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Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 55 (1992), pp. 19-35 Published by: The Warburg Institute Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/751418 . Accessed: 06/03/2013 22:41
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MEDIEVAL PROVERB COLLECTIONS: THE WEST EUROPEAN TRADITION* Barry Taylor
his study offers a survey of the proverb genre in medieval western Europe, which examines definitions, I have tried to show the range of the proverb as a genre. In the second, I have attempted to trace the development of the proverb books. The third part is devoted to the ethos of these texts, while the final section discusses their purpose.
concentrated on texts written wholly or partly in Latin. In the first part,
My working definition of a proverb collection will be a text which gives advice on conduct, expressed in brief sentences paratactically arranged. I do not discriminate and sententia,popular and learned, ancient and modern, here between proverbium classical and biblical, or prose and verse. This is a broad definition but it has the advantage of pointing out the essential common denominator within a disparate set of works. The medieval proverbial texts themselves rarely comment on their genre, although a store of definitions is provided by vocabularies, and commentaries on the biblical wisdom books and the arts of poetry and rhetoric. However several preliminary observations are necessary in respect of the definitions offered below. Firstly, it must be recognised that these constitute a synthesis of dispersed remarks made for different purposes in different contexts; it is neither the canonical medieval theory of the proverb nor a unified view to which any one of the sources used would necessarily have subscribed in full. Secondly, although most of the definitions were, of course, handed down from author to author, for the present purpose I have been more concerned with selecting clear and apposite statements than with establishing their genealogy. Lastly,although my translations often render 'sententia' as 'maxim', it should be noted that certain generic terms, among them maxima and adagium, do not occur in the medieval gnomic corpus. In particular, maximawas a term in logic, although the beginnings of its modern usage can be detected in the writings of Bene of Florence, the thirteenth-century writer on
dictamen (epistolary composition).
A proverb was, essentially, an authoritative truth concerning conduct:
1 'Et sic proverbium est velut quedam maxima que dat fidem aliis, sed non recipit aliunde.' Candelabrum, cited by G. Vecchi in 'I1proverbio nella pratica letteraria dei dettatori della scuola di Bologna', Studi mediolatinie volgari, ii, 1954, pp. 283-302 (288). Compare Oxford EnglishDictionary,s.v. maxim.
* This article is based on a paper given at the Warburg Institute in May 1988 at a seminar on proverbs and fables, part of the series Medieval Western European and Islamic Literary Genres, organised by Charles Burnett. I am grateful to Dr Burnett, Marvin L. Colker, Peter Dronke and Jill Mann for their helpful comments and for bringing texts to my attention.
and CourtauldInstitutes, Volume 55, 1992 Journal of the Warburg
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and tr.' Assisi.28. citing Aristotle. Rebus. 6 In quoting this passage. If a person is added to this. to which custom attributes trustworthiness. p. 5 'Paroemia est rebus et temporibus adcornmodatum proverbium. Ars versificatoria. first printed in 1500. The 'Adages' of Erasmus: a Study with Translations. M. ed. ccxxxviii. for 'rustici'.3 General truths not concerning behaviour were specifically excluded from the proverb genre: A maxim is a statement not of singulars but of universals. fol. "Lupus in fabula". Toronto 1982. 570-636) in his encyclopedia. 'A straight curve is a contradiction'.London 1954. Andria. It is adapted to occasions. 9v: commentary on the Poetrianova of Geoffrey of Vinsauf.24. sig.' Matthew of Vend6me. Herennium de ratione dicendi (Rhetorica Of the manuscripts cited in the present paper I have handled only those in the British Library (hereafter BL). id est communis sententia. quoted and tr. incorruptae veritatis integritas adquiescit. the paroemia could be popular. Ad C. where it means resisting one's enemies. 6. p. This content downloaded on Wed. But not every universal statement is a maxim-for instance. 169. p. Erasmus required that a saying should be 'frequently on people's lips' but left aside the common sayings of the folk. opinio communis assensum accommodat.2 A maxim is a saying drawn from life. ii. For the difference between anecdote and maxim is that the maxim is uttered without a person. common opinion gives assent and the security of untainted truth acquiesces. IB. 37. as in 'He has seen a wolf'. ut: "Lupus in fabula". was only quoted in particular situations: A paroemia [here. p. It is adapted to matters. 7 M. ed.7 The generality of the proverb also distinguished it from the chria. an illustrative anecdote or allusion which named exemplary figures: A maxim is an impersonal saying. Rhetoric.4 In its general applicability the proverb was distinguished from the paroemia. which. 23385). as defined by Isidore of Seville (c. ut: "Contra stimulum calces".' Isidore. si eum lupus prior viderit. if a 2 'Generale proverbium. E. ed. dum significatur adversis resistendum. 68]. 4 'Sententia est enunciatio non de singularibus sed de universalibus. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the Catholicon has 'naturales' Venice 1497. 5]. G2V(BL.20 BARRY TAYLOR A general proverb. 21.' Ps-Cicero. Temporibus. 3 'Sententia est oratio sumpta de vita quae aut quid sit aut quid esse opporteat in vita breviter ostendit. Thus this phrase is addressed to someone who suddenly falls silent. Etymologiarum sive originum libri. Faral. such as 'Achilles offended Agamemnon by telling the truth' and 'Metrophanes won the gratitude of Mithridates by flattery'. it will become an anecdote. H. and whether it should or should not be done. Cambridge 1964. such as 'Flattery wins friends. MS 309. W.1394a. a common opinion. that is. which shows concisely either what happens or ought to happen in life. as in 'You are kicking against the pricks' [Acts ix. 17. puta: rectum curvo est contrarium. 'proverbial phrase'] is a proverb adapted to matters and occasions. i. Oxford 1911. Caplan. the truth breeds hatred' [Terence. Biblioteca communale. Mann Phillips. byJ. 113. iv. Les arts poetiques du XIIe et du XIIIe siecle. cui consuetudo fidem attribuit. In this paper I have used published translations where possible. Aiunt enim rustici vocem hominem perdere. Lindsay. Unde et subito tacenti dicitur istud proverbium. Paris 1924. 288. Allen in The Ethical Poetic of the Later Middle Ages: a Decorum of Convenient Distinction. as peasants say that a man loses his voice if he should see a wolf looking at him. in Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes. B. but only a statement about some kind of action. ad Herennium). but it was not necessarily so: when gathering the Adagia. sed de quibuscumque actiones sunt et eligenda sunt aut fugienda sunt ad operari. while the anecdote is never told without a person. Hence. Nec de omnibus universalibus.5 As Isidore's reference to 'rustici'6 shows. Loeb Classical Library. xx.
12 Bede adds: 'Notandum autem. which writes the complete meaning of the matter set forth. ut "Obsequium amicos.. p. 5). citing Quintilian. orismus[delimitation]. Venice 1496. 'Proverbium' is found in a small minority of cases in the meaning of 'story': see the Latin Stephaniteset Ichnelates. Benabu. 1928. However. it becomes a maxim. Neue Folge. Parabola est comparatiua similitudo: hebraice masloth [i. fit chria. Greek and Hebrew terms: Parabola graece. integrum sensum propositae rei scribens. proverbia dicit'.9 They are sometimes not distinguished at all: An example is a saying or deed of some authoritative person that is worthy of imitation. if the person is removed.. ed. Unde si sententiae persona adiciatur.' The 'Parisiana poetria' of John of Garland.MEDIEVAL PROVERB COLLECTIONS 21 person is added to a maxim. Jerusalem (forthcoming). paroemias. chria sine persona numquam dicitur.31. Compare the phrase 'proverbialiter . veritas odium parit". ed. series latina (hereafter PL). Die 'Disciplinaclericalis'des Petrus Alfonsi. sig. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in biblical language proverbium and parabola are used without distinction to mean proverb or parable. 'Beitraige zur lateinischen Erzaihlungsliteratur des Mittelalters: (i) Der Novus Aesopusdes Baldo: (ii) Eine lateinische Uibersetzung der griechischen Version des Kalila-Buchs'. 322-35. 5). auctoritates. Huic si persona fuerit adiecta.in A. J. it becomes an anecdote. 'Zur Bedeutungsgeschichte des Wortes Aphorismus'. claims that aphorism was transferred from the medical This content downloaded on Wed. as in Isidore. mashalot? <mashal] dicitur. 11. lxxv. Hilka and W. Vnde ibi inueniuntur dicta et facta. si detrahatur.. 10. Here. 14 'Afforismus. 11. "Metrophanes promeruit gratiam Mithridatis obsequendo". Abder Wissenschaften zu G6ttingen.11). Nam inter chrian et sententiam hoc interest.1. S6derhjelm. pp. quod Vulgata editio pro parabolis.' Isidore (as in n. 10 'Exemplum est dictum uel factum alicuius autentice persone imitatione dignum. P. Lawler.10 In addition. 3. Zeitschriftfiur romanischePhilologie. ed. 9 B. then. I.11 All three terms are used as the title of the biblical Book of Proverbs. 59-166 (98. Papias reproduces Isidore's definition in a more general context without reference to medicine and adds: An aphorism.13 The general scholarly opinion is that in the Middle Ages 'aphorism' referred only to medicine.'2 And one might note that the words for proverb in Hebrew and Arabic can likewise also mean 'similitude'. 13 'Aforismus est sermo brevis.14 8 'Sententia est dictum impersonale. figurative language and a tendency to obscurity.' Papias (as in note 11). pp. Hilka. chria erit. And furthermore the eleventh-century lexicographer Papias makes the equivalence of Latin.. in Circa 1492: Proceedings of theJerusalem Colloquium Litterae Judaeorum in TerraHispanica'. fit sententia. ii. 11 Papias. 43. Taylor. pp. ita: "Offendit Achilles Agamemnon vera dicendo". prouerbium latine . 23664). 1959. iv. quae Hebraice missaevocantur. id est. and proverbs.. 937-1040 (937).' Isidore (as in n.J.3-5. a defining utterance. ab aliis sumptus orismus: sermo diffinitiuus. p. Vocabularium. xxi. xci. SuperparabolasSalomonisallegorica expositio: Patrologiae cursus completus.. 9. and tr. 'Wisdom forms in the Disciplina clericalis of Petrus Alfonsi'. V.1-2. quod sententia sine persona profertur. IB. dicunt'. whose definition of 'aphorismus' just quoted occurs under the heading De libris medicinalibus. i. Stackelberg. authorities. I have argued elsewhere that the proverb and the exemplum are the two extremes of a range of wisdom forms which display varying degrees of narrative. eds A. a7r (BL. To these qualities of the proverb may be added those of brevity.8 Nevertheless there is much to support a view of the proverb seen in terms of genre. New Haven 1974. In its typical brevity the proverb was parallelled by the aphorism: An aphorism is a brief utterance. are found sayings and deeds. handlungen der Gesellschaft Philologisch-historische Klasse.e. introducing a story in Petrus Alfonsi. Heidelberg 1911. Migne. or as others say. T. et prouerbia.
Etiam in euangelio docemur sic: quod in parabolis et prouerbiis locutus est Dominus. lana. i. as the quotation from the Rhetorica ad Herennium cited above has it. Die 'Summade arte prosandi' des Konrad von Mure. G6mez Moreno and M. 17 H. W. Proprium autem habet quod ei nec historia nec prophetia miscetur et sola est quae ita intelligitur ut quodammodo superficies auferatur. for example.' Papias (as in n. Kerkhof. figura uerbi. 1). cxi. 19 Vecchi. However. indeed the association of brevity and obscurity is well established in the classical rhetorical tradition. Proverbs are utterances which have one thing in their kernel and promise another on the surface.. in the exegetical tradition it was thought obscure because it was endowed with an allegorical integument. Marques de Santilde Ponza.16 However. The second row registers those available in Latin about 476. some writers of dictamen distinguished between the plain brief sententia and the obscurely metaphorical proverbium. quod superficie difficilis uidetur. Subsequent forms are arranged chronologically down the page.'8 However. Kronbichler. ?310. In the Gospel we are taught that the Lord spoke in parables and proverbs. 464-67. 20 The distinction is used independently by W. in his Obrascompletas. this distinction is not standard within dictamen. PL (as in n. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a figure of speech. Comedieta A. and this connection was more frequently recognised. a NewApproach.21 Thus where the classical rhetorical tradition holds the proverb to be obscure on account of its brevity. 287-89. in many texts it is a standard feature of the genre: 'breviter ostendit'. 25. The top row shows those gnomic texts which were in existence in Greek and/or Roman antiquity. 2nd edn. Prouerbia quippe non hoc sonare quod scriptum est. Minnis. and it is the only one where understanding is achieved by the surface being somehow removed. p. 13. The proverbial genre has in common with prophecy that it seems superficially difficult. Medieval Theoryof Authorship: ScholasticLiteraryAttitudes in the Later Middle Ages. 18 Vecchi (as in n. 16 See below pp. Brevity was moreover one of the potential causes of obscurity in the proverb. for instance. F1r. J. II The accompanying schematic Table (Fig. 150. op. 679. McKane. 1) categorises the main proverb texts under three broad headings. For proverbs do not sound as they are written. 178. Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik. 15 See Faral (as in n. 289. 175. This content downloaded on Wed. eds. aliud in superficie pollicentia. Opera omnia. as these authors conceded. A. pp. stanza 38. A.1' and is not to my knowledge found elsewhere. Quaracchi 1893. there is one Spanish example of used about 1435-36 to refer to the Disticha anphorismo Catonisin Ifiigo L6pez de Mendoza. the date of the fall of the Western Empire and the notional beginning of the Middle Ages. Zilrich 1968. 114. P. 20 The other source of obscurity in the proverb was its use of figurative language. As Papias has it: Proverb: a likeness. p. See also.. p. Hrabanus Maurus. All the forms are to be envisaged as persisting from their first appearances down to at least 1450. Lausberg. ed. What is proper to it is that it has no admixture of either history or prophecy. London 1970. Barcelona 1988.'7 A few authors acknowledged this connection in their definitions: as Vecchi has shown. on which see. 10). first example. cit. Munich 1960. Papias's reference is to John xvi. pp. 2). 11).22 BARRY TAYLOR That the quality of brevity was not essential to the proverb in the opinion of some authors is shown by the lack of pithiness of some of the proverbia quoted in the artes poeticae. sig.15 and some of the lengthy passages collected in florilegia. 12). showing the course of development of the genre over the medieval period. It is my submission that most of the forms which were invented before to the political sphere only in the Renaissance by the Taciteans. St Bonaventura. 26-28. Garland (as in n. 131. London 1988. edited by the Quaracchi Fathers. vi. p. p. p. Prouerbialis species hoc habet cum prophetia commune. M. Prouerbia sunt aliud habentia in medulla. Proverbs: 21 'Prouerbium: similitudo. p.
Liber dedictis Walter Burley 14th century 15th century This content downloaded on Wed. Florilegium angelicum Othlo Hadoardus. Egbert. Heiric 12th century ofLille Alan Moralium dogma philosophorum Petru 13th century [Ps-Bernard] of [Ps-John Garland] [Auctoritates Aristotelis] [Cathoniana confectio] of Vincent Alber o John Beauvais.SHOWING AVAILABILITY OF GNOMIC TEXTS FROM TO c. 1450 ANTIQUITY Fig. reversifications. versifications. florilegia gnomic couplets [Proverbia Graecorum] [The Apophthegmsof the Fathers] Isidore. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Defensor Proverbia Senecae Arnulf Wipo. glosses.1: TABLE ORIGINAL WORKS Availability (inwhere not proven) inantiquity late antiquity 5th century Biblical Wisdom Books yes yes Disticha Catonis FLORILEGIA Epitomes intext order yes ? NARRATIVES ofthe Sayings Florilegia Sayings arranged philosophers: and deeds alphabeticallybysubject yes Publilius Syrus yes ? yes Valerius Maximus ofthe Maxi Sayings philosophers embe (biographical)narra yes ? no yes yes 6th century 7th century 9th century 10th century 11th century glosses. of Godfrey Winchester Abelard Florilegium gallicum.
128-30. 24 W. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Halle 1889. (Incidentally.24 (The manuscript is apparently of the twelfth century. 25) The third role is stylistic: the imagery of a primitive agrarian society and the characteristically balanced style which we are used to calling parallelismus membrorum26(of the type 'Pride cometh before destruction. 1050 but I suspect this was simply because he found it broadly like the work of Wipo and Egbert. Voigt. the Parabolae (or Parvum doctrinale) of Alan of Lille (c. I use this term to describe the biblical wisdom books and the Distichs of Cato because. all of which nevertheless insist on its unity. in his Opera. Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus. He incorporates it into a continuum: Proverbs addresses a youth. pp. 66-74. The criterion for inclusion seems to be finality rather than form.H. because the verses were as yet unnumbered and may therefore have seemed less paratactic than they do now. as advice on conduct expressed in brief sentences: Solomon. ed. Idea of Biblical Poetry: Parallelism and its History. such as the one edited by Wilhelm Wackernagel. (ed. p. is his inclusion of the Song of Songs in his comments on the proverbial works. Song of Songs. 21). and the Song of Songs plays no apparent part in later proverb literature. so to speak. ed.. pp. despite Jerome's strictures..24 BARRY TAYLOR the medieval period either enjoyed more or less continuous transmission to the end of the Middle Ages or else were re-invented somewhere along the way. four-fold. the Proverbia Graecorum preserved by Sedulius Scottus is imbued with the style of the biblical gnomic books. teaching a child in proverbs and educating him. he says. The Florilegium Treverense recasts Old Testament wisdom in leonines.. and Ecclesiastes a mature man. 25 Wipo. This content downloaded on Wed.. while the Song of Songs is for the man purged of vice: . Egbert of Li&ge. see Minnis (as in n.' 23 For other divisions of the Solomonic corpus. Jerome explains in his preface to this group that the first three are the work of Solomon and the apocryphal latter two are appended because of their generic link with the canonical texts. Hanover 1915. 27 Proverbs xvi. In the first place.. 18. popular opinion attributed the apocryphal books to Solomon as well. we cannot sing the Song of Songs. New 1843. and despite its title. Wackernagel ischen Reimversen'. Wackernagel dated the text to c. unlike the other texts here.). Ecclesiastes. they were the basis for versifications.Fecunda ratis. like the rest of the Bible they were of course read asa siduously throughout our period and received lengthy commentaries-although medieval reader may have experienced the text rather differently. with note. 1128-1203). 26 'Parallelism' may not be refined enough a term for modern biblical scholars.) He gives an account of them which broadly conforms to our working definition of the proverb. I think.. he says. iii. 26. Arnulf does likewise and uses parallelism.28 One of the later biblical imitations.23 The role of the biblical wisdom books in the proverb tradition is. Proverbia. perhaps. the order of texts is Proverbs. in duties by means of maxims. The Haven 1981. 'Salomonis proverbia in lateinZeitschriftfiir deutsches Alterthum. encouraging him to despise the world. is: . Breslau. and a haughty spirit before a fall'27) recur throughout the medieval gnomic corpus. Authorised Version. The first two columns contain 'original' works. J.22 More surprising. for example. See. Secondly. unless we have renounced the pomp of the world. E. they do not declare that they have received anything from other works. owes 22 'In proverbiis parvulum docens et quasi de officiis per sentencias erudiens. In the Vulgate. Kugel.
xi. 1937. A. Romanische ii. In this respect their influence has been more widespread than that of Solomon. MS 9208. xi. and Peter Abelard. 'Audaces fortunajuvat' (PL. see J.Munich 1906. but it seems to me that in medieval Latin at least. 1-5. v:Jean de Capoueet ses dirivis. Boas. Medievalia et Humanistica. ccx. Biblioteca sim). D. 1902. in Les Groningen 1987. Latin text at pp. H. On the commentaries see A. by P. 5. Nacional. Thus. Hunt.xv.). Royal 8. Speculum. 34 Disticha Catonis. 4 The gnomic couplet is too deeply rooted in West European culture for us to blame every little jingle on Cato.M. ed. 51-57). in his Anecdotanovissima. often with a view to harmonising it. 'Un commento ignoto di Remy d'Auxerre ai Disticha Catonis' RendicontidellaReale Accademiadei Lincei. Florilegium. 579-94. pp. 'The Christianisation of "Cato":the Disticha Catonis in the Light of Late Medieval Commentaries'. 'La devinette du BNnediciti et les Distiques du PseudoCaton'. pp. again like Solomon. The latest medieval example known to me is the Cathonianaconfectio. 'Les Paraboles Maistre Alain'. 457. it is my submission that the Distichswere an enduring formal model.. Forumfor Modern Language Studies. pp. 1985. pp. Firstly Cato. 31 R. 98-100. like Solomon. moyenage. 590). and this became a commonplace in gnomic works. xix. pp. pp. Alcuin und Cato. 1982.E. B.33 Lastly. another Cato in leonines interspersed Carmenad Astralabium.31while BL. 66. Boas.the major pagan gnomic source-book of the Middle Ages.Bellaterra 1979. 379-775 (447. preserved by the Spaniard Alonso de Cartagena in the 1440s and possibly written by him. 383-90. pp. pp. Finally. The influence of the Distichsof Cato. ed. 30 For example. 1979. Roy. p.. for the Cathoniana confectio. Dichtung: Arnulfi Delicie cleri'. 'Florilegium Treverense'. Thirdly. Wissenschaften 1863. Leiden. 'Nachlese zu den ProverbiaGraecorum (Sechstes Jahrhundert?)'. 157-73. 1964. 'Zur Geschichte der mittellateinischen Forschungen. pp. 1960. N. J. see also the bibliography cited 32 Fol. pp. 26rb.. Bischoff. in Raymond of B6ziers. Lawrance. T. 1966. Sedulius Scottus. (I am preparing an edition of the Cathoniana confectiofor the Exeter Hispanic Texts series. Paris 1899. M. 1987. Also in the Cato tradition are the Praecepta Verhandlungender Kdniglich Sdchsischen Gesellschaftder vivendi of Alcuin (see M. and 'Chaucer and Cato'. as the fourth contribution of the biblical wisdom books we find florilegia which draw on classical and scriptural material. 129-217. 65-77 and iii. 48 preserves Ecclesiastes. pp. Amsterdam 1948. 1-22. the Distichsinspired commentaries and glosses in a variety of metres. includes some recastings into leonines of classical and biblical tags at pp. 516. with a discussion in the editor's introfabulistes latins depuis le siecle d'Augustejusqu 'd la fin du duction of the genre of the 'filius-poem' at pp.29 Although it includes some classical tags. when the rhyming couplet is used it is in homage to the Distichs. 28 I.. 211-46. S. for example. 369-82. pp.Leiden zu Leipzig. Rubingh-Bosscher. 175-98. addresses his son. Liber Kalile et Dimne. xlv. 'The ProverbiaGrecorum' Traditio. 553 and pasin Madrid. They take the form of fifty-seven monostichs and 144 couplets in non-rhyming classical metre. often phrased parallelistically. ccx. 33 For texts of Cato glosses. 'Beitrige zur mittellateinischen Spruchpoesie'. Hazelton. Mancini. see B. ed. pp. new series. xxi. L. Hervieux. Brunh6lzl (ed. Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch. Secondly. Hellmann. and in its use of an initial animal or agricultural image followed by a literal re-expression. Simpson (ed.i. Berichte iiber die pp. R. Vulc. 'Literary Genres in a Medieval Textbook'.i. 1957. 1885-86. even though it was more suitable to some texts than others. ed. 199-209. the Senecae Proverbia an alphabetical arrangewithin alphabetical XVI132 interpolates ment of the biblical Book of Proverbs. ser.) For a parody. parallels that of the biblical wisdom books in a number of ways.MEDIEVAL PROVERB COLLECTIONS 25 its great diffusion to its incorporation in the medieval school curriculum.30 it follows the biblical books in its structure of thematic runs alternating with individual maxims. F. 362-75. 29 PL (as in n. M. Huemer. For the Distichs as a schoolbook. Zarncke.Stuttgart 1984. 195-221. 357-80. 121-29. Clogan. 12). 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 'Florilegium Frankfurt 1983. Cato came to be credited with any ancient saying of unknown authorship. Medieval Studies. Un tratado de Alonso de Cartagena sobre la educaci6n y los estudios literarios. arranged in four books of approximately equal length without any apparent pattern. This content downloaded on Wed.). pp.Philologisch-historische Classe. Burton. 23-78. Wisdom and Proverbs with a classical compilation of the Florilegium gallicum family. see F. ClassicalPoets in the Gallicum'. 9-10. 184-85.xxxv.
pp. 39 B.J.Deventer. Alexander and M. 633). J.see Burton (as in n. Tuttle Hansen. and R.38 I turn now to the next group of texts in the Table. 103-51. which are generally assigned now to the instruction genre. Sententiae. in the biblical wisdom books. 42 Les 'Auctoritates Aristotelis':un florilge medidval. Wipo and Egbert were writing at the Imperial court of Henry II around the 1020s and Talbot has described them as typical of the proverbial literature of the postCarolingian period in that they prefer biblical sources to classical ones. Olsen. 'The Medieval Reputation of the Proverbia Senecae'. 47-121. Louvain 1974. Italia medioevale 135. Secunda pars: Flores auctorum. Berlin 1880. Speculum.42 There were of course also epitomes in antiquity but I am not aware of the continuity of the tradition.. Florilegium angelicum: MedievalLearning and Literature: EssaysPresentedto R. 1981.41 and the Auctoritates Aristotelis (which fortuitorum. Hamesse. See N. 1973. Content and Influence'. The second type of florilegium preserves material in alphabetical order. 17-19. x. This content downloaded on Wed. so that his alphabetical arrangement is also to a degree a subject arrangement. ed.a ninth-century compilation which also included excerpts from the genuine works of Seneca and two pseudo-Senecan compositions. ed. Wiirzburg 1974. Gerhard. Ivi. 47649). and M. 13.Proceedingsof the Royal Irish Academy. and G. H. Revued'histoire textes. IA. 16893. 41 As in n. Friedrich. Louvain 1956. 'Les classiques latins dans les floril6ges des m~di~vaux ant6rieurs au XIIIe siecle'.lxxii C. Yet they are found quoted for gnomic purposes in a number of texts. Oxford 1976. 43 Publilius Syrus. the epitomes. 66-114. the De moribus(often attributed to Martin of Braga) and the De remediis is explicitly an Hunt.36 His Proverbia. pp. From antiquity the Middle Ages inherited the Sententiaeof Publilius Syrus. the florilegia.. 1972. Olsen39 lists twenty-sixflorilegia of this type. The first type which I distinguish. 'The Its Origin. G.xvi.. 'Precepts: an Old English Instruction'. 31). H. Gibson. ed. pp.. Liberproverbiorum. 'Seneca maestro di spiritualit• nei suoi opuscoli apocrifi dal xii al xv e umanistica. Typical of these works are two collections produced in the twelfth century in northern despite its name is not drawn exclusively from the works of Aristotle). 115-64 (14740 For the Florilegium gallicum.26 BARRY TAYLOR Certain other inclusions in the 'original works' columns of the Table require a word of explanation. occurring in thirty-eight manuscripts of the ninth to twelfth centuries.O. 43secolo'. 38 For this genre see E.40 So also are the second part of the Florilegium oxoniense. Talbot. Add. pp. France."7They seem therefore to have been regarded in the same light as the jussive sayings. W 51). op. J. I have placed the proverbial verses of Wipo and Egbert there because although they imitate biblical models in style and in the content of individual sayings. 1980. Meersseman. M. 44 Proverbia Senece. 1979. Round. with bibliography. Rouse.43 In a great many cases Publilius's first word is also his key-word. 1491 (BL. excerpted in the first century from his now lost Mimes. To her list of manuscripts may be added BL. G. eds. p. the Florilegium gallicum and the Florilegium angelicum. pp. it is not clear whether this ordering is intended to be an aid to reference. pp. T. The earlier part of the sequence (letters A to M) went on to form the basis of the much-read ProverbiaSenecae. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .44 The Libellus proverbiorum of Othlo of St Emmeran 35 Florilegiummorale oxoniense (MS Bodl. ed. C. as they are called in the manuscripts. 37 See Gerhard. pp. G. the end products are more than simply compilations of sources.ix. 1-16. are really epigrams and solidly within the Martial tradition-in fact they circulated as Martial's. preserve excerpts from individual authors in the order in which they appear in the original. fols 199r-264v. 36 Godfrey of Winchester. H.35 The inclusion of Godfrey also needs a little justification. cit. A.. 35.
The Moralium affords an example of the effect of codicological layout on the dogmaphilosophorum reader's perception of a text. Louvain 1955. pp.. xv. which include Hildebert of Le Mans and Marbod. Leon 1961.. with French translation by H. Royal 15.). Lozano Sebastian. 1889. M. los tres libros de las 'Sentencias'ed. Agostino nell'opera di S. in the ninth century. see U. 633). 557-74. J. 1974. H. By contrast.. 48 As in n. Delhaye. while in others they line the margins like exhibits in a hall of fame. lxiii.C. pp. M. 1979. 25-27 mai 1981. 169-200. Liberscintillarum. ed. Schwenke (ed. corrigenda in Scriptorium. and the provenances of the manuscripts (one from Clairmarais and one from St Bertain.). ed.which might remind us that Jerome described the subject-matter of the biblical wisdom books as 'quasi de officiis'. critiqueet exploitation. and R. Florence 1955. pp. pp. i. Studium legionense. pp. and Defensor of Ligug6. pp. Also in alphaischeForschungen. in the latter. These bear most resemblance to the original Greek form of the genre47 in that they simply gather together maxims by topic. is the Moralium dogma philosophorum. 299-338. pp.51 One of its main sources is Cicero's De officiis. 51 Moralium dogma philosophorum. it takes its prose form and alphabetical arrangement from its model. 'Le Confessionidi S. 246-57.ed. A. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Les genres littiraires dans les sources thdologiqueset philosophiques Actes du Colmidievales:definition. Dominguez del Val. a work which one might read from beginning to end as a moral treatise. Voigt (ed. C and D. in certain manuscripts the names of the authorities are embedded in the text. 213-525. Pellegrino. Louvain-la-Neuve 1982..Namur 1953. Rochais. from pagan sources which he retouched for the Christian reader. Uppsala 1929. in Gauthierde Chitillon. 1953. Prima pars: Floresphilosophorum. 246-91. Korfmacher. pp. est-il l'auteur du 'Moralium dogma philosophorum'?. betical order is Proverbianon centum:see M. 'Das Florileg von S. 28). pp. cap. For surveys of the florilegium. Romanvi. and the Brussels florilegiumdescribed by P. Delhaye.45 Meanwhile alphabetical order is also followed in the St Omer florilegium. reading is punctuated and the text is experienced as more gnomic and paratactic. ibid. Reglas mondsticasde la Espafia visigoda. Chicago 1936. Diaz y Diaz. Isidoriana. ed. a monk of Neustria.MEDIEVAL PROVERB COLLECTIONS 27 Senecae: imitation of the Proverbia although formed of Christian sources in the main. the names of the authorities appear only in the critical apparatus (as in BL. 1888-91. 151-64 (this is especially concerned with the 9th to 12th centuries). Delhaye. L. pp. Philologus. 50 Olsen (as in n. In the former case. M. Holmberg. Omer'. According to Talbot.. 1981. 46 E. F. St Isidore and St Fructuosus.). ed. Olsen. Paris 1961: see H. 49 P. 'Un petit florilkge moral conserv6 dans un manuscrit bruxellois'. 181-91. In Holmberg's edition. composed in the twelfth century by an unknown author and structured on the ramifications of the virtues and vices.50 A notable example of subject arrangement.. vii al xxvi'. J. Isidoro di Seviglia'. possibly c.. ibid. 223-70. near St Omer) strongly suggest a Norman origin. According to P. pp. Rouse. 35. M. libro II. The third and last group of florilegia I have termed 'sayings of the philosophers by subject'. p. 'Des Presbyter Hadoardus CiceroExcerpte'. M. C. pp.48one of the earliest florilegiaof this type was compiled by Hadoardus. 47. Colker (ed.Supplementband v. the reader is aware of being in the presence of the 45 Othlonislibellusproverbiorum. citing two florilegia in alphabetical order of incipit. Sententiae (alias De summo bono). loque international de Louvain-la-Neuve. ibid.P. 'Investigaci6n sobre las fuentes de las Sentenciasde San Isidoro de Sevilla. 'Florilegia of Patristic Texts'. B. pp. p. 12). Hamesse. 31-99. J. cxlvi. esp. Of the same type are the Florilegiummoraleoxoniense(MS Bodl. 33. C. also in his Operaomnia: PL (as in n. M. Rochais. 1200. 47 See below (p. in St Leander.II). 397588. This content downloaded on Wed. xxxiii. 211-21. one in alphabetical subject order and one intermediate. in Medioevoe rinascimento: studi in onoredi Bruno Nardi.46 Its sources. 'Contribution A l'histoire des florilkges asc6tiques du haut moyen dge latin'. 10-11. Also of this type are Isidore. 70-71. at part 2. with Spanish translation by I. pp. 199-215. 39). Madrid 1971. in leonines. thus the text appears unitary. 'Les florileges philosophiques du XIIIe au XVe siecle'. pp. Revue binidictine.49Olsen comments that the second and third types of florilegiumare unusual in the corpus of the ninth to twelfth centuries. see B. Classical Folia. most of the earliest manuscripts of this text are of Anglo-Norman origin. 'La utilizaci6n de los Padres por San Isidoro'. 'Les florileges d'auteurs classiques'. 165-80. much cited in vernacular texts. W. with xxxv. Roca Melia. On Isidore.
57A second text in this category is another version of the Apophthegms of the Fathers.52 the authorities in the Moralium dogmaphilosophorum are in the outside margins and the attributions are anchored in the text by placing the author's initial over the first word of the quotation. Add.A. 49) seems to have This content downloaded on Wed. 'I1 Liberphilosophorum di Scienze. I am not convinced that it survived in Latin down to the beginning of our period. 6c) the Moralium dogmaphilosophorum has contemporary marginal subject headings. which I have termed 'narratives'. report only the opinions of the great type 'sayings while the latter include some narrative of the circumstances under which a comment was made. since when the circumstances of utterance are given there is an opportunity for the wise saying to turn into the wisecrack. quasi sine testo critico'. In BL.28 BARRY TAYLOR accumulated wisdom of the ages. the first being those in which the arrangement is by topic. 1931-32. spaces seem to have been left in the text for the authors' names. Of these the Factorum ac dictorum libri ix (nine books of memorable deeds and sayings) of Valerius memorabilium Maximus seems to have best survived from antiquity to the end of the Middle Ages. This gap-assuming that there was one-was to some degree filled quite early on by the Apophthegms of theFathers. In that manuscript at least the reader can choose for himself whether to approach the text via the subject or via the person. The Latin versions of the text reflect the two different recensions of their Greek originals: the earlier arrange56 'Et vidit quandam puellam discentem scribere. cui dixit: "non multiplices malum cum malo". while the names of the exemplary figures appear on the left.IV (P1.C. I would also like to suggest that the compiler's attitude to his text may be different in the two cases. 6a). 393-597 (456).55 There is no hard and fast division between the florilegia and the next group in the Table. Schullian. pp. pp.which is represented as I both the straddling type 'sayings of the philosophers' from the groups. distinguish the former and because deeds'.' E. as is Valerii Maximi memorabilium dictorum vel factorum'. 9v.XIII.and said to her: 'Do not increaseevilwith evil'.XIII (P1.6b). the headings seem to peter out by fol. Royal 8. where the rubrics are written in the text. putetur apocryphum. in BL. Three types of text combine narrative with gnomic utterances. 52 Fols 112-24. 'The Excerpts of Heiric Ex libris sigla proprium scripsi auctorum'. Royal 8. 55 Fols 2-33. 53 Defensor of Ligug6 (as in n. Add. xii. p. In BL.56 The anecdote shows an eccentric personality as well as entertaining us.53In BL. the original topical structure is observed on the right-hand side of the page. 1935. 54 The missing names are Seneca and Tullius. shown by comparison with BL. rightjustified in print terms. unicuique sententiae per ed Arti. 10r. 48. The presence of narrative in a text can alter the compiler's attitude to his material. 155-84.5).54 By contrast. Although I am aware of the gnomonology as a genre in Greece. Atti del RealeIstituto Veneto auctore. M.A. xci. Royal 8. 16376 (P1. Francesmoraliumantiquorum: adopted a similar technique in his much earlier Liber chini (ed.which I have already suggested as the Christian successor to the 'deeds and sayings' type. which were presumably intended to be added in red. Prologue. The impression of layout on the reader may be exemplified by one of the manuscripts of an epitome of Valerius which was made by Heiric of Auxerre in the ninth century.Lettere scintillarum of c. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 57 D. 700: 'Sed ne id opus. fol. 19835 (P1. part 2. Memoirsof the AmericanAcademyin Rome. This can be exemplified in the Apophthegms of the Fathers and the Liberphilosophorum: And he sawa girl learningto write.). i.
v. 59 Caecilius Balbus. see the article by Robert Irwin on pp. 1957. pp. 11-51 (also in PL (as in n. it seems that the translators into Spanish and into Latin were most respectful of their texts: just as there appears to be nothing Islamicised about the Arabic text so the latter appears not to have undergone any Christianisation.. C. which is taken up verbatim by Vincent of Beauvais and occurs again in the Alexander-romance the Historia de preliis. The early Middle Ages seem not to have known this type. These are the 'sayings of the philosophers'. Der Almagest: die Syntaxis Mathematica des Claudius Ptolemdusin arabisch-lateinischer UberWiesbaden 1974. 33). 44-57. ed. Kunitzsch. the later by topic. The second classical narrative type embraces two sorts of text. E. ed. 1264). G. pp.. 12).MEDIEVAL PROVERB COLLECTIONS 29 ment by name. W. At least two such texts are of clear Arabic or Hebrew origin. ed. such as the Life of Apolloniusof Tyana. A versdo latina por Pascdsio de Dume dos 'Apophthegmata patrum'J. Coimbra 1971 (also in PL. Tfibingen 1886. pp. Medievalia et humanistica.) My third and last gnomic narrative type is the narrative which is exemplary both as a story and as the vehicle for proverbs.58 This chronology I think is indicative of the new attitudes to the text which are discussed below. 56). Although there was an earlier partial translation. 63 See P. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1160. lieferung. pp. ed. 440-55. lxxiv. Stigall. of script Tradition of the De vita et moribus philosophorum Walter Burley'.63 the Giovanni da Procida. Bfihler. 'The Laments of the Philosophers H. 61 Douai 1624. translated by Paschasius.66 Incidentally. The fourth appearance is in the Latin versions of an Arabic work indebted to Greek sources.64 (So far as my limited knowledge of the original allows comment. New Haven 1950.i. pp. Journal of SemiticStudies. 'Vitas patrum'). the Mukhtdr al-hikamof al-Mubashshir. which together with the work of Valerius Maximus was drawn on by Walter Burley. The second case is the Disciplina clericalisof Petrus Alfonsi. 1866. 64 Franceschini. alias Liber philosophorum moralium antiquorum. 'The ManuSpeculum. 36-50 of this volume. C. 10..62whom I have also listed in this category. Hermes. On the Arabic original. 26-27. but later on it reappears in Latin four times. 'Die Lficke im Diogenes LaErtius und der alte fUbersetzer'. This was prepared in Italy. P. This content downloaded on Wed. translated by Martin of Braga in his Operaomnia. see Talbot (as in n.60 The third is in the Speculumhistoriale61 of Vincent of Beauvais (d. probably by Philosophers in the Literature of the later Middle Ages'. Knust. Brock. The Kalfla wa-Dimnais most commonly known in the Directorium vitae humanaeof John of Capua. 'Greek over Alexander in Syriac'. F. which have been traced back as far as the ninth century. pp. and individual biographies including obiterdicta. 62 Walter Burley. Liberde vita et moribus philosophorum. 60 V. 98-99. xii. Here the proverbs form the thematic backbone of the text which is then filled out with tales. 381-94). 1025-66).67 With 58 Name arrangement: SententiaePatrum Aegyptiorum. The text is so saturated with maxims put into the mouths of its characters that to read it solely for the story might well prove frustrating.. xv. from the Spanish translation probably done at the Castilian court shortly before 1260. 9. 67 See S. lxxiii. Rose. xi. 66 See nn. Freire. pp. (as in n. O. 65 In Lesfabulisteslatins (as in n. Barlow. most commonly known version was the Liber de dictis antiquorum philosophorum. 1937. grouped by author with biographical notes and typified by Diogenes Laertius. chapter thirty-three of Disciplina clericalisis the 'Sayings of the Philosophers at the Grave of Alexander'. 77-337. J. 35). De nugis philosophorum. Woefflin. which I have put together since they have more similarities than dissimilarities.65who translated it from Hebrew into Latin around 1263-78. 367-97. Subject arrangement: Verba seniorum (beginning. which is explicitly of oriental origin. the first being in the sayings of the Greeks supposedly gathered by Caecilius Balbus. Basel 1855.59The second appearance occurs in a translation of Diogenes Laertius done in Sicily c. who died about 1299. ed.
'Un vocabulaire latin-fran. 76 III tury.is / conspectorfit deitatis Qui bona potat. pp. ed. in its first part69is a series of exchanges between the two persons of the title. 1983. 28. p. suivi d'un recueil d'anciens proverbes'. Benary. a distinction should be made between those in which the Latin is original and those in which it is a translation. 76 The Minor Poemsof the Vernon Manuscript. However. 34.73 It is difficult to prove whether the all-Latin Proverbia rusticiis a translation or not. M. the Proverbes of Diverse Profetes and of The ethos of our proverb corpus. 114-44 (118. J. religious versus secular. For leonines.30 BARRY TAYLOR these texts may be included the Liberconsolationis et consiliiof Albertanus of Brescia68 in a narrative frame comparable to (c. 1193-1270). pp. pp. 3a serie. see nn. John RylandsLibrary. 1873. 33 above. xi.ais du XIVe siacle. 522-53. In the case of the bilingual collections. This content downloaded on Wed. W. it is written largely in leonines. 1981. The earliest of this type of the eleventh cenknown to me are the Anglo-Saxon and Latin Durham Proverbs Poetes and of Other Seyntesare explicitly translated from Latin into French and English. Zeitschrift fir deutsches pp. 72 For example. 70 Salomon et Marcolfus. J.of the tenth century. Ivi.). I suggest. ii.72 (ii) the use of literal language over against the figurative. 205-18. and (iii) the presence of multiple texts over against a single text. A. pp. lists proverb texts translated from English and French into Latin. 667-705. pp. its ethos is nevertheless either popular or an imitation of the popular. 'Incipiunt proverbia rusticorum mirabiliter versificata'). 71 S. 1930.xxxiv. 24. George's Chapel. exemplifies the third criterion: Qui bien boit deu voit Si bona quis bibat. Furnivall. pp. as analogues for its maxims exist in both Latin and the vernacular. 633-41.71I propose that the following stylistic features are signs of translation: (i) the presence of pleonasms. nn. iii. Q.). ed. Windsor Castle'. Zacher (ed.). pp. MedievalStudies. London 1883. 73 U.xlv...75 As an example of the minority group. 1887. Bulletin of the xiv. Voigt (ed. The last column of the Table contains two types of text which may be termed 'popular'. op. 288-300 (288. 81-114 (81). Marini. and the grotesque villein Marcolf counters him with ribaldries. 'The Durham Proverbs' Speculum. and W.F. a work which places its sententiae that of the Kalila. Bibliothequede l'Ecoledes Chartes. it seems that the vernacular came first. 'A Medieval Collection of Latin and English Proverbs and Riddles from the Rylands Latin MS 394'. n. no. 343-84 (347. 1859. can be described by reference to three pairs of opposed terms: national versus domestic. London 1901. Pantin. although nobody to my knowledge has suggested an oriental source for it. Forschunrustici' Romanische 74 E. pp. 'Latin and Middle English Proverbs in a Manuscript of St. Solomon utters lofty gnomic sayings. xxviii. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Sundby. in which the French original is glossed twice in Latin. 32-46 (46). 114. ed. 13-16).74 In the majority of cases. 'Proverbia gen.. a verse-form closely identified with the gloss. see also Zacher. 'Altfranz6sische Alterthum. cit. 'La dissacrazione come strumento di affermazione ideologica: una lettura del Dialogo di Salomonee Marcolfo'Studi medievali. 1987.70While it is unlikely that this text derives from an oral vernacular version. The Latin Dialogue of Solomonand Marcolf. Horrall. Arngart (ed. many of them of biblical origin. ei / visiopromptadei. 69 The second half deals with natural questions and therefore does not concern us here. and 1970. 68 T. Heidelberg 1914.. 75 0. The following proverb. Sprichworter'. Robert. beginning. 3). which may possibly indicate that it is dependent on an earlier vernacular written or oral text.
Archivesd'histoiredoctrinaleet litterairedu moyenage. p.sic ars deluditurarte. but always in the same direction: that is. The Vision of Piers Plowman: a Critical Edition of the B-Text. 1950-51.78 and the sayings of the pagans were often collected specifically for use in sermons. 79 W. Smalley. 'Statiminvenire:Schools. ed. 80 See Burton (as in n. 319. pp. Note however that Wipo and Egbert continue to address 'my son' even when national issues are being aired. Dominican Studies. iii. which advertise that they are a short-cut for the reader in a hurry: this attitude seems not to be present in the early Middle Ages. and 'Some Latin Commentaries on the Sapiential Books in the Late Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries'. whoso taketh yeme. 41-77. resurfacing about the twelfth century. He kenneth us the contrarie ayein Catons wordes.79 Parallel to the insistence on the unity of classical and Christian wisdom is the treatment of popular vernacular proverbs: by translation into Latin and the addition of commentaries and biblical parallels they are incorporated into learned culture. pp. a rare exception to this general synthesising view: In oother science it seith-I seigh it in Catounestfidus amicus. referring to Disticha Catonis. 103-28. Preachers and New Attitudes to the Page'. Even the most worldly maxims in the biblical wisdom books could be ennobled by allegorisation. the secular is often made religious and the popular made learned. A. M. but never vice-versa. There are texts in antiquity. Qui simulat verbis. on how to deal with wife. Studieson the 'Manipulus Preachers. IV The types of manuscript in which the proverb texts occur. and M. V. eds. Rouse. Cambridge. This content downloaded on Wed. 'Some Thirteenth-Century Commentaries on the Sapiential Books'. showing that particular works had various readerships and were 77 Yet strangely it was attributed throughout our period to St Bernard. Renaissanceand Renewalin the Twelfth Century.nec corde Tu quoquefacsimile. x. London 1984. 201-25. servants. The Epistula de regimine domus is solidly within this tradition. L. The opposition which Langland makes between Cato and theology is.. Florilegiaand Sermons: florum' of Thomasof Ireland. 1949. 12).Toronto 1979. Publilius Syrus and the biblical wisdom books. R. xxvxxvi. 1982. I think. p. 236-74. 321.MEDIEVAL PROVERB COLLECTIONS 31 popular versus learned. neighbours. Constable. A. Super parabolas Salomonisallegorica expositio(as in n. C. H. household accounts etc. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . esp. and bidde for oure enemys. Benson and G. 31). Rouse and Rouse. as they develop into mirrors-of-princes and include advice on such topics as warfare. D. The German Translationsof the Pseudo-Bernhardine de cura [sic] 'Epistola reifamiliaris' G6ppingen 1975. with Latin text at pp. 78 B. For he biddeth us be as bretheren. The distinctions in our texts between religious and secular and between popular and learned are frequently blurred. typically addressed to 'my son'. R. Egbert and Albertanus seem to have a foot in both the domestic and the national camps.77 Other works such as those of Wipo. 26. This is Catons kennyng to clerkes that he lereth. pp. 1950. for example that of Aulus Gellius. 97102. See C.. pp. with their advice.. and the works with which they are found. Mass. 191-97. Cossar. 318-55. 2. The domestic element is represented by the Distichs of Cato. Langland. Schmidt."0 In many cases the same works turn up in different groupings of texts.ii. Bede. Some purposes are related to particular periods. offer considerable evidence of their purpose and readership. Ac Theologie techeth noght so. 106.i.
alias dictamen. the Old Spanish 85-148). Thus its original purpose was to teach composition. R. to my knowledge we find cites MS Q.88 compiled by Othlo in the mid-eleventh century from Christian and secular sources. 82 find the Distichs of Cato with Publilius Syrus (here called Exceptiones Senece) and the 81 As in n. p.XIII we prose Balbus collection of sayings of the Greeks. being more Christian. viii. 278 (text of the glossary at pp. proverbs are excerpted on pp. Spanish proverbs with Latin translations. In the legal context. and Boethius's De consolatione philosophiae. Glosarioslatino-espaiolesde la Edad Media. He recommends that they read it after the Psalms-that is. p. 82. and three of the medieval artes:the art of rhetoric or poetics. She argues that this florilegiumstarted life in the twelfth century in a redaction which contained two types of material: there were both witty moral epigrams. 119. Proverbes franCaisanttieurs au XVesiecle. 31.and the art of preaching. p. and longer pieces on set themes (the blessings of poverty.) One example of a school reader is BL. Add. 87 Castro points out an isolated reference to sermons. in Treason in Tudor England: Politics and Paranoia. Bibliothbque Nationale (hereafter BNP). 'refranero' 88 As in n. the Distichs of Cato were a byword for elementary education well into the early modern period. MSS Q. popular similar Latin commentary on Old Spanish proverbs. however its derivatives in the thirteenth century stress the brief quotations and occur in the company of preaching aids. the art of epistolary composition. 348.87 The Libellusproverbiorum. of which only two have a legal connection.81 in her study of the Florilegium gallicum. and various other Latin proverbs. for teaching a variety of verbal skills ranging from simple reading to literary composition. p. Paris 1971.83 a text called Bonum spatium only the bilingual collections. (Indeed Lacey Baldwin Smith. An important distinction should be made between texts which were intended as an aid to the production of other texts. Burton. no. 10360. Prosper's epigrams less advanced schoolbook containing basic grammatical texts. Cotton Vespasian B. 45. Recherches sur le Madrid 1936. castillan.85 Much better documented is the use of books of maxims and florilegia as school textbooks. but this does not seem to me to be a preaching manual. 10093. to judge from the published literature this does not seem to have been the most common use of gnomic texts: Morawski lists some twenty-twoLatin-Old French collections.32 BARRY TAYLOR perceived as serving various purposes. part one (fols 1-56): this is a small volume containing the Distichs (without commentary). and other legal texts to comment on be added the Seniloquium. 84 On the Seniloquiumsee L. 83 Paris. in BL.which gives a French to this should proverbs. This content downloaded on Wed. A. 31. Castro. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . J. often as the second book they ever read-and hopes it will be more useful to them than Cato. 463-71. Paris 1925. At a higher level of training in eloquence. and descriptiona of people.86 attributes the from Augustine. ed. Morawski82 which uses passages from the Decretals. a grammatical work. At the head of the basic works. lat. Within the first group the four areas for which proverb texts most commonly provided a service were the law. is intended for schoolboys at an early stage in their careers.. places and abstract qualities). Morawski. Digest.84However. The Escorial Glossary is a paranoia of his title among the Tudor aristocracy inter alia to the effects of too much early reading of Cato and the biblical wisdom books. 86 London 1986. Four characteristics define this 85 As in n. shows particularly well how one text could be made to serve different purposes at different times. Combet. and those intended to be an object of the reader's attention in themselves.
This content downloaded on Wed. Mico of Riquier's florilegium seems to have been used for teaching prosody. 11983 has Seneca's De cldementia and the Proverbia Senecae with Marbod's treatise on versification. 94 'Metra iuvant animos. 46-49. The Declamationes occur throughout Oxoniense II. And finally on this theme. lat.' Brunh6olzl(as in n. p. cit. 92 Op. n. pp. pp. the role of Ps-Quintilian's Declamationes maiores is a particularly interesting example of the participation of some proverb books in the rhetorical tradition. 97 L. op. Serlo of Wilton composed a De diversis modis versificandi from them. pp. 9. 15155.. 29. Preserve the memory of things of the past and thus are pleasing to the reader. 2). presumably for the would-be poet. 79-87.97 in the most obvious interpretation they are exercises in the re-expression (up to ten times in part four) of moral commonplaces. Like the Florilegium gallicum it lists citations of authors in text order and similarly it originates in northern France in the twelfth century.99 and Serlo's Proverbia'ooare followed in Oberg's MS Pb (BNP.. 1).90 with grammatical treatises in BNP. p. 290-94. 31. it begins: Verses delight the mind. 'Omne tulit punctum' and 'Quicquid praecipies. lat. p. 7647. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . an aid for letter-writers in episcopal chanceries. pp. 2.94 Oxford MS Rawlinson C 552 is described by Burton95 as a small collection of verses explicitly for teaching versification. the first being the inclusion of extracts from Ovid. 96 See Talbot (as in n.89 The texts of the Florilegium gallicum and its descendants are found with dictionaries in BNP. and Burton (as in n. 'The Versus attributed proverbiales to John of Garland'. Marbod's treatise on versification. esto brevis'. 84-85. 9. 21. 35). apparently in text order. Oberg. 179039~ and BNP. ed. pp. encompass very much in few words.92 and with material on versification in BNP. J. cit. The epistolary manual seems to emerge in the eleventh century and has a history similar to that of the rhetorical art. Stockholm 1965. 100 Serlo of Wilton. 35). 101 Rouse and Rouse. 'The Florilegiumangelicum'(as in n.96 The Versusproverbiales attributed to John of Garland are found with his Dictionarius and his Accentuarius. 95 As in n. Vecchi (as in n. MediumAevum. 93 Op. 1934. 49-52. 99 Talbot. Add. 70-71. lat. comprendunt plurima paucis.iii. 13582. 98 Talbot (as in n. 90 See Burton (as in n. 7-12. The section on Horace's Ars poetica includes the three most famous Horatian tags on literary topics: 'Brevis esse laboro'. p. 31). 29. The best-studied proverb book in this context is the Florilegium angelicum. Proverbia. pp. 40). This function appears to date from the thirteenth century when an increased emphasis on preaching in general is marked by the emergence of 89 See Faral (as in n.. p. p.'10 The use of proverb collections as reference books for preachers is also well documented. / Pristina commemorant et sunt ea grata legenti.. Born (ed. and BL.93 The Florilegium Treverense is a collection of verse models. 31). Florilegium oxoniense II seems to belong to the rhetorical florilegium tradition: it has long passages from Horace's Satires98 which would be difficult to incorporate into sermons but make good models for literary composition. 31. lat.MEDIEVAL PROVERB COLLECTIONS 33 manuscript as a rhetorical-poetical manual. 91 Op. pp. K. cit. lat. 78-79. Several artes incorporate alphabetical lists of proverbs. and a collection of rhetorical poems: versus rapportati and a poem on Hermaphroditus attributed to Matthew of Vend6me. 28). Horace and Juvenal. In addition this text includes a note on punctuation. cit.. 3718) by a piece on a theme from Ps-Quintilian on a parricide.).
with its huge compilation of lives and sayings of the ancients. 16893. 104 As a counterbalance to the weight of classical material in many of these preachers' manuals. Les sermons universitaires parisiens de 1230-1231. Vulc. for example. in contrast to the Islamic world. D. xlviii. 'A Collection of Proverbs in BM Additional MS 37075'. Bessinger and R. 1922. 274-89. Royal 10. the rather disreputable Marcolf seems on the whole to have kept the company of some quite orthodox texts: among them sermons. which they perceived as possessing wisdom or purity of language. 107 Benary (as in n. 103 Round (as in n. Thus. M.'09 the term 'ethnographical' is inappropriate. 105 Burton (as in n. Add. ci. this is probably well founded where the collections occur with elementary grammatical texts. it seems to me that in the medieval West. Davy. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Jere Whiting. 1860 are both preachers' manuals. The Proverbia Senecae. pp. The Rouses'02 point out that by this period alphabetical order was being used for distinctiones. 'Classical Arabic Wisdom Literature: Nature and Scope'. 48 and BNP. Add. lat.08s The second possible purpose of the collections is an ethnographical one: that they are the work of learned collectors wishing to preserve the culture of the unlearned. esp. in text order. Pantin (as in n. all preceded by a contents list (though there is not a subject index). pp. indeed. 'Les recueils d'anciens proverbes franCaisanalys6s et class6s'. cit.34 BARRY TAYLOR preachers' manuals and reference books. p. with biblical quotations. in text order. an express intention of Vincent of Beauvais in preparing his encyclopedic Speculum historiale. 31). This content downloaded on Wed. collections of exempla and florilegia of sayings of the ancients. London 1965. It includes Casus decretalium (with index). selected works of Seneca and Ps-Seneca and sermons and distinctiones. Two possible motivations for the collections of popular proverbs should be considered. and a compilation on the virtues and vices. all compiled to help the preacher. xv. 70). 49-86 (59).J. BL. and the Auctoritates Aristotelis. P. make several appearances in books of this type. is arranged by author with alphabetical subject index. Round has noted that sixty-eight out of the eighty-five manuscripts of the Proverbia contain what was broadly speaking preachable matter. p. pp. 35. 51. B. it has been suggested that the Latin translations are the product of linguistic exercises. grouped under subject headings (chapter and verse are noted in the margin) . 1981. Gutas. p. First. 108 Such as the texts studied by Robert. an epitome of Gratian with Arabic reference numbers in the margin. 120. in Franciplegius:Medieval and Linguistic Studiesin Honorof FrancisPeabody Magoun. 499. 87). Paris 1931. However. 38820 are found the Proverbia Senecae. the basically patristic Flores Paradysi. it is worth noting that M. Journal of the American OrientalSociety. 36. 109 See. see also J. scriptural concordances. and B.. 481-558.104 Leiden. a collection of extracts from Aristotle and other philosophers. Romania. Creed. 44). for example.XII brings together the Moralium dogma philosophorum (with its authorities named in the outer margins).A.103 In BL. p. saints' lives and an alphabetical Repertorium theologicum'07-though I am not aware of any quotation from this text in any extant sermon. Morawski. a collection of quotations on basic doctrinal questions. the Balbus collection. while the second includes the Florilegium angelicum and a probable expanded version of the Florilegium gallicum. p. the first also contains the Proverbia rustici. 80).106 Finally. with bibliography. 36-37 and 66-69. Another book designed for use as a reference manual is BL. taken largely from Augustine and Bernard. as it suggests a divorce between the culture of the observer and that of the informant which 102 'Statim invenire' (as in n. pp. whose alphabetical arrangement lends itself particularly well to reference purposes. 106 Op.' 05 Another text of this type. both arranged by subject. 73) and Castro (as in n. eds. found only eight quotations from classical authors in the 44 sermons which she studied. was to provide an aid to preaching.
pp.' BL. sparsim. 73). 282-89. who was topically likened to a pollen-gathering bee. pp. Zemon Davis. the reader is conceived of just as a reader. its painted initials. Morawski. pp. 1-19 (6). and its spacious and largely empty margins. That is.. with its large half-page miniature on folio 1. 126-27. p. Barns. writing in 1535. xliv... preaching and possibly also dictamen."114 In this case at least the proverb collection is no mere reference tool. BL. F. not as a potential writer.MEDIEVAL PROVERB COLLECTIONS 35 appears in Europe to be a phenomenon only of the post-medieval period. but a literary work in its own right. see n. 16376. THE BRITISH LIBRARY 110 See N. 1950."' collections should not be viewed differently from the Latin ones: both categories are used for education. guage Associationof America. Bfihler. Add. for example. such as the narratives with embedded maxims and those works entered on the Table as successors of the Distichs of Cato. 6 Mar 2013 22:41:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 113 J. Add. de Vald6s.London 1975. containing Burley only. 111 See. but though small (about 5 by 3 inches) it is provided with proportionately extravagant margins and might be seen as a bodily expression of the purpose of Walter Burley's Lives of the Philosophers. 112 For education. MSS D. 227-67. 1950. 24662.. is of middling quality rather than de luxe. Proverbes(as in n. or the Liber de dictis philosophorum in BL. Publications of the Modern Lanlxv. and the comments of J."3 But notwithstanding this tradition. 10 One might note also that many vernacular authors use popular proverbs and learned I would suggest that the vernacular and bilingual sententiae indiscriminately.. pp. This content downloaded on Wed. containing St Basil's De liberalibus studiis and the Moralium dogma philosophorum. C. 126-37 (321. 'The Liber de dictis philosophorum antiquorum and Common Proverbs in George Ashby's Poems'. Some texts suggest this strongly. in the Didlogo de la lengua. able to perform many of the functions sought of the literary text of the Latin Middle Ages. 82). Madrid 1982. in her Societyand Culture in Early Modern France. Barbolani. ClassicalQuarterly.11"2 The medieval attitude to literature was such that any book might be made to yield up memorable and useful quotes by a suitably diligent reader. 15406 and Add. Add. 108. for dictamen see the theory of Pantin (as in n. ed. 24662. 83. often in gold. fol. in diversis libris. F and G (pp. certain gnomic works are presented as material to be taken in by the reader without any thought of retransmission. are not reference works: they have no aids to quick use. 16906. Some manuscripts are very obviously de luxe: the Cathoniana confectio. BL. pp. n.. for preaching. 'A New Gnomologium: With Some Remarks on Gnomic Anthologies'. 'Proverbial Wisdom and Popular Errors'. E. xlv. Add.. 114 'Multa que. Ir. C. 1). as described in his prologue: I have laboured to gather in one place many things which were scattered in different books and which will be capable of bringing readers consolation and education of morals. 1951. v-vi). in unum colligere laboravi que ad legentium consolationem et morum informationem conferre valebunt.
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