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1 TI MOTHY
2 Tm 2:17 :
I Co 5:5+
2 Tm 4:7
I P 3:2-4
I Co 14:34-
1 Go 11:3.
Gn 2:/8 .2Jf:
I Co 13:13 +
2 Tm 2:24
part played by the ' prop hets' when the college of elders
laid t heir hands on his head, Ac 13: 1-3 : 11:27 + .
2 a . ' My advice is' : var. ' Advise' .
b. Nero was emperor when this was written: the
end of the verse probably reflects Paul's apprehensions
about what the future would brin g. On Pau l' s political
loya lty, er, Rm 13: 1-7.
c. This is a state ment with enormous theolog ical
implications, and it provides t he correct interpretation
of some passages in the letter to the Chr istians at Rome .
cf. Rm 9:18,21.
d. Cf 6: 13. By his willinaness 10 die for t he whole
human race Chr ist showed the human race that God
wanted everybody to be saved. He was the Fat her 's
' witness' all through his life, but never so supremely as
at the mome nt of his execution. (The Greek wor d for
'witness' is the same as for ' martyr t.)
e. It Is not clear whether Pau l is implying that
women ar e saved by the 'one-body' relationship with
their marr lase par tners or whether childbearing itself, as
the medi ation of life and the bringing up of children,
constitutes a vocation. He may Quite easily have been
thinking specifically of the 'fal se teachers' who
condemned marr iage, 4:3.
3 a. The word 'epl scopos' Coverseer' , ' supervisor' or
' president") has not yet acquired the same meaning as
'bishop', cr. TI I :5f+ . k, Here and in 4: 14 Pau l reminds Timothy of the
1 a. Var. ' the pro mise' .
b. Paul har dly ever uses the title 'saviour' in his
other letters, En 5:23; Ph 3:20, but in the Pastor al
Letter s he makes use of it both when referri ng to the
Fa ther, I Tm 2:3: 4:10 : Tt 1:3 ; 2:10 : 3:4, and when
referr ing to Chris t, 2 Tm 1: 10: Tt 1:4 : 3:6.
c. Genealogies of O.T. patriar chs and heroes con-
str ucted by Jewish writers in the same style as those in
the Book of Jubf/ees.
d. ve r. (Vulg.) ' the build ing-up of God' s house' .
e. The ' Law of Moses' .
r. Lit. ' Now the Law is good if anyone uses it law-
fully' , I.e. without asking it to be more than Jt claims
g, Seen as a penal code, the aim of the Law is to
make provision not for the righteous, but for offenders ,
by thr eateni ng, accusing and punishing t hem.
h. One characteristic of the Pastoral Letters is this
insistenc e on 'sound doctrine' , cr. 6:3; 2 Tm 1:13;
4:3; Tt 1:9, 13: 2: 1.8.
I, Lit. ' faithf ul ls the word (or ' sayjng' )': this is one
of the character istic phrases of the Pastoral Letters,
cr. 3:1; 4:9: 2 Tm 2: 11: Tt 3:8.
I. Lit. ' incorruptible' or 'imper ishable' ; var, (Vulg.)
18 Ti mothy, my son, these ar e the instructions that I am giving you: I ask you
to re member t he words once spoken over you by the prophets," and taki ng them
19 to heart to fight like a good soldier ' with faith and a good conscience for your
weapons , Some people have put conscience aside and wrecked their faith in
20 consequence. ·1 mean men like Hy menaeus and Alexander, whor- have handed
over to Satan to teach them not t o be blasphemous.
I 2My adv ice is" that, first of all, the re should be prayers offered for everyone Ba 1:11
-petit ions, intercessions and tha nksgiving-·and especially for kings and
others in authority, b so that we may be able to live religious and reverent lives
1in peace and quiet. -To do thi s is righ t, and will please God our saviour: -he 1: 1+
5 wants everyone to be saved ' and reach full knowledge of the truth. • For t here
is only one God, an d there is only one mediator between God and mankind,
himself a man , Christ Jesus, - who sacrificed himself as a ransom for them all. tgt,28p
7 He is the evidence of t his, sen t at the appoi nted time," and ·1 have been named
a herald and apostle of it and-I am telling the truth and no lie-a teacher of
the fai th an d t he trut h to the pagans.
In ever y place, then , I want the men to lift their han ds up reverently Ga 2:7
in prayer , with no anger or ar gument.
Here is a say ing that you can rely on : To wa nt to be a presiding elder " is to
want to do a noble wor k. -T hat is why the pr esident must have an impeccable
Women in the assembly
Simil arly, I direct t hat wome n are to wear suitable clothes and to be dressed
qu ietly and modestly, without braided hair or gold and jewellery or expensive
10 clothes; t heir ado rn ment is -to do the sort of good works that are pr oper for
11 women who profess t o be relig ious. • During instruction, a wo ma n should be
12 quiet and respectful. ·1 am not giving permission for a woman to teach or to
13 tell a ma n wha t to do. A wo man ought not to speak, ·because Adam was
14 formed first and Eve aft er wards, -and it was not Adam who was led as tray but
15 the woman who was led astray and fell into sin.•Nevertheless, she will be saved
by ch ildbea ring,' provided she lives a modest life and is constant in fait h and
love and holiness.
TO TI MOTHY
From Pau l, apos tle of Christ Jes us appointed by the co mmand" of God our I
saviour" and of Christ Jes us our hope, -to Timothy, true chil d of mine in t he
fai t h; wishi ng you grace, mercy and peace from God the Fat her and from Christ
Jesus our Lo rd.
The purpose of the Law
We know, of course, that t he Law' is good, but only provided it is tr eat ed 8
like any law,! • in the understanding t hat laws are not framed for people who 9
are good." On t he contrary, they ar e for cri minals and revo lutionaries, for t he
irreligiou s and t he wicked , for t he sacrilegious and the irreverent ; they ar e for
people who kill t heir fat her s or mo thers and for murder ers, - fo r th ose who ar e 10
immoral wit h women or with boys or with men, for liars a nd for perjurer s- an d
for eve rything else that is contrary to t he sound teachin g" - t hat goes with t he I I
Good News of the glory of the blessed God, the gos pel t hat was ent rusted to me.
Suppress the false teachers
As I as ked you when I was leaving for Macedonia, please stay at Ephesus, to
insist t hat certa in people sto p teac hing strange doctrines -a nd ta king noti ce of
myt hs a nd endless genca logies ;- these t hings are on ly likely to raise irre leva nt
doubts instead of furt heri ng t he designs of God" whi ch are revealed in fai th .
The only purpose of t his instru ction is t hat there should be love, co ming out
of a pur e heart , a clear co nscience a nd a sincere fait h. •There are so me peopl e 6
who have gone off t he st ra ight course and taken a road that lead s to emp ty
speculat ion; - t hey clai m to be doctors of t he Law but they under st and neit her 7
the argumen ts they are using nor the o pinions t hey are up holding.
Paul on his own calling
I than k Chr ist Jes us our Lord, who has given me st rengt h, and who j udged 12
me faithful eno ugh to ca ll me into hi s service ' even t hough I used to be 13
a blasph emer and did all I co uld to inju re and discredi t the faith . Mercy, ho wever,
was shown me, beca use unt il I became a believer I had been ac ti ng in igno rance;
and t he grace of our Lord filled me wit h fait h and with t he love that is in Christ 14
Jes us. • Here is a sayi ng tha t you can rely on: and nob ody shoul d do ubt : that 15
Christ Jesus ca me into the wo rld to save sinners. I myself am t he greatest of t hem;
a nd if mercy has bee n shown to me, it is because Jes us Christ mea nt to make 16
me t he grea test evidence of his inex haustible patience for all t he other people
who would lat er have to tru st in him to come to eternal life.•To the eternal 17
King, t he undying, ' invisible and onl y God, be honour and glory for ever and
Rm I :)
Ac /6: /
4:7 ; 6:4.20
2 'I'm 2: 14.
16. 23: 4:4
1' t 1: 14 ;
Rm 1:29 1-
Rv I S: 13
1" / :/ 4
2 Co 4:4
1T h 2:4
Tt 1:3: 2: lJ
Ac 8:3 ·"
Ac 3:17 +
I n 16:2
1 Co 15: 10
.1:/ : 4:9
2 P 3: 15
/ Co / 5:9
.2Th 3:7 +
Ps 145: lJ
Co l 1:15
A c 9:13 +
1 Co 7:8
1 Co 16: 11
2 Th 3:7+
Ga 5:22 +
Mt 9: 18;
A c 6:6; 8:17:
2 Tm 1:6 ;
' imposit ion of ha nds' can be the rite for tr ansmitting
grace or a ch ar -i sm, Heb 6:2, or it can be the gesture
used when blessing, Mt 19:15, or curing, Mt 9:18p ;
Mk 6:5; 7:32; 8:23-25: 16:18; Lk4:40; 13:13: A c 9: 12.
17 ; 28:8, or imparting the Holy Spir it to the newly
bap tised , Ac 1:5 + . It can also be the rite for conse -
cra ting a person for a particular public functi on, Ac 6:6;
13:3. as in this passage and 5:22 +; 2 Tm I:6. Since the
day on which he received the imposition of hands .
Timothy has had a perma nent charism Carace-stn ' )
that consecrates him to his ministry. For the part played
by th e ' pr ophets' , cf. I Tm 1:18.
5 a . Three cat esor tes of widows are mentioned her e:
those who do not need assistance from the Church since
they have relations to loo k after them, v, 4 : t hose who
are ' true widows' because they hav e no one to look
aft er th em, and whom the Church is obliged to help,
vv. 3-5, 16 ; an d those who (whether helped by the
Church or not) ar e call ed by the Church to fu lfil cer tain
officia l funct ions . Widows in this third category ha ve
to satisfy Quite severe regulations. vv. 9 ~ 1 5 .
b. v ee. (Vulg.) 'sh e is' .
c. The no rmal cour tesy then shown t o guests.
d. Li t . 'f or setting aside (their) first fai th ' , i.e. their
vow or promise to consecrate the mse lves to God.
e. Ma de wiser by experience, Paul modifies what
he had said , 1 Co 7:8,40.
1 TI MO TH Y
d. Lit . ' a spiritual gift given by means of prophecy
with imp osition of hands by the body of elde rs ' . The
b. This instr uction is probably int ended for the
deaconesses, cf. Rm 16:1. rather than for the wives of
dea con s.
c. He, i.e. Christ : many authorit ies re.s. Vul g.)
read 'It', t.e. the ' mystery' , cf. Col 2:3 -t- . Pau l is quot ing
part of an ear ly Ch rist ian hymn, cf. 6: 15-16: 2 Tm 2:11·
13; Ph 2:6-11. Also cr. Eo 1:3-14 ; 5:14; Col 1:15-20.
d.'a ttes ted (lit. ' justified' ) by the Spirit' : the ho liness
and divinity of Christ wer e pro ved by the fact that he
ros e in glory, cf. Rm 1:4+ . 'Taken up in glory ' , i.e. at
4 a. On the crisis that will characteri se th e 'l as t
times' cr.2 Th 2:3-12; 2 Tm 3:1; 4:3-4 ; 2 P 3:3 ; Jude 18.
Also cf Mt 24:6fp : Ac 20:29-30. As. eschat ologtcally,
the ' Jast times' have already begun, Rm 3:26 +, we are
alrea dy Hving In this final epoch of cr isis, cf. 1 Co 7:26;
Ep 5:6 ; 6: 13; Jm 5:3; 1 3n 2:18 ; 4:1.3 ; 2 3n 7; Mt 26:41.
b, Lit . 'Havin g bee n marked with a red-hot
branding iron on thelr own conscience' , I.e, branded
li ke runaway slaves.
c. Th e rejection of marriage was to be one -of the
hallmarks of Gnos ticism: dietary regulat ions were more
1 5Do not speak harshly to a man older tha n yoursel f, but advise him as you
would your own father ; trea t the younger men as brothers -and older women
as yon would your mother. Always treat you ng women with.propriety, as if they
Be considerate to widows; I mean those who are truly widows ." •If a widow
has children or gra ndchildren, they are " to learn first of all to do their duty to
their own families and repay their debt to their parents , because thi s is what
pleases God. • But a woman who is reall y widowed and left without anybody
can give herself up to God and con secrate all her days and nights to petit ions
6 and prayer. -The one who thinks only of pleasure is already dead while she
7 is still alive: •remind them of all this, too , so that their lives may be blameless.
8 Anyone who does not loo k aft er his own rela tions, especially if they are living
with him, has rejected the faith and is worse than an unbel iever.
9 Enrolment as a widow is permissible onl y for a woman at least sixty years
10 old who has had onl y one husband. •She must be a woman known for her good
wor ks and for the way in which she has brought up her children, shown hospi-
tality to strangers and was hed the saints' feet, ' helped people who are in tro uble
11 and been active in all kinds of good work . •Do not accept youn g widows becaus e
if their natural desires get stronger than their dedication to Christ, they want
12 to marry again, -and then people condemn them for being unfaithful to their
13 or iginal pr omise ." -Besides, they learn how to be idle and go roun d from house
to house ; and then, not merely idle, they learn to be gossips and medd lers in
ot her people's affairs, and to chatter when they would be better keeping quiet.
14 I think it is best for young widows to marry aga in' and have children and a home
12 Do not let people disr egard you because you ar e young, but be an example
to all the believers in the way you speak and behave, and in your love, your faith
13 and your puri ty. • Ma ke use of the time unt il I arrive by reading to the people,
14 preaching and teaching. •You have in you a spiritual gift which was given to
you when the prophets spoke and the body of elders laid their hands on YOU; d
15 do not let it lie unused.•Think hard about all this, and put it into practice, and
16 everyone will be able to see how you are advancing. -Take great care about what
you do and what you teach ; always do thi s, and in this way you will save both
yourself and those who listen to you.
]60 1 TIMOTHY
He" was made visible in the flesh,
attested by the Spi rit,
seen by angels,
proclaimed to the pagans,
believed in by the world,
take n up in glory."
The Spi rit has explicitly sai d that du ring the last times" there will be some
who will desert the faith an d choose to listen to deceitful spirits and doc tr ines
that come from the devils; -and the cause of this is the lies told by hypocrites 2
whose consciences are bra nded as tho ugh with a red-hot iron :" -t hey will say 3
marriage is for bidde n, and lay down rules about abstai ning from foods which
God created to be accepted with thank sgiving by all who believe and who know
the truth. ' •Everythi ng God has crea ted is good, and no food is to be rejected ,
provided grace is said for it : -the word of God and the prayer ma ke it holy.
If you put all thi s to the brothers, you will be a good servant of Christ Jesus and
show that you have really digested the teachi ng of the faith and the good doc tr ine
which you have always followed.• Have nothing to do with godless myths an d
old wives' tales . Train yourself spiritually. ·-Physical exerc ises are useful eno ugh,
but the useful ness of spirituality is unlimited , since it holds out the reward of
life here and now and of the future life as well' ; -t hat is a saying that you can
rely on and nobody should doubt it. •J mean that the point of all our toiling and 10
battli ng is t hat we have put our tru st in the living God and he is the saviour of
the whole human race but particularly of all believers. •This is what you are to 11
enforce in your teac hing.
The Church and the mystery of the spiritual life
At the momen t of writing to you, I am hoping tha t I may be with you soo n; 14
but in case I shoul d be delayed, I wanted you to know how people ought to behave 15
in God's family-s-that is, in the Church of the living Go d, which upholds the
truth and keeps it safe. •Without any doubt, the mystery of our religion is very 16
character. He must not have been married mor e than once, and he must be
temperate, discreet and cou rteou s, hospitable and a good teacher; - not a heavy 3
drinker, nor hot-tempered, but kind and peaceabl e. He must not be a lover' of
mon ey. • He must be a ma n who manages his own fami ly well and brings his 4
chi ldren up to obey him and be well-behaved: - how. can any man who does not 5
underst an d how to manage his own family have responsibility for the church
of God? • He should not be a new convert, in case pri de might turn his head 6
and then he might be condemned as the devil was condemned. •It is also 7
necessary that people out side the Church shoul d speak well of him, so that he
never gets a bad reputation and falls int o the devil 's tra p.
1 P 5:2
Tt 2:6 +
Ac 6:1-6 Deacons
In the same way, deacons must be respectable men whose word can be 8
trusted, moderate in the amount of wine they drink and with no squal id greed
for money.•They must be conscientious believers in the mystery of the faith.
They are to be examined first , and only admitted to serve as deacons if ther e 10
is nothing against them . -I n the same way, the wome nI> must be respectable, 11
not gossips but sober and quite reliable. •Deacons must not have been married 12
more than once, and must be men who manage thei r chi ldren and familie s
well.· Those of them who carry out the ir duties well as deacons will earn a 13
high standing for themselves and be rewar ded with great assur ance in their
work for the faith in Chr ist Jesus.
1 Co 1:2 +
1 Co 5:12+
Rm 16:25 +
J Co 1:2+
1: 15 +
Ac 1:2. 11
In 16: 10
Eo 3: 10
1 P 1: 12
2 Tm 3: 1;
2 P 2:1 : 3:3
1 I n 2: 18:
Gn 1:31 +
I Co 1O:25r.
2 T m 2: 15
All slaves ' under the yoke' must have unqualified respect for their masters, I
so that the name of God and our teaching are not brought into disre pute.
Slaves whose masters are believers are not to thi nk any the less of them beca use
they are brot hers ; on the contrary, they should serve t hem all the better,
since those who have the benefit of their services are believers and dear to
Timothy's vocation recalle d
But, as a man dedicated to God, you must avo id all that. You must aim to I I
be saint ly and religious, filled with faith and love, patient and gentle. • Fight the 12
goo d fight of the faith and win for yourself the eternal life to which you were
called when you made your profession and spo ke up for the truth« in front of
many witnesses. • Now, before God the source of all life and before Jesus Chr ist, 13
who spoke up as a witne ss for the truth in fron t of Pontius Pilate,' I put to you
The true teacher and the false teache r
This is what you are to teach them to believe and persuade them to do.
Anyone who teaches anyt hing different , and does not keep to the sound teac hing
which is that of ou r Lord Jes us Christ, the doctrine which is in acco rda nce with
tr ue religion, -is simply igno rant and must be full of self-conceit-with a craze
for questioning everythi ng and arguing about words. All that can come of this
is jealousy, contention, abuse and wicked mistrust of one another ; -and une ndi ng
disputes by peop le who are neither rational nor informed and imagine that
religion is a way of maki ng a profit. -Religion, of cou rse, does bring 6
large profits, but only to those who are co ntent with what they have. •We brought
nothing into the world, and we can take nothing out of it ; -but as long as we 8
have food and clothing, let us be content with that. •Peop le who long to be rich
ar e a prey to temptati on ; they get trapped into all sor ts of foolish b an d dange rous
ambit ions which eventually plunge them into ruin and destructi on. •' The love 10
of mon ey is the root of all evils" and there are some who, pursuin g it, have
wandered away from the faith, and so given thei r souls any number of fatal
14: 2:2 :
2 Tm4: 1.8
He b 9:28
2 M 13:4
1 In 1:5+
In 1:17- 18 +
L k 12: 17-21
Jm 1: 10
f , The word 'epiphany' t'aooeertna' , used in
2 Th 2:8 with refere nce to the Great Rebe l) is adopted
in t he Pastoral Letters in preference to ' parousia'
(' Co ming' , 1 Co 15:23 -t- ) , or 'apocalypse' Creveatina',
1 Co as the techn ical term here ; 2 Tm 4:1, 8:
Tt 2:13 ; Heb 9:28, both for the manifest at ion of Christ
in his eschatological tr iumph , and also , 2 Tm 1: 10;
cf. Tt 2:11: 3:4, for his man ifestation in the results of
his action as saviour.
g. Var. (Yulg.) ' the living God' .
h. The faith that has been entr ust ed to him: this is
one of the main the mes of the Pastoral Letters.
L ' you', plura l ; var . (Vul g.) 'yOU' singu lar. Add .
great example of how a follower of Christ should
pr oclaim his faith, whether at his bapt ism or when faced
wit h pers ecution .
T IM O T H Y
r. Li t. ' so as to give no occasion for reviling to the
one who opposes' ; this could refer to Satan, but Paul
may t-e refer ring to un fr iendly, ant i-Christ ian
g. Lit . ' let them be deemed wo r thy of being paid
double honou r' (or 'doubly paid').
h. Var . ' his keep' , cf. Mt 10:10.
I. I.e. to confer a function in the Church, cr. 4:14 + .
Some writers have considered this a reference to a
gesture made when absolving sinners.
6 a . Or 'a nd dear brothers' .
b, ' trapped' , var. (V ulg .) 'trap ped by the devil in
their own temptations'. 'f oolish '; Vulg, ' useless' ,
c. A contemporary pr overb .
d . Whe n had Timothy 'spoken u p for the tr uth'?
Perhaps at his bap tism, or poss ibl y when he was conse-
crated to the minist ry.
e . Whe n he declared hi mself to be the messianic
King and the revealer of Truth, Jn 18:36-37 . This is the
Final warning and conclusion
20 My dear Timothy, take great care of all that has been ent rusted to you." Have
nothing to do with the pointless philosophical discussions and antagonistic
2 1 beliefs of the 'knowledge' which is not knowledge at all; •by adopting this , some
have gone right away from the faith . Gr ace be with you.'
17 Warn those who are rich in this world 's good s that they are not to loo k down
on other people ; and not to set their hopes on money, which is untrustworthy,
but on God" who, out of his riches, gives us all that we need for our happi ness.
18 Tell the m that they are to do good, and be rich in good works, to be generous
19 and willing to share-· this is the way they can save up a good capital sum for
the future if they want to make sure of the only life that is real.
14 the duty -of doin g all that you have been told, with no faults or failures , unt il
the Appearing! of our Lord Jesus Christ ,
15 who at the due time will be revealed
by God, the blessed and only Ruler of all,
the King of kings and the Lord of lords,
16 who alone is immortal,
whose ho me is in inaccessible light ,
whom no man has seen and no ma n is able to see:
to him be honour and everlast ing power. Amen.
62 1 TIMOTHY 5:15
to look afte r, and not give the enemy any chance! to raise a scandal about them;
there are already some who have left us to follow Sat an. -If a Christian woman
has widowed relat ives, she should support them and not mak e the Church bear
the expense but enable it to support those who are genuinely widows.
The elders who do thei r work well while they ar e in charge are to be given 17
double cons iderat ion," especially those who are assi duous in preaching an d
teaching. -As scriptur e says: You must not muzzle un ox when it is treading out 18
the corn; an d agai n: The worker deserves his pay." -Never accept any accusation 19
br ought against an elder unless it is supported by two or three witnesses. •If any 20
of them ar e at fault , reprimand them publicl y, as a warning to the rest. • Before 2 1
God, and befor e Jesus Christ and the angels he has chosen, I put it to you as a
duty to keep these rules impartially and never to be influenced by favo ur itism.
Do not be too quick to lay hands on any man,' and never make yourself an 22
accomplice in anybody else's sin; keep yourself pure.
You should give up drinking only water and have a little wine for t he sake 23
of your digestion and the frequent bouts of illness that you have.
The faults of some peo ple are obvious long before anyon e makes any 24
complaint abo ut them, while ot hers have faults that are not discovered until
afte rwards. -I n the same way, the good t hat people do can be obvious; but even 25
when it is not , it cannot be hidden for ever.
2 Tm 4:1
1: 10 +
I Co 7:21-
Rm 1:29 -1
1 Th 5:12 +
I C0 9:9
3 In 8
T I 2:E
0 0 5:14
Ps 49: J7
I n 13;36-37
2 Trn 2:22
I Co 13:13 ---
Ga 5:22 ;
2 Tm 4:7
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