Chapter l

[1] H. Graham Cannon, Lamarck and Modern Genetics (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press Publishers, 1975), p. 6. [2] Ernst Mayr, Evolution and the Diversity of Life (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976), p. 226. [3] L.J. Jordanova, Lamarck (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984), p. 56. [4] Madeleine Barthelemy-Madaule, Lamarck the Mythical Precursor--A Study of the Relations between Science and Ideology, trans. M. H. Shank (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, ____), p. 56. [5] Barthelemy-Madaule, p. 57. [6] J.E. Lovelock, Gaia--A New Look at Life on Earth (Oxford: Oxford University Press), p. x. [7] Barthelemy-Madaule, pp. 100-01. [8] Cannon, pp. 10-11. [9] Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker--Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., ----), p. 287.

4. 65. p. p.Chapter 2 [1] Norman Macbeth. p. p.. [4] Ibid. p. .D--------. [7] ---------. [6] E-----. 64. [9] Lyell book. [14} Darwin. Ernst Mayr (Cambridge. 188. 1964). 226. p. A Delicate Arrangement -----------------[8] Cannon. 9. [3] Mayr. ed. 1973). p. MA: Harvard University Press. On the Origin of Species--A Facsimile of the First Edition. [2] Mayr. 459. __. [10] Charles Darwin. p. 117. 6. 63. p. [5] Mayr. p. Darwin Retried--An Appeal to Reason (New York: Dell Publishing Company. [12] Darwin. Charles Lyell ( ). p. [13] Ibid. [11] Macbeth.

[8] "The Struggle for Existence in Human Society. [10] Darwin. p. from Autobiography." OMNI 16: 11 (September 1994): 8." Check ME. 63. February 1988. [2] Durants. [14] Mayr. "Sightseeing in the Galapagos: Be Careful What You Leave Behind.Chapter 3 [1] Will and Ariel Durant. 1975). 59. 794. 1955). "Reading Malthus for amusement. [11] Macbeth. Cited in Richard Hofstadter's Social Darwinism in American Thought (Boston: The Beacon Press.last page [7] Darwin. 332.Malthus -." in Petr Kropotkin's Mutual Aid-A Factor of Evolution (Boston. [3] Durants. MA: Extending Horizons Books. [9] "The Philosophy and Morals of War. 290. pp. p. p. p. 514. Age of Napoleon (New York: Simon and Schuster. The Lives of a Cell--Notes of a Biology Watcher (New York: Bantam. The Huxley essay originally appeared in The Nineteenth Century. 56-57. 6. 1955). 195. [12] Macbeth. ." North American Review CLXIX (1889). p. 1975). p. 171. p. p. [4] Paul Bohannon. [5] Masterworks Economics --Malth--stagnant pools [6] Encyclopedia Philosophy -. 517. 517-18 . [13] Lewis Thomas.

MD. 1986). from unpaged "Preface to the 1914 Edition.C. 92. Marx. 1986). p. [26] Jacques Barzun. Darwin. p. [25] Denton. 23. 325 (locate this book) [2] Barzun. p. Adler & Adler. [4] Scientism--define . p. p. 101. p. [17] Conquest and Kulture. p. pp. 1955). Mutual Aid--A Factor of Evolution (Boston. 24.[15] Michael Denton. 17. 32. [20] Kropotkin. The Nazi Doctors--Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (Basic Books: New York. Wagner--Critique of a Heritage (Garden City. Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (Bethesda. [16] Conquest and Kulture--Aims of the Germans in Their Own Words (Washington. p.: The Committee on Public Information. 6. 1955). 115. 79-80. p. [3] Barzun. [19] Petr Kropotkin. [21] Kropotkin. Chapter 4 [1] Darwin/West." [22] Robert Jay Lifton. NY: Doubleday. p. vii. [24] Ibid. 1918). [18] Conquest and Kulture. [23] Ibid. p. MA: Extending Horizons Books. D. 358.

p. pp." Reinventing Darwin--The Great Debate at the High Table of Evolutionary Theory (New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. p. p. 358. And the way is now paved for interpreting all manner of organismic activity as devices to forward this competitive race. 110. p. 39. p. quote about w/o Dar no sci of evol Chapter 5 [1] Barzun. p. p. 1995).. [9] Kropotkin. 77-78. p. [16] Macbeth. "the concept of selection has been utterly transformed. [14] Denton. 57. p. [2] Barzun. 108. [3] Barzun. [6] Barzun. 43. 68. 9. [7] Barzun. p. [8] Kropotkin. [12] Lovelock. selection is not seen as the direct outcome of active competition between individuals in a populationin order to leave more copies of their genes to the next generation. [17] In a recently published critique of "ultra-Darwinism. [10] Lovelock. p. 108.. p. [11] Lovelock.. 152. 5. p. 63. . [15] Denton.[5] Barzun. 10. 69." Neo-Darwinist Niles Eldredge writes. [13] Dawkins. p.

and their lands began to be plundered. "the village communities began to be deprived of their independence. "In France. [11] Ibid. [5] Weismann experiment with mice [6] Mayr--"direct influence on genetic materials impossible' [7] "Genetic Intelligence" article--cite [8] Crick book--cite [9] The tyrannies of the European States were equal to those of the Church. ." Mutual Aid.. p. and in the next century the nobles and clergy had already taken possession of immense tracts of land--one-half of the cultivated area. Most of the much-admired buildings of Europe were constructed during the Medieval period and Middle Ages by the common people. through their guilds and ccmmunal systems and associations. As to the appropriation of communal lands. Imaginary debts have been claimed. when the mass of the peasants was brought be exactions and wars. 117.' so we read in an edict promulgated by Louis the Fourteenth in 1667. p. according to certain estimates --mostly to let it go out of culture. in order to seize upon their lands. The wonder is that the French Revolution was so slow in coming.[4] Ibid. [10] Barzun. as early as the sixteenth century. 230. Of course the State's remedy for such evils was to render the communes still more subservient to the State. and to plunder them itself.. [14] Ibid. 116. to the state of subjection and misery which is vividly depicted by all historians. pp. that the plundering of their lands became easy and attained scandalous proportions.. In fact. [13] Barzun. 116-17. it was only in the next century. it grew worse and worse. [12] Barzun. 'Every one has taken of them according to his powers . these guilds and systems were subverted and destroyed by the ruling classes. However." Kropotkin writes. two years later all money revenue of the communes was confiscated by the King.. Beginning in the early sixteenth century. p..

25) Chapter 6 [1] Mayr. 22. The environment can influence the developmental process but it cannot affect the blueprint that controls it. 11." (3) . July 1993. book draft. this report suggest that cellular . 118. interesting to note. awareness is structurally and functionally mediated by the cell membrane (plasmalemma). p. p.. 29. p. in systematics." (p. and consequently is in a position to interface communications between the cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. The full quotation: "A direct influence of the environment on the genetic material is impossible. Changes in the proteins cannot be translated back into nucleic acids. "Contrary to the established view that behavior is encoded in the genes.. 1947) "articulated the general postwar credo: There is nothing in biological nature--in the data of the genetics of natural populations. The Dancing Wu Li Masters--An Overview of the New Physics (New York: Bantam. [2] Gary Zukav. the only organelle common to all life forms.[15] Barzun. it is another German biologist who rescues classical Darwinism--Berhard Rensch. Rensch (Evolution Above the Species Level. {3] Mayr. the molecular bounary enveloping every biological cell. in paleontology--to suggest that there are any evolutionary processes other than natural selection working on the natural genetics of variation within populations. The cell membrane. an influence postulated by the majority of the Lamarckians. 9. creates a selectively permeable barrier that envelops the cytoplasm and divides the domains of self and non-self. 1980 [1979]). and ultimately organismal. p. Lipton. The way from the DNA (via the RNA) to the proteins is a one-way street. The Biology of Consciousness--An Introduction to Fractal Evolution." [4] Bruce H.. [16] Ibid. p. In the post-World War II period. According to Eldredge. [17] Eldredge.

pp. it is a common right. without regard for any and all others. In the new Darwinian lexicon.) behind the American System maintains simply that power (sovereignty) originates with the Creator and is expressed throughout all of Nature. Skinner. 1972 [1971]).[5] B. It is still opposed to individualism. In turn. exemplified in the social theory of Skinner. The naturalism (Deism. 20. Chapter 7 [1] Macbeth. liberty and the pursuit of happiness"-. belongs to "We the People. p. and and he is therefore a threat to himself. not to any principle of individual good. the ultimate power. American "individualism"--the right to "life." In other words. The "right" to exercise sovereignty is not a right that belongs only to kings and queens and individuals in clerical robes. Skinner's "autonomous man" is little more than a re-formulation of Huxley's "natural man. etc. One thesis of this neo-Social Darwinistic tract is that the traditional "literature" of freedom and dignity (including the concepts of natural rights underlying the American Constitution) is obsolete." "Autonomous man. is unprincipled. has paved the way for socialism Socialism first developed in opposition to individualism.. after the Darwinian view of nature becomes the commonly accepted view. Under the American System. . then the concept of "natural rights" is generally re-defined to mean the "right to stuggle for survival" and the right to predation--to be a predator. 18-19. the attack on individualism. sovereignty.F. In the post-war United States. "autonomism." that Skinner pins on individualism." Thus the unfavorable label." Skinner opines. various forms of national socialism now pave the way for global socialism..is perverted to mean "the right to do as one pleases. brainwashed by a lot of propaganda about having the right to do as he pleases in life. no longer affordable in the contemporary period. a "natural right" of all humans. 180. Now . [2] Macbeth. Its commitment is to what its representatives conceive of as the collective good. every American citizen is a co-sovereign of the nation. Beyond Freedom & Dignity (New York: Bantam. p. others and the future of the species.

. [4] Skinner. [6] Eldredge. 51 [2] Joseph E. 3 [3} Forword by Ashley Montagu. p. pp. Chapter 8 Chapter 9 [1] Cannnon. p. [7] Eldredge. p. 104. Kropotkin's Mutual Aid--A Factor of Evolution. 3 [5] chap p 10 -. 21. p.[3] Macbeth. "The Highly Probable Future--83 Assumptions about the Year 2025. [4] Dawkins. 27. 13. p.get first name of Tucker--cite Valentine article) [6] Darwin. pp. [8] Eldredge. July-August 1994. p. Coates. 467-68. 6-7." The Futurist. p. 43 [5] Eldredge. p.

[4] Snyder. p 29. 176. pp. l. 8. [4] Ed McGaa [Eagle Man]. 1988 [1977]). 34. p. [2] Black Elk. [1] Holy Blood. Black Elk Speaks--Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux (New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. Holy Grail -. ix-x. Chapter 11 Quotation heading chapter from the "Four Quartets. [3] Gary Snyder. p. . Rainbow Tribe--Ordinary People Journeying on the Red Road (San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. [6] Lovelock. VT: Destiny Books. 1972 [1932]). 1992)." [1] Black Elk. p. p. x. 8. 1979). as told through John G.364 [2] 364-65 [3] The World As I See It (------: Cidtadel Press. Neihardt.Chapter 10 Quotation heading the chapter: Itzhak Bentov. [5] Lovelock. p. 166-67. The Old Ways--Six Essays (San Francisco: City Lights Books. p. Stalking the Wild Pendulum--On the Mechanics of Consciousness (Rochester. 1977).

however strong. [13] Zukav.. [8] Thomas." This is sheer obfuscation. [15] James Gleick. pp. 1988 [1987]). ix. [14] Coates. [10] Thomas. p. [16] Gleick. "Ancient belief and modern knowledge have fused emotionally in the awe with which astronauts with their own eyes and we by indirect vision have seen the Earth revealed in all its shining beauty against the deep darkness of space. p. 3. 173. p." To answer Lovelock's "where and when" question . England. 171. A page earlier. Yet this feeling. Chaos--Making a New Science (New York: Penguin Books.. 4. beginning in 1859. vii. p. [11] Lovelock. 3. 171-72. another example of the ineptness of scientists in the area of scientific methodology. p. Chapter 12 Head quotation: Gleick. 109. p. p. [9] Thomas. Like a religious belief.[7] Thomas. 31. p. with the publication of the Origin. [12] Lovelock. 172. Lovelock remarks that the "first scientific expression of a belief that the Earth was alive was from James Hutton in 1785 in a lecture before the Royal Society of Edinburgh. I wonder where and when things went wrong. . p... does not prove that Mother Earth lives. p. it is scientifically untestable and therefore incapable in its own context of further rationalization..

S. [8] Gleick. 3. [12] Ibid. p. [6] Gleick. 109-110. 226. [16] "Histology Introduction--From Cells to Tissues: A Brief Review of Evolution. [10] William F. 1993. 109. p. Lipton. [15] Itzhak Bentov. [7] Gleick. p." U. 25-29. Ibid. p. 2. News & World Report. p. [18] The Sky Londa Briefing--Interviews with Bruce H. pp. [11] Allman. VT: Destiny Books).[1] Mayr. [4] Gleick. [9] Gleick. unpublished manuscript of interviews conducted between January and August. . 231. [5] Ibid. p. 30. 85. p. p. p. A Cosmic Book--On the Mechanics of Creation (Rochester." unpublished draft. [2] Mayr. 103. [3] Gleick. undated. [14] Lipton. 32. June 1993. [13] "The Biology of Consciousness--An Introduction to Fractal Evolution. p. June 14. 1993: 84-85." academic course pamphlet. "The Mathematics of Human Life. 227. [17] Lipton ("Biology of Consciousness"). 8. pp. Allman.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.