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ANALYSIS

Figure 1

The lab experiment focuses on the projectile motion to which an object is released and is projected with the motion that is, trajectory. In this experiment, we used a metal ball to ensure the position of the projectile is secured. The position of the metal ball is at the projectile launcher which will be launched simultaneously and is to be measured with the use of carbon paper. The paper plays an important role because the needed data is mostly covered up of what the carbon paper give us. The experiment performed by us, I can say, is really risky and hard to imagine. The moment we make the experiment a joke or a gameplay, it can hurt

anyone so as the metal ball is made up of hard solid which is bound to display a risky activity. In our case, we carefully managed to control the flow of the experiment and did well actually. Based on the experiment proper, we did several trials (a total of 25) each with corresponding assessments. The first phase is measuring the Horizontal Distance (x) and the Initial Velocity (Vo). The second phase is the Range in a 30 angle. The third phase is the Range also but this time, in a 60 angle. The fourth phase is in the Maximum height trajectory in 30 angle in which the targeting board is put into use and lastly, in a 60 angle. The percentage differences between the landings of the ball on place did not become a bothersome to us because its a little low compared to the other groups who performed the activity as well. Certain percentage errors occurred as we go along through the experiment. The computed values after are basically formed due to the trials itself that made the experiment possible. The percentage error for the trials did not vary at all but there is a slight inaccuracy occurred during the process. Low percentage error explains that the experiment went to a level wherein the human capabilities are observed in a good shape. Human errors are mainly the reason why we justify whether the percentage errors are low and/or high. In case of this, the varying of percentage errors is contradictory because several trials are made. The apparatus used also created some errors due to imbalanced nature such as the table is not so straight anymore or the launcher is not very stable to use. As we finished the experiment, we covered the possible errors in a normal way that it leads us to great results doing the experiment very well. And as mentioned, the projectile motion suits the apparatus and the materials used in doing the experiment proper. After measuring, we gathered and recorded the data which will be found on the next page.

Materials Used and its Functions CARBON PAPER Used to determine where the ball will land and plays an important role that is use to measure the experimental value distance in each for parts 2 and 3.

RAMROD A metal device used with early firearms to push the projectile which is the metal ball to a certain extent.

METER STICK Used for measuring the distances in either horizontal distance or the maximum vertical distance. Important tool used to measure with accuracy and precision.

IRON CLAMP with IRON STAND TARGET BOARD Used in the part 3 of the experiment, determining the maximum height of projectile. This is the area in which the metal ball is to be shoot at.

METAL BALL The most important apparatus in the experiment without it the experiment will cease to exist. This ball is used to launch in a parabolic path through the trajectory projectile launcher.

Analysis of Results

TRIAL 1 2 3 4 5
Vertical distance, y= 1.014m. Time of travel,
2

horizontal distance, x 2.390 m. 2.415 m. 2.422 m. 2.334 m. 2.315 m.

initial velocity, 5.293 m/s 5.308 m/s 5.323 m/s 5.130 m/s 5.088 m/s

Table 1: Getting the Vo of the Projectile

In this table, the values of the results are in a three decimal parts to make the trials more accurate and precise. The procedure for this part is first, we measured the vertical distance (y) of the projectile launcher by using the plumb line. The angle of the launcher is set at 0. The horizontal distance (x) is measured through the course of which, with the use of carbon paper and bond paper, the metal ball will land in the trajectory. Each launch covered almost the same landings and the values obtained are very close to each other. In order to get the initial velocity with the formula given, the time is given as the root of 2y over g where g is equal to the mass of the metal ball. As the time is measured, the initial velocity is computed. This part is the most crucial one because the initial velocity (Vo) obtained is a component to which the values are used in the succeeding parts of the experiment like determining the range and maximum height of the projectile.

Launch angle = 30
2

Launch angle = 60
2

;
Percentage difference

;
Percentage difference

TRIAL Range (exp value)

Range(exp value)

1 2 3 4 5

2.269 m. 2.265 m. 2.246 m. 2.222 m. 2.223 m.


/

4.942 % 5.996 % 6.837 % 7.910 % 7.865 %

2.146 m. 2.207 m. 2.175 m. 2.174 m. 2.173 m.

11.382 % 8.586 % 10.044 % 10.090 % 10.135 %

Average initial velocity,

Table 2: Determining the Range of the Projectile

This is the second part of the experiment, the determination of the range. The launcher is now positioned in two angles, 30 and 60. This has also the same procedure but differs in the parabolic path of the metal ball. To avoid any incidents, we placed the launcher in a chair provided with stability by putting books and notebooks. By doing this, we can be assure that the ball will not target anyone other than the carbon paper. The range of the experiment is determined by the distance that the ball covered as it lands to the carbon paper. After which, the percentage difference is computed through the values obtained. The meter stick played an important role to this, ensuring that the experiment will be successful and accurate as possible. Through trial and error, the ram rod is used frequently into the metal ball also. Determining another experimental value of the range is solved using the initial velocity we got in part 1 and then we computed the percentage differences. Same procedures are observed in a 60 angle.

Launch angle = 30
( 2 )

Launch angle = 60
( 2 Maximum vertical distance )

;
Percentage difference

;
Percentage difference

TRIAL

Maximum vertical distance

1 2 3 4 5

0.310 m. 0.312 m. 0.305 m. 0.335 m. 0.314 m.

11.263 % 10.622 % 12.863 % 3.509 % 9.485 %


/

0.976 m. 0.976 m. 0.980 m. 1.000 m. 0.974 m.

16.452 % 16.452 % 6.133 % 4.144 % 6.746 %

Average initial velocity,

Table 3: Determining the Maximum Height of the Projectile

The last part of the experiment is the determination of the maximum height of the metal ball. In this part, new apparatuses are used such as the iron clamp together with iron stand and the targeting board. This is the introduction of the third phase of projectile motion which is the ground-to-air. This time, the targeting board is placed directly on the launcher to determine the maximum height the trajectory will make. Same procedure in part 2, we set up the angles at 30 and 60 respectively. The range depended on the target so we used the short range with the use of the ram rod in order to hit the target board. A total of five trials have been made and the data gathered were computed. The maximum vertical distance is determined using the meter stick measured from the launcher up to the spot where the metal ball hits the area. After which, we computed again the percentage differences with the use of the average initial velocity based on table 1.

CONCLUSION
For today, we had the experiment entitled Projectile Motion. The first thing that came out of my mind is that we are about to project the motion to the body we are going to use together with my group mates. Indeed, I was right. The apparatuses used are confidential that it is all needed so that the results will turn out to be a success and no problems will occur in the future. But due to the nature of humans, there are errors that tend to happen. These errors are produced by both human and the apparatuses. Human errors are mainly the nature that we are not perfect in doing everything. The errors on the materials are because of the tendency that objects are not stable as it looks like. The results were interpreted that the carbon paper played an important role in determining where the metal ball is to be placed with a distance covered throughout the experiment. During the experiment proper, there are times that the ball did not go as perfectly to the place we are ought to place it. These are called simple errors of nature. The launcher also has a slight problem inside so it is possible that the experiment is not perfect. The projection of the ball to a parabolic path is the major concept of the experiment. The idea of having the materials used is to conduct and discover the nature of projectile motion as the third phase of Kinematics. And so, I therefore conclude that there are times that things are not there to be placed perfectly like the metal ball used in the experiment was not aimed at a perfect direction we would like to go it. The trajectory has a purpose that through trial and error, I can see the accuracy of the results properly. Each of the apparatus played an important role that we all used it to its maximum potential. And there is also a connection between those things like the launcher without the ramrod is useless or the iron clamp without the iron stand is dysfunctional.