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C.8
THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES
ROBERT W. WEBB
GEOLOGY
DEPT., U.C.U
The
DJfcEED DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES, CALIF.
RALPH
LIBRARY
ROBERT W. WEBB
GEOLOGY
DEPT., U.C.LA.
All Naval and Military Books, wheresoever Published, are kept in Stock, and can
be supplied without delay, by
EDWARD STANFORD,
Naval and Military Publisher and
Bookseller,
26
&
27,
Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, London, S.W.
CATALOGUE POST FREE.
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY
ILLUSTRATED
BY PRACTICAL EXAMPLES
OF A PRACTICAL SUBJECT
BY
MAJORGENERAL W.
E.
,
MONTAGUE,
C,B,
p. s. c.
LATE GARRISON INSTRUCTOR; INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, ETC.
WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS
EDINBURGH AND LONDON
MDCCCXCIII
All Riijhts reserved
CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION
PAET
I.
ELEMENTARY.
1.
To
find the distance
from a
hill, its
height and angle of
13
elevation being
2. 3.
known
.
Example
Example
hill, its
of resection
.
.
.
.
.
13
of intersection
;
also to find the height of a
distance arid angle of elevation being
known
;
also to fix the position of a point
by
.
its
.
H
E, one
.
.
bearing being given
4.
.
.
14
To
find the height of an object, distance
depression being
5.
6.
7.
Method
to be used
known when the
......
and angle
scale
is
of
15 15 16
not normal
.
.
To
fill
in the contours
where several valleys unite
.
Plotting from a
of a point, its
"
section line," also to fix the position
HE
and one bearing being given
.
16
562963
6
"
CONTENTS.
Form
side
9.
8.
lines" used to
mark a change
in slope on a hill
17
of the principal terms used in
Example
Topography
in
connection with the ground
10. Intersection
;
18
also to find heights, the
.
.
HE
.
and angle of
.
.
elevation being given
.
18
PART
II.
THE FIELDBOOK.
11.
12. 13.
To sketch hilly country by a traverse To plot a traverse line across hilly country To plot from a fieldbook, and to find the
.
...
. .
.
21
22
RF
of the
sketch
14.
1 5.
23
.
16.
To To To To To To To
To
plot a winding road, and the hills on either side
24
plot a hill from contours noted in a fieldbook
fix
.
.
25
and traverse the
.
. .
initial
contour of an isolated
26
hill
17.
plot a road winding
normal
18. 19.
20.
plot a road crossing a
......... ...
up
a valley,
hill
the scale not
27
and a valley
28
29
plot the traverse of a road winding
up a
hillside
.
traverse
and plot the
initial
contour of a hilly
30
feature
21.
plot in the head of a valley from notes in a field
book
22.
31
of
The use
"
Reference Points
"
when
plotting hilly
country
32
CONTENTS,
7
PART
III.
FORM LINES.
23.
"
Section lines
lines
"
to give the height of a hill,
"
"
to
of
show the change
"
24.
25.
Example " Form lines " showing small
tween contours
Section lines
and
of slope "
....
lines
.
and " Form
33
34
Form
.
.......
by
a "
features which occur be
35
2G.
To
find the height of a hill
Section line," a good
exercise in plotting in contours
....
36
PART
R
7
.
ADVANCED SKETCHES.
27. 28.
Intersection and resection
To assume a datum, and
sketch
is
find the
to be executed
resection,
...... ......
R F
of
37
on which the
38
29.
Intersection,
find
and use
the
formula to
38
VI
in contouring
30.
31.
Example
40
Conventional signs, and the value of the points of the
compass
32. 33. 34.
40
To
fill
in contours
where several watercourses join
.
41
Fixing a point by alignment
42
To
To
calculate the height of a hill
from the
fall
of a
stream
35.
44
heights
calculate
fractional.
36.
To
fill
in a sketch
........ ....
when the angle
of elevation
is
44
45
from scanty data
8
37. 38.
CONTENTS.
To survey an inaccessible position To find the scale on which a portion
vey
is
....
of a
46
combined sur47
to be executed
PART
39.
40.
V.
SECTIONS.
'
41.
To draw the section of a hill To draw a section of a hill from notes taken To draw the plan of a hill from its section
. .
.
.
.
51
carelessly
...
.
52
53
NOTES TO DIAGRAMS
.
55
INTRODUCTION.
THE
following exercises are intended to assist beginners in Military Topography to overcome the difficulty they constantly meet with on finding that the
study of a most practical and outofdoors subject is conducted at a table in a classroom, and that the
ground,
its slopes, its features, its hills, its valleys,
and
streams, which they are told to depict, disin a mass of rules and formulae. In each of appear these exercises the student is introduced to a small
its
portion of the ground,
will assist
is
given just so
many
data as
suffi
him
to understand its features,
and
cient points to enable
him
to sketch it correctly.
Each example is intended as a practical guide to some rule or formula, and to point out its use to the
sketcher
when on the actual ground. In the theoretical or indoor study of Military Topography a frequent cause of perplexity with
beginners
is
to
mix up the
scale of the plan with
10
INTRODUCTION.
the slopes of the ground, and it is not always easy to convince them that there is no connection between
No matter what the scale of our plan the hardandfast mathematical truth remains that
the two.
is
if
slope of 1, we shall have to take fiftyseven paces before we are one pace lower than our startingpoint, and that if the slope changes to 2 or 3, we shall have to complete one
we
set out to pace
down a
half or onethird of the
same
fiftyseven paces before
we have
The
the
"
got
down our one
pace.
no doubt, is owing to the use of normal system," in which the distance to be
difficulty,
measured
the scale.
vertically
between contours varies with
can occur
it is
To a man who has once mastered the
no such
difficulty
;
subject, of course,
only with beginners it is possible, and it is mentioned here because these examples are intended for their
benefit.
It is also a trouble to beginners to find themselves
so often face to face with that perfectly intractable
19.1,
which appears
to
have jostled the original
the change
is
.",7.:;
out of place.
figures,
We
it is
know
made
to save
but
at the expense of sacrificing unity.
Tme, we shall walk down our 1 slope for 19.1 yards before we shall find ourselves one foot below our
startingpoint,
and the
figures
and the reason
for
adoption are clear enough to the ordinary surveyor; but I have found that the original rule has far more hold on the student's mind, and that
their
INTRODUCTION.
all difficulty is at
1 1
order to
an end when he is taught that in one unit vertically he must measure drop fiftyseven units horizontally down a slope of 1.
In working out these examples do not be in a
hurry, do not try to make a pretty picture and get the thing done in each example is wrapped up the
;
application of one or
mulae which
stand.
sacrificed
more standard rules or forimportant to learn and to underAbove everything accuracy must not be
it is
to
pictorial
effect;
when the sketch
is
inspected the dividers will be applied to the various distances shown, and marks of approval will be in
proportion to the difference between those on the sketch and those on the original.
Another
hint.
Look out
for
your triangles
!
Ee
member
that the solution of most of the problems in Military Topography depends upon that of a right
angled triangle.
always easy
and
First find out your triangle not this found look out which of the
if
sides are given,
and
there are two such, the third,
puzzle,
is
representing the x of the
easily forth
coming.
Again,
in
when
"
following
section lines," or traverses
which changes of height occur, mark each change in order by the formula, by which the exact vertical height is found and a secure startingpoint is gained
for further progress.
Do
not be content to step
scale of horizontal
is
the slopes
up or down with the
equivalents on your protractor, that
well enough
1
2
INTRODUCTION.
for adepts, or for
rough outofdoor work when no examiner with his dividers will have the last word
in the matter.
In the following examples, those in Part I. deal with elementary problems in intersection, resection,
the use of the formulae to ascertain heights and disThose in Part II. tances, and plotting easy ground.
show how to book, more
ground
:
plot the notes jotted
especially the ordinary fieldbook problems are not given here as those in the textbooks are always " In Part III. " form lines and " section available.
lines
"
down in the fieldwhen taken across uneven
are
worked out and
their use fully explained.
Part IV. takes the learner on to more advanced
ground, the sketches being framed to include in each
example most of the foregoing rules. Lastly, in Part V. two examples of sections are given, which are quite simple, but require considerable care to render with accuracy. The plans have been executed as they would have
been had they been finished in the field, sufficient accuracy only being aimed at to enable the officer
requiring
them
to read
the configurations
of
the
ground
represented for military purposes.
\V.
E.
MONTAGUE.
13
PART
I.
I.
in their centre,
A, B, C, are hilltops overlooking a lake which lies and bearing from that central point
respectively
15, 135, 255. Their summits are respectively 70
above datum level
;
ft.,
130
ft.
ft.,
90
ft.
the lake being 30
above
the same point. Slopes taken to each hilltop from the lake are
1, 4, 2
respectively.
Plot the above.
Scale
TTTT^IT.
normal contours.
II.
A
B
S.
is
a
hill top
100
ft.
above datum
level.
from the main
and C are underfeatures on a spur stretching A distance of 500 yds. hill.
14
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
between
is
A
and B, and
B
and C
;
each imderfeature
it.
40
ft.
lower than the
hill to
the X. of
D
B
;
another underfeature of the same height as from it bearings were taken to B 300, to C 240.
is
The
col
between
A
and
those between
B
and C, and
in.
Plot the above at 6
tours.
D, 45 ft. below 15. to the mile, normal con
B is B and
65
ft.
below
A
;
III.
stream winds through a valley in a direction bearing 215 for a distance of 1000 yds., its average
fall
A
*V
A, B, C, are hilltops on either side. From the head of the stream the bearing of A is 245, the angle of elevation 4, slope concave and
;
from the mouth
bearing of
of
the stream
it
bears 357, the
C being 60. From A the bearing of C From C the bearing of B
of elevation of
is is
120.
33.
from the head
of tin
The angle stream is 4.
B
C and B
the stream.
are each 40
ft.
higher than the head of
The
tours.
col
between
B and C
is
55
ft.
above
sealevel.
Plot the above at 6
in. to
the mile, normal con
ELEMENTARY.
15
IV.
A
A
40
ft.
stream
rises in a valley at a point
it
60
ft.
above
the sea, into which
flows in a direction due S.
and
B
are hilltops
W. and
E. of the source
it,
of the stream,
each 250 yds. distant from
A being
lower than B.
The angle of depression from distant, is 4.
A to
the sea, 670 yds.
From B
on
it
a spur stretches southwards to the coast
;
two underfeatures, connected by cols C and D, each one 40 ft. lower than the one to the N. The angle of depression from B to them 3.
Plot the above at 6
in. to 1 mile,
contours normal.
V.
A
sea.
is
a hilltop
which sends a spur due
S. to
the
B is an underfeature on it, distant from A 382 yds.,
and 60
ft.
above the sealevel.
The angle of elevation from B to A is 3. The col which connects B with the main hill of B. ft. below, and 180 yds.
is
36
K
Contour the above, scale 12 intervals 12 ft.
in. to
1 mile, vertical
16
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
VI.
A, B,
C
are hilltops.
Two
streams rise midway between
fall of
A
and C, and
A and
B, uniting at a point D, 300 yds. S. of A, and
continue in that direction at a
TV.
Bearings from
A to A
B
Angles
..
B,
C,
155.
222.
280.
C, through D,
of elevation
D D D
The heads
C.
to A,
6.
B, 6.
C,
4.
30
ft.
of the streams are
below
B and
Contour the above at 12
normal.
in. to
the mile, contours
VII.
the extremity of a cape projecting into the sea you pace due N. up a slope of 2 for a distance of 300 yds. to a small plateau 50 yds. across. You
From
continue to pace
down the northern
143
slope of this
knoll, still going N., the angle of
depression the
same
as before, for
yds.,
and continue in the
till
same direction on
level
ground
the hills
A
and
ELEMENTARY.
17
B
bear E. and
to
W.
of
your position
to
;
the angle of the latter
ft.
elevation
A
being 4,
B
6
;
is
marked on the Ordnance
level.
map
as 60
above sea
From
to
the centre of the knoll bearings were taken,
to
A
30,
B
327.
in.
Plot the above, scale 12
contours.
to the mile,
normal
VIII.
Being desirous to plot and contour an isolated hill you proceed to the summit, which is formed by a
plateau stretching 300 yds. N. and
E.
S.,
and 150
yds.
and W.
initial "
your
The edge of this plateau you take as contour, and from a central point on it
"
lay out
section lines
A, B, C, bearing respectively
as follows
40, 160, 280.
You then
pace
down each
(
:
Line A,
{
I
238 yds. at 6
Atro
II
slope.
II
O 5
_
**
ft Cl Ct
II
it
4
O 2
1 i
AO
(I
II
'
<oo
II
716
n
ii
Plot in the above, scale 4
contours.
in.
to 1 mile,
normal
B
18
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
The summit
of
an island 100
ft.
above the sea
forms a plateau about 350 yds. across, the S.E. edge broken inwards by the head of a valley in which is
a stream which joins the sea at an average
fall of
TV.
An
underfeature, 20
ft.
below the summit and
connected with the main
hill
by a
col
45
ft.
above
sealevel, bears from a central point on the plateau
157, the angle of depression to it 1. Slopes on and W. 10. the E. of the main hill 2, on the
K
Plot the above at 6
in. to
a mile, normal contours.
X.
A
and
B
are hilltops on an island. are underfeatures.
C and
D
Bearings from
A to A
B B
The sea
is
B, 107
C,
;
distance,
500 yds.
760
68.
i.
D, 135; 2. C,
1200
190
yds. S. of B.
,t i.
D.
of
400
200
..
W.
A.
N. of C.
ELEMENTARY.
1
9
The
and 70
col
ft.
between
A and B
is
230
yds. distant
from
below the former.
Angles of depression from B to D, 3.
A
B
it
B,
1.
.
C, 3
D
Plot the above at 6
M
the sea, 7.
a mile,
in. to
normal contours.
21
PART
II.
THE FIELDBOOK.
XI.
The following traverse was taken across some low hills plot and contour a plan from the entries, scale
;
>
normal contours
:
Forward angle
60.
A to B
22
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
xrr.
628
481
441
Fall
9;
closing angle on (T) 270
evel.
Rise
Fall
2.
3'.
299
7.1
Level.
180"
ffl)
330 310 238
Level.
Rise 8.
Level.
198
158 50
Level
Fall
;
stream's source,
fall fa
7.
Level.
90
(n)
Level.
Rise 7.
Rise 5
s
.
Rise 3\
Rise.
2.
;.
Rise 2
stream 150 yds. 90.
Plot the above entries in a fieldbook; scale 12
inches to 1 mile, normal contours.
THE FIELDBOOK.
XIII.
800 360
150 125
23
50^
to
A
180.
spur 203*
140
260 100
49"
to
A 134"
(n)
560 150
136
slope
4'.
(T)
A
tract of hilly country threequarters of a mile
is
square
square.
to be represented
on a plan three inches
The
from
features are a plateau
and a ridge stretching
it,
both 250 feet above datum level; an under
with the main hill by a col, a and a valley in which is a stream. Angle of spur, depression from the extremity of the ridge to A 2,
feature, A, connected
to the col
320 yds.
distant,
6.
of the plateau
The above traverse was made
ridge
and
commencing
in the
N.W. corner
of the ground.
Sketch the above to
scale,
normal contours.
24
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
XIV.
1800
100
1650
1300
angle of elevation
D 2.
angle of elevation
B3
700
150':
360"
'4*
Plot the above traverse
of
an unenclosed road
winding through a valley between B, C, D, hilltops, from seacoast to seacoast, the highest point upon it
45
feet
above the
is
sea.
B
is
20
feet higher
than C,
and
D
10 feet higher than B.
Scale 6 inches to the mile, normal contours.
THE FIELD BOOK.
25
XV.
608
417
341 150
33*
t
1310
slope 3
100)
1210
slope 7
1019
637
382
7
isolated hill.
Plot the above traverse of a footpath crossing an Scale TTTSW? normal contours.
are the angles of the slope between the
?
What
contours
What
is
the general gradient of the path in going
hill
?
up and coming down the
26
rl
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
^
THE FIELDBOOK.
27
XVII.
32.3
215 337
C
(Hi)
480
36"
(it)
286
337
(l)
Plot and contour the above entries in a fieldbook
of a road
hilltops.
winding up a valley to a pass between two
1 mile,
Scale 12 inches to
YI. 15
feet.
28
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
XVIII. [.
THE FIELDBOOK.
29
XIX
1146
955
860
765
620
526
382
286
60
(T)
Plot the above entries in a fieldbook of the traverse of a road winding from the coast
of a hill, general slope
at
up the
side
10
ft.
1, and put in the contours vertical interval on the right of the road
;
normal
scale.
30
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
XX.
Coast 328*, slope
T
133"
5
180.

3T
270, slope
10"
Plot the above entries in a fieldbook of the initial
overlooking the sea, and fill in the contours to the sealevel on the south scale 4 inches
contour of a
hill
;
to 1 mile,
normal contours.
THE FIELDBOOK.
31
XXI.
Crest
32
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
XXII.
33
PART
III.
FORM LINES.
XXIIT.
A, B, C are hilltops on a ridge to the N. of and Streams rise under A parallel with the seacoast.
and
in the cols
on either
side,
and
fall into
the sea
sandy bays. a point S at the head of one of these bays, is 360, distant here 100 yds. across, the bearing of
at the
head
of
From
A
1020 yds.
Bearings from
A
to B,
266
;
angle of depression, 1
;
distance,
760 yds.
A to C, 78^
760 yds. Cols between
;
angle of depression, 1
;
distance,
A and B, 420 yds. u A C, 525
from
it
A
ii
;
slope,
5.
;
4
e
.
c
34
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
General slopes to the sea south of
B and
of C,
."
and 2
respectively.
The
central
bay
"
is
about 600 yds. across at
"
its
entrance.
The following
section lines
were taken
:
A to F, bearing, 202. A to D, 190 yds. slope, 5. D E, 1050 1.
; ..
E
M
F
on the
sea,
350 yds.
;
;
slope,
3.
;
A to
G
G, bearing, 137
to
dist.,
f
;
H, bearing, 164
382 yds. slope, 3. dist., 382 yds. slope, 1.
;
115
..
2.
H
ii
K oil
the sea, bearing,
198;
slope,
1.
Scale, 6 in. to 1 mile,
normal contours.
XXIV.
A
its
is
summit
:
a hilltop 90 ft. above sealevel, and from " " section lines were taken to the coast, as
follows
AB
3.
AD
6. 8.
H, bearing, 180. B to H, slope, 2. E G, bearing, 135.
A
to B, 190 yds.
;
slope,
A to D, 134 yds.
slope,
;
slope,
D
to E,
82 yds.
;
7.
E
to G, slope,
AF
K, bearing, 230. A to F, 115 yds. 8. F to K, slope, 10.
;
slope,
FORM
LINES.
35
Plot and contour the above under the following O
conditions
:
Scale of plan, 12
in. to 1 mile.
Contours at 12
Calculate
water.
ft.
vertical interval.
the
heights of o
E and F
above high o
XXV.
From
the top of a spur the following section lines
:
were taken
A A
1.
2.
A
General slope, 5. to B, 760 yds., slope, 4. 380 yds., depression, 1
(300 yds., N. and
S.)
;
B
;
to
C
50
knoll,
yds.,
;
level,
fall to C,
290 yds.
C
to
A
3.
A
to
D, 380 yds., slope, 4. B B, 380 yds., slope, 2.
yds., depression,
to
C C
knoll,
;
255
f
;
level,
200 yds.
;
fall to C,
290
yds., depression 2
to
D,
slope,
A
4.
A
to B,
2. 1275
yds., slope,
3.
B
to C,
380
;
yds., slope, 2. level, 300 yds.
A
General slope, The points D are on the datum
5.
300 yds. fall to D, 5 for 135 yds. 5 for 1070 yds.
to knoll,
;
C
D
level.
Plot and contour the above, scale ^TI^TT* normal
contours.
Calculate the heights of the three knolls.
36
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
XXVI.
A, B,
C
are hilltops on an island.
Bearing of
B
from A, 17
;
distance,
350 yds.
Bearings of
A
and
B
respectively from C, 252,
305.
Angle
From C
yds,
of depression "
a
section line
:
from C to A, 3 to B, 2. " is taken due E. to the
;
coast, as follows
C
to
D, 110 3.
yds., 6
;
D
to E,
180
4; E
to F,
175
yds.,
The
coastline is indented
land to points
B and
The
of A.
C.
by bays stretching inbetween A and B, A and C, midway is The head of the bay between A and
1'.
formed by a
sea
is
cliff
20
ft.
high.
200 yds. north of B, and 100 yds. south
south of C, 8. Slope north of C, 10 Plot and contour the above at a scale of 12
;
in.
to
the mile, normal contours.
37
PART
IV.
ADVANCED SKETCHES.
XXVII.
A
2270
stream, after winding
yds., joins the sea
;
down a
valley for about
fall
its
average
yy^
;
gen
eral direction,
153.
A and
From
C
the
are hilltops,
B
an underfeature of C.
mouth
ft.
of the stream,
A bears
292, and
from a point 40
higher up 201.
The bearings
of
C from
A and
is
from the stream's
source are 24 and 85.
From B
source,
the bearing of
A
240
;
of the stream's
309.
sea
is
The
750 yds. south
of
A.
From
A the
the clinometer:
following angles were observed with to B, depression, 1; to a rock in
38
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
the sea marked on the chart as
depression, 1
;
H
mile distant,
to C, elevation,
1.
in.
t<>
Plot and contour the above at a scale of 4
the mile, normal contours.
XXVIII.
A tract of hilly country about 1800 yds. square. A lake,, about 150 yds. across, lies in the centre of three hills, ABC. A stream leaves it on the S.E.,
average
fall,
TV.
From the centre of the lake A bears 314, B bears and from the shore the distance 70, C bears 225 to A is 900 yds., to B 800 yds., to C 1100 yds.
;
The angle
of elevation
from the lake to
A
is
5,
but the slope is only 3 for the first 380 yds. is 100 ft. higher than B, which is 175 ft. lower
A
than C.
Between
ft.
A and
B, and
A
and C, are
cols each
100
higher than the lake. Plot the above to scale so that the distance be
tween the shore of the lake and the hilltop C shall occupy 2 in. on the plan. Contour the plan on the
normal
scale.
XXIX.
A
lake, its shores irregular, thrusting themselves
into the valleys between the six hills A, B, C, D, E,
ADVANCED SKETCHES.
F,
39
which enclose
Distance from
it
;
cols,
25
ft.
above the lake, con
necting the hills one with another.
A
to B,
600 yds.
Depression to lake.
A A
Bearing of to B, 50
C, 106
C, 205
i
5
from
A
(same level as D).
5
B, distant 190 yds.
B
D, 310 D, 255
A, 186
F, 133 B, 98
10
5 8 6
C (same
E,
F,
level as B).
E E E
F
D, distant 230 yds. 190
.. ,.
127
A, 255
Plot and contour the above at the same scale as
that of a combined survey of which
part.
it is
to
form a
On
lost
arriving on the ground
your notebook in
only
call to
scale.
you which the
that
it
find that
you have
scale
was entered.
You can
You
mind
was
to be contoured
on the normal
are
able
to
ascertain
the position of five
consecutive contours by marks left on the ground,
the slope at that point being 5, and the distance
between the whole
of the
marks on measurement
you
find to be
152 yds.
40
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
XXX.
A A
stream
rises
under a
hill
A, which
is
1250 yds.
288
N. of an inlet of the sea into which the stream flows.
section line from
A
bearing 180
gives
yds., 6
slope; 480 yds.,
4
slope.
The remaining
it
distance to the sea, 2
B,
slope.
an tinderfeature
;
of
A, bears from
213
;
700 yds. angle of depression, connecting it with A is 18 ft. below B.
distance,
2.
The
col
an under feature of B, and bears from it 180 The distance, 800 yds.; angle of depression, 1.
is
C
;
col connecting it
with
B
is
30
ft.
above the
is
sea.
From C From
to the coast,
due
S.,
the slope
7.
a narrow ridge runs in a direction 140 for 600 yds., when it opens out into a plateau, covered
A
general direction 180 for 600 yds. it is 300 yds. across at its widest part. Slope from its southern crest to the sea, 10.
its
with heath,
;
Plot the above, scale 6
in. to 1
mile,
and
fill
in the
contours at 20
ft.
vertical interval.
xxx
A
r.
stream flowing in a direction from N.N.W. joins At 1), where it the sea, having an average fall of ^
.
ADVANCED SKETCHES.
enters the sea,
it is
41
100 yds. wide, gradually narrowing to 50 yds. 300 yds. from its mouth. Here it is crossed by an iron bridge over which a road leads to
the church at a gradient not exceeding 3 another road follows the right bank of the stream up the
;
valley, a line of telegraph
on one side of
it
it.
On
is
the
W.
of the
stream where
enters the sea
a
small village.
The
from
coast
W.
ft.
is
marshy, but
rises E. of the
hill
stream
into cliffs
40
;
high.
D
is
;
70
angle of
The church, on a depression to D, 4.
hill
A, bears
A
D
22
an underfeature of B, a
angle of elevation,
is
which bears from
col
4.
The
between
A
and
B
is
75
ft.
below A.
From
of
a point 1340 yds.
up the stream the bearing
head of another
to join the first
J^, the valley
B
94 and
of
A
134.
500 yds.
W.
of this point is the
valley through which a stream flows
stream at the village, average sides covered with oaktrees.
Plot the above at 6
fall to
D
in. to 1 mile,
and
fill
in the
contours at the normal intervals.
XXXII.
A
hill
A
is
due W.
of another hill B, each
lies
120
ft.
above a small lake which
between them.
42
MILITARY TOrOGUAPHY.
A
its
stream leaves the lake on the
;
S.,
and continues
course due S.
its
average
fall
5
V
and
A point H
streams join
bears from
on the stream marks where two smaller
it
from the
hills to the eastward,
A
155, from
B 204.
;
From B
a spur stretches in a direction 150
two
15
underfeatures
C and I) on
it,
connected by cols with
and with each other; a distance of 350 yds. between B and C, and C and D; angle of depression from B
to both,
3.
Streams
rise
below these cols and join
the main stream at H.
From
and
first,
the lakeshore the angles of elevation to
A
B
are 5
and 7.
The
slopes of
A
are gentle at
becoming
steeper as they ascend.
in. to
Plot the above, scale 6
it
1 mile,
and contour
according to the normal system.
XXXIII.
A
ft.
lake,
S., lies in
about 400 yds. E. and W. and 200 N. ami the hollow of some hills, at a height of 90
level.
;
above datum
A, B,
E are hilltops C
F and G
and
D extreme
points of a
ridge
;
K a knoll, its summit circular, about
;
80 yds.
across
streams which rise under the cols
on either side of
B and
flow into the lake.
its
Another
stream leaves the lake on
southern side at a point
ADVANCED SKETCHES.
43
M with a uniform
full of yV,
and a fourth stream quits
I)
the basin at H, flowing S.W.
M
is
in the direct line
between
and K, 700 yds.
distant from D.
B, 275.
Searings fram D,
C,
G, 300.
360,
distant 900 yds.
Bearings from K.
E,
E, 256.
2.
K, 282. A, 302.
B, 321.
F,
H, 240.
Angles of
elevation.
314.
G, 346.
K K
to B,
2.
A, 3.
E, 4.
M
Searings from A.
H, 173.
Bearings from
E,
C.
Angles of depression.
K to M, 2.
D
B B
..
M,4.
Y, 2f.
227.
M
M
11
K, 239. A, 273.
Plot the above, at 6
contours at 20
ft.
G, 2.
E
in. to
H, 8
.
1 mile,
and put
in the
vertical interval.
44
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
XXXIV.
A
B
stream rises at
A
midway between two
ft.
hilltops
and C, east and west of it, and each 100 slopes from A to B and to C, 4.
higher
;
Two narrow
spurs start from
B and
C, falling
1
.1
1000 yds. to F and E, and bearing respectively from B and C 140 and 160. The sea is 300 yds. S. of E, the coast rising in a
for a distance of
cliff
40
ft.
high.
The sea
500
is
600 yds. E.
fall of T
of
I'..
The stream has an average
direction 157
for
V
from
A
in a
yds., till it
meets the northern
divides, one half
slopes of the knoll D,
where
it
flowing S.E. into the sea a distance of about 1400 yds., falling in that length 50 ft.; the other half
circling
W. and
S.
round
D
till
it
loses itself in the
marshy ground on the coast 200 yds. S. of D. From the summit of D the bearing of C is 317,
of
B
25
;
the angle of depression to the point where
the stream divides,
5.
it
Hot
the above at a scale of T u!*ff> an d contour
on the normal system.
XXXV.
A
stream
rises
on the
S. of
and 20
ft.
below the
crest of a small plateau
250
ft.
above the sealevel,
and flows down a valley
in a direction bearing
210
ADVANCED SKETCHES.
for
45
730 yds. at an average fall of ^. Here a second stream joins it from the N. and W., the ground at this point marshy, and the two united flow round the
slopes of the hill
A
till
they join the sea about 400
yds. S.E. of that hill.
From
the
point
where the streams unite the
bearings of
two
ft.
hills
A
B
and
30
ft.
B
are 126
and 278,
A
being 50
and
higher than the ob
The bearing from the same point to the col between A and B is 215, distant 200 yds. angle of elevation, i. From this col the angles of elevation to A and B are 2 and 1 respectively.
server's position.
;
The sea
B.
is
325 yds.
S.
of A,
and 360
yds. S. of
At
a point on the main stream 180
ft.
above the
;
sea an underfeature
C
bears 312, distant 400 yds.
angle of elevation,
.
below B, and the col connecting the underfeature C with the plateau is 20 ft. below C.
col
The
between
B
and C
is
20
ft.
Plot the above at a scale of 6
contours.
in. to 1
mile,
normal
XXXVI.
B
is
is
a stream flowing easterly, and hilltop A.
an elevation at the head of a valley in which is 1000 yds. S. of a
46
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
C
is
A and to B
The
an underfeature of A, the bearings from 73 and 139.
it
to
direction of the seacoast
a point S. of
B
is
A
from
of C.
stream
rises
is E. and W., and at 220 yds. from that height. in the valley between A and B, its
source 80
ft.
above the
sea,
B
33, and flows S.W.
till
141, bearing from it enters the sea S.
A
From From
40 400
ft.
A
A
and from
B
the angles of depression to
the source of this stream are 2
and 1.
the angle of depression to
C
is
1.
below
A
;
is
yds. across
in
a spur forming a plateau about it is a lake, a stream leaving it
on the E. and flowing down a valley in that direction another stream rises under the col between A
;
and C, and enters the sea main stream.
in the
at the
same point
mile,
as the
Plot the above at a scale of 4
in. to 1
and
fill
contours at the normal intervals.
XXXVII.
From
of
the mainland you wish to
"
make
a survey of
an island to which you cannot gain access because
a channel, called the
halfmile water," on account
of its width.
On an
old chart, not
drawn
to scale,
you
find the
ADVANCED SKETCHES.
heights given.
47
Thus the
hill
to conduct the survey is
marked 300
from which you intend of the two ft.
;
peaks on the island, that on the N. is marked 90 ft., that on the S. 70 ft., the col connecting them 30 ft. In appearance the island consists of these peaks,
the slopes to the sea on the
W.
steep, those
on the E.
enclose between
very gentle, stretching out into two low points, which them a bay.
The slope
the base a
of the hill
on which you stand
ft.
cliff
about 100
high.
From
:
the
10, summit
is
the following observations are taken
Bearings to
Northern shore
Southern
N. peak
S.
n.
of island,
n
n
64.
118.
75.
109.
peak
Col
of depression to
91.
Angles Eastern extremity of N. peak, 2.
n
ii
S.
peak, 2f.
in. to 1 mile,
Plot the above at a scale of 4
fill
and
in the contours according to the
normal
scale.
XXXVIII.
An
irregular
ridge,
indented on the
S.
by the
heads of two valleys,
lies to
the N. of and parallel to
48
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
the
the seacoast, which here stretches E. and "W
extremities of the ridge
;
marked by
cairns
C and D.
and B, knolls below the ridge towards the coast, both the same height, angle of depression from B to
the sea,
A
3.
streams rise under the ridge at points 180
yds.
Two
yds.
and 380
from C, and flow southwards,
S.
uniting towards the E. of A, and then falling
again
till they join the sea. General slope of the watersheds, 2.
A line
of telegraph, the poles
lows the coast; two of
the former "W. of Y.
200 yds. apart, folthese are marked X and Y,
Bearings.
C
to
D,
C,
95.
A
B B
333.
50.
0,350.
D,
A, 360.
B, 327.
Y to Y X X
Angle
of
A,
B,
45.
5.
of elevation
to
from
B
to C,
.
The plan
an old
be executed on the same scale as that
of the
map
same ground
it,
to
which no
scale
was attached.
On
however, you find that the
ADVANCED SKETCHES.
distance between
49
A
and
it
B
is
1.6".
On
arriving on
the ground you find
distance
as
impossible to measure this
you
intended,
owing
to ,the
broken
nature of the
hills.
it
the above on the required scale, and contour on the normal system.
Hot
51
PART
V.
SECTIONS.
xxxix.
Draw
a section of a hill from the following data Scale for horizontal distances, TITBITit
vertical
ft.
M
T  T
.
Vertical interval, 12
A
B
C
to B, rise of
C, rise
4 in 200 yds. of 6 ft. in 100 yds.
D
E
F
,.
D, level for 80 yds. E, rise of 38 ft. in 200 yds.
F, fall of 15
ft.
ft.
down
for for
a slope of 3.
G, rise of 18
r,
G
H,
rise of
33
ft.
H
I
n n
225 yds. 150 yds.
for
I, fall
down
for
slope of 6
300 yds.
K, level
150 yds.
ft.,
K
L, rise of 25
slope
^T

52
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
L
to
it
M,
N,
fall of fall
30
ft.
for
75 yds.
for
M
down
slope of 2
220 yds.
XL.
You make
of
the following notes of a detached hill
which you wish to take a careful section. Commencing on the W., the angle of elevation
is
from datum level
2.
it
You pace up
this slope
till
gotten to count
changes to 4, but have for" " your paces, but a reference point on an adjacent hill gives your height at 78 ft. above datum. Before leaving the point where the slope
to
you come
where
changes you take the angle of elevation to the top
the
hill
of
and
find it is
5.
You now pace up the slope of 4 for 352 yds., when the slope again changes and continues at this
fresh angle to the top of the hill,
reference point to is a small plateau about 50 yds. across, and the slope on the E. to the datum is uni
another
"
"
which you find by be 200 ft. above datum.
The summit
form at 6.
Draw
a section of the
:
hill
under the following
conditions
Scale of horizontal distance,
n
vertical
n
Normal
scale of contours.
SECTIONS.
53
XLT.
Draw
last
a plan of the hill
shown
in section in the
is
10
tion
;
example. on the S.
On
is
the N. the slope
uniform at
due
;
S.
a watercourse running in a direcfrom a point 20 ft. below the summit ;
slope, 7
the slopes which enclose the valley in
which
it lies
bearing about S.E. and S.W. at uniform
slopes of
4.
Scale the
same
as that of the section.
55
NOTES TO DIAGRAMS,
i.
SIMPLE exercise in finding the
size
HE
by the formula.
The
of the lake
taken from
intersect
it.
immaterial, as the slopes would be its shore at points where the three bearings
is
II.
Easy example of resection to
III.
fix
the position of D.
head of the stream being found by A can be found, the distance and The position of B is found by slope being also given. calculating the HE between it and the head of the stream, and marking where this distance cuts the bearing taken to B from C.
The height
fall
of the
the
given, that of
IV.
An
HE
at
easy example of finding the heights, the slope and
The cols should be taken The fall of the intermediate to contours. heights stream and slope from to the coast can be assumed.
of one
(A) being given.
D
56
MILITARY TOPOGliAI'IIV.
V.
The
sketch.
scale not being normal, it
must be drawn on the
VI.
An
unite.
mula, and
exercise in finding the height of hills by the forof plotting in contours where several valleys
VII.
N
The point which
of the knoll
is
the
"
ft.
section line
"
followed arrives at
Find the II K above the sea. of B from this level (slope and VI given), adjust your compasses to this distance, and when they cut the bearing of B from the knoll, being placed at right angles to the
15
"section line," the position of B is fixed. The line thus it being produced to the right iixes the position of A, when its height can be found by the formula.
fixing
VIII.
example of "form lines" marking the change of " " on a section line that on A occurring at 2^ slope contours, on B at 2J contours, and on C at 3 contours from the highest contour.
IX.
An
An
example of
fillingin a small space
e.g.,
with several
a plateau, a valley, a col, an To produce a satisfactory underfeature, and a spur. sketch the head of the valley must make a considerable indentation in the plateau at the named point.
conventional signs
NOTES TO DIAGRAMS.
57
X.
Easy exercise in
the formula.
None
they
may be
indicated
plotting, and calculating the VI by of the summits are on contours, so "
by
form
lines."
XL
An easy example of traversing in a hilly country; the traverse should close on D.
XII.
The
entries
mark the contours on
"
to the top of the hill at II, a form line marking one If the work is done carefully the final station station. will close on I.
a "section line" "
up
XIII.
The scale is found by comparing the size of the plan with the area of the ground to be sketched, f of a mile is to be represented by 3 in. e.g., 4 in. to the
mile.
The
cated
plateau not falling on a contour by a "form line."
of the
level.
must be
indi
The lowest part
above datum
ground shown will be 90
ft.
XIV.
The positions of B and D are found by finding the HE from the points on the traverse line from which the angles of elevation are taken, setting the compasses to this distance and marking where they cut the bearings
58
from
I.
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
None of the points marked on the triminon contours, so care must be taken to find the exact height of the spot whence the heights of U and J) are taken. The col between C and 3) is taken in tinsketch at 45 ft.
line are
XV.
An example of contouring a road, the sketcher noting The slopes are 1, 1, 1, a station at each contour.
2, and 2, 2, 5, 2. The general gradient by calculating the height over the distance.
is
found
XVI.
The
initial
contour
is
taken 25
ft.
below the highest
point so as to show more exactly the general shape of the hill. It is traversed with great care and "section
lines" taken
down
the principal features.
XVII.
The
added
scale not being normal, a scale of slopes
to the plan.
must be
XVIII.
example of a road carried up a slope at a gradient than the slope. The height of I station must be assumed at above 0, otherwise the river when crossed by the road will be a minus quantity. The shape and
less steep size of the ridge are
An
and the contours W. of modes of rendering.
only roughly shown by the bearings, it lend themselves to several
NOTES TO DIAGRAMS.
59
XIX.
The
zigzag lines represent the windings of the road, " " section lines taken down the hill at
the arrowheads are
right angles to
the traverse line.
line,
First
mark
off
the
ft.
contours on the traverse
the last will be
60
in one instance only cuts one of these, so in calculating the slopes care must be taken to allow for the " " fraction of a contour from whence the section line starts.
The road
XX.
The
irregular line represents the initial contour,
its
height above the sea found by the distance and slope The height of the knoll viz., 120 ft. given from IV is found in the same manner.
XXI.
The by the
crest line being
rise
from
I,
drawn and its height determined which can be assumed at any height
is
above datum level, the lowest point of the stream found from IV.
XXII.
An
example
of
the use of
"
reference points."
At
III three points are found to be on the same level as The height of III is not known, but the observer. that of the N. bridge can be found by the fall of the
stream to be 120 ft., and as that is one of the points on the observer's level, it follows that III is at 120 ft.; and B, and station I. also the col between
A
60
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
XXIII.
used to denote a change found by working up fmm F the intermediate heights at E and D, also that of A, being found by the formula. The heights of G and H should be found in the same way.
lines
is
An
" example of form
"
of slope. the sea at
The height
;
of
A
XXIV.
" form lines Easy example of marking a change of The intermediate points B, I), E, and F should slope. have their respective heights calculated by the formula ; the distance to the sea from B, E, and F can be found in the same manner. As the scale is not normal it must be added to the sketch.
"
XXV.
" example of form lines showing features intermediate between contours which otherwise would not The height of A is obtained from section line appear.
An
"
A
5.
XXVI.
An
exercise in
" " form lines to indicate a change of
The height of C is found by the slopes and disslope. " tances given by the section line," then the heights of A and B can be found. Care should be taken to show the
indentations in the coastline.
NOTES TO DIAGRAMS.
61
XXVII.
example of intersection and resection. The height being found from the rock in the sea which is assumed to be ft., the other heights follow.
of
An
A
XXVIII.
The scale is found by making a length of 2 in. on the plan, equal to 1100 yds. on the ground. The lake must be assumed at a sufficient height above
datum The
level to allow for the fall of the stream
size of
on the S.E.
the plan will be nearly 4
in.
square.
XXIX.
An
example of intersection and
of the hills found by the formula.
resection, the heights The lake is taken as
datum.
XXX.
" form lines example of marking a change of and of slightly more difficult contouring. The slope, " " height of A is found by the section line to the sea. The
An
"
cols
should be placed so as to make the contours of the
fit
main valley
in neatly.
XXXI.
An
example of the use of conventional
signs,
and
of
calculating the value of the points of the compass in N.N.W. is the second point from N, each degrees.
62
MILITARY TOPOGIIAI'IIV.
r
point being WOlth llj
;
from culated from
lit
:$:57
]).
I
The
fall
the bearing <>f tin sinam of the streams must lx: cal
).
XXXII.
A
more advanced example
of filling in contours
larger
where
nx in
several valleys meet. The distant will be the point H.
are found
the lake
the
The
by calculating the
HE
and 11 positions of from the lakeshore and
from
it.
A
marking
this distance along the bearings
XXXIII.
The bearing 282 taken through D its distance is 700 yds. E.
;
M gives the
of
direction
of
M.
The
knoll
K
should be
left till
the surrounding contours fix
its
shape.
XXXIV.
The
distance of
B and C
;
from
A
is
found by the
1
1
!'..
the height of slope and VI being given by calculating the fall of the stream to the sea in the S.E. corner.
A
The knoll
D
is
found by resection, and requires care in
filling in the contours.
XXXV.
two below the plateau. An example of working with fractions of a degree. A good deal of the position of the contours is left to the draughtsman.
rises
found and
The point where the streams unite must be its height noted. The main stream
carefully
half contours
KUbLKl W. VVbbD
NOTES TO DIAGRAMS.
OGY DEPT
63
XXXVI.
The 90foot contour forms the edge of the plateau, the position of the lake on it has always seemed to be the difficulty of the example.
XXXVII.
Aii example of surveying an inaccessible object. The western slopes of the island can be assumed, in the sketch 12 is taken. The eastern extremities of the
island are found
by calculating the the hill on the mainland.
HE
from the top of
XXXVIII.
To
of find the scale,
A and B from the base XY at any convenient scale
make an independent
triangulation
;
this
gives the distance between them in yards, when the can be found and the sketch made on that scale, begin
RF
The heights of ning as before from the base XY. B are found by the slope from B to the sea.
A and
XXXIX.
There is no difficulty in this problem, only care must be taken to mark the exact spot between contours where The vertical the vertical distances cut the uprights. scale is the GO on the Marquoise Scale. If properly worked out the slope ending at N" should be on the same level as A. The highest point is 122 ft. above
datum
level.
64
MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY.
XL.
The
horizontal distance for the initial slope is found From this point ft., and the slope 2.
by the height, 78
the distance to the top of the hill is found in the same way. The intermediate point, to which the slope is 4, is found by calculating its height, the horizontal distance
and slope being given, and adding the result to tinThe scale for height of top of the first slope, 78 ft. vertical heights will be found to be 12 on the 50
Marquoise Scale.
XLT.
A
datum
line
must be drawn
of the
same length as
that of the section, the points on it which the contours cut being dotted off on a slip of paper and transferred to this datum line for the plan, care being taken to number
The them according to height. the summit can then be dotted
traced round the central hilltop. section of a plan reversed.
slopes N.
in,
and S. of and the contours
It is merely to take a
I'Kl.NTKD
BV WILLIAM IH.ArKWOOD ANFI SONS
..
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Toseo:
VI.
20 feet.
Scale,
nrhnr.
W. 20feet.
TEE.
too
rentes.
VI.
20 feet
iv:
Scale
wb:
W.
ZO feet.
V.
Scale..
72*80
W. 12 feet.
3'
of Horizontal,
VI.
Scale,. TT&O
VL 10
feet,
Scale,
siao:
VI.
W feet.
Scale
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IX.
Scale,
Tsfar.
VI.
20 feet
H
VT
20 feet.
xir.
7^ "to J
Contours
XIII
Scale,,
is a 40.
VI.
30 fee>.
.8
5
Scale.
JvAr
VI.
20 feet.
Scale,,
insgo
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VI /(/>,.(
60
xrx:
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XXI
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20 feet.
4
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IZfeet.
JT
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6*
7*
'
IO
Scale,
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3
inches to /mile,.
VI
W feet
XKV:
Scale
s^ao
VI.
W feet.
230
60
VI.
30 feet
Scale
TSlhfo.
VI.
3O feet,.
XXIX.
Scale
jihnr.
VI.
JO feet
v
240
Scale
Tojsa
W. 20 feet.
160
Scale
TTO n 20 feet.
A. 22
Scale
Ttrfea
VI.
20 feet.
236
Scale.
7of6<r.
W.
20 feet.
A
Scale.
Tzr&zr
VJ.
20 feeL
Scale
nrhio.
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20 feet.
XXXV
1
Scale,
n&rv
VI.
30 feet
300
Scale
7j**v.
VI.
30 feet.
XXXVTT
A
XXXVI11
Scale,. *&*.
VI.
36
a*
72
60 48
36
21
13
ScoZe
fossa.
IXXXIX.
V
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V
\
\
\
H
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L
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too
160
120
'00
80
SO
745
352
Scale
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XL.
637
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XLI.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
Los Angeles This book
is
DUE
on the
last
date stamped below.
DEC 2 7
195*'
"98
QTR
OCT1
Form L910m3,'48(A7920)444
MHK
LWRARY
<
UNIVERSITY Or
.i..f<
MtNH
A 000583177
1
UG
170
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