannabinol . being the first cannabis-based prescription drug in the world.

jackherer. 2009 BY STEVE HUNTLEY Chicago Sun TImes. the possible role of cannabimimetic fatty acid derivatives in the pathological consequences of cancer and inflammation. and weight loss associated with chemotherapy or HIV/AIDS.108(1-2):191-209. of its chemical constituents.article Legalizing marijuana makes sense.com/chapters. their derivatives may be used as therapeutic agents. Via Toiano 6. Napoli.com/wb/page. . [Chem Phys Lipids. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Drug Enforcement Administration officers raid medical marijuana dispensaries. neurogenic pain. and (3) some synthetic derivatives of these compounds. Racism. Links Endocannabinoids and fatty acid amides in cancer.Cannabinoids against pain. 2000] . That reflects the simple fact a huge part of America thinks a medical ban is cruel and prohibition in general is silly. Istituto di Cibernetica. such as cachexia. . California Assemblyman Tom Ammiano of San Francisco.related genes" "Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression in human breast cancer cells through Cdc2 regulation" are available in the July 1.html The emperor wears no clothes. Politics. says licensing and taxing legal marijuana production and sales would earn California $1.medboardwatch. will be examined. 2006 issue of Cancer Research.S. such as the N-acyl-vanillyl-amines. glaucoma. Relieves Nausea and vomiting.. and. http://www.De Petrocellis L. particularly. inflammation and related disorders. A like number of states have humane laws allowing marijuana smoking by people with chronic or terminal diseases to combat pain and nausea. asthma. chronic pain and local vasodilation. New Jersey could become the 14th since its state senate has approved a medicinal bill. Di Marzo V. license commercial farming of it and tax it at $50 an ounce. (2) the bioactive fatty acid amides palmitoylethanolamide and oleamide. 80072 Arco Felice.. Relieves spasticity. anorexia.PubMed result Chem Phys Lipids. Legalization Movments. the cannabinoids.ic-effects. In this article. 2000 Nov. more recently. Melck D.3 billion a year.. Jack Herer. Italy. The long history of the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa and. cents March 3. Furthermore. Bisogno T. the endocannabinoids.. News Articles by Steve Huntley of the Chicago Sun-Times 1456881. available online at: Cancer Research History of Marijuana. suggests that also the endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors. the Obama administration says it will not continue the Bush administration's policy of having U.CST-EDT-hunt03. Endocannabinoids and fatty acid amides in cancer. wasting syndrome. His bill would legalize marijuana possession and use for adults 21 or older.php Russo and Grotenhermen report: Review of Therapeutic Effects of cannabis. Efficacy and strategies to reduce psychoactivity: a clinical perspective Matthias Karst-† MD PhD & Sonja WippermannGeneral Articles http://www. we discuss the anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity of: (1) the endocannabinoids anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. "Cannabinoids induce apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

International Herald Tribune The New York Times Barack Obama. Seelye OCTOBER 25.com/article/ 1524315/california_state_assembly_considering. the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD.associatedcontent. induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. Moreira and F. as an antipsychotic drug Braz J Med Biol Res. distribution and use of marijuana for limited medical purposes: Alaska California Colorado Hawaii Maine Michigan Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Rhode Island Vermont Washington http://www. J. Guimarães Universidade de São Paulo. A. Brasil A high dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. fully outlawed in 1970 by the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. as an antipsychotic drug . March 03. April 2006.Cannabidiol.E. Volume 39(4) 421-429 (Review) Cannabidiol. Attorney General Eric Holder announced last week that the Drug Enforcement Administration would stop shutting down state-approved medical marijuana dispensaries.A. 2009 by P.html?cat=8 California State Assembly Considering Marijuana Legalization. These effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD)..7 billion in enforcement costs and bring in up to $6.Americas .suntimes. SP.W. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. has been the largest producer of drug related crimes in the past 40 years. In addition.S.A. OBAMA and Inhaling Barack Obama. 2006 Cannabidiol as Anti-Psychotic Drug http://www. a Cannabis sativa constituent. Could Widespread Marijuana Legalization Be Just Around the Corner? Obama administration makes medical marijuana de facto legal | New Mexico Independent Obama administration makes medical marijuana de facto legal By Marjorie Childress 3/2/09 9:28 AM U. J. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. Hallak. a Cannabis sativa constituent. Crippa. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. F. Here is the list of thirteen states that allow the sale..br/pdf/bjmbr/v39n4/6164. asked about drug history. Trembeth. open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. states such as California. asked about drug history.2 billion in taxes http://www. Recently. a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. Nevada.S.scielo.com/news/blogent.RCzE3VN5b4Uruq & bbParentWidgetId=B8k88rWwXopuz5STgLeVwBLu Marijuana. .S. Zuardi. admits he inhaled By Katharine Q.pdf Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research .C. Ribeirão Preto. and Maryland have legalized medical marijuana if a patient can prevent substantial need.A 2005 study endorsed by the late Milton Friedman and 530 other economists found legal regulation would save the nation $7. admits he inhaled .

marijuana cookie prevented migraines . Bi-Polar Disorder. upgraded to schedule three drug. California physician and surgeon with Wisconsin roots. Depression. in the field of medical marijuana.Cannabidiol http://finola. Brazil Dr. produces more than 60 terpeno-phenols that have not been detected in any other plant.pdf Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action Antonio Waldo Zuardi. Migraine headaches.Crohn's Disease.diabetic peripheral neuropathy.nausea. British Journal of Pharmacology (2005) 146. Cannabis relieved pain.IME Video Library Cannabis and Cannabinoids in the 21st Century: Medical Marijuana David Bearman. compelx pain.arthritis-fibromyalgia . more solid stools.ADD/ADHD.approved for phase three clinical trial. less abdominal pain. OCD. 1964) has been the object of thousands of publications. One of these constituents. antischizophrenic and antiepileptic properties (Pertwee. Cannabinoid system is the Largest neuritransmitter system of the brain. Became a quad for 9 months and then a para. There is an excesive amount of dopamine transporter. Cannabinoid acids.Migraine headace-William OSler textbook Seizures. a nonpsychoactive component. Major Uses of Cannabis: pain. Safety Marinol Approved by FDA.sleep insomnia.Glaucoma. were shown to be antibiotic and were actually used for some time in veterinary medicine in Czechoslovakia about 50 years ago. Went scuba diving. moderates sensory input. Sativex sold in cancada since 2005 which is a Tincture of cannabis. Pain from T10 on down. . Dr Bearman is one of the leading physicians in the U.. anxiety. depression. 2005). Panic Attacks.Decrease in opiate use.. Tourettes. Cannabidiol (CBD).decrease reliance on steroids.S.CBD.. Patient with back surgery. speaks on "Cannabis and Cannabinoids in 21st Century Medicine: Medical Marijuana in the Clinic". PTSD Iraq War Vets. Cannabis Physicians Cannabis and Cannabinoids in the 21st Century: Medical Marijuana . Doctor Cannabis Academic Journals formerly published by NPG Academic Journals formerly published by NPG Plant cannabinoids: a neglected pharmacological treasure trove Raphael Mechoulam. has also been widely investigated due to its anti-inflammatory. Endocannabinoid system causes dopamine to come back to the neuron and depolarizes and makes it more difficult. Controls anger impulses. which are precursors of the neutral cannabinoids. 483 chemicals in cannabis. the other plant cannabinoids have been mostly neglected. American Medical Marijuana Association The American Medical Marijuana Association Raphael Mechoulam. a Santa Barbara. resless leg..com/CBDreview2008. such as THC and CBD. 913–915 Cannabis sativa L. as it is by far the major psychoactive principle in marijuana and hashish. Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome mental health issues.. Surprisingly. David Bearman. MD. D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Gaoni & Mechoulam.

and cardiovascular disorders. there is evidence for the presence of CB1 receptors in several areas of the CNS that mediate the perception of pain. Addiction. CB2 receptors are expressed primarily by immune tissues. Both of these receptor types are coupled through G proteins CB1 receptors are found in particularly high concentrations within the central nervous system (CNS). cannabinoid receptors and inflammatory stress: an interview with Dr. 2007. 887-893.. National Institutes of Health.net/Mechoulam. CB1 and CB2 [2 . National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. Until the early twentieth century. There are two major G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors. and in line with this property. Nabilone. and marketed . Despite the fact that its possession and use is illegal in most countries. Canada followed suit and banned all forms of cannabis in 1927. Pál Pacher Journal of Leukocyte Biology. USA Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid mediators generated by virtually all cell types both in the brain and peripheral tissues. metabolic. and there is evidence that both of these compounds can serve as neuromodulators or neurotransmitters. Arachidonoyl ethanolamide or anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the two most widely studied endocannabinoids which were isolated and characterized by the group of Raphael Mechoulam [5 . Finally. the Dangerous Drugs Act became law.endocannabinoid. and non-medicinal cannabis was made illegal in Britain. Eli Lilly & Co. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors was followed in 1992 by the demonstration of the existence of endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists.82:1390-1392. Conversation with Raphael Mechoulam. Bethesda. Addiction.bioteach. who had earlier discovered the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis. for example leukocytes. and its pharmacological modulation holds tremendous promise in the treatment of various inflammatory. cannabis was legal and found common use as an everyday medicine.) Endocannabinoids. The most important of these are arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG). synthetic derivative of D9-THC . In 1925. antiinflammatory) similar to those of cannabis [1 ]. 3 ]. with 28 cannabis pharmaceuticals on the American market. 2007. psychoactive. cannabinoid receptors and inflammatory stress: an interview with Dr. as well as pain and cancer [10 ]. spleen and tonsils 9.ubc. and CB2 receptors (cloned in 1993) 9. in 1937.pdf Half-Baked Science: A Primer on Medicinal Cannabis Ryan Philippe Cannabis (marijuana) is among the most widely used of all psychoactive drugs. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [7 ].CB1 receptor agonists are also analgesic. 6 ].ca/Journal/V02I01/Cannabis. the US government effectively criminalized cannabis by passing the Marihuana Tax Stamp Act . Cannabinoids Endocannabinoids. which exert broad range of biological effects (cardiovascular. Pál Pacher Helene F. Maryland. it turned out that dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system may be implicated in virtually all diseases. http://www. 102(6).aspx Excerpt from the journal. http://www. Since these major groundbreaking discoveries.Overview of Endocannabinoids. Rosenberg1 Laboratory of Allergic Diseases. which were nicely described in a recent interview with Raphael Mechoulam in Addiction [9 ]. cannabis is used regularly by as many as 25 million people in North America and Europe It is now known that cannabinoids act through receptors: CB1 receptors (cloned in 1990).

many of which relate to stress-recovery systems and to the maintenance of homeostatic balance (10).fuoriluogo. the endocannabinoid system is involved in many different physiological functions. Among other functions.. Studies conducted with Pancreatic Cancer cell lines showed that cannabinoid administration (a) induced apoptosis. Arkaitz Carracedo1. 6748-6755. . (b) increased ceramide levels. Giovanni Marsicano. 21). 2006 The Emerging Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Endocrine Regulation and Energy Balance . Endocannabinoid System The Emerging Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Endocrine Regulation and Energy Balance Endocrine Reviews 27 (1): 73-100. Slimona. Its main avenue of effect is reduction in appetite. Beat Lutz and Renato Pasquali In general. and (c) up-regulated mRNA levels of the stress protein p8. It is an inverse agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB1. The present study was undertaken to investigate the action of cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer. These effects were prevented by blockade of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor. the endocannabinoid system is involved in modulating the immune and inflammatory responses (19.Blocker Rimonabant . http://www. Iovanna2 Pancreatic adenocarcinomas are among the most malignant forms of cancer. Riobant.pdf Targeting the endocannabinoid system in cancer therapy: A call for further research MAURIZIO BIFULCO1 & VINCENZO DI MARZO NATURE MEDICINE • VOLUME 8 • NUMBER 6 • JUNE 2002 CB1 Antagonist . regulation of motor activity (15). Uberto Pagotto. In addition. Meritxell Gironella2. modulation of nociception (14). We show that cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human pancreatic tumor cell lines at much higher levels than in normal pancreatic tissue. endocannabinoids are known to exert important antiproliferative actions in tumor cells (23). blood pressure. Acomplia. In conclusion. yet importantly. 2006] Cannabinoids Induce Apoptosis of Pancreatic Tumor Cells via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress –Related Genes. the free encyclopedia Rimonabant (also known as SR141716. Stephane Garcia2. Cannabinoids also reduced the growth of tumor cells in two animal models of pancreatic cancer. Bethin.under the name Cesamet. Moreover. and bronchial functions (22). and the control of certain phases of memory processing (16.ifulco2002. Mar Lorente1. and Zimulti)[1] is an anorectic anti-obesity drug. Monaslim. Guillermo Velasco1 and Juan L. It also influences the cardiovascular and respiratory systems by controlling heart rate. Rimoslim. cannabinoid administration selectively increased apoptosis and TRB3 expression in pancreatic tumor cells but not in normal tissue. 18). 13). Remonabent. 17. 12. results presented here show that cannabinoids lead to apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells via a CB2 receptor. Finally.. Daniela Cota. In addition.it/medicalcann. the endocannabinoid system is involved in neuroprotection (11. CANCER Cannabinoids Induce Apoptosis of Pancreatic Tumor Cells via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress [Cancer Research 66. These findings may contribute to set the basis for a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Manuel Guzmán1. 20. cannabinoid treatment inhibited the spreading of pancreatic tumor cells. July 1.Wikipedia.

and the immune system through receptors distinct from CB1 and CB2. was identifi ed in 1992 by Devane and colleagues and shown to bind with high affinity to CB1 receptors. Sanofi-Aventis suspended the drug. BBC News reported [11] that a committee advising the U. Buy Rimonabant Best Prescription Diet Pill for burning fat. Two endocannabinoids..org/articles/aapsj0. FAST! | Bodybuilding News EliteFitness. Alzheimer's disease. On June 15. Parkinson's disease. Maryland cannabinoid . 2006 Pál Pacher. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. which is neuroprotective against excitotoxicity. arachidonoylethanolamide and 2arachidonoylglycerol. This is deemed to result from the drug's being active in the central nervous system.. and that an additional ― independent ‖ endocannabinoid signaling system that involves palmitoylethanolamide may exist.aapsj.Google Scholar . Sándor Bátkai and George Kunos Laboratory of Physiologic Studies. and their production and inactivation elucidated.Reports of severe depression are frequent. the cardiovascular system. However. Bethesda. and other related sideeffects associated with use of the drug. 2006. 49 The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy Pharmacol Rev 58:389-462.pdf Cannabinoid Receptors and Endocannabinoids: Evidence for New Players Submitted: December 29 . Accepted: February 28 . 2005 . Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). 2007.Rimonabant was the first selective CB1 receptor blocker to be approved for use anywhere in the world. getting shredded..apsj080234. As of 2008. Arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA). also known as anandamide. their action on CB1 and CB2 thoroughly characterized. while its therapeutic immune properties are primarily mediated through CB2 receptors. many significant exceptions to these rules exist. In the UK. given the neuroprotective role of the endocannabinoid system in many experimental paradigms of neurological disease. Side-effects. was available beginning in July 2006. Published: April 28. FDA had voted not to recommend the drug's approval because of concerns over suicidality. have been identifi ed.com buy on line Rimonabant http://www. the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). On October 23. 2008.S. Acomplia suspended from the UK market. National Institutes of Health. 2006 Ken Mackie 1 and Nephi Stella 2 1 Departments of Anesthesiology and Physiology It is now well established that the psychoactive effects of Cannabis sativa are primarily mediated through neuronal CB1 receptors.. Here we review the evidence suggesting that cannabinoids can modulate synaptic transmission. and Huntington's disease in persons that are susceptible.[8] Because the drug has the opposite effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC.[9] it can be theorized that Rimonabant promotes the development of neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system such as Multiple sclerosis. the drug was available in 56 countries. one of the substances found in marijuana).[10] The reported development of previously clinically-silent multiple sclerosis in one patient taking Rimonabant suggests that any patients with an underlying neurological condition should not take Rimonabant. an area of human physiology so complex that the effects of a drug are extremely difficult to predict or anticipate. and 6-pack abs. depression.

a key component in Parkinson's DRUGS . Roberto Russo et al Naples.illinoisnorml. When some of the animals subsequently received a drug that blocks cannabinoid receptors.[3] URB597 is also known as KDS-4103. inhibition of FAAH leads to an accumulation of anandamide in the CNS and periphery where it activates cannabinoid receptors. The disorder. Giuffrida. for clinical trials in humans. destroys neurons in a key part of the brain.38. .nih. which afflicts more than 1 million Americans.. Psychiatry and Medical Psychology. Inc. their nerve cells suffered far less damage than did the ells of the other mice. Parkinson's Disease .Wikipedia. causing patients to lose control over movement. Bras. and pain-killing effects.History of cannabis as a medicine: a review Rev.nlm. vol. Italy Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an intracellular serine hydrolase that catalyzes the cleavage of bioactive fatty acid ethanolamides.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=DetailsSearch&term=cannabinoi d&log$=activity 11. with colleagues David Price and James Roberts.28 no. the free encyclopedia URB597 is a relatively selective inhibitor of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). anti-anxiety.[1][2] FAAH is the primary degradatory enzyme for the endocannabinoid anandamide and. The main finding of the present study is that repeated oral administration of URB597 produces significant antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects in the mouse CCI model of neuropathic pain. Although he is not sure how the anticannabinoid compound works. In pre-clinical laboratory tests researchers found URB597 increased the production of endocannabinoids resulting in measurable antidepressant and analgesic effects. 2007 The Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor URB597 (Cyclohexylcarbamic Acid 3'-Carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl Ester) Reduces Neuropathic Pain after Oral Administration in Mice. Psiquiatr.. as such. injected mice with a chemical called MPTP.2 São Paulo June 2006 History of cannabis as a medicine: a review Antonio Waldo Zuardi Department of Neurology.400 articles on medline with cannabinoid 3200 medline articles with endocannabinoid Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria . KDS-4103 is being developed by Kadmus Pharmaceuticals. Kadmus claims.ncbi. Universidade de São Paulo (USP).URB597 Last Updated Friday. on their website (linked below) that this class of compounds may have antidepressant.FAAH URB597 . The Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor URB597 (Cyclohexylcarbamic Acid 3 Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics Fast Forward JPET 322:236-242. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto.. Brazil PArkinsons http://www. Giuffrida suspects it protects neurons by reducing inflammation. This was the first demonstration that a cannabinoid drug can have this effect. São Paulo (SP).000 articles on google scholar with keyword cannabinoid http://www. such as the endogenous cannabinoid agonist anandamide.org/index2. which mimics Parkinson's damage. 15 June 2007 Giuffrida announced that a cannabinoid drug wards off Parkinson'slike effects in mice.o_pdf=1&id=104 Cannabis' Potential Exciting Researchers in Treatment of ALS.

doctordeluca. Morphine simply hijacks the receptors for the brain's opioids. Trezza.Antidepressant-like activity and modulation of brain monoaminergic transmission by blockade of anandamide hydrolysis Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.‡‡ V. migraine headaches.. Cuomo. In 1992. Gobbi.¶ M. there are three general types of cannabinoids: herbal cannabinoids occur uniquely in the cannabis plant. We have recently described a class of such drugs. and bladder incontinence. menstrual cramps. Piomelli§¶¶ An alternative way of enhancing cannabinoid function might be to use drugs that interfere with the deactivation of the endocannabinoids. trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux). Nicoll and Bradley N. Solinas.** M. called URB597. anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) (15). Scientists finally discovered that people make their own opioids--the enkephalins and endorphins.com/index. glaucoma.php?title=Cannabinoids Currently. Tontini. arthritic conditions. Parkinson's.Antidepressant-like activity and modulation of brain monoaminergic transmission by blockade of anandamide hydrolysis G. 17). R. which act by blocking the intracellular hydrolysis of anandamide by fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) (16. bipolar disorder (particularly depression-manicnormal). The Lesson of Opium. 102(51): 18620–18625. December 2004. insomnia. Campolongo. Debonnel. however. pages 69-75. which are prevented by the CB1 antagonist rimonabant The addictive properties of Δ9-THC are a major obstacle to the development of cannabinoid-based therapeutics. epileptic seizures.SA04-NoPix. Cassano. nausea.‡§ P.†† A. suggests the new drug. Mangieri. Mor. 2005 December 20.¶ S. it is particularly important that URB597 does not mimic the hedonic and interoceptives states evoked by direct-acting cannabinoid agonists. URB597 elicits profound anxiolytic-like effects in rats.pdf The Brain's Own Marijuana by Roger A. Goldberg. G. loss of appetite. T. Thus.*† F.¶ and D.rxwiki. It seemed likely that something similar was happening with THC and the cannabinoid receptor. anxiety. depression. Bambico. Some of these ailments include: pain. Alger Scientific American.†† M. multiple sclerosis. The current understanding recognizes the role that endocannabinoids play in almost every major life function in the human body.†† G.*‡ R. which reveals why medical cannabis has been cited as treatments for many diseases and ailments in anecdotal reports and scientific literature. Bortolato. high blood pressure. Morgese. endogenous cannabinoids are produced in the bodies of humans and other animals. GERD (chronic heartburn). and synthetic cannabinoids are similar compounds produced in a laboratory.** G.. . Tarzia.§§ V.* A. http://www. could represent a safer alternative to cannabis for the treatment of pain and depression http://www. R.com/Library/. AIDS wasting syndrome. The National Academy of Sciences Neuroscience. Notably. Cannabinoids act as a bioregulatory mechanism for most life processes. Anti-Depressant effect New Antidepressant Drug Increases 'Brain's Own Cannabis' New Antidepressant Drug Increases 'Brain's Own Cannabis' The new research published in this week's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Duranti. a compound isolated from the poppy and found to bind to so-called opiate receptors in the brain. irritable bowel syndrome.‡§ M. The same question had arisen in the 1970s about morphine.

Our data unveiled. Fabio Cianchi et al. phobias and certain forms of chronic pain. but the mechanism of their antiangiogenic action is still unknown. in cultured glioma cells and in mouse gliomas. He named it anandamide.. the most prominent VEGF receptor. and confocal microscopy) provided additional evidence that cannabinoids depressed the VEGF pathway by decreasing the production of VEGF and the activation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2. here we studied whether cannabinoids affect it. 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). This suggestion fits with the fact that some people smoke marijuana to decrease their anxiety. Italy Results: We show that the CB1 receptor was mainly expressed in human normal colonic epithelium whereas tumor tissue was strongly positive for the CB2 receptor. August 15. Cannabinoid-induced inhibition of VEGF production and VEGFR-2 activation was abrogated both in vitro and in vivo by pharmacological blockade of ceramide biosynthesis. Together the two compounds are considered the major endogenous cannabinoids. The activation of the CB1 and. These changes in the VEGF pathway were paralleled by changes in tumor size. The use of other methods (ELISA. 2008. [Clin Cancer Res. intratumoral administration of the cannabinoid 9-tetrahydrocannabinol to two patients with glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma) decreased VEGF levels and VEGFR-2 activation in the tumors." Subsequently. As a first approach. cDNA array analysis showed that cannabinoid administration to mice bearing s. . or endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Induces Apoptosis through Tumor Necrosis Factor –Mediated Ceramide De novo Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells. CANCER Cannabinoids Inhibit the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathway in Gliomas Cancer Research 64. Mechoulam discovered a small fatty acid produced in the brain that binds to CB1 and that mimics all the activities of marijuana.28 years after he identified THC. The CB2 agonist CB13 also reduced the growth of DLD-1 cells in a mouse model of colon cancer. Apoptosis was prevented by the pharmacologic inhibition of ceramide de novo synthesis. Daniele Piomelli and Nephi Stella of the University of California at Irvine discovered that another lipid. Moreover. VEGF snf inhibition of Gliomas. therefore. Cannabinoid receptor activation induces apoptosis . the apoptotic effect induced by cannabinoid receptor activation.PubMed result Clinical Cancer Research 14.c.. more efficiently. The discoveries raise the possibility that abnormally low numbers of cannabinoid receptors or the faulty release of endogenous cannabinoids are involved in post-traumatic stress syndrome. that TNFacts as a link between cannabinoid receptor activation and ceramide production. Because the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis. of the CB2 receptors induced apoptosis and increased ceramide levels in the DLD-1 and HT29 cells. 5617-5623. The knockdown of TNF. Spain Cannabinoids inhibit tumor angiogenesis in mice. 2004] Cannabinoids Inhibit the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathway in Gliomas Manuel Guzmán et al.. Western blotting. December 1. The results indicate that endocannabinoids are important in extinguishing the bad feelings and pain triggered by reminders of past experiences. 7691. Because blockade of the VEGF pathway constitutes one of the most promising antitumoral approaches currently available. 2008] . gliomas lowered the expression of various VEGF pathway-related genes. is even more abundant in certain brain regions than anandamide is. after the Sanskrit word ananda.mRNA abrogated the ceramide increase and. for the first time. Conclusions: The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. "bliss. the present findings provide a novel pharmacological target for cannabinoid-based therapies.

Enter Marinol. the first attempts at producing synthetic THC were scrapped.Welcome to the ERG Portal The Endocannabinoid Research Group (ERG) is a multi-disciplinary research group established in 1995 and based in the laboratories of several Institutes of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and of Universities in the Naples and Salerno area. Endocannabinoids together with cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors constitute the endocannabinoid system. Marijuana: Politics. Despite the wealth of scientific information and the bevy of organizational support illustrating marijuana's numerous medical benefits. The International Cannabinoid Research Society The International Cannabinoid Research Society. as well as tax breaks and open market privileges from the government. and to continue its war on drugs and drug users. the ingredient of Marinol. a drug never intended for human use and one with many dangerous side effects. 2 notable examples being Narachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. 2009 Symposium: July 8 . After dogs on Nabilone started having convulsions and dropping dead.endocannabinoid. but it should disappoint us. Considering America's history of vilifying marijuana. Marijuana users still risk incarceration and social marginalization. 7(3): E625-E654. and Popular Culture Kambiz. pp. http://www.Long Marinol vs. There are no grounds to schedule cannabis in a more restrictive schedule than Marinol"[57]. the current drug policy should not shock us. The Therapeutic Potential of Drugs That Target Cannabinoid Receptors or Modulate the Tissue Levels or Actions of Endocannabinoids. Charles.The Therapeutic Potential of Drugs That Target Cannabinoid Receptors or Modulate the Tissue Levels or Actions of Endocannabinoids Pertwee RG. a Schedule III drug.11 Departure: July 12 .1208/aapsj070364 These endogenous cannabinoids or endocannabinoids are all eicosanoids. Marinol enjoys cultural and medical legitimacy from society. and within a historical and theoretical context. it is now apparent just how differently America treats two essentially similar substances.the Legal Medical Use for the Marijuana Plant MARINOL DEA Marinol: The Little Synthetic That Couldn't High Times. the federal government chooses to validate the inferior Marinol medication.net/ endocannabinoid system network The Portal of ERGroup . DOI: 10. 18-21 Marinol: The Little Synthetic That Couldn't. This rescheduling comprised part of the argument for a 2002 petition for removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. "Cannabis is a natural source of dronabinol (THC). July 1994. AAPS Journal. The 19th Annual Symposium of the International Cannabinoid Research Society Pheasant Run Resort St. Illinois USA Arrival: July 7. Akhavan Having extensively analyzed the Marinol versus marijuana debate from a popular culture perspective. and given the American penchant to promote pharmaceuticals over all other medicines. The subjects of the scientific (both basic and applied) research carried out by this group are the Endocannabinoids. Marinol was rescheduled from Schedule II to III of the Controlled Substances Act. and heroin. reflecting a finding that THC had a potential for abuse less than that of cocaine. while simultaneously suffering from debilitating illnesses. In 1999. 2005. and the Bioactive Amides of Long Chain Fatty Acids. Marinol . in which petitioner Jon Gettman noted. Science. By Elsa Scott Marinol Study .

To quote Mechoulam.Before speaking to the 5th Clinical Conference on Cannabis Therapeutics in Pacific Grove.. P.ukcia.Wikipedia. Morphine had been isolated from opium early in the 19th century and its very complicated structure was elucidated in the 1920s by Sir Robert Robinson. S. was soon discovered by Shimon Ben-Shabat. The next decade should be especially exciting for anyone in this field. coca and cannabis.onderDrug.)—Indian Cannabis. I believe that the cannabinoids represent a medicinal treasure trove which waits to be discovered.org/research/Cannab. ―We are learning a lot almost every week. CA..-mechoulam. how they work. and still are. by Raphael Mechoulam Cannabinoids as Therapeutics by Raphael Mechoulam Cannabinoids as Therapeutics covers the use of Cannabis in India. and how to synthesize them. . S. while American cancer patients.) Cannabis Indica (U. We are at the same time knowledgeable and naive. Almost all major pharmaceutical companies have groups working on cannabinoids. while junior member at the Weizmann Institute of Science.php The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. the first described endocannabinoid anandamide was isolated by two of his postdoctoral researchers. Raphael Mechoulam.. Lumír Hanuš and William Devane. I am almost certain that various cannabinoids will become important drugs. Raphael Mechoulam By David Jay Brown Raphael Mechoulam . opium. cracking the chemical code while the applications remain elusive—and sometimes forbidden.html Cannabidiol: The Wonder Drug of the 21st Century? Dr. Med. the free encyclopedia Raphael Mechoulam.http://www. In the past 200 years cannabinoids have ricocheted in the public mind between being a miracle cure and an obsession of the dissolute. Another endogenous cannabinoid. ILLUSTRATION: Bentley and Trimen.com/ar.endocannabinoid. isolated and synthesised THC Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. it seems researchers are at a point of no return. Plants. Cocaine was isolated from coca leaves in the middle of the 19th century and the famous chemist Richard Willstatter had been able to describe its unusual structure in the last decade of the 19th century.smart-publications.net/Mechoulam. Cannabis Indica (U. 2 -AG. Deputy Director of NORML Paul Armentano talks about new science on Cannabis (marijuana) and the Endo-Cannabinoid system being done in Europe. Raphael Mechoulam Interview Professor Dr.‖ Regardless of the chemicals‘ rocky past. Now we‘ve gained basic knowledge of what cannabinoids are. and is an expression of thanks to the herbal practitioners who have carried on the drug's medical traditions through the centuries. 2008 . when we are approaching an understanding of the endocannabinoid system and the role that cannabinoids may pay in medicine. Indian hemp. http://www. P. April 4. many with tragic cases of Glioma brain tumors. Raphael Mechoulam http://www.aspx The three major illicit drugs derived from plants were then. Interview: Professor Dr. one of his PhD students. the discoverer of THC Cannabinoids as Therapeutics.. seek any news of an alternative therapy. Cannabinoids as Therapeutics describes the progression from the time when Cannabis was used by ancient medical practitioners as a herbal remedy to the present day. 231.

Then Paul is joined by Dr.The New York Times Marijuana.] It recently reiterated its position that cannabis has no medical utility. 2006.NORML We also talk about Cannabis in the treatment of ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) and the documentary I'm doing on Cathy Jordan. another oral cannabis-derived medicine. Cents by Steve Huntley PAIN. the US Government is too embarrassed to acknowledge that it's been wrong about marijuana. including Marijuana Reconsidered. .Wikipedia. CA. a liquid preparation of two of the most therapeutically useful compounds of cannabis.nse-cents.. the commercial success of Sativex will largely depend on how vigorously the marijuana laws are enforced. Interview with Lester Grinspoon Interview with Lester Grinspoon 1997 My conclusion was that the most harmful thing about marijuana was the fact that more than 400.peripheral neuropathy Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy A randomized placebo-controlled trial D. Marijuana. Paul has collected the latest research on medical Cannabis. available in a PDF or booklet at: Marijuana Law Reform .D. Madrid. This is the same agency that in 1985 approved Marinol.lewrockwell. Los Angeles -. I don't know that you can say the same thing about any other drug. Manuel Guzman. when it appeared cannabis was well on its way to nationwide decriminalization in the United States. 2007 Common Sense and Compassion Overcome Marijuana Propaganda « Jimboland Jots Common Sense and Compassion Overcome Marijuana Propaganda March 7th 2009 http://www. the wonder drug . of Galeta. a medical marijuana patient who has survived ALS for 22 years now! View "Surviving ALS" in chapter releases: &#x202b. but it also approved advanced clinical trials for a marijuana-derived drug called Sativex. Puffing is the best medicine . the free encyclopedia Lester Grinspoon is Associate Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and the author of several drug-related books.May 5. and Marijuana: The Forbidden Medicine. David Bearman. the wonder drug of the 21st century. there's not been one single documented death from it. Los Angeles Times . who has seen THC kill brain cancer cells while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed. Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered. Similarly. The first two were published during the 1970s.html Legalizing Marijuana Makes Sense. demonstating the neuroprotectant properties of Cannabinoids. The latter was published in 1993. I have yet to see a patient who preferred Marinol to smoked marijuana. In all the years that marijuana has been used. and that the 10 million people arrested since 1967 were arrested for nothing. Cannabis Therapeutics Conference hosted by Patients Out of Time: Patients Out of Time Lester Grinspoon Lester Grinspoon . It describes a variety of ailments for which cannabis ingestion may be indicated.Los Angeles Times Puffing is The Best Medicine By Lester Grinspoon M.Paul references the work of Dr. who tells of the fear that patients feel when encountering an cancer like Glioma.. Firstly.The Food And Drug Administration is contradicting itself.com/spl/legal. It is not unreasonable to believe that drug companies have an interest in sustaining the prohibition against the herb.000 people a year were being arrested. I. Lester Grinspoon The Boston GlobePublished: March 1. Marijuana is remarkably non toxic.

USA CONCLUSION: Smoked marijuana is effective in reducing chronic ongoing neuropathic pain as well as acute pain in the experimental pain model. Fibromyalgia and panic disorder.NYTimes. a typical day. Therapeutic potential of cannabis in pain medicine. P. Mary Ellen Kelly. Denney. Michael Rowbotham. Abrams. Peninsula Medical School. Marijuana Research Is Set By PHILIP J.Cannabis..org/downloa. Parkinson‘s Disease. Plymouth. MD et al Welcome to CMCR SMOKED CANNABIS THERAPY FOR HIV-RELATED PAINFUL PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY: RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED. and Karin Petersen The University of California San Francisco. Shade. Marijuana Research Is Set . 6 were female. 2001 But Paul Armentano. Heroin addiction. HILTS Published: Saturday. As usual there were a wide variety of other diagnoses including Lymphoma. Donald I. Cheryl A.safeaccessnow. Videos in this article: Cannabis News . Scott Press.pdf MEDICAL CANNABIS RESEARCH: WHAT DOES THE EVIDENCE SAY? After Two-Decade Halt. San Francisco. Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group CCRMG A Day in the Life of a Cannabis Consultant. Tourette‘s. Eighteen were male. Thirteen were new patients and there were 11 renewals. a spokesman for the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws.D.'' Therapeutic potential of cannabis in pain medicine British Journal of Anaesthesia 2008 101(1):59-68.com After Two-Decade Halt. Haatem Reda. Zajicek* Neurology Research Group.s_research.. The major psychotropic CB delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC) was isolated in 1964 and the first CB receptor (CB1R) was cloned in 1990. CCRMG Spring 2006. Neuronal CB1Rs modulate synaptic transmission and mediate psychoactivity. Hector Vizoso. California 94110. O'Shaughnessy's. http://www. Philip A. UK Advances in cannabis research have paralleled developments in opioid pharmacology whereby a psychoactive plant extract has elucidated novel endogenous signalling systems with therapeutic significance. We saw 24 patients over the course of nine and a half hours (approximately 24 minutes per patient). CB signalling occurs via G-protein-coupled receptors distributed throughout the body. R. a widely used therapeutic intervention for HIV neuropathy. Myesthenia Gravis. PTSD. or Norml. M. Endocannabinoids are derivatives of arachidonic acid that function in diverse physiological systems. Starley B. Cannabinoids (CBs) are chemical compounds derived from cannabis. The average age was 41. The magnitude of the response of the neuropathic pain is similar to what is seen with gabapentin.7 years and the most common diagnosis was chronic pain (14 of 24). PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL. Immune-cell CB2 receptors (CB2R) may down-regulate neuroinflammation and influence cyclooxygenase-dependent pathways. D. December 15. Jay. Hosking and J. Cancer and Hemp Medicine by Rick Simpson .Abrams. Cancer and Hemp Medicine by Rick Simpson Cannabis. All in all. said the approvals ''have ended a two-decade-long federal de facto prohibition on medical research on marijuana.