PART A As a teacher, the process of teaching and learning in the classroom should be carried out smoothly and effectively

. Therefore, teachers need to have in-depth knowledge especially in the aspects of educational psychology and pedagogy in planning their lesson. a. Based on the above, how are the following aspects have to be addressed to ensure the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process in the classroom? Give suitable examples. I. Learning environment. Answer. According to the references of Imperial College of London, learning environment means 1The physical or virtual setting in which learning takes place and we need to understand that learning environment consist of 4 elements which is enabling context, resources, tools and scaffolds. The learning environment can be categorised by physical learning environment and psychosocial learning environment. Physical environment of a classroom refers to how the classroom is laid out, the noise level in the room, brightness, temperature, humidity and others. The physical learning environment in this context means all physical, ergonomic, chemical and biological stress factors that may affect a student’s ability and capacity to learn. The students’ safety is important. When planning, building, outfitting and managing academic buildings, auditoriums, laboratories and workplaces for students (reading rooms, PC rooms, offices for higher degree students and others, it must be ensured that the requirements for the physical learning environment are fully implemented and that established quality is maintained. The physical environment can impact on how students learn. Inappropriate learning environments can create barriers to learning for example, a noisy classroom can impede both concentration and ability to hear the lecturer. Good physical environments can aid student learning. An inclusive learning environment is accessible to all students, pleasant to work in, and appropriate for the teaching and learning methodologies used.

The term psychosocial refers to the close connection between psychosocial aspects of our experiences for example thoughts, emotions, behavior and our wider social experience. this include our relationships, tradition and culture. Learners and teachers are psychologically affected by the surrounding social conditions that may disrupt or enhance the quality and effectiveness of learning.


Imperial College of London


methods and techniques that take into account all the prominent learning theories. physical ability and socio-economic status. emotions and moods are too subjective. Behaviorism. Behaviorism was established with the publication of Watson's classic paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913). SOCIAL THEORY The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. will help address disparities that steam from home and community background. is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. 2 . His theory added a social element. including attention to different groups according to such factors as their gender. emotionally secure and psychologically enabling. A focus on well-being of the learner. Next is the idea that internal mental states are an essential part of this process. it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior. since internal states such as cognitions. First is the idea that people can learn through observation. According to behaviorism. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors. creating a more level playing field ii. this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned. and changed. Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. Basic Social Learning Concepts There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory. Known as observational learning (or modeling). Answer. Finally. The chosen strategies. Watson based on the belief that behaviors can be measured. BEHAVIORISM THEORY The term behaviorism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. This school of thought suggests that only observable behaviors should be studied. also known as behavioral psychology. trained.The question is how to endure every learner an environment that is physically safe. this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.

' 3. The children in Bandura’s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. Bandura's social learning theory has had important implication in the field of eduction." This meant that children were more likely to repeat behaviors they had seen other children their age do. A symbolic model. Bandura himself describes his approach as a 'social cognitive theory. People can learn through observation. Learning is also stregthened if someone models a 3 . A verbal instructional model. Today. both teachers and parents recognize the importance of modeling appropriate behaviors. which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior. satisfaction. Bandura noted that external. observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors. such as pride. or online media. 2. Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning: 1. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. and motivation such as positive reinforcement. films. 3. He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward. which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll. which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books. 2. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY The social cognitive theory states that we learn behaviors through observation. Miller and Albert Bandura. Final Thoughts In addition to influencing other psychologists. and a sense of accomplishment. A live model. Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people.1.E. Some influential psychologists of this theory were N. television programs. While behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior. although they might model adults as well. Mental states are important to learning. environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. modeling. While many textbooks place social learning theory with behavioral theories. they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed. They found that this type of social learning was strengthened if the observer identified with their "model. In his famous Bobo doll experiment. Other classroom strategies such as encouraging children and building self-efficacy are also rooted in social learning theory.

A central assumption of humanism. hands-on. The Cognitivists for example Piaget. HUMANISM THEORY Humanism. The learner requires scaffolding to develop schema and adopt knowledge from both people and the environment. and evaluate. collaborate. and structure to develop internal cognitive structure that strengthens synapses in the brain. focuses on the human freedom. CONSTRUCTIVISM THEORY Constructivism is a theory to explain how knowledge is constructed in the human being when information comes into contact with existing knowledge that had been developed by experiences. It has its roots in cognitive psychology and biology and an approach to education that lays emphasis on the ways knowledge is created in order to adapt to the world. recall. 4 . organization. and potential. experiential. and algorithmic problem solving using Verbal/Linguistic and Logical/Mathematical intelligences.behavior he or she has seen rewarded. Constructs are the different types of filters we choose to place over our realities to change our reality from chaos to order. a paradigm that emerged in the 1960s. tasked-based are a number of applications that base teaching and learning on constructivism. The purpose in education is to develop conceptual knowledge. The learner requires assistance to develop prior knowledge and integrate new knowledge. psychology. and cybernetics". understand. reflect. Discovery learning. Bruner and Vygotsky believe that learning process is adoptive learning of techniques. dignity. Von Glasersfeld describes constructivism as “a theory of knowledge with roots in philosophy. such as the mental processes of recognize. procedures. is that people act with intentionality and values. analyze. procedures. techniques. project-based. This theory relates to early stages of learning where the learner solves well defined problems through a series of stages. create. according to Huitt in 2011. apply. COGNITIVISM THEORY Cognitivism is the theory that humans generate knowledge and meaning through sequential development of an individual’s cognitive abilities. The educators role is pedagogical in that the instructor must develop conceptual knowledge by managing the content of learning activities. This leads to a motivation for the person to model the behavior in order to get a similar reward. This is in contrast to the behaviorist notion of operant conditioning (which argues that all behavior is the result of the application of consequences) and the cognitive psychologist belief that the discovering knowledge or constructing meaning is central to learning. Constructivism has implications for the theory of instruction.

problem-based learning. in which students solve problems. formulate questions of their own. and just-in-time teaching. These methods include active learning. Related theories include Experiential Learning (Kolb). CHOSEN STRATEGIES Strategies chosen to ensure the effectiveness of teaching and learning process is student-centered strategies. and the goal is to develop self-actualized people in a cooperative. or brainstorm during class. in which students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure both positive interdependence. A primary purpose of humanism could be described as the development of self-actualized. especially as an individual grows and develops over the lifespan. and Facilitation Theory (Rogers). supportive environment. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. discuss. answer questions. cooperative learning. autonomous people. In humanism. and the educator’s role is that of a facilitator. individual accountability and inductive teaching and learning. discovery learning. Students centered strategies is a methods shift the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners. explain. Inductive methods include inquiry-based learning. Affective and cognitive needs are key.Humanists also believe that it is necessary to study the person as a whole. in which students are first presented with challenges (questions or problems) and learn the course material in the context of addressing the challenges. learning is student centered and personalized. and goals are areas of particular interest. debate. motivation. Key proponents of humanism include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. case-based instruction. project-based learning. It follows that the study of the self. 5 .

Therefore. Because learning can be seen as a form of personal growth. yet distinctive learning styles are encouraged in a student-centered classroom. 6 .Student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction. Unique. With the use of valuable learning skills. students are capable of achieving lifelong learning goals. formation of positive attitudes toward the subject being taught. In being active agents in their learning. Over the past few decades. a paradigm shift in curriculum has occurred where the teacher acts as a facilitator in a student-centered classroom.and learning-conscious methodologies. students are encouraged to utilize self-regulation practices in order to reflect on his or her work. or depth of understanding of course material. learning can also be constructive in the sense that the student is in full control of his or her learning. A variety of hands-on activities are administered in order to promote successful learning. Student-centered learning also allows students to actively participate in discovery learning processes from an autonomous viewpoint. which can further enhance student motivation in the classroom. For that reason. students corroborate Carl Rogers' theory that "the only learning which significantly influences behavior and education is self discovered". creating a better environment for students to learn. a conclusion that applies whether the assessed outcome is short-term mastery. or level of confidence in knowledge or skills. learning becomes an incentive. and provide students with varied tools. when students are given the opportunity to gauge their learning. Students spend the entire class time constructing a new understanding of the material being learned in a proactive way. such as task. Selfdetermination theory focuses on the degree to which an individual’s behavior is selfmotivated and 'self-determined'. acquisition of critical thinking or creative problem-solving skills. long-term retention.

Imust become aware of the diverse backgrounds of my learners. the focus of learning is to gain information as it is proctored to the student. Table 1: Student-centred and teacher-centred continuum Teacher-centred Learning Low level of student choice Student passive Power is primarily with teacher Student-centred Learning High level of student choice Student active Power primarily with the student 7 . i. teachers are the primary source for knowledge. A six-year study in Helsinki. but were slower in their study initially (Lonka and Ahola 1995). thereby accommodating the varied learning styles of students. 94% of the students would recommend it to others over the more conventional approach (Hall and Saunders 1997). To that end. 2003).Such emphasis on learning has enabled students to take a self-directed alternative to learning. found that the activating group developed better study skills and understanding. providing rationale as to why rote learning or memorization of teacher notes or lectures was the norm a few decades ago. The use of student-centered learning appears to be reflective of today’s society where choice and democracy are important concepts. Students are now researching material pertinent to the success of their academic and knowledge production is seen as a standard. On the other hand. Hall and Saunders found that students had increased participation. which compared traditional and activating instruction. In addition. The following provides a few examples of why student-centered learning being chosen as my strategies. student-centered classrooms are now the norm where active learning is strongly encouraged. In the teacher-centered classroom. Students in a UK University elaborated on the impact of student-centred learning on them.e. they felt there was more respect for the student in this approach. Therefore. In order for a teacher facilitate a student-centered classroom. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING. Equally. however is it an effective approach to learning? Lea et al. and it boosted their confidence (Lea et al. the incorporation of a few educational practices such as Bloom's Taxonomy and Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple intelligences can be beneficial to a student-centered classroom because it promotes various modes of diverse learning styles. exciting. (2003) reviewed several studies on student-centered learning and found that overall it was an effective approach. motivation and grades in a first year information technology course (1997). that it was more interesting.

8 . Below is the plan of example of classroom that promotes a conducive and positive learning environment. the arrangement of the classroom. In relation to this individuality. A conducive environment can improve students’ active participation and the effectiveness of teaching. interior design. Lea et al. air circulation. Simon highlights the point that ‘if each child is unique. Give justification for the plan you are creating. etc). The learning environment in a classroom includes the physical conditions of the classroom (temperature. and each requires a specific pedagogical approach appropriate to him or her and to no other. its management and use of learning resources. The concept of being an independent learner choosing his/her own route of learning. hygiene. Answer.’s study on psychology students highlighted their concern over being abandoned or isolated from other supports in a student-centered learning approach (2003). The learning environment plays a very important role in creating a happy learning atmosphere. may in fact drive some of the sociability out of the learning process if care is not taken to emphasize the importance of peers. Develop a plan of your classroom that promotes a conducive and positive learning environment. The importance of the social context of learning and the value of interaction with peers is emphasized in the socio-cultural view of learning (Bredo 1999). That is why we need to review the learning environment. in the School system.Simon (1999) describes that student-centered learning. b. Edwards (2001:42) also highlights the dangers associated with student-centeredness in adult education where in empowering an individual there is a potential danger of ‘a person’s physical isolation from other learners’. the construction of an all embracing pedagogy or general principles of teaching become an impossibility’ (Simon 1999:42). can be in danger of focusing completely on the individual learner and taken to its extreme does not take into account the needs of the whole class.

shelves and storage. book stand. use of learning resources is generally not limited to the teacher and textbooks. b) Student Management: pupils will be set to a conducive table and there are also a round table prepare for grouping activities. The pupils would not devote most of their time to listening to their teachers. whereas there are many other learning resources will be placed in the storage and at the shelves which is inside classrooms. among other things: real objects. posters and the natural and social environments. Various furniture arrangements also done to support the management of a variety students’ activities for example the round table. Pupils are encourage to make activities and communications will be in two-way communication.The justification and reasons of the following statement are: 1) Use of Learning Resources : In general. sink. 9 .

Pupils will be assign a time when they must rearrange their desks and clean the areas around them and at the same time I will show a good example by keeping my desk. cluttered desks and poorly maintained classrooms are the enemy of a conducive atmosphere. The lighting and layout of the classroom will affects the mood and performance of my pupils. 10 . d) Lighting : To have a good and conducive classroom.c) Classroom Display: Maintain a neat and orderly classroom. we need to maintain good lighting conditions. Messy. the classroom walls and windows clutter-free.

Retrieved March 29. M. Retrieved March http://www. Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments. Education Studies for KPLI Educational Psychology. (2001).org/readings/2005-1/oneill-mcmahon-Tues_19th_Oct_SCL.aishe. Kuala Lumpur: Multimedia ES. S. from ncsu: http://www4. Physical Learning Environment. 50). France: OECD Publishing. S. 11 .REFERENCES McMahon. Education Studies for KPLI Educational Psychology (p. In M. (2005). Talis.html Sang. (2010). 2013.aishe.ncsu.html (2012). Student Centered Strategies. Sang. 2013. from www.

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