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Parametric design of a Francis turbine runner by means of a three-dimensional inverse design method
This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2010 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 12 012058 (http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/12/1/012058) View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more
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the impact of stacking condition on the runner c 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd 1 . improvement of suction performance and efficiency of water jet pumps . 1. UK Department of Mechanical Engineering.daneshkhah@adtechnology. London WC1E 7JE. while CFD analyses were performed to assess the hydrodymanic and suction performance of different design configurations that were investigated. Next. The use of blade parameterization using the inverse method lead to a major advantage for design of Francis turbine runners. may restrict the part of design space that is being used in the design as the designer tends to stay within the bounds of successful previous designs. In this present paper. On the basis of this study. London WC1E 7JN. CFD results provide a better understanding of the flow physics and they are now commonly used in industry. The design guidelines have a general validity and can be used for similar design applications since they are based on flow field analyses and on hydrodynamic design parameters. suppression of corner separation in pump diffusers  and improvement of cavitation in a Francis turbine runner . to compute the blade shape. namely stacking condition and blade loading was then investigated in order to determine their effect on the suction performance. First. University College London. An initial runner design was first generated and used as baseline for parametric study. where the blade geometry is described by geometrical parameters. while maintaining a high level of hydraulic efficiency. as the three-dimensional blade shape is describe by parameters that closely related to the flow field namely blade loading and stacking condition that have a direct impact on the hydrodynamics of the flow field.co. So the designer needs to rely on trial and error to improve the runner geometry. The effects of several design parameter. with its reliance on empiricism. A major improvement in the design of Francis runners can be achieved by the application of 3D inverse design method for the design of the runner shapes. ref [1-4]. Such an approach. a parametric design study of a Francis turbine runner is carried out where an inverse design method is used to parametrically describe the runner geometry and CFD analyses are performed to evaluate the hydrodynamic and suction performance of different configurations. The flow in Francis turbine runners is highly rotational and three-dimensional and therefore only three-dimensional methods will provide effective solution for a Francis runner. a baseline design was created using the basic design specifications of the Francis turbine runner. inverse design uses hydrodynamic parameters like the blade loading. they cannot be directly used as a design tool as they do not provide any direct information on how to change the runner shape. Unlike conventional direct design methods. A considerable improvement in the design of Francis turbines have been obtained by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). an optimum configuration was designed which results in a cavitation free flow in the runner. UK E-mail: k. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10. A high level of efficiency and a cavitation-free flow in the runner is usually desirable. The paper highlights design guidelines for application of inverse design method to Francis turbine runners. Although these methods are very useful for analysis in different design configurations. The application of 3D inverse design method has already resulted in important design breakthroughs such as suppression of secondary flows in radial and mixed flow impeller impellers [5-6]. Introduction The hydraulic design of Francis turbine runners requires accomplishment of several targets and constraints. The present paper describes the parametric design of a Francis turbine runner.uk Abstract. The runner geometry is parameterized by means of a 3D inverse design method.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 Parametric design of a Francis turbine runner by means of a three-dimensional inverse design method K Daneshkah1 and M Zangeneh2 1 2 Advanced Design Technology. Such an approach allows designers to directly relate their understanding of flow physics in the design process and hence access a larger part of the design space.25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf. offering a major advantage in the design process.
the effect of blade loading was studied for an optimum stacking configuration obtained in the previous step so that a cavitation-free flow in the runner is achieved. Then. It is this feature of the code that is used in this paper for parametric study. The interphase transfer is governed by a mixture model where the interface length scale is 1 mm. • Stacking condition. Inlet and exit rVθ spanwise distribution.g stacking or blade loading) while fixing the other parameters.15 K. band. The pressure loading (the pressure difference across the blade) is directly related to the meridional derivative of rVθ through momentum equation of an incompressible flow in the blade passage in pitch-wise direction. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a finite-volume approach and k-ε model with standard wall function implementation was used for the turbulence closure. The circulation distribution is specified by imposing the spanwise rVθ distribution at blade leading and trailing edge and the meridional derivative of the circulation drVθ/dm (blade loading) inside the blade channel. The code then automatically interpolates the blade loading in spanwise direction to obtain two-dimensional distribution of the loading over the whole meridional channel. One unique feature of TURBOdesign1 is that it allows designers to vary one parameter (e. The average value of total pressure. leading and trailing edge contours. The saturation pressure is 3619 Pa and the mean nucleation site diameter is 2μm. Inlet flow conditions in terms of spanwise distributions of total pressure and velocity components. 2. ρ is the density and Wm is the pitch-wise averaged meridional velocity. Design of Baseline Configuration A Francis turbine runner with specific speed of vs=0. 3. In order to verify the different configurations that were designed. while maintaining high level of hydraulic efficiency. Turbodesign-1  is a three-dimensional inviscid inverse design method. Normal thickness distribution at two or more spanwise sections. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of stacking condition of on the runner efficiency and its suction performance. Fluid properties and design specifications. CFD calculations were performed using the commercial software ANSYS CFX 12. For cavitation analysis. where the distribution of the circumferentially averaged swirl velocity rVθ is prescribed on the blade meridional channel and the corresponding blade shape is computed iteratively. Inverse Design Method The commercial 3D inverse design code TURBOdesign-1 was used as the design methodology in this study. The computational domain was discretized by means of a hybrid H-C-O type structured mesh with approximately 375K nodes per blade passage.1.35 was selected for this study. the runner head is controlled Blade loading distribution (drVθ/dm) at two or more spanwise sections. The stacking condition must be imposed at a chord-wise location between leading and trailing edge. By controlling its value. Everywhere else the blade is free to adjust itself according to the loading specifications. B is the blade number. which occurs at the runner inlet was imposed as a boundary condition at the inlet of the computational domain. Flow is assumed to be homogeneous and isothermal at 293. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10. Number of blades. The input design parameters required by the program are as follows: • • • • • • • Meridional channel shape in terms of crown. a two phase Rayleigh-Plesset model is used.25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf. which is given below: p + − p − = (2π / B ) ρWm ∂ ( rVθ ) ∂m (1) Where p+ and p– correspond to the static pressure on pressure and suction side of the blade. where the specific speed is defined by ω Q 1/ 2 (2) vs = π 1/ 2 (2 gH ) 3/ 4 2 .1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 performance was assessed. The program then automatically arrives at the blade shape that satisfies the necessary specific work at the correct flow rate and specified blade loading or stacking.
The loading is defined at two sections (band and crown) and it is then interpolated over the meridional channel. a baseline design was created using TURBOdesign-1. A zero stacking was imposed at runner LE.1.6 0. The runner maximum diameter is 157.3.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 The runner meridional geometry is presented in Fig.4 0.25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf.8 1 Streamwise Distance Figure 1 Francis runner meridional contour Figure 2 Blade Loading distribution Figures 2 represents the normalized loading distribution of the baseline runner design.2 0. Before proceeding with the parametric study. The runner meridional shape is usually fixed by design constraints and therefore it was not changed during the design process. Table 1. The runner operating conditions are listed in Table1. The design specifications and inlet condition were imposed according to their values at the operating condition. The value of blade loading at the leading edge controls the flow incidence at design point (see equation ).45 m^3 min-1 Inlet total pressure 415 kPa Guide vane opening 73 deg Required Shaft Power 165 kW 0 Crown Band -1 Blade Loading -2 -3 -4 0 0. Both sections are mid-loaded with a constant loading from 25% to 75% of blade chord. Each loading distribution is plotted against the normalized streamwise distance from leading edge (streamwise distance=0) to trailing edge (streamwise distance=1). The baseline design runner geometry obtained by the inverse code is presented in Fig. The value of rVθ was chosen to produce the available head at runner inlet.5 mm and its axial length is 140 mm. 3 . The runner has 13 blades with a maximum profile thickness of 7 mm at the crown and 4 mm maximum thickness at the band. A free-vortex flow distribution (uniform spanwise rVθ ) was assumed at the runner inlet. Francis Runner Design Specifications Rotational speed 1350 Runner Head 42 m Design flow rate 0. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10.
The performance characteristics also show that runner achieves the required power output with a good efficiency and performs well at off-design condition. This is further confirmed by a two-phase flow cavitation analysis. The low pressure region on the band suctions side indicates that this area is prone to severe cavitation. In order to ensure of the accuracy of CFD results. therefore only one flow passage in the runner is modeled. crown . whereas near the pressure side inside the boundary layer the flow is forced towards the band. is presented in Fig. confirming strong cavitation on the shroud near the trailing edge region.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 Figure 3 Baseline Design 3D geometry Figure 4 3D View of computational mesh 4.e. 5. the medium mesh has a total mesh size of about 375K nodes and an average Y+ at midpan of about 20. The flow is roughly aligned with the streamwise direction on the suction side of the blade. for the three different mesh. the runner head. a mesh dependency study was performed for the baseline runner. Three mesh sizes with the same mesh topology were investigated.. power and hydraulic efficiency are plotted against non-dimensional blade velocity given by: K u = U / 2 gH The hydraulic efficiency is given by: (3) η= Tω ρ gQH (4) Figure 6 shows the velocity vectors on the suction and pressure surfaces on the runner.25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf. as it can be seen by contours of water vapor volume fraction in Fig. the fine mesh has a total mesh size of about 700K nodes and an average Y+ at midspan of 10. CFD Analysis of Baseline Configuration CFD analysis is performed for the baseline design in order to investigate detailed flow field at design and offdesign conditions using a single-phase flow model. the coarse mesh has a mesh size of 90K nodes per passage with an average value of Y+ at midspan of about 120. In this figure. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10. Figure 7 shows the runner pressure distribution at three spanwise sections. midspan and band. 4 . Figure 4 shows the computational mesh at runner midspan for the baseline runner.8. which indicates its strong three-dimensional character and the distinct secondary flows in Francis runner. The flow is assumed to be steady-state and axi-symmetric. The results confirm that a mesh independent solution is reached for the medium size mesh This mesh size is used for all computation in the present work hereafter. The runner performance characteristics at design flow corresponding to a guide vane opening of about 18 deg. i.
8 0.6 0.9 (a) (b) (c) Figure 5 Runner performance characteristics at design flow rate. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10.9 0. Runner Head (a).8 0.7 Ku 0.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 42 185 180 1 40 175 Power [kW] 170 165 160 155 0.96 0.6 0. Shaft Power (b).92 0.98 Head [m] 38 36 34 Coarse Medium Fine 150 145 0.9 140 0.7 Ku Coarse Medium Fine η 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.6 0. Runner Efficiency (c) (a) (b) Figure 6 Baseline design: Velocity vector on the blade suction surface (a) and pressure surface (b) at design point 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 Crown Midspan Band Static Pressure [kPa] 0 0.6 0.25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf.5 0.4 0.94 Coarse Medium Fine 32 0.7 Ku 0.8 1 Streamwise Distance Figure 7 Baseline design: blade pressure distribution at design point Figure 8 Baseline design: contours of water vapour volume fraction at design point 5 .8 0.
11 in form of water vapour volume fraction contours on the blade surfaces confirms the observations obtained from single-phase flow analysis.8 1 Streamwise Distance Streamwise Distance Streamwise Distance (c) (a) (b) Fig. The negative sign indicates the direction of stacking in such a way that the pressure loading is reduced at the band and increased at the crown. 10 presents the corresponding blade pressure distributions at design condition obtained from a single-phase flow analysis for each case.2 0. presented in Fig.4 0. -30 deg (b) and -45 deg (c) stacking 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 Crown Midspan Band 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 Crown Midspan Band 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 Crown Midspan Band Static Pressure [kPa] 0 0. This is done in order to reduce the low pressure region on the band suction surfaces and associated cavitation region. Parametric Study of the Runner Stacking Condition The stacking condition has a significant effect on spanwise work distribution and three-dimensional flow structure in the Francis runner. the loading at the band is reduced and increased at the crown.8 1 0 0. Increasing of stacking to -30 degrees.6 0.2 0. (a) (b) (c) Figure 9 3D blade geometries at -15 deg (a).4 0.6 0. Three stacking configurations were investigated using the inverse design code by varying the stacking to -15.8 1 Static Pressure [kPa] Static Pressure [kPa] 0 0. -30 and -45 degrees.4 0. As it can be seen from these plots by increasing the stacking to -15 degrees. 10 Blade pressure distributions for -15 deg (a). however there is a still a low pressure region at about 20% chord followed by another low pressure region from 70-95% chord on the band suction surface where cavitation can occur.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 5.6 0. results in a roughly uniform spanwise pressure loading where the low pressure region is significantly reduced and is limited to a small region between 75%-90% chord from midspan to band on the suction surface. The results of cavitation analysis.2 0. Further increase of stacking to -45 degrees. -30 deg (b) and -45 deg (c) stacking design configuration 6 . Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10. All the other runner design parameters were kept unaltered. results in a very low pressure region on the crown suction section from 40% chord onward which extend up to midspan. Figure 9 shows the 3D geometries of the runner for different stacking conditions and Fig.25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf.
The pressure distribution plots show that that the low pressure region is raised above the water vapour pressure at all sections and hence a cavitation-free design can be expected at design operating condition.4. respectively. The overall flow turning of the baseline design is 20. Finally. where no region of cavitation can be observed at least the design conditions. Since cavitation occurs toward in the blade aft part from midspan to band a fore-loaded distribution is specified at the band. Figure 16 shows a comparison of blade sections between the baseline design and Design S30_MF at crown. The effect of the prescribed stacking condition and loading distribution on the resulting blade geometry obtained from the inverse design method can be clearly seen in these figures.2 0 .8 1 Blade Loading -1 0 0 S tre a m w ise D ista n ce 0 0 . 23. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10. The results show similar head and power and efficiency characteristics for both designs. -30 deg (b) and -45 deg (c) stacking design configuration 6. as shown in Fig.17 shows a comparison of the baseline runner performance characteristic with that of Design S30_MF. This agrees with the increase of the blade loading at crown and its reduction at the hub for Design S30_MF due to the prescribed stacking condition. Fig.12.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 (a) (b) (c) Figure 11 Contours of water vapour volume fraction at -15 deg (a). secondary flow on the pressure surface is reduced close to the crown but is increased towards the band.6 and 32. while the crown loading remains unaltered. 0 C ro w n B a nd -1 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -5 0 C row n M id spa n B a nd -2 -3 -4 Static Pressure [kPa] 0 0 . midspan and band. midspan and band.4 degrees at crown. Parametric Study of Blade Loading The design with 30 degrees stacking which has a mid-loaded distribution both at the crown and the band (Design S30_MM) is selected for further investigation of the blade loading distribution. All the other design parameters of the runner are unaltered.14 in terms of water vapour volume fraction contours on the blade surfaces. Figure 15 shows the velocity vectors on the suction and pressure surfaces on the runner. Figure 13 shows the blade pressure distribution at design point obtained from single-phase flow analysis for this design (Design S30_MF). This is due to a different spanwise work distribution in the runner caused by the stacking condition which increases the blade loading towards the crown and decreases it towards the band. Comparing to secondary flow structure of the baseline design with no stacking.4 0 .7 and 21.6 0 .4 0 .6 0 .3 degrees and for Design S30_MF is 25.5. 21.2 0 .25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf.8 1 S tre a m w ise D ista nce Figure 12 Design S30_MF: Blade loading distribution Figure 13 Design S30_MF: Blade pressure distributions 7 . This is further confirmed by a two-phase flow cavitation analysis as shown in Fig.
midspan (b) and band (c) 8 . Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10.25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 Figure 14 Design S30_MF: Contours of water vapor volume fraction (a) (b) Figure 15 Design S30_MF: Velocity vector on the blade suction surface (a) and pressure surface (b) Z Z Z Baseline DesignS30_MF X Y X X Y Baseline DesignS30_MF Baseline DesignS30_MF (a) (b) (c) Figure 16 Comparison of baseline and DesignS30_MF blade section geometries at crown (a).
Shaft Power (b). Nomenclature B H LE Ku m P Q r T Number of blades Runner head [m] Leading edge Non-dimensional blade velocity Merdional distance Static pressure [Pa] Flow rate [m3/s] Radius [m] Torque [N. Institute of Mechanical Eng.vol 213 (Part C) pp 85-102 Sallaberger M 1996 Quasi-Three-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Flow Calculation in a Francis Turbine IGTI (Birmingham) p 96-GT-38 Keck H. The design guidelines presented in this paper can be applied easily to the optimization of other Francis turbine runners. a 3D inverse design method was applied to a Francis turbine design.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 42 185 180 0. Uchida K. Effect of inverse design parameter (stacking condition and blade loading) on the flow field inside the runner was studied in a parametric way.8 0. the static pressure field inside the runner was optimized so that the low pressure region on the blade suction side was eliminated and a cavitation free runner was realized.9 (a) (b) (c) Figure 17 Comparison of the baseline and DesignS30_MF runner performance characteristics at design flow rate. Runner Head (a).7 Ku 0. which can be used effectively to suppress cavitation phenomena without deteriorating the hydraulic efficiency. Brazil) Nagafuji T. of 16th IAHR Symp.5 0. The aim of design was to obtain a cavitation free runner with high hydraulic efficiency.965 0.7 Ku 0.97 Baseline D esignS30_M F 32 0. The effects of stacking condition on the spanwise work distribution and the associated pressure field was studied in details.25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf. It was shown that parameterization of blade geometry using the inverse design flow related parameters can provide the designer with control over the pressure field inside the runner. By a combination of stacking condition and blade loading parameters.98 165 160 0.Basic Principle and State-of-the-Art Computation Fluid Dynamics Application Proc. Sallaberger M 1999 Hydraulic Turbines. Conclusion In this paper.8 0.5 0. The flow field and suction performance obtained by CFD with single-phase and two-phase flow models were compared between different designs.7 Ku 0. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10.6 0.99 40 175 170 0. Tezuka K and Sugama K 1999 Navier Sokes Prediction on Performance of a 9 . Goede E and Pestalozzi J 1990 Experience with 3D Euler Flow Analysis as a Practical Design Tool In Proc. Runner Efficiency (c) 7.5 0.m] TE U V vs W Trailing edge Blade velocity[m/s] Absolute velocity[m/s] Specific Speed Relative velocity[m/s] Circumferential direction Density [ kg/m3] Rotational Speed [rad/s] θ ρ ω References     Drinta P.6 0.6 0.985 Head [m] 38 Power [kW] 0.(Sao Paolo.9 0.8 0.9 140 0.975 36 155 34 Baseline DesignS30_MF η 150 145 Baseline DesignS30_MF 0. The 3D inverse method is an extremely powerful and practical design tool for designing hydraulic turbine runners.
25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems IOP Conf. of Numerical Methods in Fluids 13 599-624  10 . J.328  Okomoto H. Goto A and Harada H 1998 On the Design Criteria for Suppression of Secondary Flows in Centrifugal and Mixed Flow Impellers ASME J. of Fluids Eng. (FEDSM2002-31192)  Zangeneh M 1991 A 3D Design Method for Radial and Mixed Flow Turbomachinery Blades Int. of Turbomachinery 120 723-35  Bonaiuti D. Goto A 2002 Suppression of Cavitation in a Francis Turbine Runner by Application of 3D Inverse Design Method ASME Fluids Eng. of Turbomachinery 118 536561  Zangeneh M.132 031104  Goto A.1088/1755-1315/12/1/012058 Francis Turbine with High Specific Speed ASME Fluids Eng. of Fluids Eng. CFD Calculations and Experimental Analyses ASME J. Aartojarvi R and Eriksson J 2010 A Parametric Design of a Waterjet Pump by Means of Inverse Design. 124 319. Zangeneh M. Goto A and Takemura T 1996 Suppression of Secondary Flows in a Mixed Flow Pump Impeller by Application of Three-Dimensional Inverse Method ASME J. (FEDSM99-7815) Zangeneh M. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 12 (2010) 012058 IOP Publishing doi:10. Zangeneh M 2002 Hydrodynamic Design of Pump Diffuser Using Invese Design Method and CFD ASME J.
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