Metallic Foams II

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Properties and Applications

John Banhart
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Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications

Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin

What is a metal foam?

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• high porosity: > 80% • closed cells • usually quite irregular • metallic matrix: mostly Al alloy
60 mm

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Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications 3

Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin

Properties

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications

Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin

Properties of cellular metals - overview

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class mechanical

Property Elastic behaviour Anelastic behaviour Plastic behaviour

Observable Young’s modulus Shear modulus Loss factor Shear strength Bending strength Energy absorption Compressive/tensile strength
static/ dynamic

E G η

}

σc σt σb E abs σ α κ α (ν ) α, β

electrical thermal acoustic dynamic

Electrical conduction Thermal expansion Thermal conduction Sound absorption

Electrical conductivity Expansion coefficient Thermal conductivity Sound absorption coeffiecient Filter parameters

aero- / hydro- Flow properties

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54 g/cm ρ=0.39 g/cm ρ=0.58 g/cm 3 3 3 3 • 40 x 40 x 40 mm3 • 2 face sheets F Extended plateau regime at high stresses 20 40 Stauchung strain (%)ε (% ) 60 80 Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Deformation of aluminium alloy foam 6 Ductile foam Brittle foam video video 3 .Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Behaviour of aluminium foams under compression 5 • AlSi6Cu4 foams • varying density Spannung σ (MPa) stress (MPa) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 ρ=0.44 g/cm ρ=0.

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Micro-mechanisms – Cell wall buckling and shearing 7 0% strain 25.3% strain distortion & shearing distortion c Mixture of cell distortion and shear observed Buckle Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Micro-mechanisms – fatigue cracks 8 a b cracks SEM pictures of foam cells taken after 4% deformation of the foam 4 .

Hansen and Langseth „ Foam in section.Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Deformation of metallic foams 9 „ Foams can be loaded in three principal modes: „ Free foam „ Some studies available: see Ashby book and more recent papers „ Foam in conjunction with section or face sheets „ Some studies available. see e.g. but load only on foam: section acts as constraint only „ No study so far Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Deformation with and without constraint 10 constraint 5 .

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Lateral constraint 11 Steel sleeve (right) and aluminium block (left) used for conducting tests with constraint Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Sample 2 – X-ray radiography 12 quasi-static testing with constraint video unstrained video 28% static strain 6 .

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Effect of constraint on static compression behaviour 13 ρ*=10.2% Constraint induces strain hardening through .friction between constraint walls and foam. Trans 38A.. * Kolluri et al. Mat. Met.triaxial nature of stress . 2006 (2007) Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Definition of problem 14 all solid solid liquid all solid T natural cooling forced cooling t •Problem with solution heat treatment: • heat in foam has to be conducted through face sheet • quenching in water not feasible Î water intrusion + warping • low quenching rate insufficient Î T6 not achievable • question: can some degree of age hardening be reached starting from a not perfectly quenched state? Î T5 7 .

7 • Micro-hardness • different heat treatments • 6082 face sheet of AFS T 5-Heat treated T6-Heat treated Conditions T natural cooling t natural cooling + age hardening = T5 t forced cooling + age hardening = T6 t Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications 16 Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Applications 8 .9 87.2 120 Hardness (HV) 100 80 60 40 20 0 As Fabricated 57.Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Heat treatment of AFS 15 115.

. Ashby et al. foamed metal 18 dense sheet 1 foam is much stiffer than sheet at same mass foam 5 optimisation same mass and same height optimisation waffel plate waffle plate is stiffer (or honeycomb.F.A Design Guide.Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Application fields for aluminium foams 17 density stiffness strength shape σ-ε curve light-weight construction energy absorption σ ε σ ε bifunctional application damping insulation ideal multifunctional application mechanical damping thermal conductivity acoustic properties Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Comparison: dense metal vs. 139 9 . Metal Foams . p. stringer stiffened structure …) foam core sandwich panel M.

19 Other aspects relevant for comparison: • manufacture of complex shapes (3D) possible • cost • elastic limit • failure mode • damage tolerance • integration into system→ joining technology • other aspects... ⇒ Advantage for AFS in some cases Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Aluminium Foam Sandwich panels (AFS) 20 IFAM Al foam core steel face sheets alm dense face sheets (Al. e. steel.. mechanical.Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin but . acoustic electromagnetic damping ..g... Ti) 30 cm 10 .

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin AFS development 21 AFS prototype 1992 12 x 8 cm area × 200 AFS production 2007 Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Metal foam + dense metal = composite IFAM 22 Alulight F. Simančík HKB 11 .

6 AlCu4 porosity 83% compare polyethylen foam (PE) metal foam (AlCu4) 1.4 0.4 2.8 0.2 PE porosity 87% 0.0 ⇒ about same relative density ⇒ Al-foam stronger: 30 × strain (%) Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Absorption of mechanical energy by metal foam 24 100 deformation force [kN] 80 60 40 20 0 absorbed energy at 25 mm deformation length =1300 J ideal absorber for 60 kN maximum force Eabs = 1500 J efficiency = 87% video 0 5 10 15 20 25 deformation length [mm] 30 35 12 .Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Compression behaviour of foams 23 70 60 stress [MPa] 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2.0 stress [MPa] 1.

4 density [g/cm ] 3 0.18 F x2 I n=1.02 307.1 orientation I orientation II F 0. t n te a p light-weight construction energy absorption 13 .2 0.6 II Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Application idea: front impact absorber 26 ♦ impact energy is absorbed in crash box before longitudinal member is deformed ♦ exchangeable elements facilitate repair after lowvelocity crashs and reduce costs Patent-OS DE 1-95.8 1 0.08 2 1 0. Gerhardi & Cie.67±0.89±0.Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Compression strength as a function of density 25 20 strength [MPa] 10 8 6 4 n=1.

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Front impact energy absorber for COMBINO tram car 27 600 mm Se r ia la pp lic at io n! light-weight construction energy absorption Schunk – Siemens .Hübner Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Stiffener in door sill 28 Alulight Se r ia la pp l ic at io n! light-weight construction energy absorption 14 .

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Support structure of a telescope working platform 29 light-weight construction Euro-B drivers licence ¾ less than 3500 kg total weight +legislation • 25 m working height • 11 m outreach a art l ia 00 p r Se 1 l ea p p s/y ! n io t i ca r Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Support structure of a telescope working platform 30 EURO B25 T mass 110 kg height 2441 mm 50% lighter than steel arm production volume: 60-100 pc. 15 ./yr.

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Manufacture of support structure 31 AFS • 6 AFS panels.000 Test rig 16 .000 Result: no cracks up to N = 100. sawed to shape • welded to each other by MIG+TIG • AFS rim sealed with Al sheets • inset glued into hole Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Life cycle test of support structure 32 Cyclic multiaxial load: 100 kN ||c 14 kN ⊥ Requirement: N = 40.

4 g/cm3 AFS: 2000 x 1000 mm. 6 mm thick foam density: 0. 30 to 60 mm thick light −70 to −50% (w. Al) stiffness −8% cost +30% weldable.t.Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Alimex high precision plates 33 „ Alimex is manufacturer of high precision low residual stress aluminium plates „ „ ACP series: cast plates AMP series rolled plates „ New: „ AFP: foamed AFS plate Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Alimex high precision plates „ 34 Properties „ „ „ face sheets: 5083 alloy. application temperature range -220 to 540°C „ Advantages „ „ „ „ „ Applications (as given by „ „ „ ) metrology platforms for milling machines and tooling fire protection in trains and ships 17 .r.

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Ariane rocket cone 35 Existing part: aluminium honeycomb + Al ring Too expensive! Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Ariane Rocket Cone 3936 AFS replacement 36 Dimensions • Upper diameter 2624 mm • Lower diameter 3936 mm • Total weight: 180 kg • 12 Segments 1200x1200x25 mm • face sheet s 1. manually 1200 mm 18 .3 mm thick 1200 mm Technology: • 3D foamed AFS 6060 + AlCu6Cu6 • TIG welded.

03 mm elastic deformation (15% too high) 19 .Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Ariane rocket cone: prototype assembly. 37 Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Test facilities for Ariane rocket cone 38 ro p Test Load up to 10 t normal to cone 10 t in plane of the upper ring Status: optimisation necessary e p ty o t 0.

0 00 pp pa lic rts stress (MPa) Serial production of safety relevant part in Audi Q7 “pikes peak” Limits forces to 1.Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Bicycle crank arm (Prototype) 39 Forged 6062 AFS o r p e p ty o t • Conventional Al crank arm: 313 g. design adapted to AFS will further improve Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Crash element in safety guard 40 Se ri 10 al 0 a .5 kN at 50% deformation (of 73 mm) /y tio ea r n! a light-weight construction energy absorption strain (%) 20 . • AFS crank arm: 222 g = −30% ¾ 7g lighter than 2nd lightest product direct substitution.

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Application idea based on strength and damping 41 o r p IFAM Bremen eGear-wheel with an p ty anti-vibration layer of o t aluminium foam light-weight construction damping insulation Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Truck cabin 42 Steel-based total mass 294 kg o pr e p ty o t AFS-based total mass 220 kg light-weight construction energy absorption • weight reduction > 30% • increase in stiffness > 15 % • better crash behaviour 21 .

individual parts 43 AFS-Parts AFS-Parts Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Engine bracket for BMW 44 light-weight construction energy absorption damping insulation o pr e p ty o t 22 .Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Truck cabin .

Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin CASTOR containers for radioactive waste 45 video o r p Container after falling from 9m height e p ty o t light-weight construction energy absorption damping insulation + non-inflammability Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Functional applications for open-cell structures (1) 46 Al (infiltrated) soft slide sound damper heat exchanger transpiration cooler slip surfaces AlSi20Fe5Ni2 hard matrix 23 .

.2-2. Structure of metal foams • Topology • Cell parameter distributions 24 ..Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Functional applications for open cell structures (2) 47 Applications: • catalyst support • oxidation resistant structures.5mm ρ/ρs: 2-10% Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Landscape of metal foam research 48 Processing of metal foams • manufacture of parts • new processing opportunities •… materials Metal foam properties • mechanical behaviour • functional properties •… knowledge questions requirements SP relationships Physics of metal foaming • stabilisation • kinetics • . filtration • bio-compatible implant structures cell Size: 0.

Ashby. Nakajima.9.A. Dunand: Metfoam2007 Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Where to go in the internet and in the real world? 50 http://www. Ashby. M.Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin What to read 49 M.G.A.J.F.2009 banhart@helmholtz-berlin. Fleck: MetFoam2001 J.N. Fleck.-P. Katetake: Metfoam2005 L. Banhart.G. D.net 6th International Conference MetFoam2009 Bratislava. M. Gibson. Lefebvre. Evans.A.F. J. N. 2. Fleck: MetFoam1999 J. Mortensen: MetFoam2003 H.A. J. L. Banhart. Fleck.A Design Guide Butterworth-Heinemann (2000) J.F. H.-4.metalfoam. A. Wadley Metal Foams . Banhart. Banhart. Ashby. N. N.de 25 . N. N. A.W. Hutchinson.

hmi. 6 Senior scientists.htm Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications 52 Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin video Thank you! 26 . 2 Lecturers. microstructure. imaging. 1 Secretary „ About 25 researchers „ „ „ We offer open positions on http://www.de/bereiche/SF/SF3/job_opportunities/index_en. 8 PhD students. 4 Postdocs. 4 Diploma/MSc students + Students + 5 Technicians.Metallic Foams II – Properties & Applications Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin Work at the department “Materials” 51 The team comprises „ 4 working groups: „ metal foams. scattering 1 Professor.

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