Applying Renewable Energy Technology in Malaysia: Case Study for Building Integrated Photovoltaics

APPLYING RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY IN MALAYSIA: CASE STUDY FOR BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
S. Shaari1,4, A. M. Omar2,4, H. C. M. Haris2,4, Z. M. Zain2,4, H. Zainuddin1,4, S. I. Sulaiman2,4, K. S. Muhammad2,4, M. Mustaffa1,4, Z. M. Darus1,4, W.F. Abbas3,4, R. A. H. A. Kadir4, L. Rimon4, P. Mazlan4, A. R. Ghazali4 and R. A. Rahman4
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia 3 Faculty of Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia 4 Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre, Research Innovations in Sustainable Energy Group, Institute of Science,Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia
1 2

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a description of the application of renewable energy (REN) technology, using photovoltaic (PV) technology integrated in buildings in the Malaysian context. The use of REN technologies is gaining impetus in many developing countries, of which Malaysia is not exempt. What more with the present uncertainty in prices of fossil-based fuel resources, the pendulum is swinging in favour of renewable energy resources again. In 2005, the Malaysian Government (GoM) launched its first concerted effort in using REN technology in its buildings, vis-a-vis using PV technology, called the Malaysian Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV) project. The MBIPV project is jointly sponsored between the GoM and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) with a target of installing 1.5 MWp BIPV systems installed between 2006 to 2010. In 2006, the GoM officially launched the SURIA1000 project focused at residential BIPV systems. The paper describes a summary of the MBIPV project along with its objectives of implementation. The MBIPV project covers all the DEMO, SHOWCASE and SURIA1000 grid-connected BIPV installations throughout Malaysia. A list of the MBIPV systems and selected details of the installations are presented and discussed. Focus is given to aspects of the integration of the PV materials into the buildings. In addition, a summary of the technical specifications of each BIPV installation is also presented. The paper concludes with a summary of certain aspects of the lessons learnt in the implementation of the MBIPV project. Keywords: renewable energy, photovoltaics, building integrated system

1.

INTRODUCTION

The use of renewable energy (REN) technologies is gaining impetus around the globe. With focus on Malaysia, the use of REN vis-à-vis photovoltaic (PV) technology for on-grid and off-grid applications is seeing seen tremendous bounds. As of 2005, the estimated total installed capacity of on-grid PV systems in Malaysia was about 470 kWp while that for off-grid PV systems was estimated at 3 MWp [1]. In the 9th Malaysia Plan (9MP) alone, the Government of Malaysia (GoM) has allocated large sums of money for the implementation of solar PV technology applications, especially for Sabah and Sarawak. With respect to on-grid PV systems, on 25th July 2005, the Minister of Energy, Water and Communications Malaysia announced a Malaysian Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV) project [1-2]. The MBIPV project is a jointly-sponsored project between the GoM and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). In this project, several categories of BIPV systems are planned to be installed throughout the country in various sizes with a total capacity of 1.5 MWp. Almost all of the systems are grid-connected in the urban areas with a project duration of five 553

Ret-10.pmd

553

11/21/08, 12:04 PM

SENVAR + ISESEE 2008: Humanity + Technology

years (2006-2010). The target is to develop a market that will lead towards a long-term BIPV cost reduction. On 27th November 2006, the Energy Minister of Malaysia launched the MBIPV-SURIA1000 project. This paper presents a description of the application of REN using BIPV in the Malaysian context. 2. 2.1 THE MBIPV PROJECT BIPV System

Basically, a BIPV system comprises an array of PV modules that form part of the building envelope itself and is electrically connected to the utility grid via an interactive grid-inverter. As light shines onto the array, the PV modules convert sunlight into direct current (DC) power. The power is fed into an inverter that converts into alternating current (AC) power, which is then fed into the grid. For grid-interactive systems, the system imports energy from the grid when the PV generation is not enough to meet the loads. In addition, the system exports energy into the grid when the PV generation exceeds the load requirement. The main components of a grid-connected BIPV system comprises the following components: a. PV modules; b. Balance of System (BOS) components comprising: DC switch gear, an inverter, AC switch gear and the grid. Figures 1 shows the block diagram of a grid-connected PV system and Figure 2 shows the concept of a BIPV system.

DC switchgear

AC switchgear

Grid

Figure 1: Block diagram of a basic grid-connected PV system

Figure 2: Concept of a BIPV system. Legend: 1 – PV array; 2 – Junction box; 3 – String cable; 4 – Inverter; 5 – Energy meters.
(Source: [3] IEA-PVPS, 2005)

554

Ret-10.pmd

554

11/21/08, 12:04 PM

Applying Renewable Energy Technology in Malaysia: Case Study for Building Integrated Photovoltaics

2.2

The MBIPV Project

The long term goal of the MBIPV project is to catalyse the local BIPV market to enable long-term cost reduction of the technology and adoption of supportive regulatory frameworks. This is done via an integrated implementation of the project’s main components namely [4]: • • • • Component 1 – Information services, awareness and capacity building programme. Component 2 – Market enhancement and infrastructure development programme. Component 3 – Policies and financing mechanisms programme. Component 4 – Industry development programme. Under the MBIPV project, the system installations are categorised as [4]: a. Demonstration Projects b. National “SURIA1000” Projects c. Showcase Projects 2.2.1 Demonstration Projects The demonstration projects are: a. b. c. d. A stimulus to the local building industry (private and government sectors). A total of 200 kWp capacity will be offered for BIPV demonstration projects. Up to 28% financial support to supply and install BIPV systems from MBIPV project. Applicable to any suitable properties including but not limited to commercial, residential, public buildings, schools and hospitals. e. Applicable to any site in Malaysia. f. Can be on-grid and/or off-grid BIPV applications. g. Assistance from MBIPV project for TNB interconnection on net-metering basis. h. Support of MBIPV project for selected promotion and marketing activities. 2.2.2 National SURIA1000 Projects The SURIA1000 projects are: a. A catalyst to the BIPV market by targeting general public to install BIPV at their premises (homes/buildings) and property development projects. b. A total of 1,200 kWp capacity will be offered for the MBIPV SURIA 1000 programme. c. This programme operates on a bidding process in which the call for bidding will be open twice a year starting from 1st December 2006 and will repeated every six (6) months (every June and December) ending in 2010. d. The programme is applicable to all existing and new premises, but limited to on-grid BIPV applications only. e. Minimum BIPV capacity for bidding is 3 kWp per application. f. From 3 to 10 kWp for residential houses. g. From 3 to 30 kWp for commercial building.

555

Ret-10.pmd

555

11/21/08, 12:04 PM

SENVAR + ISESEE 2008: Humanity + Technology

h. The financial support (bidding incentive) for supply and installation of BIPV systems from MBIPV project can be expected up to 75% of rebates for the complete system. The incentives decrease in subsequent years by 5% shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Bidding system Call for bidding 1st Dec 06 to 30th Mar 07 1st Jun 07 to 1st Oct 07 3 rd Dec 07 to 1st Apr 08 2 nd Jun 08 to 1st Oct 08 1st Dec 08 to 1st Apr 09 1st Jun 09 to 1st Oct 09 1st Dec 09 to 1st Apr 10 Target BIPV capacity for bidding (kWp) 40 60 90 120 140 160 180 Maximum bidding incentive (%) 75 70 60 55 50 45 40 Applicability Residential only Residential only Residential and commercial Residential and commercial Residential and commercial Residential and commercial Residential and commercial

2.2.3 Showcase Projects The showcase projects are: a. b. c. d. To create BIPV success stories and quality examples for public/industry references. A total of 100 kWp capacity will be offered for BIPV showcases projects. 100% technical and financial incentives (limited to BIPV systems) and promotional support. Applicable to any suitable properties including to commercial, residential, public buildings, schools and hospitals. e. Assistance from MBIPV project for TNB interconnection on net-metering basis. f. Applicable to any site in Malaysia. 2.3 List of MBIPV Installations

At the time of writing, there is a cumulative total of 213.61 kWp of BIPV systems installed and commissioned. A summary of the PV modules installed is listed in Table 2 [5]. Most of the MBIPV systems listed are installed using two techniques: a) Retrofit; and b) Integrated. The main issues are for functionality in terms of temperature control and rain-proofing, with no-compromise on architectural form and aesthetics. 2.3.1 Retrofit Type The retrofit type involves the PV modules being placed on top of the existing roof material. A common mounting technique of this type is that the PV modules are placed at least 10 cm elevated above the roof to provide ventilation of the modules. In addition, the base structure that holds the frame of the modules comes in various types. The most established type is that of aluminium railings with screw-on S-brackets. The lower part of the S-bracket is bolted onto the main beam under the roof while the top part of the bracket bolts onto the main rail above the roof. Any possible rain-paths are then sealed with silicon and are often overlayed with stainless steel flaps on top of it. 556

Ret-10.pmd

556

11/21/08, 12:04 PM

Applying Renewable Energy Technology in Malaysia: Case Study for Building Integrated Photovoltaics

Table 2: Summary of PV modules installed in MBIPV project
No Site name PV capacity (kWp) 0.90 5.25 4.20 4.20 5.775 5.28 4.2 5.445 5.445 5.445 5.25 5.40 5.40 4.32 45.36 1.92 6.08 5.824 5.824 27.00 11.88 3.78 4.80 3.06 4.80 3.06 4.80 4.40 4.00 3.15 5.12 2.24 213.61 Source: ([5] PVMC, 2008) Type of Inverter PV cell capacity (kW) Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono Poly Poly Thin film Mono Mono Poly Poly Poly Poly Poly Poly Poly Poly Thin film Thin film Thin film 0.7 6.0 4.2 4.0 5.775 5.28 4.2 5.445 5.445 5.445 6.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 50 1.5 6.0 6.0 6.0 30.0 3.0 x 4 nos 4.0 5.0 3.0 5.0 NA NA 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.2 2.0 Inverter type SMA SB700 Solarmax 6000E Solarmax 4200C Fronius IG40 Fronius IG60 IG60 IG40 IG60 IG60 IG60 Fronius IG60 IG40 IG40 IG40 Fronius IG500 IG15 IG60 IG60 IG60 IG300 Fronius IG30 Fronius IG40 SMA SMC5000A SMA SB3000 SMA SMC5000A NA NA Solarmax 4200C Fronius IG40 Fronius IG40 Solarmax 4200C Solarmax 2000C

1. CETDEM, Petaling Jaya 2. Tasik Kesuma Semenyih 3. Bukit Sebukor, Melaka 4. Private Bungalow, Taman Desa, Cheras 5. Setia Eco Park i. Bungalow Z1A ii. Bungalow Z1B iii. Bungalow Z1C iv. Bungalow Z1D v. Bungalow Z1E vi. Bungalow Z2 6. Precint 16, Putrajaya i. Bungalow Z1 ii. Bungalow Z2 iii. Bungalow Z3 iv. Bungalow Z4 7. PTM ZEO i. Pack A1 ii. Pack A2 iii. Pack B iv. Pack C1 v. Pack C2 vi. Pack D 8. Putrajaya Perdana HQ 9. Taman Kolam Air, JB 10. COOLTEK, Ayer Keroh 11. Private House, Bangsar 12. Private Bungalow, Bangsar 13. Show Unit House, Sungai Buloh 14. Private Bungalow, Puchong 15. SMK (P) Sri Aman 16. Country Height Damansara 17. Private House, Taman United, Kuala Lumpur 18. Monash University, Sunway i. Pack 1 ii. Pack 2 Total

Another common mounting technique is by use of pre-fabricated aluminium tiles that are customdesigned with protruding arms. These dummy tiles are painted to look like concrete tiles and match the colour of the existing roof. The rails are then mounted and bolted onto the protruding arms. Yet another method, albeit unpopular is by drilling holes directly through the roof tiles and using stainless steel bars to bolt the rails above the roof and the beam underneath the roof. The cracks are the sealed with silicon. This method has been tried a few times but became unpopular due to inevitable breakage of the tiles and non-leak-proof. 557

Ret-10.pmd

557

11/21/08, 12:04 PM

SENVAR + ISESEE 2008: Humanity + Technology

2.3.2 Integrated Type This approach uses the PV array itself as the roof, instead of using traditional roofing materials. In this case, the mounting structure becomes crucial as it needs to support the static and dynamic weights of the array as well as rain-proof. The popular technique is by installing stainless steel rails that form the main frame and serve as a beam to the roof. These actually replace the traditional beams supporting the roof. Based on the dimensions of the modules, grooves for rain-water to run are custom-made and placed underneath adjacent PV modules. The modules are then either hooklatched or bolted onto the frame. The hook-latch mechanism uses the existing dimension of the modules themselves. So far, there have been no untoward incidents where the modules are flown off by strong winds. Again the edges of the metal frame are overlayed with stainless steel or aluminium plates and sealed with silicon. In both techniques, the time spent for two trained workers to install a PV array of about 3 kWp on a double-story residential house normally takes a full half-day, and may extend but not exceed a full day. 3. GRID-INVERTERS IN THE MBIPV PROJECT

In the MBIPV project, the DC power from PV array is fed directly into the grid at 240 V for singlephase connection; and 415 V for three-phase connection, both at a frequency of 50 Hz. In addition, string and central inverters have been commonly used. To date, three brands of grid-inverters have been used and they are [5]: a. Fronius – Austria b. SolarMax (Sputnik) – Switzerland c. Sunny Boy (SB SMA) – Germany In summary, until June 2008 a total of 33 units of grid-inverters have been installed and commissioned in the MBIPV project. Figure 2 shows the distribution of the three brands of gridinverter installed in the MBIPV project.

Grid I nverter I nstalled in MBI until June PV 2008
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Fronius SolarM ax Unit SM A

Figure 2: Grid inverters installed until June 2008

558

Ret-10.pmd

558

11/21/08, 12:04 PM

Applying Renewable Energy Technology in Malaysia: Case Study for Building Integrated Photovoltaics

The locations of those inverters are listed in Tables 3 and 4. The inverters listed in Table 4 are equipped with dataloggers as they all fall under the Showcase Category that requires detailed monitoring [5].
Table 3: Summary of inverters installed under Demonstration and SURIA1000 Projects No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Site CETDEM, Petaling Jaya Country Height Damansara Tasik Kesuma Semenyih Private House, Bangsar Private Bungalow, Bangsar Taman Desa, Cheras Putrajaya Perdana HQ Office Bukit Sebukor, Melaka Cooltek, Ayer Keroh Taman United, K Lumpur Taman Kolam Air, Johor Bahru PV Capacity (kWp) 0.90 4.00 5.25 3.06 4.80 4.20 11.88 4.20 4.80 3.15 3.78 Inverter brand SMA SB700 Fronius IG40 Solarmax 6000E SMA SB3000 SMA SMC5000A Fronius IG40 Fronius IG30 (4 nos) Solarmax 4200C SMA SMC5000A Fronius IG40 Fronius IG40 Inverter efficiency (%) 93.6 94.5 97.0 96.6 96.8 94.5 94.5 97.0 96.8 94.5 94.5

Table 4: Summary of inverters installed under Showcase project No 1 Site Pusat Tenaga Malaysia a. Pack A1 b. Pack A2 c. Pack B d. Pack C1 e. Pack C2 f. Pack D Monash University a. Pack 1 b. Pack 2 Setia Eco Park a. Z1A b. Z1B c. Z1C d. Z1D e. Z1E d. Z2 Sek Men (P) Sri Aman Putrajaya Precinct 16 a. Bungalow 1 b. Bungalow 2 c. Bungalow 3 d. Bungalow 4 PV Capacity (kWp) 92.01 45.36 1.92 6.08 5.824 5.824 27.00 7.36 5.12 2.24 31.59 5.775 5.28 4.20 5.445 5.445 5.445 4.40 20.37 5.25 5.40 5.40 4.32 Inverter Brand Fronius IG500 IG15 IG60 IG60 IG60 IG300 Solarmax 4200C 2000C Fronius IG60 IG60 IG40 IG60 IG60 IG60 Solarmax 4200C Fronius IG60 IG40 IG40 IG40 Inverter Eff (%) 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 97.0 97.0 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 97.0 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5

2

3

4 5

559

Ret-10.pmd

559

11/21/08, 12:04 PM

SENVAR + ISESEE 2008: Humanity + Technology

At the time of writing, several more MBIPV installations are being installed, tested and being commissioned. The technologies used are varied somewhat and the Service Providers (SP) are relatively new in this area. These SP’s are trained using the Institute of Sustainable Power (ISP) curricula. 4. LESSONS LEARNT

All the MBIPV installations are being monitored by the Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre (PVMC) at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) under the Global and Analytical Monitoring Schemes. For details see http://pvmc.uitm.edu.my [6]. Results of the performances are displayed and updated monthly. 5. LESSONS LEARNT

A meaningful and conclusive conclusion can be made only after a full year’s data. Presently, the data is not yet complete as the first complete monitoring only started in January 2008. Nevertheless, there have been some lessons learnt. At the time of writing, it is found that [5]: 1. The specific energy yield for the thin-film modules is higher than those using crystalline modules. 2. Shading on the PV array reduces the energy generated considerably. However, the relationship between the amount of shading and generation has not been looked into at the moment. 3. There are residual issues to be looked into with regards to the use of meteorological (MET) data since many of the sites do not have the appropriate sensors. Thus in many instances, MET data used came from stations that are far from the installations. 4. For sites that do come with sensors, some of the SP’s did not install them correctly. These give direct impact on the data collected. 5. The techniques used in either retrofitting or integrated so far have functioned well. However, only time will tell how they fare. 6. There has been a mix of systems design: a) Optimum; b: Under-designed; and c) Over-designed. 7. Some of the inverters did not perform as claimed by the manufacturers. 8. There had been many instances where the system was down due to faulty inverters and/or lightning surges. 6. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, this paper has presented and described the MBIPV project. It has listed the system installations and described the types of integrated used. In addition, the lessons learnt have been presented. The MBIPV project is a noble effort by the GoM to do its part on the environment. This not only gives satisfaction in knowing that we are doing the right thing, but also deepens our knowledge and increases the prestige of the nation. Indeed, now Malaysia has qualified as a participating member in the International Energy Agency – Photovoltaic Power Systems (IEA-PVPS) division, along the ranks of all the developed nations of the world. 560

Ret-10.pmd

560

11/21/08, 12:04 PM

Applying Renewable Energy Technology in Malaysia: Case Study for Building Integrated Photovoltaics

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors wish to express gratitude and appreciation to: • • • • • • The Vice-Chancellor, UiTM. The advisors of PVMC: Prof Dr Azni Zain-Ahmed; Hj Alias Taib; and Che Izam Abu Noh, UiTM and all their respective staff. The Deans, Heads of Depts and Programmes, and Faculties of: Applied Sciences; Electrical Engineering; and Information Technology & Computer Science, UiTM. The Head and staff of the Transport Unit, UiTM. Pusat Tenaga Malaysia and the MBIPV project team. All members of the PVMC-UiTM team; and families of each and every member of the PVMCUiTM team.

REFERENCES
[1] Shaari, S., Ahmad, A., Sopian, K. and Hamidun, F. H. (2004). Photovoltaics: the basics, systems, design and applications. In Proceedings of workshop UKM-ISESCO-UNESCO, UKM, Bangi. [2] Shaari, S., Haris, A. H., Sopian, K. and Ruoss, D. (2005). Malaysian photovoltaic system applications. Bangi: Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. [3] International Energy Agency – Photovoltaic Power System (2005). Annual report. http://www.iea-pvps.org/ [4] Haris, A. H., Shaari, S. and Sopian, K. (2005). Building integrated photovoltaics in Malaysia: systems, applications and the way forward. In Proceedings of National Sustainable Energy in Buildings. Shah Alam: Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. [5] Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre (2008). Milestone report: Malaysian building integrated photovoltaic project. Shah Alam: PVMC, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. [6] Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre (2008). http://pvmc.uitm.edu.my. Shah Alam: PVMC, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

561

Ret-10.pmd

561

11/21/08, 12:04 PM

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.