First Aid is the immediate, temporary treatment given in the case of accident or sudden illness before the services

of physician can be secured.For example, we control the Oozing of blood or bleeding by putting a bandage with a clean wet cloth before he is taken to the physician for proper treatment. A. Hemorrhage : Hemorrhage is caused by the cuts produced by the careless handling of the pointed sharp edged weapons like knives, glass pieces; or blades .If the wound is large, the bleeding is arrested by pressing a clean wet cloth over the wound and then the person is taken to the physician for further treatment. In the case of less severe wound, it must be wiped with water mixed dettol and then Boric powder or sulphanamide powder is applied over the wound, sponge is placed over it and bandage is made with tamp like material. B. Fracture : Fractures are the commonest injuries involving the bones. It is a break in the normal continuity of a bone The fractures may be caused by three factors namely, 1. Direct attack 2.Indirect attack 3.Cramp The fractures caused by the above mentioned ways can be classified as follows 1. Simple fracture 2. Compound fracture 3. Complicated fracture 4. Greenstick fracture Generally in the play grounds, there are many chances for sample and compound fracture to occur. The other two fractures occur in car accidents and accidents in the buildings. The common symptoms for fracture ate pale and swelling at or near the seat of fracture. First Aid for Fracture : Some sort of splint or scale must be applied above and below the spot of fracture and tied with the wet cloth. Then the person must be removed to the doctor for further treatment. C. Burns and Scalds : Burns are injuries caused by dry heat such as fire, hot objects of all types Scalds are injuries caused by moist heat such as boiled water or oil, steam etc. A person suffering from burns or scalds can be given warm drinks abundantly. Ointments like Burnol or Vaseline should be applied on the injury. The burns must be covered with the cloth soaked in warm salt water and the person must be taken to the doctor. First aid for a person whose clothing catches fire : When a person's cloth catches fire, roll him with wet gunny bag or wet carpet, then lay him flat and smother the flames .When a wet gunny bag or wet carpet is not available, lay him down and roll him to put out the flame and then take him to the physician. D. Drowning : When a person has drowned because of his carelessness or any other reason, he should be rescued with the help of a long pole or rope or long cloth. When this attempt is found to be of no use, a person who knows swimming can approach the man and drag him out by his hair on the head. If the drowned

We can avoid accidents if we are careful and steady. If water is spilt on the flooring. SAFETY EDUCATION ''Prevention is better than cure'' goes the proverb. Tie a rope firmly above and below the fang macks to prevent the spread of poison. Latrines and places near the welts must be washed often with bleaching powder to avoid the growth of moss and to prevent from slipping. Sharp Instruments like blades. carelessness. his wet clothes can be removed and dressed with dry clothes. 6. Every student must have better knowledge in safety education. they occur. the stomach must be rested on our head and rotated to expel the water E. Accidents do not occur casually but because of haste. 7. insecticides and chemicals must be in lock and key to avoid children handling them.He must be made to lie upside down and the stomach must be pressed to get the water out and then he must be taken to the hospital.person has drink a lot of water. The entrances in the houses must be high and wide 2. 3. pair of scissors. he must be dragged on to shore by getting hold of his hair on the head by a person who knows swimming.ignorance. 8. it should be wiped out other wise children who are running about may slip and fall down. In the case of small children. Kerosene stove. 5. play ground and school A. If he can respire automatically. Bathrooms.Tablets. Avoid wearing clothes of highly inflammable materials like terylene. nylon and nylex while in kitchen. Matchbox. the stomach part must be pressed to get the water out. he should be treated in the following manner The crowd must be dispersed.Germicides like phenyl. Then. old age. forgetfulness and unusual courage. gas stove must be kept away from the reach of children 4. knaves. The drowned person must be made to lie down with his head down and body a little elevated. road. so that he helps himself and also others at the time of dangerous situations. Safety at home : 1. He can be given hot coffee or tea to drink. So it is necessary to impart education on safety to the pupils. dettol must be sprayed in the above places. Take a sterilized knife or blade and make crisis cross incision over the flang marks so that free bleeding will occur carry the patient to a doctor as quickly as possible 3.The following are the safety measures that are to be followed in home. First Aid for Snake Bite : The patient must be made quiet as possible because activity causes poison to spread.The name of the . Then he must be taken to the hospital First aid for a drowned person : When the drowned person can not be helped by a people or rope or long cloth.sickle and spade must be kept away from the reach of the children.It means and methods one has to follow to safe-guard himself from a dangerous situation is known as safety education.

All the courts must be designed in North .There should be fencing around the play ground 5. cycles and motor cycles.While crossing roads. 12.Pedestrians must walk on the pavements 2. Person standing down must hold the chair or ladder carefully. 10. Discus and Javelin. ponds. One must carefully walk in the places where the roads meet 8. The school building should be strong and with safety. 2. The important medicines for first aid must be ready in a box Students should be trained In giving first aid. 2.South direction except the kho-kho ground 4. rough materials like jute bags must be used. they should not be left open B. 12. Should not walk in groups on the road 7. nails. Pedestrians must cross in the zebra crossing only 6. Rules of the games must be taught to the players D. Children should not be allowed to play near the parked scooter. look to the right and left. 12. It would be better if the coach is near. 7.Playgrounds must be free from thorns.Play grounds must be even. 'No Entry' and 'One Way' signs must be strictly respected C. pebbles and glass pieces 3. When using chairs or ladders on the polished surfaces to take things from the lofts.While crossing the road one should not read or loose concentration. Small children should not be allowed to play near the containers and buckets filled with water. 13. 5. Should not play top. cricket or any such games on the road 9. nobody should cross the ground. specially iron box.Rain water should not be allowed to stagnate on the ground 9. When we sit near the windows we should be careful when we sit near the doors of the admiral. Vehicles should be driven one after the other in an order on the left side 11.poison and the label reading poisoned must be pasted on the containers. 3. 14. welts. While practising shot-put.Should not throw glass pieces. 13.Should not cross the road in haste 4. 11. Play ground should not be used as path way by the students and others 6. do some warming-up exercises. There should be enough of space left in between one court to the other. Children should not be allowed to handle the electrical equipments. and water tanks 11. banana feelings on the road 10. Safety in school : 1. Safety in play ground : 1. Road safety : 1. 9. Children should be warned of playing on the trees and roofs of the houses. Before starting to play. The parapet walls of the staircase and terrace must be high . Windows must be kept open for ventilation 15. Avoid people and cattle from walking across the ground during rains 10.The brick markings in the ground must be within the ground level 8. Must drive according to the signals of traffic police.

The entrances of the classes must have proper doors with latches.Things in the laboratory should be in the cupboards.Chemicals should be stored in separate cupboards 9.There should be drinking water and latrine facility in the schools 8. After the class. 5. It must be provided with safety measures from fire accidents 4. Electrical wirings of the schools should be beyond the reach of the students 7. chairs and benches should be in good condition. bus stands and railway stations 11.3. 6. The school building should be located in a place where the students are not distracted It should. be away from the factones.There should be a compound wall or fencing around the school. boys and girls should form separate lines and walkout one behind the other. Tables. . 10.

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