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Grid-Connected PV System
One possible grid-connected PV system architecture DC input
VPV , I PV
PV array IPV + VPV − Power electronics converter iac + vac − AC utility grid
v ac (t ) = 2VRMS sin (ωt ) iac (t ) = 2 I RMS sin (ωt )
PPV = VPV I PV
Pac = VRMS I RMS
pac (t ) = vac iac = VRMS I RMS (1 − cos(2ωt ))
Functions of the power electronics converter • Operate PV array at the maximum power point (MPP) under all conditions • Generate AC output current in phase with the AC utility grid voltage • Achieve power conversion efficiency close to 100% P V I η converter = ac = RMS RMS PPV VPV I PV • Provide energy storage to balance the difference between PPV and pac(t) Desirable features • Minimum weight, size, cost • High reliability
Pac = Ppv * ηDC-DC * ηDC-AC Energy storage capacitor C • Balance the difference between the instantaneous power pac(t) and the average power 3 The system must be disconnected from the grid if the utility loses power ECEN2060 . IPV) to MPP Efficiently step up VPV to a higher DC voltage VDC Efficiently generate AC output current iac in phase with the AC grid voltage vac DC-AC inverter • Balance the average power delivery from the PV array to the grid.Power Electronics for Grid-Connected PV System One possible realization: IPV + PV array VPV − Boost DC-DC converter C Energy-storage capacitor + VDC − Single-phase DC-AC inverter iac + vac − AC utility grid DC-DC control DC-AC control Boost DC-DC converter • • • Set the PV operating point (VPV.
DC-AC Inverter Control One possible realization: IPV + PV array VPV − Boost DC-DC converter C Energy-storage capacitor + VDC − Single-phase DC-AC inverter iac + vac − AC utility grid DC-DC control DC-AC control = IRMSref • The control variable for the DC-AC inverter is the RMS current reference IRMSref • The inverter output current iac(t) is controlled so that it is in phase with the grid voltage vac(t) and so that it’s RMS value equals the reference: IRMS = IRMSref One possible current control approach. see Intro to Power Electronics notes ECEN2060 4 . based on a comparator with hysteresis. has been discussed in class.
8 Vpv Ppv DC-AC scope v ac Vdc v ac iac iin Duty pin pin.95 Ipv = Iref (averaged) Boost scope 492.2 Pin Average input AC power PV4 Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv 510.Simulation model: pv_boost_dcac_averaged.e to keep VDC constant Boost DC-DC Insolation PV3 Vpv Vpv Ppv Boost efficiency IRMSref Product Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv Insolation Average output AC power 1 s PV output power Integrator(pout) 60 fac_out 472.8 Pout 0. C) current control D ef f iciency Vout DC-AC inverter iac iin D pin pout Duty Insolation Set Boost Iref to operate PV array at MPP 4.9586 Compute efficiency DC-AC Efficiency 493.94 Iref Set DC-AC Iref to balance the power. i.2 Vpv Insolation DC-AC average power and efficiency PV5 1 s Integrator(pin) 60 fac_in Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv Insolation PV6 Add Ipv = Iref ECEN2060 PV + Boost DC-DC + DC-AC inverter averaged model ECEN2060 5 . pout pout 1000 Insolation Insolation Vout (boost) = VDC Vpv PV1 Boost Vg Vout Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv DC-DC (averaged.mdl ECEN2060 6-module PV Array Ipv PV module (I) 199.8 Ppv 103.6 Pout boost 0.9643 Iref Iout ef f iciency PV2 Iref Pout Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv PV current DC-AC Inverter 3.
4 A IRMSref is too high Pac > Ppv VDC decreases IRMSref = 3.4 A IRMSref is too low Pac < Ppv VDC increases IRMSref = 4.000 W/m2 insolation) • PV array operates at MPP: Ppv = 6*85 W = 510 W • AC grid RMS voltage: 120 V • Run simulations for 3 different values of IRMSref and observe boost output voltage Vout(t) = VDC(t) IRMSref = 3.94 A ECEN2060 IRMSref is just right Pac ≈ Ppv VDC starts at 200 V and returns to 200 V Tac = AC line period (1/60 seconds) 6 .How to achieve average power balance? Simulation example: • 6-module (85 W each) PV array with full sun (1.
if VDC is greater than VDCref. dynamic responses and realizations of feedback controllers are topics beyond the scope of this class. and more advanced Control and Power Electronics courses ECEN2060 7 . and the average power Pac delivered to the AC grid matches the power generated by the PV array • Stability. the compensator decreases IRMSref • In steady-state. if VDC is less than VDCref. the compensator increses IRMSref • If the error is negative.e. IRMSref adjusted by the automatic feedback controller is just right so that VDC = VDCref.Average Power Balance by Automatic Feedback Control IPV + PV array VPV − Boost DC-DC converter + VDC − Single-phase DC-AC inverter iac + vac − AC utility grid DC-DC control + − VDCref compensator IRMSref • Voltage VDC is sensed and compared to a reference value VDCref (e. i. error signal is zero. i.g. These topics are addressed in Circuits. VDCref = 200 V) • The difference VDC – VDCref is the error signal for the feedback controller • If the error is positive.e.
capacitor C is charged up ∆vDC Pac < pac(t).Energy storage IPV + PV array VPV − Boost DC-DC converter Energy-storage capacitor iac + Single-phase DC-AC inverter vac − AC utility grid Pac pac(t) C VDC − + DC-DC control DC-AC control Pac − p ac (t ) = Pac − Pac (1 − cos 2ωt ) = Pac cos 2ωt Pac > pac(t). capacitor C is discarged • Capacitor C provides energy storage necessary to balance instantaneous power delivered to the grid • Magnitude of the resulting voltage ripple ∆VDC at twice the line frequency (2 x 60 = 120 Hz) depends on the average power Pac and capacitance C ECEN2060 8 .
i.e. capacitor C is discarged • Energy supplied to the capacitor during the time when Pac > pac(t).Energy storage capacitor C Pac − pac (t ) = Pac − Pac (1 − cos 2ωt ) = Pac cos 2ωt Pac > pac(t). when the capacitor is charged from VDCmin to VDCmax P ∆EC = ∫ Pac cos 2ωt dt = ac 2ω −T / 8 ac Tac / 8 π /2 ∫ cosθ dθ = −π / 2 Pac ω • This energy must match the change in energy stored on the capacitor: ∆E C = VDC max + VDC min 1 1 2 2 CV DC − CV = C ( V − V ) ≈ CVDC ∆VDC max DC min DC max DC min 2 2 2 Pac Pac CV DC ω 9 • Solve for the ripple voltage: CV DC ∆VDC = ECEN2060 ω ∆VDC = . capacitor C is charged up ∆vDC Pac < pac(t).
+/-10% of the DC voltage at the input of the DC-AC inverter) • Solution: CV DC ∆VDC = C= Pac ω Pac 600 W = = 200 µF ∆VDCVDC ω 40 V * 200 V * 2π 60 Hz • Note that the energy supplied (or absorbed) by the capacitor is relatively small: ∆EC = Pac ω = 600 = 1.e.6 J 2π 60 • The total energy stored on the capacitor is also small EC = 1 2 CVDC = 4J 2 • This example illustrates the need for only relatively small energy storage in a gridconnected system. easily accomplished by a capacitor. batteries) ECEN2060 10 . in sharp contrast to stand-alone PV systems that require very significant energy storage (e.Energy storage analysis example • DC-AC inverter input voltage: VDC = 200 V • Average power delivered to the grid: Pac = 600 W • Find C so that ∆VDC = 40 V (i.g.
Maximum Power Point (MPP) Tracking IPV + PV array VPV − Boost DC-DC converter C Energy-storage capacitor + VDC − Single-phase DC-AC inverter iac + vac − AC utility grid DC-DC control DC-AC control Choices for the Boost DC-DC control variable: • Duty cycle D • Input current reference Iref • Input voltage reference Vref • The objective of the MPP tracking algorithm is to adjust the DC-DC control variable so that the PV array operates at the maximum power point • In the example discussed here: • It is assumed that the Boost output voltage Vout = VDC is constant • Iref is used as the control variable for the Boost DC-DC converter • PV array current ideally tracks the Boost input current reference: IPV = Iref ECEN2060 11 .
Reminder: PV array characteristic • Example: six 85 W modules in series. full sun Ipv [A] 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Vpv [V] ECEN2060 12 .
full sun Ppv [W] 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Vpv [V] ECEN2060 13 .Ppv as a function of Vpv • Example: six 85 W modules in series.
Ppv as a function of Ipv = Iref • Example: six 85 W modules in series. full sun MPP Ppv [W] 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ipv = Iref [A] Objective: adjust Ipv = Iref to operate at MPP ECEN2060 14 .
Pold Ppv Measure Ppv YES Ppv > Pold ? Continue in the same direction NO Change direction Ipv = Iref ∆Iref = −∆Iref Always step Iref in the direction of increasing Ppv Iref = Iref +∆Iref Pold = Ppv ECEN2060 15 . ∆Iref.Simple “perturb and observe” MPP tracking algorithm MPP 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Initialize Iref.
Pold Measure Ppv YES NO Ppv > Pold ? Continue in the same direction Change direction ∆Iref = −∆Iref Iref = Iref +∆Iref Pold = Ppv ECEN2060 16 .MATLAB code: MPP tracking algorithm initialization Initialize Iref. ∆Iref.
Pold Measure Ppv YES NO Ppv > Pold ? Continue in the same direction Change direction ∆Iref = −∆Iref Iref = Iref +∆Iref Pold = Ppv ECEN2060 17 .MATLAB code: MPP tracking algorithm Initialize Iref. ∆Iref.
936 Eout ECEN2060 18 . Ppv .m Vpv Ppv P PV3 MPPT Iref Iref 1 Iref Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv Compute Ppv 4 Iref (constant) Select controller PV MPP scope Insolation PV4 Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv PV power 510.94 Ipv ECEN 2060 PV array with MPP tracking Boost DC-DC converter 1 time unit = 1 minute 0.9644 200 Vout Vout Iout Boost DC-DC (averaged) Pout Iref control ef f iciency Iref D PV module (I) S1 (time varying) 1000 S1-5 (constant) Select insolation for modules 1-5 Vpv Ppv Insolation PV1 Boost efficiency Pout ef f iciency Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv Vpv Vpv Vg Insolation PV2 Duty Vpv Iref Boost DC-DC Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv Insolation MPP tracking controller MPPtrackIref.mdl Insolation 1-5 ECEN2060 6-module PV Array 85 x 6 = 510 W DC system Ipv PV voltage 103.087 Eideal Integrate Pout 1 s kWh (out) -K- Output energy [kWh] 3.4 Vpv 4.081 Epv Insolation PV6 Ipv Add 1 Ipv = Iref Iref Ppv ideal Ppv Pout.8 Ppv PV energy [kWh] Insolation Insolation 6 PV5 S6 (time varying) 1000 S6 (constant) Select insolation for module 6 Ipv PV module (I) Vpv Ppv 1 s Integrate Ppv -KkWh (pv) 4.Simulation model: pv_boost_mpp_Iref. Pideal 5 5 modules 1 1 module -K85/1000 Ppv ideal Ideal PV energy [kWh] 1 s Integrate Pideal -KConvert to kWh 4.
MPP tracking operation Boost DC-DC converter duty cycle D PV array voltage Vpv Boost DC-DC converter input current reference. Iref = Ipv PV array output power Ppv compared to ideal Ppv @ MPP ECEN2060 19 .
Vpv PV Converter PV Ipv. Vpv Controller Ipv. Erickson ECEN2060 20 . Vpv Converter Inverter 60 Hz AC Utility Ipv. Vpv Converter Ipv. Vpv Controller Ipv. Vpv Converter Ipv. Vpv PV Converter PV Ipv. and power electronics circuit design • Scalable modular power electronics: distributed DC-DC conversion • Much improved performance in the presence of module mismatches or partial shading • Ongoing projects in the Colorado Power Electronics Lab (CoPEC) at CU ECE Dept led by Prof. control. Vpv Controller Ipv. Vpv Controller Innovations in system architecture. Vpv PV Converter PV Ipv. Vpv Controller Ipv. Vpv Controller Ipv.The Future of Grid-Connected PV Systems Ipv.
Module-Integrated DC-DC Converter (MIC) for the Smart PV Roofs ECEN2060 21 .
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