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A Guide to Mathcad
3 3 4 How to use this guide The Mathcad window Glossary Mathcad worksheets 8 8 8 9 10 10 11 Starting Mathcad
General features of Mathcad worksheets Default worksheet settings Special features of MST121 and MS221 worksheets Creating your own worksheets Opening, saving, printing and closing worksheets Exiting from Mathcad Mathcad techniques and procedures 12 17 21 24 26 28 32 35 39 42 43 45 50 52 Defining variables and functions Entering and editing expressions Text and pictures Moving, deleting, copying and resizing regions Numbers – Calculations – Displaying results and formatting – Complex numbers Graphs – Drawing – Formatting – Zoom and Trace Solving equations Symbolic calculations Matrices and vectors Differentiation and integration Mathcad commands 55 57 Menu bar commands Toolbar buttons Mathcad’s extra on-screen help facilities 59 60 61 62 Mathcad help and support Electronic version of the manufacturer’s User’s Guide Underlined letters for keyboard navigation Errors and error messages
A Quick reference guide is provided on the back page.
How to use this guide
A Guide to Mathcad is a reference manual describing the Mathcad commands and features used in MST121 and MS221. It assumes that your computer satisfies the computing specification for these modules. Note that all the pictures of screens shown in this guide are taken from Windows XP ( Professional ). If you have a different version of Windows, then your screen may look slightly different to these pictures, but Mathcad will operate in a similar way. The contents are grouped into broad areas of Mathcad use. ◊ To find a particular piece of information, try the alphabetic listing in the Glossary, on page 4. ◊ To look up a Mathcad error message, turn to page 63 at the back of this guide.
The back page provides a summary of the key features of Mathcad in quick reference format.
( Use of Mathcad’s on-screen help and User’s Guide is discussed on pages 59 and 60. )
Notation This guide uses ♦ filled diamonds to indicate steps you should follow, and
exclamation marks to highlight potential Mathcad problems.
Keystroke entry sequences are written in the style used in the MST121 and MS221 files, for example [Ctrl]r , with special keys shown enclosed within square brackets. All mouse clicks refer to the left mouse button, unless stated otherwise.
The Mathcad window
Menu bar ( page 55 ) Red cross cursor Math toolbar ( page 57 )
Standard toolbar ( page 57 ) Formatting toolbar ( page 23 )
Worksheet containing mathematical expressions text graphs and pictures …
Vertical scroll bar
( message line )
Horizontal scroll bar
Calculation mode indicator ( page 27 )
contour plot A type of graph for a function of two variables. Special variable already defined when you start Mathcad.71828. Calculator toolbar A toolbar that can be used like a pocket calculator. e The exponential constant. ( a built-in variable ). ( a built-in variable ). e. deg The number of radians in one degree. editing expressions / editing lines See page 19 of this guide. ceiling function / ceil(x) clipboard closed form Smallest integer which is greater than or equal to x. tan. constant General Mathcad term for a number. complex numbers See page 32 of this guide. ) A temporary store to which information is cut or copied and from which information is pasted. 4 . 17. A formula defining the terms an of a sequence. 0. variable or expression entered into a placeholder. π. decimal places See page 31 of this guide. calculation mode Automatic ( auto ) or manual calculation mode. defaults Predefined worksheet settings or formats. cos. built-in function built-in variable Standard function predefined in Mathcad. with an associated range for n. e and ORIGIN. The right-hand columns give page references to the term in this guide and file references to the Mathcad file in which the term is first used or explained. define / definition Assign an expression to a variable or function.g..g.. exp.Glossary Below is a glossary of terms used in the MST121 and MS221 Mathcad files and Computer Books. element A member of a sequence of values or an array – defined in Mathcad by subscripts. argument array A value.. assign a value to automatic mode Automatic calculation and updating of results. sin. e. ( A built-in function. e = 2. differentiation See page 52 of this guide..01745. ln and log. 51 121A0-01 121A1-01 121A0-04 221A3-01 121C1-01 121A0-03 221D1-01 121A1-01 colours for text and expressions See page 8 of this guide. 41 50 12 27 16 15 27 58 121A0-04 121B2-01 121A0-04 General Mathcad term for a vector or matrix – a list of numbers. 13 8 32 26 221A3-03 31 8 12 16 52 15 19 13. See define / definition.
integral See page 53 of this guide. ( An alternative to selecting with a mouse click. Formatting toolbar The row of text-formatting options below the menu bar. 5 . Given A Mathcad keyword in the solve block method. format The general appearance of text. trace type.g. markers Horizontal or vertical reference lines added to a graph ( a formatting option ). 121A3-02 23. expand A symbolic keyword used to expand ( multiply out ) an expression. expression A number. created by pressing [Enter].equation Two expressions separated by the special Mathcad ‘ = ’ sign. manual mode Calculation and updating of results controlled by the user. formula or equation. keyboard shortcut A sequence of key presses which select a command. evaluate symbolically See page 45 of this guide. For details of how to enter. interrupting calculations [Esc] key – see page 27 of this guide. 43 62. evaluate expression Display the result of an arithmetic expression. Find A Mathcad function to find the answer in the solve block method. axis labelling. 56 40. graph format Greek letters The appearance of a graph display. linebreak A new line in a text box. inherited values See ‘Redefining variables’ on page 15 of this guide. function See pages 15 and 16 of this guide. e. if A Mathcad function for choosing one of two values based on a condition. ) legend Key to accompany a graph ( a formatting option ). 63 28 45 47 31 47 17 43 16 23 121A3-02 error message See pages 62 and 63 in this guide for advice. Help A menu used to access Mathcad’s on-screen help facilities. 55. 16 43 35 39 18 39 59 16 15 53 27 18. 41 21 27 37 121A1-02 221B3-03 221A3-01 121A1-01 121A3-02 grid lines A grid of lines superimposed on a graph ( a formatting option ). 31. floor function / floor(x) Greatest integer which is less than or equal to x. exponential threshold A setting which determines when numbers are shown in scientific ( exponential ) notation. numbers or graphs on the screen. 39 15. scale. 121A0-05 121A0-03 121A0-05 factor A symbolic keyword used to factorise an expression. see page 18 of this guide. graph See page 35 of this guide.
( A built-in variable. ORIGIN Specifies the subscript for the first element in a list or array. the number of decimal places. ) result format rnd function / rnd(x) scalar A single number. ( a built-in variable ). ( A built-in function. mod function / mod(a.. ) 121A1-01 output General term to describe Mathcad results shown on the screen. placeholder A small black rectangle into which information is entered. 121A0-04 221D1-01 44 10 14 13 27 24 31 16 121A1-01 121B1-01 221A1-01 121A0-02 121A0-02 121A0-03 221B3-03 221D1-02 refresh The process of re-drawing the screen. a graph. to obtain an up-to-date view. text or a picture.Math toolbar See page 57 of this guide. Generates a random number between 0 and x. 30 10 15 17 121A0-04 121B2-01 221D2-01 multiplication See page 26 of this guide. message line Alternative name for the status bar. on-screen help See page 59 of this guide.g. Settings which control how results are shown. ) 57 50 55 3 16 26 31 60 59 15 28 29. A starting value. 121A0-03 online documentation An on-screen version of the Mathcad User’s Guide. e.n) The remainder of a on division by n.. scrolling table A table which scrolls to reveal all the values. output table General term to describe a table of Mathcad results. printing See page 10 of this guide. 31 29. region The area on the screen occupied by an expression. range variable recurrence system A variable that takes on a range of values when used. polyroots A Mathcad function which returns all the roots of a polynomial.14159. menu A list of options from which you can choose a Mathcad command. 30 121A0-03 121A1-02 6 . scientific notation See exponential threshold. numerical format See result format. matrix See page 50 of this guide. range and expression relating each term in a sequence to one or more previous terms. polar plot A graph that can be used to represent complex numbers. pi π = 3. ( A built-in function. page break A solid or dashed horizontal line running across the screen indicating the start of a new page in a long worksheet. A Mathcad worksheet is a collection of regions.
7 . e. word-processing See page 21 of this guide. symbol A mark used to indicate individual points on a graph. trailing zeros Zeros added to a number to display a fixed number of decimal places. 17. trace ( graph ) Obtain a read-out of graph coordinates. superscript. tick marks Marks made on the axes of graphs to indicate the scales. 55 12 50 21 35 9. it is represented by a variable name.and y-axes ! Zoom. symbolic calculations / Symbolic toolbar See page 45 of this guide. solve block A numerical method to solve a system of equations. ) 40..g. automatic / manual calculation. solve A symbolic keyword used to solve an equation. e. edited or deleted. status bar Area at the bottom of the Mathcad window used for messages. bold.series A symbolic keyword for expanding an expression to a Taylor series. X-Y plot A Cartesian graph – one with x. Determines the accuracy of some numerical methods.g. table of values A sequence of values displayed as a ( scrolling ) table. trace ( curve ) The line or symbols plotted on a graph.000 ( a formatting option ). 19. vector See page 50 of this guide. e. 30 21 23 40 27 15 57 40 42 31 121A1-01 121A0-05 121A1-01 121A0-01 toolbar Rows of buttons which you can use to select Mathcad options.g. e. subscripted variable See page 13 of this guide. 41 45 29. 56 42 121A3-01 121A1-01 Magnify a portion of a graph. Standard toolbar Row of buttons immediately below the menu bar.g. 121A1-01 121A2-01 121A1-05 Undo A command on the Edit menu to undo the last thing you did. + or x ( a formatting option ). toggle TOL Switch between two modes of Mathcad operation. variable A quantity that can vary . ( A built-in variable. 6. 47 48 43 57 3 13 221C3-01 121A3-03 121A3-02 121A1-01 221A3-03 surface plot A graph of a function of two variables. text box A box within which text may be inserted.. ( worksheet ) zoom ( graph ) A command on the View menu to magnify or reduce the view of the entire worksheet. text format The appearance of text.
♦ Double-click on the Mathcad 14 shortcut icon on your Windows desktop. ( Alternatively, open the start menu ; All Programs ; Mathcad ; Mathcad 14; and select the Mathcad 14 item. See MST121 Chapter A0 for further details. )
General features of Mathcad worksheets
Mathcad worksheets consist of mathematical expressions ( numbers, formulas and equations ), graphs, text ( words and sentences ) and pictures. These items can be placed anywhere in the worksheet, and are created at the position marked by the red cross cursor. Each item forms a region in the worksheet. Mathcad processes the information in a worksheet in the same way as you read it : from left to right and from top to bottom, going down the screen line by line. Worksheets may be longer than the one ‘screenful’ you can see in the Mathcad window. Use the vertical scroll bar or [Page Up] / [Page Down] keys to move up and down a worksheet, to bring unseen parts into view. Worksheets may also be wider than one ‘screenful’, with information placed beyond the right-hand margin ( the solid vertical line ). Use the horizontal scroll bar to move left and right in a worksheet. On-screen help with using Mathcad is available from the menu bar. Select the Help menu and Mathcad Help, then choose the ‘Contents’ tab for details of basic Mathcad procedures, or the ‘Index’ or ‘Search’ tabs to search for a particular topic. Please note that this help is provided by the manufacturers of Mathcad – it is not specific to MST121 and MS221. ( See page 59 of this guide for further details. )
Default worksheet settings
The Mathcad worksheets supplied for MST121 and MS221 use the following default settings.
( These settings will also be used for any new ( Normal ) worksheets which you create yourself. )
Built-in variables Calculation mode ORIGIN has the value 0. ( See page 15 of this guide for further details. )
Automatic. ( See page 27. )
Fonts and colours for text and mathematical expressions
◊ Text ◊ Expressions Arial 10pt, navy blue. Times New Roman 10pt, black.
To change the fonts and colours, do the following. ♦ Text Select Style... from the Format menu. Choose ‘Normal’ from the list of text styles, then click on the Modify... button, followed by the Font... button. You can then change the font, font style, font size or colour.
Select Equation... from the Format menu. To change the colour only, you can alter the ‘Default Equation Color’, but to change the font you need to modify the style for both ‘Variables’ and ‘Constants’. To do this, select each in turn from the list of style names, and click on the Modify... button. Line graph ; the first trace drawn is a solid red line. ( See page 40. ) The multiplication sign is displayed as x. ( Tools menu, Worksheet Options…, ‘Display’, view ‘Multiplication’ as ‘AutoSelect’. ) Number of decimal places 3 and Exponential threshold 3. ( See page 31. )
Graphs Multiplication Result format
Special features of MST121 and MS221 worksheets
The contents of MST121 and MS221 worksheets are divided up into a series of ‘pages’, with a title
at the top and an end-of-worksheet marker at the bottom. The worksheets fit within the width of the
Mathcad window but most are longer than the window, consisting of several pages. ( Note that
most pages are laid out in ‘portrait’ format, but a few are laid out in ‘landscape’ format. )
Your view of a worksheet will depend upon the size of computer screen you are using.
A large ( high-resolution ) screen may show additional blank pages off to the right. To magnify your
view, to see just one page width, use the View menu and Zoom... option. ( If you experience any
problems with this option, then leave the zoom magnification at its normal value, 100%. )
The first page includes a list of contents, which may be accompanied by a brief introduction.
Subsequent pages each have a heading, a flag indicating the page ‘type’, a page number in the
top right-hand corner, and a thick line marking the end of the page.
Getting around ...
♦ To move up and down the worksheet, use the vertical scroll bar or [Page Up] / [Page Down] keys, which, despite the names, move up and down by a fixed amount unrelated to where pages start. ♦ To move through a worksheet from one page to the top of another page : press [Shift][Page Up] to go to the previous page, [Shift][Page Down] to go to the next page ; or choose Go to Page... from the Edit menu, and enter the page number you require.
Entering your own expressions into the worksheet
When a task requires you to enter information in a particular place, the ‘pencil’ symbol is used to show you the position on the screen at which to type.
Assistance and explanations are provided on the pages within each worksheet, with hints and answers for the tasks, and detailed Mathcad instructions where appropriate.
Creating your own worksheets
To create a new, empty worksheet, do the following. ♦ Select the File menu, and choose New… . ( Alternatively, type [Ctrl]n or click on the New button on the ‘Standard’ toolbar ( see page 57 ). Both these alternative methods create a new ( Normal ) worksheet immediately, and do not require the additional step below. ) ♦ In the list of templates, ‘Normal’ should be selected by default. If not, click on it. Click on the OK button to create a new ( Normal ) worksheet. A new worksheet is also created automatically, ready for you to use, when you start Mathcad. It is a good idea to enter some text in your worksheets ( see page 21 ), alongside the mathematical expressions and graphs. Some explanatory text, including a title and date at the top, will help you to recall what the worksheet was all about if you return to it on a later occasion. When constructing a long worksheet, you may like to divide it into separate pages. ( See Printing a worksheet / Page breaks at the bottom of this page. )
Opening, saving, printing and closing worksheets
Opening a worksheet
♦ Select the File menu, and choose Open... .
( See MST121 Chapter A0 for more details. )
You can have several Mathcad worksheets open at the same time if you wish !
Saving a worksheet
♦ Select the File menu, and choose Save As... .
( See MST121 Chapter A0 for more details. )
Notes The other menu option File and Save overwrites the original copy of a worksheet, and replaces it with the current version, with no further prompting.
Printing a worksheet
! Please note You will, on occasion, need to supply Mathcad print-outs for tutor-marked assignments. This could include selected pages from some of the MST121 or MS221 files ( e.g. 121A1-01, -02, -03, ... ).
◊ Print preview To check your worksheet’s layout before printing, choose Print Preview from the File menu. ◊ Page breaks A long worksheet is automatically split into pages by Mathcad and your printer. These ( soft ) page breaks are indicated by dashed horizontal lines running across the screen. You cannot add or remove soft page breaks directly.
use [Ctrl]p . ( See MST121 Chapter A0 for more details. The right margin appears as a solid vertical line in the Mathcad window. To remove a hard page break : hold down the [Shift] key. To avoid printing any pages to the right of the right hand margin. select the File menu and Page Setup. ) 11 .. Make sure that your printer is switched on and has some paper. select Print single page width in the ‘Page Setup’ option box. Exiting from Mathcad ♦ Select the File menu. and choose Close. then choose Page Break from the Insert menu. . Alternatively. where information has been placed beyond the right margin. This brings up the ‘Print’ option box. position the red cross cursor on the line where you want the break to be. Closing a worksheet ♦ Select the File menu. and click on the line to select it .However.. If you have made changes to the worksheet since it was last saved. then click on the OK button to print. select the File menu and Print. ◊ Margins and wide worksheets To set the margins. and choose Exit. you will be asked if you wish to save the current version before closing. then use the Edit menu and Cut. To do this. is divided into vertical strips of pages for printing purposes. then you need to insert a ( hard ) page break yourself. if you want to break the page at a different place.. ) Printing ♦ To print all or part of a Mathcad worksheet. . ( You may find that changing the ‘Orientation’ from ‘Portrait’ to ‘Landscape’ in this option box allows all the information to fit within the right-hand margin. These page breaks are shown as solid horizontal lines – you may have noticed them between the pages of the worksheets.. A wide worksheet. You can choose to print all of your worksheet or only particular pages.
page 15 . e. e. ) If you try to use a variable before it has been defined. e. a letter followed by a number.Defining variables and functions 12 13 14 15 15 15 16 Defining variables Defining subscripted variables Defining range variables Defining functions Redefining variables and functions Built-in or predefined variables Built-in or predefined functions Defining variables To define a variable. together ).g. ♦ Enter a value. 12 .g. click elsewhere on the page or press the [Enter] key. T1. The underscore character _ ( type [Shift]. but to the right counts as below. which in turn may involve other variables and functions that have already been defined. Examples Variables must be defined above the place in the worksheet where they are first used. this numerical value can be either a constant ( explicit number ) or the result of a calculation. If you try to evaluate a variable before it has been defined. See Mathcad file 121A0-04. Example or type r:1. Mathcad highlights the unknown variable in red. Undefined variables. Mathcad assumes that the intention was to define the variable and inserts ‘:=’ followed by an empty placeholder. page 62. ♦ To complete the definition. example ♦ Enter a name. The value at the right-hand side of the definition must be numerical. obtained by typing [Shift] and . or a word. and no spaces are allowed within the name. Note that variable names are case-specific : r and R are two different variables in Mathcad. Related topics in this guide : Redefining variables. e.) can be used as a separator instead of a space. sunny_day.g. However. step. The name must start with a letter. ♦ Click on the ‘Definition’ button on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar or use the keyboard alternative : ( the colon. 5 and 6.g. you assign a value to it – variable name := value . r. using ‘=’.5 A variable name can be a single letter. ( On the same line and to the left counts as above. and clicking on the offending expression displays the error message ‘This variable is undefined’. pages 3.
g.g. define the variable ORIGIN to match the subscript of the first element . e. ♦ To complete the definition. ♦ Define a range to calculate the desired number of terms . refer to the examples on the next page. ♦ Enter a subscript. This will depend on the subscript used for the first term. page 2. e. Related topic in this guide : ORIGIN. The range of subscript values must be defined first. ( The numbers below. and the number of terms required. . Example or type u[3:16 See Mathcad file 121A1-01. ◊ Recurrence systems To implement a recurrence system in Mathcad. ) ◊ Closed forms A subscripted variable definition may be used to define the terms of a sequence. example ♦ Enter a name. page 15. ) ♦ If necessary. Several subscripted variables can be defined at the same time by using a range variable as the subscript – two methods are given below. ♦ Enter a value. use a range variable to define a sequence of subscripted variables.Defining subscripted variables To define a subscripted variable – name subscript := value . ♦ Click on the ‘Subscript’ button on the ‘Matrix’ toolbar or use the keyboard alternative [ ( left square bracket ). which term the recurrence relation defines. ♦ Click on the ‘Definition’ button on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar or use the keyboard alternative : ( colon – type [Shift]. the first term of the sequence . ♦ Define a subscripted variable for the starting value. 13 . ( See page 14 for details of range variables. Example See Mathcad file 121A1-01. ). pages 4 and 5. This step may be interchanged with the next one. bn or bn+1. and the range variable can then be used on both sides of the closed-form formula. click elsewhere on the page or press the [Enter] key.
Recurrence systems. Graphs. click elsewhere on the page or press the [Enter] key.. ). a definition for the terms of the sequence . 1 . 1. page 17. page 14 . ♦ Click on the ‘Range Variable’ button on the ‘Matrix’ toolbar or use the keyboard alternative . 10 or i := 10. page 3. Tables of values – Using a range variable. ♦ Click on the ‘Definition’ button on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar or use the keyboard alternative : ( colon – type [Shift]. page 35.e. Defining range variables To define a range variable – name := starting value. An alternative way to think of and construct the definition is as name := starting value. page 13 . page 13 .3 A range variable takes on a range of values. Mathcad carries out this definition once for each value of the range. ♦ To complete the definition. 2 and 3. page 15 . ORIGIN. i. Entering expressions. final value Example ♦ Enter a name. i := 0.1. whichever is appropriate... the variable i takes the values 0. page 30 . Related topics in this guide : Defining subscripted variables. See Mathcad file 121A1-01. page 13 . final value Range variables can ascend or descend in value. Example or type i:0. ( a semicolon ). ♦ Enter the final value. Related topics in this guide : Closed forms. 14 . e. In the example above. starting value + step size . then Mathcad uses a step size of 1 or −1. Note that the range variable appears in the expressions for the subscripted variables. 0 If the ‘next value’ is omitted. Defining range variables. ♦ Enter a starting value followed by a comma and the next value. 9 .♦ Enter the recurrence relation. next value ..g. The step size is determined by the difference between the ‘next value’ and the ‘starting value’. Examples       and  and  ORIGIN is zero by default 1 See Mathcad files 121B1-01 and 221A1-01. separated by uniform steps.
as they are ‘inherited’ from the first definition. variable name. . click elsewhere on the page or press the [Enter] key. For expressions below the second definition... b5 . ♦ Enter an expression which uses the named variable from the left-hand side. Worksheet Options. b10. ( See page 12.. . right bracket ‘)’.. b1. example The procedure is very similar to the one used to define a variable. Pi – click on the ‘Pi’ button on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar or use the keyboard alternative [Ctrl][Shift]p . but the second defines only five terms. Variable π Default value 3.. Redefining variables and functions Variables and functions can be defined more than once in the same worksheet.. ♦ To complete the definition. you can still redefine them for your own use. variables and other functions which you have already defined or are built into Mathcad. ♦ Click on the ‘Definition’ button on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar or use the keyboard alternative : ( colon – type [Shift]. ORIGIN must be entered in capital letters. Built-in or predefined variables There are a handful of special variables that are already defined when you start Mathcad.. Mathcad will simply use the first definition for all expressions below the first definition and above the second. e. followed by left round bracket ‘(’.. like ORIGIN and TOL ( Tools menu. Note that variable names are case-sensitive. b10 are still defined.. Suppose that the first definition creates ten terms. b2. b1.g. 15 . care is needed when redefining sequences of subscripted variables. ) ♦ Enter a function name.. Although Mathcad predefines these variables. They either have a standard mathematical value. page 16. Mathcad uses the second definition. The values b6. page 2. Related topic in this guide : Built-in or predefined functions. b7. The expression on the right-hand side of the definition may include numbers.. ). Example This could be entered by the keystroke sequence y(t):sin(t)+sin(13*t) See Mathcad file 121A3-01. or are used to control how Mathcad works. like π and e..14159... ‘Built-In Variables’ ). . However. A definition involving ‘:=’ affects everything below and to the right of it in the worksheet. mathematical operators. b2. One way to avoid any possible confusion is not to redefine subscripted variables ! Other types of variables and functions are not affected by this problem.Defining functions To define a function – function name := expression .
When working with subscripted variables. including all the standard trigonometric. ) ◊ if The if function chooses one of two values based on a condition.8 ≤ p < 0. By default. page 44 .. such as floor ( used to round down a number to an integer )..001 The exponential constant – simply type e The number of radians in one degree. Recurrence systems. Built-in or predefined functions Mathcad has an extensive library of built-in functions. Details of one of the special built-in functions used in MS221 are given below. Default Units ‘None’. Worksheet Options.01745. e. . Examples Several if statements can also be combined together. pages 3 and 4. TOL : The solve block. You can use this menu option to insert a function into your worksheet without having to type it. tables and arrays.98 . logarithmic and exponential functions. you can enter these functions directly. Mathcad automatically begins each sequence with an element with subscript zero. See Mathcad file 221B3-03. So deg is not defined if these units are switched off – Tools menu. e. the built-in functions Find and polyroots are described on pages 43 and 44.. The variable deg is included in the system of built-in units. 0.89 ≤ p < 0. k(x) if p ≥ 0. e. Tables of values. the value of ORIGIN should match the first subscript required.g.. Evaluating a definite integral numerically. page 51. Labelling matrix elements. g(x) if 0. 0 0. type cos(0.g.g. 16 .. ‘Unit System’ tab.a. 180 deg = 3.. See Mathcad file 121A1-01.5)= .71828. page 4. Related topic in this guide : How to construct equations and inequalities.89 . Related topics in this guide ORIGIN : Defining subscripted variables. There are also special functions.. ( In addition.. page 43.. not COS(x).8 .Variable e deg ORIGIN TOL Notes Default value 2. However. Determines the accuracy of some numerical methods. mod ( used to find the remainder when one number is divided by another ) and rnd ( used to generate a random number ). and b if the condition is false.98.b) returns the value a if the condition is true. The complete list of functions can be seen by selecting the Insert menu and Function. Example This expression returns : f(x) if p < 0. h(x) if 0.. Note that function names are case-sensitive : the built-in cosine function is cos(x). page 13 . you still need to put the appropriate values into the placeholders yourself ! Alternatively.. Specifies the first element used for lists. page 29 . b0 .14159. page 53. page 13 . if(condition.
If you make a mistake. ( You may also be able to use the Edit menu and Undo. powers. ) Examples ♦ To finish entering an expression. As you enter information ( an argument ) into a placeholder. then pressing [Backspace] will rub out the last number or letter you entered. then the [Tab] key can also be used to select each in turn. These are the small black rectangles which appear as you click on the toolbar buttons or use the equivalent keyboard commands. you can either click elsewhere on the page or press the [Enter] key. e. Examples ♦ To select a particular placeholder. page 26. ) Dos and Don’ts Do remember to include a multiplication sign where appropriate. the information is inserted just to the left of the vertical editing line.g. The spaces look after themselves ! Related topics in this guide : Basic mathematical operators. to undo the last thing that you did. 17 . you can click on it. ( This key may alternatively be labelled [Return] or just [↵]. Blue editing lines around the placeholder indicate that it is selected. enter ‘ a*x ’ not ‘ ax ’. If there are several placeholders. subscripts and the spacebar Greek letters in expressions Editing expressions : controlling the editing lines How to change the value at the right-hand side of a definition How to change the operator ( + − * / ) in an expression How to delete an entire expression Inserting or deleting blank lines in a worksheet Also see : 27 46 50 Refreshing the screen for an up-to-date view How to apply a symbolic keyword How to edit a matrix Entering expressions Entering expressions in Mathcad is a matter of putting information into a series of placeholders.Entering and editing expressions 17 18 18 19 20 20 20 20 Entering expressions Division. ready to receive information. Don’t use the spacebar to insert extra spaces in an expression.
page 3. after entering the power. entry continues in the index position above the line. powers or subscripted variables. In the case of powers. ♦ Click on the Greek letter buttons on the ‘Greek’ toolbar. powers. A keyboard way. The Roman equivalents for the Greek letters used in the MST121 and MS221 files are : alpha α – a . /. All the methods above can also be used to enter Greek letters in Mathcad text. Related topics in this guide : Greek toolbar. below the line.. beta β – b . on the ‘Math’ toolbar. and 221A1-01. ) Or a mouse / click way.. entry continues in the denominator. 18 . type a followed by [Ctrl]g – the ‘a’ will change into an ‘α’ ( alpha ). ( See page 15. see ‘Greek Toolbar’ within ‘Keyboard Shortcuts’ under Tutorials on the Help menu. page 12.. This enables entry to continue as usual ( on the line ) to construct the remainder of the expression. there is a keyboard shortcut [Ctrl][Shift]p. still within the subscript. and a ‘Pi’ button is also available on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar. π = 3. Examples There are two ways to enter a Greek letter. For example. whilst subscripts continue below the line.Division. either click on the ‘Greek’ button or select the View menu. theta θ – q . pi π – p . Greek letters in expressions Greek letters can be used in expressions and as variable names in Mathcad. Examples Key sequence 1/4[Space]+6= ‘Calculator’ and ‘Matrix’ toolbar buttons [Space] x^2[Space] -1 F[n+1[Space][Space]+F[n x F [Space] n [Space][Space] F n See Mathcad files 121A0-03. The spacebar [Space] is used to select ( enclose within the blue editing lines ) parts of the expression entered so far. then press [Ctrl]g. Defining variables. ♦ Type the Roman equivalent. is a built-in variable in Mathcad. page 3. phi φ – j and psi ψ – y. page 58 . The number of presses of the spacebar required depends upon the nature of the expression.14159. ( To reveal this toolbar. Toolbars and Greek. ) As π is so frequently used. ( For a complete list. After entering the division sign. ) Notes The Greek letter pi. subscripts and the spacebar Extra care is needed when entering expressions which involve division.
( Alternatively. Such a switch does not change what is selected. [→] and [Space] keys to position and control the editing lines. there will be a pair of vertical and horizontal blue editing lines. ) Related topics in this guide : How to apply a symbolic keyword. ) Mathcad encloses the expression in a black box and. move the vertical editing line along the expression one character at a time. ◊ Selecting parts of an expression The length of the editing lines is controlled by pressing the spacebar [Space].or right-hand side of the selection.Editing expressions : controlling the editing lines ♦ The first step is to click on the expression you wish to edit. The left and right arrow keys. page 50. allowing you to copy all or part of an existing expression and paste it into a new one. to delete or copy ) The horizontal editing line ( together with the vertical editing line ) indicates the extent of the current selection in an expression. The Edit menu Copy and Paste facilities can also be applied. you can click on the expression and then drag across it. ( A character is a number. whereas pressing the [Delete] key rubs out the character to the right. ) The horizontal editing line is ‘attached’ to the vertical line and will move along too. a letter or an operator such as ‘+’ or ‘−’. How to edit a matrix. click elsewhere on the page or press the [Enter] key. Pressing [Space] one more time brings the lines back to where they were before you began pressing the spacebar – the start of the cycle. ( If a ‘spacebar cycle’ does not select what you want. The [Insert] key ( this may just be labelled [Ins] on your computer ) will switch the vertical editing line from one side of the current selection to the other. Each time you press [Space] the editing lines grow longer. by clicking elsewhere on the expression. use the arrow keys to manoeuvre the red cross cursor over the expression. ◊ Vertical editing line ( used to insert extra information. until eventually they enclose ( select ) the entire expression. As an alternative to using the [←]. ◊ Horizontal editing line ( used to select large parts of an expression. ( If an edit does not work out as intended. then the Edit menu and Undo may be able to undo it. page 46 . ♦ To finish editing an expression. giving a quick way to delete things. where you clicked within the expression. ) Choosing the Edit menu and Cut ( or pressing [Ctrl]x ) will delete whatever is selected within the blue editing lines. There are no hard and fast rules regarding how to edit an expression. Use of the vertical and horizontal editing lines is illustrated in the three basic editing techniques given on the next page. correct typing mistakes ) The vertical editing line indicates where information will be inserted into a mathematical expression and what you enter appears immediately to the left of this line. change values. Pressing [Backspace] or [Delete] will delete whatever is highlighted like this. to highlight the selection. then try a different starting position. [←] and [→]. but it allows you to insert extra information before ( vertical editing line at the left-hand side ) or after ( vertical editing line at the right-hand side ) the selection. Examples and Note that the vertical editing line can be at the left. 19 . Pressing the [Backspace] key removes the character to the left of the vertical editing line.
page 24. How to change the operator ( + − * / ) in an expression The example below shows changing a multiplication to a division. to extend the editing lines until they select the entire expression − the vertical editing line can be at either end of the expression. page 4. This places the blue editing lines wherever you clicked the mouse. you can use the ‘click and drag’ technique described on the previous page.How to change the value at the right-hand side of a definition ♦ Click on the right-hand side of the definition. ♦ Click to position the red cross cursor where you wish to insert the blank lines. as shown : or ♦ Then select the Edit menu and Cut ( or press [Ctrl]x ) to delete it. ) ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to finish . while [Delete] will delete blank lines below the cursor position. How to delete an entire expression ♦ Click anywhere on the expression. Pressing [Backspace] will delete blank lines above the cursor position. 20 . ) Inserting or deleting blank lines in a worksheet You can easily insert one or more blank lines into a worksheet. ♦ Rub out with the [Backspace] key  and enter the new value . ♦ Press the spacebar [Space] repeatedly. ♦ Click on the expression and use the left and right arrow keys to place the horizontal editing line so that the operator is immediately to the left of this line . ♦ Press [Backspace] to delete the existing operator  and enter the new operator in its place . See Mathcad file 121A0-04. page 4. if you need more room to work. Move the editing lines if necessary by pressing the left and right arrow keys . You can use a similar procedure to delete blank lines. ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to finish . Related topic in this guide : How to move a region. ( Pressing the [Delete] key will rub out forwards. ♦ Press the [Enter] key one or more times – each key press will insert one blank line. See Mathcad file 121A0-02. ( Alternatively. You can also delete it by pressing the [Backspace] key twice ( if the vertical editing line is at the right-hand end of the expression ). or by pressing the [Delete] key twice ( if the editing line is at the left-hand end ).
move the mouse arrow to a point outside the text region and click. leaving just the text.Text and pictures 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 Creating text regions and entering text A quick way to enter text Entering Greek letters in text Text colour Editing text Selecting a string of text within a text region. by typing a double-quote " ( given by [Shift]2 ). ( This key may alternatively be labelled [Return] or just [↵]. with a red bar cursor inside. The box will continue to expand until it reaches the right-hand margin of the worksheet ( the solid vertical line ). if you type hello[Space]MST121. ♦ Select the Insert menu. Mathcad thinks that you are entering a mathematical expression. Resizing a text region. ) ♦ To stop entering text. the cursor moves and the text box grows automatically. and text entry then proceeds as described in the section above. The box will disappear. page 23 . ( Note that this quick entry method doesn’t work if the initial word contains a bracket or a comma. ( Alternatively. but if you type a word followed immediately by pressing the spacebar [Space]. press the [Enter] key. when the text will wrap round to the next line below. then click to position the red cross cursor where you wish the text region to begin. then Mathcad knows that you intended to enter text. and choose Text Region ( or use the keyboard shortcut. Mathcad thinks that you are entering a mathematical expression ! ) ♦ Move the mouse arrow to a blank space in the worksheet. ( If you just start typing. the expression ‘hello’ changes into text once the spacebar is pressed. Pressing the spacebar here creates a text region automatically. For example. ) 21 . page 25. In order to enter some text. ) Related topics in this guide : Formatting text. Now begin typing your text. A quick way to enter text If you just start typing. delete or format Formatting text Checking text for spelling mistakes Pictures Creating text regions and entering text Mathcad lets you enter text anywhere within a worksheet. and also provides some word-processing facilities for formatting and checking the text. As you type. To force a new line in the text box. to copy. you must first create a text region. press [Ctrl][Shift][Enter]. ♦ A small text box appears.
Click where the copy is to be placed. Notes Use the left and right arrow keys. ) Text colour By default. page 24. Once the text string has been selected. allowing you to insert or delete text as you wish.Entering Greek letters in text The methods used to enter Greek letters within a text region are identical to those used to enter Greek letters in a mathematical expression. see ‘Fonts and colours for text and mathematical expressions’ at the bottom of page 8 of this guide. deleting. Notes – A single word in a text box can be selected by double-clicking on it. ♦ Place the point of the mouse’s arrowhead cursor at one end of the string that you wish to select. page 23. ◊ Format the text string – see the next section for details. Selecting a string of text within a text region. ) ◊ Use the [Backspace] key or the [Delete] key to delete the text string. Related topic in this guide : Moving. 22 . or just [Ctrl]x. or just [Ctrl]v. use [Ctrl]c to copy the selected text and [Ctrl]v to paste it. to delete the text string. to move this text to another location if you wish. prior to copying. to the right. then choose the Edit menu again and Paste. ) ◊ Use the Edit menu and Cut. to move the cursor along the text one character at a time. To replace existing text. move the mouse arrow to a point outside the text region and click. you can do the following. MST121 and MS221 worksheets use navy blue for the text colour. ( See the section below for details of how to delete a long string of text. Mathcad highlights the selected text. Paste. You can also finish by pressing [Ctrl][Shift][Enter]. to copy. which switches between insert mode ( the default ) and overtype mode. Pressing [Enter] will start a new line in the text box. Related topic in this guide : Formatting text. press the [Insert] key ( this may just be labelled [Ins] ). Any new characters you type will be inserted into the text immediately to the left of the cursor. ( Alternatively. whereas pressing [Delete] rubs out the next character. Pressing [Backspace] will delete the previous character. ♦ Then hold down the mouse button and drag across the text to the other end. into the required editing position. ( You can use Edit. ◊ Use the Edit menu and Copy to copy the text string ( to a blank space or to another text box ). ) ♦ To finish editing text. copying and resizing regions. ( See page 18 of this guide for details. simply click on it ! The text box and red bar cursor appear. For details of how to alter the default text colour. before releasing the mouse button. to the left of the cursor. Editing text ♦ To edit a piece of text. deleting or formatting. [←] and [→]. delete or format To select a string of text within a text region.
copied. to alter the text alignment ( Left. 23 . and pasted into Mathcad worksheets. which contains scrolling lists of the available fonts. ◊ Size refers to the size of the characters ( measured in points. .. All the pictures you see in MST121 and MS221 worksheets. ♦ Select a text string within a text region – this can be just a single letter or number. ) ♦ Select the Format menu and Text. ) First click anywhere in the paragraph. Mathcad also provides some built-in text styles.. it does not check mathematical expressions.. ( See the previous section in this guide for details of how to do this. you can format it. ( The default style is ‘Normal’ – Arial font. ◊ Font style and effects refers to bold. which you can apply by selecting the Format menu and Style… . the pencil icon graphics. follow the steps below. Text style Font Size Effects Paragraph options Effects super scripted forms. size. Center ) and indentation. .. or to put a border around it.. italic. you can choose the Format menu and Properties. no effects. Mathcad will display an option box and suggest a replacement. or colour. underline.. subscripted or To format some text. ( Note that Mathcad checks only the text regions. This bring up the ‘Text Format’ option box. You can also change the appearance of the paragraphs within a text region. a new paragraph is formed each time you press the [Enter] key to force a new line.e. Most of the options described above are also available from the ‘Formatting’ toolbar..Formatting text Once a text string has been selected. deleted and even resized just like other Mathcad regions ( see page 24 of this guide ). ◊ Font refers to the typeface used to write the text. apart from the appearance of the black selection box around it ! Once a picture is selected in this way. Mathcad checks all the text regions beneath the red cross cursor to the end of the worksheet. ) Notes When you edit existing text in a text region ( see page 22 ) and start typing.. to highlight it.g. font style and effects. 10pt size. i. Right. If any misspelt words are found. e. such as the Windows Paint program. a drop-down menu for colours and a series of check boxes for the effects. the new text takes its format from the character immediately preceding it. They are there only to be looked at – nothing happens if you click on a picture. navy blue. change its font. . ) Pictures There are no facilities within Mathcad itself for producing pictures or diagrams ( other than graphs ). Checking text for spelling mistakes ♦ Select the Tools menu and Spelling. sizes and styles. However. or to add numbers or bullet points ( both under ‘Bullets’ ) to make a list. pictures can be created in other applications. 72pt = 1 inch ). are bitmap These pictures form regions in the worksheet and can be moved. ( When entering text. then select the Format menu and Paragraph.
page 2. copied and ( in the case of graphs. Mathcad encloses the region in a solid black box. Before you can do any of these operations. place the mouse arrow on the border of the black selection box to obtain a black hand cursor. select the regions by holding down the [Ctrl] key as you click on each one. you must select the region. ) How to move a region ♦ Select the region(s) in the way described above. deleting. ♦ To select a single region. ♦ Click and drag towards the regions until they are all enclosed by black dashed rectangles . text and tables of numbers ) resized. How to delete a region ♦ To delete a single region that is a mathematical expression. ) ♦ To delete the region(s). When two or more regions are selected. you can also press [Backspace] or [Delete]. choose the Edit menu and Cut ( or [Ctrl]x ). ) 24 . ( Alternatively. ♦ Click a little away from the regions to obtain the red cross cursor . ( When two or more regions are selected. simply click anywhere on it. graph. you can place the mouse arrow within any of them to obtain the black hand cursor. piece of text and picture forms a region in a Mathcad worksheet. To select two or more regions. ♦ Now click and drag to move the region(s) to another location. ♦ Select the region(s) you require. a different ( ‘lassoing’ ) procedure is used. ♦ To move a single region. copying and pasting regions Resizing a graph Resizing a text region Resizing a ( scrolling ) table How to select a region Each mathematical expression. Regions can be moved around the page. or when a single region is selected by ‘lassoing’ it. or regions. copying and resizing regions 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 How to select a region How to move a region How to delete a region Cutting. See Mathcad file 121A0-02. you require.Moving. ( See the top of this page for details. select it by ‘lassoing’ ( as above ). or else select and delete as in ‘How to delete an entire expression’ on page 20 of this guide. ♦ Release the mouse button – each selected region will remain enclosed by a black dashed rectangle. deleted.
then the techniques below apply only if the region has been ‘lassoed’ (see previous page ) or else just to that part of the expression enclosed by the blue editing lines. Related topics in this guide : Graph scaling. ♦ As you move the mouse arrow directly over a handle it will change into a double-headed arrow. copying and pasting regions ♦ Select the region(s) you require. but changing the height alone may have no effect on the text layout. ( For more details. it may be possible to view all the values without scrolling by resizing the table. Graphs – Zoom and Trace. on page 19 of this guide. Related topic in this guide : Creating text regions and entering text. To change the size of a graph. i. ♦ Click anywhere in the graph to select it. ) Note that changing the width of a text region may also change its height ( i. ( See the technique for resizing a graph above for more details. and 221D2-02. ♦ Click on a value in the table to select it. page 5.Cutting. ) ♦ Choose the Edit menu and Cut ( [Ctrl]x ) or Edit and Copy ( [Ctrl]c ). The solid black box enclosing the graph region has three ‘handles’ ( the small black squares at the bottom and right edges of the box ). See Mathcad file 121A2-02. ) ! If the region is a single mathematical expression. ( See the technique for resizing a graph above for more details. You can then position the red cross cursor elsewhere in the worksheet.e. However. see ‘Editing expressions : controlling the editing lines’. page 42. Paste ( [Ctrl]v ) to either move or copy the region(s) as you wish.e. Resizing a graph This technique involves changing the physical size of a graph. to make it look bigger or smaller on the page. the number of lines required to display the text ). If you want to cut or copy the entire expression in the latter case then press [Space] repeatedly. Resizing a ( scrolling ) table When a table contains a lot of values. Mathcad switches automatically to a scrolling table ( see page 29 of this guide ). pages 4 and 5. ♦ Use the ‘handles’ to resize the table. 25 . Hold down the mouse button and drag in the direction you want to resize the graph. page 2. ♦ Use the ‘handles’ to resize the text region. and Edit. page 21. Resizing a text region ♦ Click anywhere in the text region to select it. It is not concerned with zooming in or out of the graph to get a different range of values. by increasing its size to display more rows and / or columns. ) See Mathcad files 221A1-01. page 38 . which is covered in ‘Graphs – Zoom and Trace’ on page 42 of this guide. ( See the previous page for details. do the following. until the blue editing lines enclose it all.
) ◊ ‘Calculator’ toolbar buttons Click on . it is able to display the multiplication in an appropriate form.g. variables and functions. Entry continues in this placeholder.g. sin. and ^ for powers. see page 16 of this guide. So Mathcad displays the multiplication sign x between two numbers.5.. for divide. ◊ Keyboard Type + . The decimal point is given by . The spaces look after themselves ! Related topics in this guide : Entering expressions. ) Note that the ‘Parentheses’ button inserts a pair of round brackets. The word ‘NUM’ appears in the status bar at the bottom right corner of the Mathcad window when this is the case. ( the full stop ). . . . ( The ‘ ÷ ’ button on the toolbar also enters a division. Toolbar buttons. then you will need to use the spacebar to extend the editing lines around the brackets ( or use an arrow key ) before you can do so. Multiplications in Mathcad Entering a multiplication initially displays a small raised dot. and round brackets ( and ). . page 57. or on the numeric keypad. but it displays the division sign. To enter the basic operators in expressions. i. which is the notation used in the module texts. 1 ÷ 2 = 0. you can use the keyboard and / or the ‘Calculator’ toolbar buttons. If you wish to enter information outside the brackets. The standard functions. ( Note that [Num Lock] must be ON to use the numbers and operators on the numeric keypad. e. are built into Mathcad . for multiply. the forward slash / for divide. The decimal point is given by .. [Shift]9 and [Shift]0. exp. but once Mathcad can identify what is being multiplied. can be used to group terms within an expression. e. inside the brackets. e.e. and round brackets ( parentheses ) by You should use the ‘ / ’ button ( pictured above ) to enter a division in MST121 and MS221. ln.. 26 ..g. or before a bracket. as it draws a horizontal bar for division.Numbers – Calculations 26 27 27 27 Basic mathematical operators Calculation mode – automatic or manual Interrupting calculations Refreshing the screen for an up-to-date view Basic mathematical operators Calculations can involve numbers ( Mathcad calls these constants ). You can use the keys on either the main keyboard. followed by an empty placeholder and a right bracket. but doesn’t display anything between two variables or between a number and a variable. a left bracket. page 17 . Don’t use the spacebar to insert extra spaces in an expression. the asterisk * for multiply. cos. where * is given by [Shift]8 and ^ is given by [Shift]6. and or for powers. Examples Dos and Don’ts Do remember to include a multiplication sign where appropriate. enter ‘ x*y ’ not ‘ xy ’.
You can switch from manual mode back to automatic mode at any time. However. then choose Calculate from the Tools menu and select Calculate Now. page 4. Most calculations occur so rapidly that this rectangle appears and disappears in the twinkling of an eye. See Mathcad file 121A0-02. click OK to stop the calculation. either by selecting Calculate from the Tools menu and clicking on Calculate Now. If you stop the calculation. Chapter B1. To complete this interrupted calculation later. you calculate and update each separate screen as and when you choose. However. or Cancel to resume. Calculate. for which the word ‘AUTO’ is displayed in the status bar at the bottom right corner of the Mathcad window. 27 . The word ‘AUTO’ disappears from the status bar and is replaced by ‘Calc F9’. the screen can sometimes become confused by unwanted bits and pieces of information. ) ♦ To interrupt a calculation in progress. ) Once in manual mode. going down a line at a time. by switching to manual mode. You can refresh ( re-draw ) the screen. press [Esc]. you can control calculations and changes to the screen display yourself. or use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl]r. and you are not able to see it. and MS221 Computer Book B. ♦ To put Mathcad into manual calculation mode. Chapter B1. expressions and pieces of text might appear to go missing. or via [Ctrl][F9]. This is automatic mode. Also. first click on the expression ( this reveals the ‘Interrupted’ error message pictured above ). calculating every screen. to obtain an up-to-date view of what is really there. As Mathcad evaluates an expression. ( The tick mark beside Automatic Calculation in the menu also disappears. disable automatic mode by selecting the Tools menu. Interrupting calculations Mathcad evaluates the expressions in a worksheet from left to right. An option box appears . by selecting Calculate Worksheet on the Tools menu. simply select Calculate from the Tools menu and choose Automatic Calculation again. ) Refreshing the screen for an up-to-date view When you are using Mathcad. ♦ Select the View menu and choose Refresh. the Escape key.Calculation mode – automatic or manual By default. It is also possible to update all results. See MST121 Computer Book B. then you may wish to switch to manual calculation mode. ( A flashing lightbulb near the mouse arrow shows when calculation is in progress. If you find yourself frequently interrupting calculations to avoid having to wait for Mathcad to re-calculate as you edit your worksheet. ( See above. or by pressing the [F9] function key. Notes You may need to refresh the screen after completing an interrupted calculation ( see below ). it encloses the expression within a green rectangle. or press the [F9] function key. Calculate and choosing Automatic Calculation. then the expression that was being evaluated at the time is highlighted in red. Mathcad immediately ( and automatically ) calculates and updates all the results on the screen whenever values are entered or changed. the rectangle may be visible during a long or complicated calculation.
. ( To fit in the examples below. ) Type Expression Variable Built-in variable Subscripted variable Sequence of subscripted variables .Numbers – Displaying results and formatting 28 29 30 31 Displaying results Tables of values – Displaying a sequence Tables of values – Using a range variable Formatting results Displaying results The values of arithmetic expressions and all types of variables and functions may be displayed by entering the equals sign at the end of the expression. only the keyboard entry is shown. either by typing = or by clicking on the button on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar.. already defined f(3)= sin([Ctrl][Shift]p/2)= 28 . already defined Mathcad example Definition Key sequence to display 2+3= A= e= v[8= Result displayed on the screen y= A table of values See page 29 for further details. Function values Built-in function ... Range variable k= k^2= Tables of values See page 30 for further details.
♦ Type the name of the sequence. click once on the table to reveal the scroll bar. can be displayed as a ( scrolling ) table of values.. e. Mathcad lists the values in order within round brackets. y2. y3. ( See the next page for more details. ◊ For sequences with nine values or less... y1. Mathcad displays a recognisable table. choose Worksheet Options… from the Tools menu. 2 . click on the ‘Built-In Variables’ tab and assign a positive or negative integer value within the box provided for Array Origin (ORIGIN). Notes A sequence can also be displayed as a ( scrolling ) table of values by using a range variable. y10. For example. …. e. . Examples . e. 10.g. y immediately followed by typing = or clicking on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar button The appearance of the table depends upon the number of values it contains. Mathcad provides a scrolling table. This may be altered by assigning ORIGIN to have a different integer value. to display the sequence of values y1.g. The first value in the sequence is shown at the top of the list. and then display yn = . y2. ♦ The first value shown in a table will depend on the value of ORIGIN. ( See pages 15 and 16 of this guide. ◊ For sequences with ten or more values. ORIGIN := 1 ( as above ). ) 29 . ♦ Alternatively. with row and column headings. ) The default value of ORIGIN is 0.g. say n := 1.Tables of values – Displaying a sequence A sequence of values. To access all of the values. ◊ When the sequence has many values. The presence of further entries beyond those initially visible is indicated by ‘…’ in the final row displayed. you could define a suitable range variable..
The use of range variables also provides a quick and easy way to display the results of calculations involving sequences. and 221A1-02. ( for which the ‘Display’ tab is used to show or hide the row and column headings. you need to click on the table with the right mouse button. Notes When using a range variable to display a sequence. Related topic in this guide : Resizing a ( scrolling ) table. to see all the values without scrolling ( see page 25 of this guide ) and that the formatting options ( described at the top of this page ) can be applied to the table. the range can be chosen to view only a particular section of the sequence. for example. displaying the difference or ratio between successive terms. but when there are a lot of values it provides a scroll bar. and 221A1-01.Mathcad provides some formatting options for tables. 30 . Related topics in this guide : Range variables. page 2. This brings up a mini-menu. Tables of values – Using a range variable If you evaluate an expression involving a range variable then Mathad displays a ( scrolling ) table of values. then the equals sign may not be visible once the table is displayed. By default. page 14. Resizing a ( scrolling ) table. See Mathcad files 121A1-01. which includes Properties. page 3. page 25.. The table displays the values taken by the expression as the range variable takes each value in its range. page 5. or to alter the font ) and Alignment ( used to position the table in relation to the expression being evaluated ). ( See the previous page for more details. as shown directly above each table. ) See Mathcad files 121A3-01.. page 4. Examples Enter the expressions. Mathcad displays the values in a long column. page 5. ( If the expression being evaluated is ‘wider’ than the table. ) Note that you may be able to resize the table. 221A1-01. click once on the table to reveal the scroll bar. 121A1-02. To access these options. To access all the values. then either type = or click on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar button to display the table. page 25.
to the right of the equals sign. Notes These settings affect only how results are displayed on the screen. ( Any changes made now will apply throughout the worksheet. Note that the ‘Reset’ button does not appear in this case. 4 For example. ♦ Select the Format menu and Result.Formatting results To control how Mathcad displays the results of numerical calculations. enter an integer n between 0 and 15. See Mathcad files 121A0-03. ◊ Number of decimal places ( the default value is 3 ) To set the number of decimal places. ) Individual result format ♦ Click anywhere in the expression ( a calculation or table involving ‘=’ ) that you want to format. Pressing ‘Reset’ in the box alters individual result format options to the general worksheet values.1 will be displayed as 6. . Settings in the ‘Result Format’ option box The key settings in the ‘Result Format’ option box. will also bring up the option box.. are found on the ‘Number Format’ tab. when the threshold is 4 or less.. as shown here. as below. you set the result format. for every result in the worksheet. the number 50 000 will be displayed as 5 x 10 . The ‘Result Format’ option box appears. and 121A1-05. ◊ Exponential threshold ( the default value is 3 ) To set the exponential threshold. The ‘Result Format’ option box appears. page 4. Numbers of magnitude larger than 10 ( or less than 10 ) are displayed in scientific notation. or an individual result format.. Mathcad retains up to 17 significant figures internally for calculation purposes. ♦ Select the Format menu and Result. Make sure that ‘General’ is selected from the list under ‘Format’. For example. results are displayed with as many digits to the right of the decimal point as the setting for the number of decimal places. . See below for details of how to make changes. You can set the default format. if the number of decimal places is 3.. Default format ♦ Click in an empty space in the worksheet to obtain the red cross cursor. ◊ Show trailing zeros ( the default is OFF ) When ‘trailing zeros’ is ON. n -n+1 31 . then the number 6. independent of these settings. for a particular calculation or table. enter an integer n between 0 and 17.100. Double-clicking on the result.
32 . Chapter D1. to define z as a + bi. you must always type 1i ( otherwise. Mathcad will interpret the i as a variable ). complex conjugates and polar form Exponential form of complex numbers Drawing an Argand diagram Complex number solutions to equations Creating complex numbers Mathcad accepts complex numbers of the form x + yi. does not represent the imaginary unit. Instead. For example. / and ^ can all be used with complex numbers. The extra ‘1’ in front of the i is visible only when entering or editing the complex number. e. For example Expressions that involve only real numbers may also produce a complex value. See MS221 Computer Book D. * . you could type z:a+b*1i . click the buttons Arithmetic with complex numbers The basic mathematical operators + .2+0.9i 1i 3-1i Notes The symbol i. where x and y are real numbers. It is hidden from view once the number is complete. typed alone. Examples – Define Evaluate and Notes When operating on complex numbers directly. When variables are used to construct a complex number. For example. You can also use the ‘Calculator’ toolbar. you must include a multiplication sign before the imaginary unit.Numbers – Complex numbers 32 32 33 33 34 34 Creating complex numbers Arithmetic with complex numbers Finding real and imaginary parts. ( There is no multiplication sign between the ‘y’ and the ‘i’. ..g. ) Examples Key sequence 1+2i 7-5i 0. you must enclose them within brackets.
Modulus ♦ Click on the button on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar or type a vertical bar | ( given by [Shift]\ ). θ > of a complex number. complex conjugates and polar form Mathcad provides some built-in functions and operators for working with complex numbers. Argument ♦ Use the function arg(z) to find the argument θ. Mathcad adds the brackets around 1 + 2i itself ! ) ♦ Finally. Imaginary part of a complex number. ) ♦ Type a double-quote " ( given by [Shift]2 ) to obtain the complex conjugate operator. ( In the example below. proceed as shown below. Example Type z"= button to evaluate the expression. and then select the entire expression. ( If necessary. ) 33 .Finding real and imaginary parts. ♦ Enter the expression. Polar form of complex numbers – modulus and argument To find the polar form < r. You must type the capital letters ‘R’ and ‘I’ to begin the function names ‘Re’ and ‘Im’. Evaluate Remember to enter the imaginary unit as 1i. ♦ Enter the expression. Example Type Re(z)= Type Im(z)= Complex conjugates To find the complex conjugate of a complex number. see page 18 of this guide. Real part of a complex number. ( For more information about entering Greek letters in expressions. either type = or click on the Example An alternative is first to define a variable with value given by the complex number. followed by = to evaluate the modulus. ) Type arg(z)= Example Type |z= Exponential form of complex numbers Example – Define and You could type z:r*e^1i*q[Ctrl]g or use the ‘Calculator’ and ‘Greek’ toolbar buttons. in which case. in radians. click on it and press [Space] until the blue editing lines enclose it all. Real and imaginary parts Function Re(z) Im(z) Notes Function names are case-sensitive in Mathcad. and to include the multiplication between ‘i’ and ‘θ’. r. ( Mathcad returns an angle between −π and π.
page 37 . ♦ Format the graph. θ > can be displayed on a polar plot.Drawing an Argand diagram To represent a complex number z in Cartesian form z = a + bi on an Argand diagram. page 43. See MS221 Computer Book D. e. e. ) The diagram can be enhanced by adding grid lines and / or axes. See MS221 Computer Book D. Chapter D1. o. The examples below illustrate finding the roots of z = 1. whether real or complex. page 38 . Related topic in this guide : Solving equations. expressions involving fractions and square roots. Example Complex number solutions to equations Both the symbolic keyword solve ( see page 48 ) and the polyroots function ( see page 44 ) will return all the roots of a polynomial equation at once. Im(z) ). Chapter D1. Related topics in this guide : Adding graph axes. Symbolic keyword solve 3 polyroots Solve the equation Define coefficients a0 + a1z + a2z + a3z = 0 2 3 Solution … Notes The polyroots function will always return numerical values. 34 . Resizing a graph. Note that a complex number in polar form z = < r.g. setting the trace symbol to something visible.g. ♦ Simply create a standard X-Y graph ( see page 35 ) and plot the point ( Re(z). and Mathcad file 221D1-01. and Mathcad file 221D1-02. Graph scaling. page 25. and scaling and resizing the graph. ( See page 41. while the symbolic keyword solve returns the roots in symbolic form.
In the example below. ) Mathcad will plot one point for each value of the range variable used in the graph. a range variable n is used to plot a sequence : the points ( n. and inside this. Mathcad draws a line graph ( see Graphs – Formatting. ( See page 14 of this guide. the graph axes are scaled automatically ( see Graph scaling. page 38 ). an empty graph box . Graphs are constructed with the use of range variables. Mathcad will calculate and plot the points . ( To select this placeholder. If the four other placeholders are not filled. Graph ► X-Y Plot. ♦ Click on the ‘X-Y Plot’ button on the ‘Graph’ toolbar. click on it with the mouse or press the [Tab] key three times. 35 . a curve described by parametric equations ( file 121A2-01 ). ♦ Mathcad creates a large black selection box. or type @ ( given by [Shift]' ). ) ♦ Next enter the y-axis expression into the placeholder in the middle of the vertical axis . ) ♦ Finally. ( Mathcad pre-selects this placeholder. page 39 ). bn ). ready for you to use. or press [Enter]. prior to creating the graph itself. click anywhere outside the graph region. and a function ( file 121A3-01 ). you must define a suitable range variable. ♦ Position the red cross cursor where you want the top left corner of the graph to be drawn. So.Graphs – Drawing 35 36 37 38 38 How to create an X-Y graph Plotting two ( or more ) curves on the same graph Adding graph axes Graph scaling Plotting problems Also see : 25 39 42 44 Resizing a graph Graphs – Formatting Graphs – Zoom and Trace Graphical solution How to create an X-Y graph The same basic graph procedure is used to plot a sequence ( see Mathcad file 121A1-01 ). This variable should then appear in the x-axis and y-axis expressions used to plot the graph. By default. Alternatively. Enter the expression to plot on the x-axis into the placeholder in the middle of the horizontal axis . select the Insert menu.
and so on. Similarly. a second placeholder appears immediately below. page 38. then press [Enter]. Plotting two ( or more ) curves on the same graph To plot several curves on the same graph. there are two further placeholders for the y-axis limits. ♦ After typing the first y-axis expression followed by a comma. then press [Enter]. and likewise the ‘y’ expressions on the y-axis.g. You can change this range by changing the limits on the x-axis ( see Graph scaling. you need to enter the x-axis expression only once. as well as the middle placeholder on the y-axis. ◊ a function. the points ( x. page 40. ♦ Follow the standard procedure to create a graph. For example. Mathcad also provides an even more rapid ‘QuickPlot’ facility that can be used to plot a function. You can enter values into these placeholders to fix the x-axis limits. page 37 . then Mathcad automatically scales the graph axes – see Graph scaling. and so on.Exactly the same technique ( described on the previous page ) is used to plot : ◊ a parametric curve. Traces ( lines ) are then plotted. followed by a comma. Notes When plotting several y-axis expressions against the same x-axis expression. the second against the second. or the need to enter an x-axis expression : y-axis expression . 36 . ) Mathcad automatically produces a plot of the function over the range –10 to 10. ready for the second expression. bn ) . create graph . Related topics in this guide : Adding graph axes. For example. create graph . enter the expressions for ‘x’ separated by commas on the x-axis. x-axis expression. page 3. ( If you leave these placeholders blank. f(x) ) with a range variable x. the points ( cos(t) . one for each pair. ( Here the function f(x) has been defined previously in the worksheet. f(x) ) . without the need to first define a range variable. Mathcad matches up the expressions in pairs. page 38 ). sin(t) ) with a graph range variable t . ( See page 35. Notes As well as the middle placeholder on the x-axis. to plot the points ( x. A second placeholder appears just to the right. e. one at each end of the x-axis. The first x-axis expression is plotted against the first y-axis expression. type f(x)@ . there are two further placeholders visible. ♦ Select the placeholder in the middle of the y-axis. to plot the points ( n.g. and so on. e. but not the variable x. Trace settings. Enter the second x-axis expression here. See Mathcad file 121A2-01. type b[n@n . ) There is a quick way to construct a graph by combining everything in one instruction : y-axis expression . ) ♦ Enter the first x-axis expression.
Adding graph axes Mathcad does not draw lines for the graph axes automatically – you must add these yourself. There is no need to use variables called x and y here. page 2. s ). The colour of the lines can be changed by clicking on the coloured rectangle next to each ‘Show markers’ option. ♦ y-axis ( the line x = 0 ) Define a suitable graph range y.e. i. Two ways to do this are described below. Plotting extra lines on a graph ♦ x-axis ( the line y = 0 ) Define a suitable graph range x. ( See page 40. ( Graph surrounded by a black selection box. 37 . ♦ Click on one of these placeholders. and another two ways are available by formatting the graph. click outside the graph region. and Mathcad also labels them with their values. Enter x. ) For the x-axis. and plot the points ( s. so that Grid lines are ON or the Axis Style is Crossed ( see pages 39 and 40 ). and 0 in the placeholder on the vertical axis. ) ♦ Choose Graph ► X-Y Plot. then you can define a single graph range. page 3. from the Format menu. ) Two extra placeholders appear on each axis. say s. 0 ).and y-axes.f(x) on the vertical axis. put x in the placeholder on the horizontal axis.y. enter 0 in one of the placeholders on the vertical axis. or press [Enter]. For the y-axis. and plot the points ( 0. 0 ) and ( 0.and y-axes have the same scale. ♦ Finally. Graph ranges Formatting a graph using ‘Show markers’ ♦ Click in the graph to select it. Turn Show markers ON for both axes.. The lines drawn for the axes can be formatted to any colour and style. page 36. Notes The format of these marker lines cannot be changed. Indeed. enter 0 in one of the placeholders on the horizontal axis.0. ( Pressing [Tab] will then select the next placeholder. Example Plotting a function and adding both the x. to produce two dotted red marker lines for the axes.x on the horizontal axis and 0.. y ). Related topic in this guide : Plotting two ( or more ) curves on the same graph. See Mathcad file 121A1-02. and plot the points ( x. ( See page 39 for more details about graph formatting. ) See also Mathcad file 221A2-02. if the x. and enter a number.
three or all four of the axis limits. Mathcad chooses a ‘nice’ round number for each of the axis limits. page 39. See MST121 Computer Book A. ( All the standard Mathcad editing techniques can be applied – see page 19 of this guide. Mathcad may add or subtract tick marks or grid lines after rescaling. i. ) ♦ Select an axis limit either by clicking on it. try a different graph range. Resizing a graph. Plotting problems ◊ Editing expressions on the graph axes To correct any typing mistakes. ♦ Edit the existing limit. ♦ Click in the graph to select it. page 42 . then it highlights the expression in red and the graph itself remains blank. ◊ Fixing your own graph scale You can fix the scale by entering values for the axis limits into the four placeholders at the ends of the axes. click outside the graph region.and y-axes. Mathcad must be able to evaluate the expressions on the x. If you do this. See Mathcad file 121A2-02. ) Suggested action – if the expressions are correctly entered. or press [Enter]. ) You can format the graph and turn ‘Auto scale’ OFF. and enter your new value. This can be done either when the graph is first created ( when the graph box and all the placeholders are empty ) or after the graph has been drawn – the situation shown below. then select the expression you wish to change either by clicking on it. page 4. 38 . to re-draw the graph with the new axis limits. Chapter A3. ( Clicking on this ‘red’ expression will reveal an error message – see page 62 of this guide. then Mathcad automatically rescales the graph axes. ( Graph surrounded by a black selection box. If this data changes.e. the traces plotted on the graph always extend to the edges of the graph box. Related topics in this guide : Graphs – Zoom and Trace. but now sets the axis limits to the extreme values of the data. simply delete the existing limit value to leave an empty placeholder. change the expressions plotted or alter the graph scale. two. or by using the left and right arrow keys to move along to each placeholder in turn. see Graphs – Formatting.Graph scaling ◊ Mathcad automatically sets the graph scale ( the default ) By default. ♦ Finally. or by using the left and right arrow keys to move along each expression in turn. Notes You can fix the value for one. Mathcad still scales and rescales the graph automatically. ensuring that all the graph data is displayed within the graph box. ) ! No graph drawn In order to draw a graph. ♦ Click in the graph to select it. page 25. If Mathcad is unable to evaluate one of the expressions. ( This situation is ‘Auto scale’ ON. To remove a fixed scale and let Mathcad automatically set the limits again.
page 25. ♦ Change the desired settings in the option box ( see the next two pages for details ). then click on the OK button to see the results ( or click on Apply to see the effect of individual changes ). Related topics in this guide : Graph scaling. ) ♦ Choose Graph ► X-Y Plot. pages 4 and 5. pages 7 and 8. ( Graph surrounded by a black selection box. ) 39 . Suggested actions – try formatting the graph trace to mark the individual points with a symbol ( see below ) or alter the graph scale ( page 38 ). See Mathcad file 121A2-02. Alternatively. from the Format menu. Axis settings This picture shows the default settings on the ‘X-Y Axes’ tab in the ‘Formatting’ option box.! ‘Missing lines’ A graph trace can be hidden under the edge of the graph box or by another trace. then the curves drawn will be distorted due to different scalings in the two directions. Log scale Grid lines Numbered Auto scale Show markers Auto grid OFF OFF ON ON OFF ON Axis Style Boxed ( Details are on the next page. page 38 . Alternatively. a circle may appear elliptical.. Resizing a graph. the data you are plotting may lie outside the chosen graph scale. If the scales on the two axes are not identical. Graphs – Formatting ♦ Click in the graph to select it. For example. This brings up the option box titled ‘Formatting Currently Selected X-Y Plot’. double-click in the middle of the graph itself.. ! Scale and size Care is needed in interpreting what you see. See Mathcad file 121A1-01.
to display a graph trace as individual points not joined together by a line. Mathcad sets the axis limits to ‘nice’ round numbers. and are set independently for the x. For example.The effects of turning the axis options ON ( ticked ) or OFF are shown in the table below. click on each appropriate blank box in the row for the trace (curve) concerned. Axis is transformed to a logarithmic scale. Note that they are shown here in alphabetical order. ( More details follow. ‘Auto grid’ OFF and set the ‘Number of grids’ to 10. For example. Permits the addition of one or two reference lines to each axis of the plot. ( The ‘Type’ column is to the right of ‘Color’. Set the ‘Number of grids’ from 2 to 99. Numbers the tick marks ( or grid lines ) on the axis. they can be edited directly. Displays grid lines in place of tick marks. Boxed At the bottom of the ‘X-Y Axes’ tab you can set the Axis Style Crossed None OFF Log scale Numbered Show markers ON ON ON Trace settings The settings on the ‘Traces’ tab control the colour and style used to plot the curves on a graph. ) 40 . set the trace ‘Symbol’ to X and the ‘Type’ to points. ) Displays tick marks rather than grid lines. You choose the number of tick marks ( or grid lines ). You can change the colour by clicking on the coloured rectangle to the right. This picture shows the default settings on the ‘Traces’ tab in the ‘Formatting’ option box. The ‘Type’ column is half hidden at the right. ( The default value of ‘Type’ is ‘lines’. the grid lines are green. ) ‘Legend label’ and ‘Symbol Frequency’ do not have drop-down menus. Mathcad sets the axis limits to the extremes of the data. See ‘Adding graph axes’ on page 37 of this guide.and y-axes. ( By default. to bring up the ‘Color’ option box. to display 10 grid lines on an axis : turn ‘Grid lines’ ON . Axis setting Auto grid ON OFF Auto scale ON OFF Grid lines ON Effect Mathcad selects the number of tick marks ( or grid lines ). then click on the revealed arrow button to obtain a drop-down menu. ) ♦ To change the trace settings.
Each new graph will then be drawn using the size and format you specified for the first graph. error. Label settings The settings on the ‘Labels’ tab can be used to add a title or axis labels to your graph. ) The two other options on the ‘Traces’ tab control the display of axis labels and legends. see page 31. +. box. stem. you can set the default format to match. ◊ Hide arguments ( The default is OFF. then click on the revealed arrow button to obtain a drop-down menu. ) ◊ Symbol: Plot symbols are X. For example. points. Mathcad hides the expressions on the axes used to plot the graph. circle or triangle shapes ( open or filled ). click on each appropriate blank box in the row for the trace (curve) concerned. the legend is not shown – hidden ! ) When this is OFF. step. These settings apply to numerical values on the axes. ‘trace 1’. the arguments are shown – not hidden ! ) When this is ON. See Mathcad file 121B2-02. Line Weight: The weight ( line thickness and / or symbol size ) ranges from 1 ( thin / small ) to 9 ( thick / large ). diamond. There is a special weight p at the bottom of the list. ◊ Hide legend ( The default is ON.e. e. Then click in the check box labelled Use for defaults on the ‘Defaults’ tab in the ‘Formatting’ option box. ( It may be no different from weight 1. i. See Mathcad files 121B2-03. alternating dashes and dots. when you click on OK. i. draw. dashed. Default settings When you create an X-Y graph. ) To change the other trace settings in the active window. in the active window. by default Mathcad draws a line graph. and select from this menu. 41 .◊ Legend label The name of the curve can be changed by clicking on the current name. bar. which attempts to draw the thinnest curve and smallest symbol possible on your computer system.e. dotted. and 221B1-01. Mathcad can display a legend ( key ) for the traces plotted on the graph. Number Format settings The settings on the ‘Number Format’ tab are identical to those on the corresponding tab in the ‘Result Format’ option box. ◊ Line: Line styles are solid. pages 3 and 4. ( The trace name is displayed on the graph only if Hide legend is OFF – see below. ◊ Color: ( Note that Mathcad uses American spelling. This can be useful where the expressions would otherwise take up too much space. solidbar. with many choices of colour.e. it is automatically set up with the default graph format. If you intend to create many similar graphs in a worksheet.g. page 2. ◊ Type: Trace types are lines. i. with the first trace as a solid red line. Type in the new name to be given to the curve. ) Clicking on the coloured rectangle opens the ‘Color’ option box. ◊ Symbol Weight. or click on Apply to see the effect of individual changes. pages 3 and 4. then resize and format it to your desired style. ( The trace will be re-drawn using these settings once all the graph formatting is complete. ♦ Create the first graph as usual.
See Mathcad file 121A2-01. or click on the ‘Unzoom’ button to undo the last zoom. ( Graph surrounded by a black selection box. If the option box covers part of the graph. Related topic in this guide : Graphical solution. Then drag the mouse arrow to the top right corner . page 4. and click outside the graph region to remove the selection box. then move it. page 5. page 25 . page 44. ♦ Click the mouse at the bottom left corner  of the area you want to magnify.. ) ♦ Click on the ‘Trace’ button on the ‘Graph’ toolbar. ♦ To finish. Trace – obtaining a readout of graph coordinates The trace facility is used to identify the coordinates of points on a graph. click on the Close button. Repeat the two steps above to zoom in further. Release the mouse button. click to remove the tick for ‘Track Data Points’. To move anywhere within the graph. A dashed crosshair follows your mouse pointer.. ♦ To finish zooming and to make the new axis limits permanent. Related topics in this guide : Resizing a graph. then move it. ♦ Click and drag the mouse arrow  in the graph box. The ‘X-Y Trace’ option box appears... or right-click with the mouse and select Zoom. page 44. or right-click with the mouse and select Trace. ♦ Click on the ‘Zoom’ button to plot the selected area. 42 . Zoom: Unzoom: Full view: See Mathcad file 121A3-01. ♦ Click in the graph to select it. If the option box covers part of the graph.. and Mathcad displays the coordinates of the pointer in the ‘X-Value’ and ‘Y-Value’ boxes in the option box. By default.. from the Format menu. . or select Graph ► Trace.. ) ♦ Click in the graph to select it. ( It can be used on its own or in conjunction with the graph zoom option above. The coordinates of the vertices of the selected area are listed in the ‘Min:’ and ‘Max:’ boxes in the option box. Graphical solution. click on the ‘OK’ button. The ‘X-Y Zoom’ option box appears. ( Graph surrounded by a black selection box. . Clicking on the ‘Full View’ button will revert to the original graph. the crosshair ‘hops’ along the data points plotted on the graph. or select Graph ► Zoom. from the Format menu. ) ♦ Click on the ‘Zoom’ button on the ‘Graph’ toolbar..Graphs – Zoom and Trace Zooming in on a graph There are five steps to follow to zoom in and magnify a portion of a graph.
Make a reasonable guess. Step … 1 2 3a 3b 4 Notes The keyword Given is a ( black ) Mathcad expression.G Give the constraint(s).Solving equations 43 43 44 44 How to construct equations and inequalities The solve block Graphical solution How to use polyroots Also see : 48 Solving equations symbolically How to construct equations and inequalities Button x=y x≥y x≤y x>y x<y Keystroke [Ctrl]= [Ctrl]0 [Ctrl]9 > ( [Shift]. A block is set up as follows. ) Description Equation : left.G Use the Mathcad function Find to obtain and display the answer.and right-hand sides equal Greater than or equal to Less than or equal to Greater than Less than Notes – All the buttons shown above are on the ‘Boolean’ toolbar. G Use the Mathcad keyword Given. ) < ( [Shift]. Mathcad ‘Find’s and displays a value of the unknown that solves the ‘Given’ equations and constraints. Give the equation(s). 43 . Examples Equation Constraint Entry sequence Click on Click on or type [Ctrl]= 96 or type 0 [Ctrl]9 . not ( blue ) Mathcad text. then type x The solve block The solve block is a numerical method for solving a system of equations.
Mathcad looks for a solution until the error in the answer obtained is less than or equal to the built-in variable TOL ( see page 15 of this guide ). Related topic in this guide : Graphs – Drawing. a. Instead of ending the block with Find(x)=. It is also possible that a solve block fails to find an answer – in this case Find(x)= is highlighted in red. ♦ The expression polyroots(a) then gives all the solutions to the polynomial equation. Chapter D1. pages 2 and 3. and MS221 Computer Book D. Moreover. the intersection occurs when x = 2 . Unlike the solve block method. pages 5 and 6. page 34. Define Solve 44 . See Mathcad files 121A3-02. It solves equations of the form a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + ... Related topic in this guide : Complex number solutions to equations. or define a subscripted variable for each element individually ( see pages 13 and 34 ). Graphical solution Solving the equation f(x) = A corresponds to finding where the horizontal line y = A meets the graph of y = f(x) .. Example : solve the equation 1 + 2x − 3x2 + 2x3 = 0 . and 221B1-03... a1. . the answer obtained may depend on the initial guess. and clicking on it reveals the error message ‘This variable is undefined’. Example Graph after repeated zooming .. polyroots does not require an initial guess. To do this. you can make a variable definition like a := Find(x). By repeatedly zooming into the graph ( see page 42 of this guide ) you should be able to identify the x-value of the point of intersection. it returns numerical values for all the solutions at once. ♦ The first step is to construct a vector. pages 2 and 3. an . + anxn = 0 . Notes – The step size used to plot the graph may limit the accuracy of the solution you can obtain. whether real or complex. either create the vector directly ( see page 50 of this guide ). See Mathcad file 121A3-01. page 35. Type polyroots(a)= See Mathcad file 221D1-02. The value of the solution ( contained in a ) can then be used elsewhere in the worksheet. How to use polyroots polyroots is a built-in Mathcad function which finds the solutions to a polynomial equation. whose elements are the coefficients of the polynomial : a0. Where a system of equations and constraints has more than one solution..
or select the View menu.Symbolic calculations 45 45 46 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 Preparing to work symbolically Evaluating an expression symbolically ( ‘ → ’ ) How to apply a symbolic keyword Expanding an expression ( ‘ expand → ’ ) Expanding an expression to a series ( ‘ series → ’ ) Factorising an expression ( ‘ factor → ’ ) Simplifying an expression ( ‘ simplify → ’ ) Solving equations symbolically ( ‘ solve → ’ ) How to obtain decimal results for symbolic calculations How to define a function as the result of a symbolic calculation Problems when working symbolically Also see : 52 54 Differentiating symbolically Integrating symbolically Preparing to work symbolically The Mathcad tools for symbolic calculations ( for manipulating letters as well as numbers algebraically ) can be accessed either by clicking on the buttons on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar or by typing the keyboard alternatives. It evaluates expressions in a comparable way to how the 45 . ( The keyboard alternative is [Ctrl]. ( If necessary. hold down the control key and type a full stop. Evaluating an expression symbolically ( ‘ → ’ ) ♦ Make sure that the blue editing lines are within the expression . ) ♦ Click on the ‘Symbolic Evaluation’ button on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar . i. Notes The Symbolics item on the menu bar contains the symbolic calculation options found in some earlier versions of Mathcad – this menu is not used in MST121 or MS221. an expression involving fractions. then either click on the button on the ‘Math’ toolbar. . ) ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to evaluate the expression . The symbolic equals sign ‘ → ’ gives an exact answer. Toolbars and Symbolic. e. constants such as π. ♦ If you want to open the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar.e. click on the expression – the editing lines can be placed anywhere.g. and square roots.
g. The example below shows the keywords ‘simplify’ and ‘factor’ chained together horizontally. on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar.ordinary equals sign ‘ = ’ evaluates numerical expressions. ‘solve’. . ‘expand’. ♦ Click on the keyword button. The result of a symbolic evaluation is updated automatically if you change the expression on the left-hand side of the symbolic equals sign ‘ → ’. How to apply a symbolic keyword Mathcad provides a range of keywords ( e. i.e. ( The horizontal editing line can be of any length. position the vertical editing line at the end of the previous symbolic keyword before you enter the next keyword. To add a second keyword vertically. then the second keyword is added by applying it to the result produced by the first keyword. before you enter the second keyword. then release these keys and type the keyword. you need to position the vertical editing line anywhere within or at the end of the result produced by ‘simplify’. ( Alternatively. hold down the control and shift keys and type a full stop. e. ) It is also possible to chain symbolic keywords together vertically.g. ( In the example above. Notes Several symbolic keywords can be applied to an expression by chaining them together. ‘series’ ) which can be added to the symbolic equals sign ‘ → ’ to perform particular mathematical operations. ‘simplify’. The first keyword is applied to the expression in the usual way. ♦ Position the vertical blue editing line anywhere within or at the end of the expression.g. 46 . you need to position the vertical editing line anywhere within or at the end of the first symbolic keyword. Integrating symbolically. and so on. press [Ctrl][Shift]. Note that chaining the symbolic keywords together horizontally displays the intermediate results from each step. page 54. ) As you enter an expression the vertical editing line is usually at its right-hand end. page 52 . There is no need to move the vertical editing line from this position. Related topics in this guide : Differentiating symbolically. ) ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to see the result. . simplify. while chaining them together vertically displays only the final result. before you enter ‘factor’. e. To add a further keyword vertically. ‘factor’.
button on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar. apply the symbolic keyword ‘series’. enter the name of the variable in the expression. or with the default number of terms ( unless this value is given ).series Example With this basic use of ‘series’. Example Notes If only one placeholder is created and filled.Expanding an expression ( ‘expand → ’ ) ♦ To expand ( multiply out ) an expression. enter the value n + 1 . using the procedure described on the previous page. See Mathcad file 221C3-01.factor Example See Mathcad file 121A0-05. page 2. button on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar. page 3. Factorising an expression ( ‘factor → ’ ) ♦ To factorise an expression. In one ( either ) placeholder. Mathcad displays the series about x = 0 ( unless another value of x is specified ). 5 button on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar. If a subexpression of the main expression is input here. using the procedure described on the previous page. Mathcad displays the Taylor series about x = 0. apply the symbolic keyword ‘factor’. up to the term in x . 47 .expand Example Notes Typing a comma after ‘expand’ introduces a new placeholder. pages 4 and 5. To display the series up to the term in x . You can click on the or type [Ctrl][Shift]. using the procedure described on the previous page. apply the symbolic keyword ‘expand’. You can click on the or type [Ctrl][Shift]. Expanding an expression to a series ( ‘series → ’ ) ♦ To calculate the Taylor series expansion for an expression. Example See Mathcad file 121A0-05. You can click on the or type [Ctrl][Shift]. followed by Mathcad’s special equals ‘ = ’ ( see page 43 of this guide ) and the value about which you seek a series. Typing two commas after ‘series’ introduces two new placeholders. Mathcad expands all terms except for the subexpression. In the other placeholder. enter n the number of terms required.
Related topic in this guide : Solving equations. apply the symbolic keyword ‘simplify’. which introduces a new placeholder. This is achieved by typing a comma after ‘solve’. apply the symbolic keyword ‘solve’. ) button on the button on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar. 48 . and entering the required variable name in this placeholder. You can click on the or type [Ctrl][Shift]. You can click on the or type [Ctrl][Shift]. The ‘solve’ keyword can be used on expressions which don’t contain an equals sign ! Mathcad assumes that the expression containing the variable is equal to zero in such cases. page 43. Where the equation to be solved involves two or more variables. page 2.simplify Example See Mathcad file 121A0-05.Simplifying an expression ( ‘simplify → ’ ) ♦ To simplify an expression. using the procedure described on page 46. See Mathcad file 121A3-03. ( See page 43 of this guide. Solving equations symbolically ( ‘solve → ’ ) ♦ To solve an equation.solve Example The example above illustrates Mathcad’s way of showing two solutions : x = 2 and x = 12. Mathcad needs to be told which variable to solve for ( otherwise an error results ). button on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar. Example Notes The special equals ‘ = ’ for the equation can be entered by clicking on the ‘Boolean’ toolbar or by typing [Ctrl]=. using the procedure described on page 46.
Note that symbolic calculations can be controlled in the same way as numerical ones in Mathcad. the Mathcad expression for the derivative. if unable to simplify an expression ). If you wish to use the name.g. It is this result which becomes the right-hand side of the definition for Df(x).g. ♦ Click on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar button or type = . it will just return the original expression as the answer.g. then subsequent symbolic calculations will use its numerical value. ) Note too. For example. x. ( See page 27 of this guide. the function Df(x). ‘No solution was found’. ♦ Place the blue editing lines anywhere within the result of the symbolic calculation. but it can be broken down into more manageable chunks. The expression for Df may look a little daunting. that if a variable has been defined in the worksheet. then Df will change too. then you can tell Mathcad to ignore the prior definition. the escape key. you can evaluate it numerically. if Mathcad is unable to solve an equation ). ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to finish. ) Alternatively. change 144 to 144. It consists of a standard function definition for Df(x). e. In some situations ( e. Example ( The number of decimal places displayed is determined by the result format – see page 31. a symbolic evaluation ‘ → ’ and the symbolic result. and clicking on this will reveal an error message ( e. by defining the variable as itself. Doing this triggers up to 20 digits in the result. it may highlight the expression in red. then you can interrupt the calculation by pressing [Esc]. Problems when working symbolically Mathcad gives a variety of responses if it is not able to carry out a symbolic calculation. x := x . you can force Mathcad to give a decimal answer by editing the original expression so that it includes a decimal point somewhere ( e. If you find yourself waiting a long time for any response. and square roots. To obtain such a result in decimal form. constants such as π. if any change is made to f. irrespective of the result format used within the worksheet ! Example See Mathcad file 121A3-03. How to define a function as the result of a symbolic calculation In the example shown. e. the result may contain fractions. is defined as the result of a symbolic calculation. not its name. Mathcad gives an exact answer.0 ). Mathcad uses the numerical value of x Now Mathcad uses the symbol x 49 . Alternatively.How to obtain decimal results for symbolic calculations When calculating symbolically.g. You can also use manual mode.g. the derivative of f.
For example. page 2. If necessary. 20 rows x 30 columns. ) Mathcad creates a blank matrix with the appropriate number of empty placeholders. do the following. ) ♦ Rub out with the [Backspace] key or the [Delete] key. Related topic in this guide : Editing expressions : controlling the editing lines. Define a variable. move the option box to a convenient spot on the screen. The placeholder in the top left corner is selected . Notes A matrix created in this way can have a maximum of 600 elements. Remember that a vector is a one-column matrix ! See Mathcad file 121B2-01. or type [Ctrl]m . as required.. and select the placeholder at the right-hand side of the definition.. ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to finish. say C. How to edit a matrix ♦ Click on the matrix element you wish to change. ♦ Fill in this first placeholder. The ‘Insert Matrix’ option box appears. which goes along the placeholders in each row in turn . ♦ Enter the number of rows and columns you require. Matrices may be created either in a blank space in a worksheet ( at the position marked by the red cross cursor ) or in an empty placeholder within an expression. to assign a matrix to a variable. select the Insert menu and Matrix. and enter the new value.g. then select the others either by clicking directly on them or by using the [Tab] key. ( The ‘Insert’ button is used to insert extra rows and columns into an existing matrix.Matrices and vectors 50 50 51 51 How to create a matrix ( or vector ) How to edit a matrix Labelling and displaying matrices and their elements Matrix operations ( including inverses and determinants ) How to create a matrix ( or vector ) ♦ Click on the ‘Matrix or Vector’ button on the ‘Matrix’ toolbar. ( Pressing these keys will also move around the matrix elements in turn. then click on the OK button.. e. 50 . page 19. Alternatively. Then follow the procedure above to create the matrix. You can use the left and right arrow keys to position the blue editing lines as required.
e. Chapter B2. or type ^-1 . To display a matrix. type C= and v= Matrix elements Subscript notation is used to refer to the individual elements of a matrix.1 . where it exists. e. Mathcad refers to the top left element of the matrix C as C0. page 15. ♦ To calculate the determinant. either use the ‘Subscript’ or type [ ( left square bracket ).Labelling and displaying matrices and their elements The way in which Mathcad displays a matrix depends upon its size ( the number of rows and columns ). * ( multiply ) and ^ ( powers ) can all be used with matrices. but the ‘Calculator’ toolbar button can also be used to find the magnitude of a vector or the modulus of a real or complex number. Examples of matrix and vector elements To obtain the subscripts. See Mathcad file 221D3-02. ) Examples Inverse Determinant Notes – Applying the ‘|x|’ operator to a vector gives the magnitude of the vector. with less than 10 rows and 10 columns. raising a matrix to the power -1 gives the matrix inverse. -.g.0= Note that Mathcad uses the value of ORIGIN to label the first row and first column of a matrix. are shown using round brackets. Matrix operations ( including inverses and determinants ) The standard Mathcad mathematical operators +. So with ORIGIN set as 0 ( which is its default value ). If you change ORIGIN to 1. Matrix columns The superscript operator Example <> ( toolbar button or type [Ctrl]6 ) extracts a column from a matrix. In particular. then Mathcad refers to this element as C1. See Mathcad file 121B2-01. or type [Shift]\ ( shift and backslash ). ♦ To find the inverse. Related topic in this guide : ORIGIN.0 . see page 29 of this guide for further details. type the matrix name. page 4. 51 . type button on the ‘Matrix’ toolbar C[0. and MST121 Computer Book B. use the ‘Inverse’ button on the ‘Matrix’ toolbar.g. then click on the button or type =. page 3. Note that Mathcad uses the value of ORIGIN to label the first column. ( This button is available on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar as well as on the ‘Matrix’ toolbar. use the button. while large matrices are shown as ( scrolling ) tables of values . Small matrices.
as in the example below. then select the other placeholder and enter the expression to be differentiated . Then click elsewhere or press [Enter]. Chapter C1. given by [Shift]/ ). However. 52 . Mathcad uses a numerical algorithm to obtain an approximation to the exact value of the derivative at that point. then the derivative is highlighted in red. given by [Shift]/ ). The answer obtained is usually accurate to 7 or 8 significant figures. Differentiating symbolically ( finding a formula for the derivative ) ♦ Click on the ‘Derivative’ button on the ‘Calculus’ toolbar or type ? ( a question mark. ) If this method fails to produce an answer. ♦ Enter the differentiation variable in the left-hand placeholder. Notes Once a value has been defined for the differentiation variable. When evaluating a derivative numerically. ( Make sure that the blue editing lines are somewhere within the expression when you do this. ♦ Click on the ‘Derivative’ button on the ‘Calculus’ toolbar or type ? ( a question mark. See Mathcad file 121C1-01. ) ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to finish . and MST121 Computer Book C. they can be included for clarity. then evaluating Mathcad’s d/dx operator symbolically will also give the value of the derivative at that particular point ( see below ). ( The accuracy does not depend on the value of the built-in variable TOL.Differentiation and integration 52 52 53 53 54 Evaluating the derivative at a point Differentiating symbolically ( finding a formula for the derivative ) Higher-order derivatives Evaluating a definite integral numerically Integrating symbolically ( indefinite and definite integrals ) Evaluating the derivative at a point ♦ Define the point at which the derivative is to be found. page 4. even where the derivative would be evaluated correctly without brackets. The d/dx operator appears . and clicking on it reveals the error message ‘This calculation does not converge to a solution’. ( Mathcad will automatically insert brackets where needed to ensure that the whole expression is differentiated. The d/dx operator appears . You can enter the name of a function ( which has been defined previously ) into the derivative operator. ) ♦ Click on the button on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar or type = .
) ♦ Click on the button on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar or type [Ctrl]. as required. ♦ Fill in the placeholders for the expression and differentiation variable. Chapter C1. ) Notes – You can find a formula for the derivative of a named function ( which has been defined previously ). Examples Notes Mathcad uses a numerical algorithm to evaluate the integral. Examples Evaluating a definite integral numerically ♦ Enter the definite integral in the same way as for symbolic evaluation. reducing TOL should increase the accuracy. ( See the next page. then the integral is highlighted in red. See Mathcad file 121C1-01. e. and clicking on it reveals the error message ‘This calculation does not converge to a solution’. 53 . See MST121 Computer Book C. . x := 3 ). ) ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to display the derivative . and MST121 Computer Book C. Chapter C2. [Shift] and / ). The top placeholder is automatically filled with the value typed in the lower one. then this procedure will give the value of the derivative at that particular point. then select the other placeholder and enter the expression to be differentiated . The accuracy of the answer obtained depends on the built-in variable TOL ( see page 15 ). 4 or 5 ). 3.g. While the value of TOL does not indicate the accuracy directly. not a general formula. ! If the differentiation variable has been defined previously in the worksheet ( e. ) ♦ Make sure that the blue editing lines are somewhere within the integral. ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to finish. Use the lower remaining placeholder to set the order of the derivative ( 2. then click on the button on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar or type = to evaluate it. ( Mathcad will automatically insert brackets where needed to ensure that the whole expression is differentiated. Related topic in this guide : Evaluating an expression symbolically. page 45.g. The higher-order derivative operator appears.♦ Enter the differentiation variable in the left-hand placeholder. If this numerical method fails to produce an answer. Higher-order derivatives ♦ Click on the ‘Nth Derivative’ button on the ‘Calculus’ toolbar or type [Ctrl]? ( you need to press [Ctrl]. ♦ Evaluate the higher-order derivative numerically or symbolically. ( Make sure that the blue editing lines are somewhere within the expression when you do this. ( See ‘Problems when working symbolically’ on page 49.
Mathcad finds a formula for an integral of the supplied expression or function and then. ( Make sure that the blue editing lines are somewhere within the expression when you do this. If Mathcad cannot find a formula. subtracts its value at the lower integration limit from its value at the upper limit. then it is unable to evaluate the integral. Notes – You can evaluate the definite integral of a named function ( which has been defined previously ). Notes – Mathcad gives only an integral of the supplied expression. ( When this occurs. ♦ Click on the button on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar or type [Ctrl]. ) ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to finish . e. ♦ Click on the button on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar or type [Ctrl]. Chapter C2. Definite integral – Evaluate symbolically ♦ Click on the ‘Definite Integral’ button on the ‘Calculus’ toolbar or type & ( an ampersand. for the definite integral. ) ♦ Click elsewhere on the page or press [Enter] to finish . The integral sign appears with four empty placeholders . ) See MST121 Computer Book C. ♦ Enter the expression ( or function name ) to be integrated and the integration variable . The integral sign appears with two empty placeholders . ( Make sure that the blue editing lines are somewhere within the expression when you do this. ♦ Enter the expression to be integrated. 54 . It does not include an arbitrary constant of integration ‘ c ’ in the answer.g. . the integration limits and the integration variable . given by [Shift]7 ).Integrating symbolically ( indefinite and definite integrals ) Both indefinite and definite integrals can be evaluated symbolically. Indefinite integral – Evaluate symbolically ♦ Click on the ‘Indefinite Integral’ button on the ‘Calculus’ toolbar or type [Ctrl]i . . Mathcad will usually repeat the original integral as the ‘answer’.
. This command overwrites an existing file with the same name on the disk with no further prompting.. ) Select and magnify a portion of an X-Y graph. ! Format menu Equation.. ) Save current worksheet using a new file name.. X-Y Plot. Style. Print entire worksheet or particular pages. but it does not list every Mathcad menu command. [Ctrl]z File menu Close Exit New… Open. ( See page 42 and Mathcad file 121A3-01. ) Identify the coordinates of a point on a graph. together with their keyboard shortcuts. graph or text. ) Set the display format for the selected X-Y graph. Save [Ctrl]s [Ctrl]w [Alt][F4] [Ctrl]n [Ctrl]o [Ctrl]p Close the current worksheet.... Open an existing Mathcad file from disk.. Zoom. Edit menu Copy Cut Go to Page. Paste Undo [Ctrl]v [Ctrl]c [Ctrl]x Copy selected expression.. Graph ► Trace. Delete selected expression. graph or text. Quit Mathcad ! Create a new. ( See page 42 and Mathcad file 121A2-01.Menu bar commands The following list of menu bar commands is arranged in alphabetical order. It describes the commands most frequently used in MST121 and MS221.. Print. empty worksheet. Undo the most recent change when editing a mathematical expression or piece of text.. ( See page 9. ( See page 9.. ( See pages 8 and 23. ) Change the default font and / or colour used to display text. The keyboard shortcuts given below assume that the ‘Standard Windows shortcut keys’ box is checked on the ‘General’ tab under Tools > Preferences… . Save As... ) Set the display format for the results of numerical calculations. The selection can be inserted either at the position of the red cross cursor or in an empty placeholder in an expression.. Note that all the page references in this section are to pages in this guide. ( See page 39.. Save current worksheet. ( See page 10. or format text using a built-in style. ) Paste selection most recently copied or cut. Result.. Move through a worksheet to the top of a specified page.. Change the default font and / or colour used to display mathematical expressions. ) 55 ... ( See page 31.
) Window menu If you have more than one worksheet open. see under either Tutorials or QuickSheets.. then you can use this menu to switch between them or to arrange them side by side on the screen. ) The keyboard shortcut is the ‘at’ sign. ( See page 10. ) Manually update all the results visible on the screen. ". ( See page 57. ) The tutorials include an ‘Overview and Quick Tour’. Automatic Calculation Calculate Now [F9] Calculate Worksheet View menu Refresh Toolbars Zoom. ( See page 35. given by [Shift]'. ) Create a new text region at the red cross cursor position.. ( See page 59.Help menu Note that this help is provided by the makers of Mathcad . ( See page 27. Insert menu Function. ( See page 27. These are live Mathcad worksheets. an index and a search facility. ) Manually update all results in the worksheet. ) Insert a hard page break. Create a matrix. The keyboard shortcut is a double-quote. For the User’s Guide and Keyboard Shortcuts. ( See page 9. which are accessed via the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar or the keyboard. ) Create an empty graph box ready for a plot.. ( See page 50 and Mathcad file 121B2-01. various ‘Getting Started Primers’ and ‘Features In-Depth’. ) X-Y Plot [Ctrl]m [Ctrl]j [Shift]2 Symbolics menu This menu is not used in MST121 or MS221 – it contains the symbolic calculation options found in earlier versions of Mathcad. @ .. Live Mathcad worksheet templates that perform a wide range of tasks and can be customised. with definitions. ( See page 16.. Graph Matrix. from which you can select. Page Break Text Region ► [Ctrl]e Display a scrolling list of Mathcad’s built-in functions. it is not specific to MST121 or MS221. Tools menu Calculate ► Switch between automatic and manual calculation modes. See ‘Symbolic calculations’ on page 45 for details of the options that are used in MST121 and MS221. 56 . [Ctrl]r Refresh ( re-draw ) the screen to tidy it up. ( See page 21. ) Show or hide the various Mathcad toolbars. ( See page 27. with full explanations. The keyboard shortcut is [Ctrl][F9]. Mathcad Help Tutorials QuickSheets [F1] Details of Mathcad features and procedures. ) Show a magnified or reduced view of the entire worksheet..
Also. Open . the ‘Math’ toolbar is in a horizontal strip ( see right ) beneath the menu bar. Dragging to the left or right edge of the window will give a vertical strip of buttons. either use the View menu and Toolbars. ( See pages 10 and 11 of this guide. These toolbars also can be moved around by clicking and dragging anywhere on the toolbar except on a button. ( See page 23 of this guide. immediately below the ‘Standard’ toolbar. and closed ( the toolbar is hidden ). ! The ‘Resources’ toolbar ( showing ‘My Site’ ) appears by default. exactly where you left them. Toolbars ► Math. Any number of toolbars can be open at once. See Mathcad file 121A0-04. So do any of the subsidiary toolbars that can be opened by clicking on buttons within the ‘Math’ toolbar. starting from the left-hand end of the toolbar.g. When you first open Mathcad. described on the next page. select the View menu. e. Print. You can also click on the ‘Close’ button in the top right-hand corner of a toolbar to close it. on the ‘handle’ ( small vertical bar in background colour ) at the left-hand end. To remove it. To open / close the ‘Math’ toolbar. So the next time that you start up Mathcad. buttons that are equivalent to menu commands are pictured on the menus. It contains scrolling lists and buttons used to format text. and Toolbars. any toolbars that were open when you exited will be reopened automatically. but is not needed and is best removed from the window ( it is not shown on page 3 ). Note that Mathcad ‘remembers’ the location of all open toolbars when you exit. just below the menu bar. when the toolbar is visible. giving the name of the button.Toolbar buttons Mathcad provides several toolbars. to enter a square root. the ‘Math’ toolbar alters its appearance ( see right ) and ‘floats’ above the worksheet. You can show or hide each toolbar individually by using the View menu. or right-click on the ‘Go’ button ( with curved green arrow ) and then click on Hide. It may be moved from this position by clicking and dragging on any point of the strip apart from the buttons. Save . For example. When moved in this way. then it will turn into a horizontal strip once more. Standard toolbar The ‘Standard’ toolbar appears by default. If you leave the mouse arrow over a toolbar button. the ‘Standard’ toolbar and the ‘Formatting’ toolbar. If you drag the ‘Math’ toolbar back to the top of the Mathcad window. page 2. 57 . and it contains button alternatives to some standard Windows menu items. then after a little while a ‘tooltip’ appears. which reveals the toolbar menu. which contain button alternatives for menu commands. For example. the first four buttons relate to worksheet management : New . followed usually by the keyboard alternative. you could click on the button ( on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar ) or type \ ( the backslash key ). ) Formatting toolbar The ‘Formatting’ toolbar appears by default. ) Math toolbar The ‘Math’ toolbar ( pictured at the top of this page ) contains buttons that can used to open the nine mathematical toolbars. and for entry of mathematical operators and symbols. Selecting a toolbar name on this menu switches between open ( indicated by a tick next to the name ).
) Note that the ‘Modifier’ toolbar. programs are used to implement a few numerical algorithms. It also contains the important buttons : ‘Evaluate Numerically’ – to evaluate expressions . ) Graph toolbar Used to create X-Y graphs ( see page 35 ).Mathematical toolbars There are nine mathematical toolbars. to open the ‘Calculator’ toolbar. Toolbars ► Calculator. and also symbolic evaluation buttons. Symbolic toolbar For symbolic evaluation and symbolic keywords. ( See pages 52 to 54. Calculus toolbar Deals with differentiation and integration. but you do not need to follow the details or use this facility yourself. which can be accessed via the buttons on the ‘Math’ toolbar or by using the View menu. page 2. and also contains the tools to ‘Zoom’ in and magnify a portion of a graph. For example. ( See page 43. The ‘Evaluate Symbolically’ and ‘Symbolic Keyword Evaluation’ buttons also appear on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar. to enter in expressions or text. ( See page 18. ( The ‘Evaluate Numerically’ and ‘Definition’ buttons also appear on the ‘Calculator’ toolbar. ‘Definition’ – to define expressions ( see pages 12 to 15 ). as well as summation. is included as a button ( ‘Modifiers’ ) on the ‘Symbolic’ toolbar. page 2. ( See pages 45 to 49. 58 . Boolean toolbar Contains the special equals sign for use in equations and symbols for inequalities. Programming toolbar This toolbar enables the construction of simple programs. a range variable ( page 14 ) and matrices and vectors ( page 50 ). ) Evaluation toolbar Contains equals sign buttons for evaluation and definition. and can be used like a pocket calculator. further extending what Mathcad can do. which appears as a separate item on the toolbar menu. click on the appropriate button on the ‘Math’ toolbar ( pictured below ). and 121A3-01. See Mathcad file 121A0-04. ) Matrix toolbar Contains buttons for creating a subscripted variable ( see page 13 ). and ‘Trace’ to obtain a readout of graph coordinates ( see page 42 ). Note that the toolbars are listed below in alphabetical order. There are also buttons for some matrix operations. Greek toolbar Contains a button for each Greek letter. such as inverse and determinant ( page 51 ). and that all the textual page references in this section are to pages in this guide. In MS221 Block D. or select the View menu. ) Calculator toolbar This toolbar contains numbers and common arithmetic operators.
the expression is highlighted in red ). ) This brings up the ‘Mathcad Help’ window. The ‘Index’ and ‘Search’ tabs can be used to search for particular information.e. Below the toolbar there are buttons for three tabs: ‘Contents’. Choose the ‘Contents’ tab for details about basic Mathcad procedures. with sections for all but one of the mathematical toolbars. This has the effect of toggling ( shifting back and forth ) between showing and not showing redefinition warnings. on the Tools menu.. with ‘Index’ matching your keyword alphabetically to an entry in the index of help topics. Notes If an error occurs in an expression ( i. Mathcad Help ♦ To get help. which appear as green squiggles under any variable names that are redefined within a worksheet. hints and explanations may be provided for the task in hand. Your next source of help should be this guide. ) Notes One useful keyboard shortcut is [Ctrl] [Shift]r. it is not specific to MST121 or MS221. QuickSheets ♦ The quicksheets are live Mathcad worksheet templates that perform a wide range of tasks and can readily be customised. select Mathcad Help from the Help menu. Both search methods act on the keyword you type in. Alternatively. 59 . Keyboard Shortcuts ♦ The keyboard shortcuts may be found under either Tutorials or QuickSheets. ! Please note This help is provided by the makers of Mathcad . If you need help during a Mathcad session. various ‘Getting Started Primers’ and ‘Features In-Depth’. which is specific to MST121 and MS221. ( Alternatively. these warnings may be controlled via the ‘Warnings’ tab under Preferences. The section for the Greek toolbar lists all of the Roman letters that can be transformed into Greek symbols by the subsequent use of [Ctrl]g. which are available via the Help menu. where detailed Mathcad instructions. ( See page 18 of this guide. press the [F1] function key. These are live Mathcad worksheets. and ‘Search’ returning all topics that include your keyword.Mathcad help and support Mathcad provides a range of on-screen help facilities. Tutorials ♦ The tutorials include an ‘Overview and Quick Tour’. ‘Index’ and ‘Search’. The keystroke alternatives to button presses or menu choices are listed.. then clicking on it and selecting Mathcad Help from the Help menu ( or typing [F1] ) will display information about the error in the ‘Mathcad Help’ window. then we recommend that you look first within the module worksheet and associated Computer Book.
then click on ‘User’s Guide’. note that it is 170 pages long.Mathcad Tips ♦ When you first run Mathcad.. such as Adobe Reader. the ‘Mathcad Tips’ box appears. When you have seen enough. and can be viewed using the Adobe Reader program. 60 . Notes The tips are chosen from a list. on the Tools menu. but you may do so if you wish. tick ‘Show Mathcad tips at startup’.. You can see more tips by clicking on the ‘Next Tip’ button. and on the ‘General’ tab. ! Before deciding to print out the entire User’s Guide. A tip is shown automatically whenever you run Mathcad. unless the check box ‘Show tips on startup’ is unticked. choose either Tutorials or QuickSheets. To reinstate ‘Mathcad Tips’. go to Preferences. Electronic version of the manufacturer’s User’s Guide The Mathcad User’s Guide ( provided by the manufacturer ) is available in electronic form and can be viewed on-screen. click on ‘Close’. This displays the first page of the User’s Guide within a PDF viewing program. section or subsection. The ‘Bookmarks’ at the left-hand side of the screen indicate the contents of the User’s Guide. This contains a tip about Mathcad use. It is supplied in ‘portable document format’ (PDF). ! Please note Your Mathcad work for MST121 and / or MS221 is supported by its own module-specific manual – this guide ! So it should not be necessary to refer to the manufacturer’s on-screen User’s Guide. Using the on-screen User’s Guide ♦ Open the Help menu. and you can click on these entries to go to a particular chapter.
rather than being specific to Mathcad. click on OK twice ( to close two successive boxes ). For later versions of Windows open the start menu.. but these may be ignored if you prefer to click on menu headings etc. These underlines can be made to appear at all times. button labels. The underlined letters shown ( e. and so on. Once a menu is open. For Windows XP open the start menu. holding down the [Alt] key and typing f ) will open the File menu. These underlines arise from a general feature of the Windows environment. the text includes all such underlines where appropriate. then click on Control Panel. including this guide. then close the ‘Control Panel’ window. [Alt]e will open the Edit menu. a similar approach with [Alt] and an underlined letter can be used to select items from the menu. and wherever underlines appear. and click Save or OK. For example. in the menu bar in the Mathcad window on page 3 ) may not initially be visible to you.g. [Alt]f ( that is. with a mouse. Click on Ease of Access then Make the keyboard easier to use. 61 . However.. etc. Following this. Then uncheck the box for ‘Hide underlined letters for keyboard navigation until I press the Alt key’. then click on Control Panel and Display. Check the box for ‘Underline keyboard shortcuts and access keys’. button. certain individual letters are underlined in menu headings and individual entries. they should become visible if you click on the [Alt] key ( and disappear if you press [Alt] again ). as follows.Underlined letters for keyboard navigation Throughout the MST121 and MS221 texts. choose the ‘Appearance’ tab and click on the Effects. They provide an alternative to use of the mouse when accessing menus. if so desired. this alternative can be applied. In the ‘Display Properties’ dialogue box. To facilitate this.
you may need to refresh the screen. Mathcad treats errors in symbolic calculations in the same way as those in numerical calculations. Mathcad ‘anticipates’ this possibility. will display an appropriate error message. albeit a large one. ) Problems when working symbolically – See page 49 of this guide. A less obvious cause may be forgetting to enter a multiplication. See ‘Defining variables’ on page 12 of this guide for details. ( See page 27 of this guide for further details. care is needed when searching for the cause of calculation errors. ( See page 27 of this guide. On the right. This problem can also affect functions in Mathcad. Mathcad immediately calculates and updates all the results on the screen. A common slip can be to try to define a new variable using ‘ = ’ ( Evaluate Numerically ) instead of ‘ := ’ ( Definition ). then you must calculate and update the screen yourself by pressing the [F9] function key. So you should start by looking for an error in the expression itself. These are highlighted in red. Clicking on this expression reveals an error message. checking all earlier expressions. if you are using manual calculation mode. entering the wrong name. and will switch to ‘ := ’ automatically. ( Note the absence of a multiplication dot between the A and the h in the selected expression Ah . No results appear ! By default.Errors and error messages If Mathcad encounters an error in a worksheet. but may instead be due to values set earlier in the worksheet. to the number of points that Mathcad can plot on a graph. ) Undefined variables ( and functions ) Another common problem and source of calculation difficulties are undefined variables. ) Note that a variable must be defined ( assigned a value ) using ‘ := ’ above the place in the worksheet where it is first used. 62 . ) Graph plotting problems – See page 38 of this guide. and when you click on the expression. However. which may actually be the cause of the trouble. After correcting an error. Such errors fall into two broad categories : typing errors and calculation errors. Mathcad treats ‘Ah’ as a single variable name. Mathcad can sometimes avoid potential problems itself. It highlights the offending expression in red. ◊ Typing errors can be corrected by simply editing the expression. then work back up the page. Note that variable names are case-specific : M and m are two different variables in Mathcad. and clicking on the offending expression displays an appropriate error message. Note that there is a limit. by automatically omitting points in the graph range where the expression cannot be evaluated. The cause may simply be a typing mistake. The problem may not be in the expression marked with the error message. ( See page 19 of this guide. ) ◊ However. then it highlights the offending expression in red. ( The error message associated with this problem is ‘Unable to plot this many points’.
It describes the errors most likely to occur in the files for MST121 and MS221. click on the offending expression ( which will be highlighted in red ) and select Mathcad Help from the Help menu. or press the [F1] function key. This variable is undefined. An illegal matrix operation – check the sizes of the matrices. To access this help. Mathcad calculation was interrupted by pressing the [Esc] key. The solve block method was unable to find a solution. ( See the previous page for other circumstances where this arises.. However. Mathcad is unable to compute an answer for a derivative or integral. Check the range values. The number after the comma must be between the start and finish of the range. a range or a graph placeholder. ) You interrupted calculation . Enter the ‘.. ( See page 59 of this guide for further details. ) Example 63 . However. A subscript refers to a non-existent array value – check subscript used. This calculation does not converge to a solution. via Mathcad’s help system. Your calculation involves dividing by zero – avoid this value. Found a number with a magnitude greater than 10^307 . This range variable must be defined with sequential values. A value is missing from an expression. please note that this help is not specific to MST121 or MS221.. ) Error message plus suggested action to correct Cannot understand this syntax. The second comma ( and third element ) are illegal here. The value is too large to handle.. A comma may be used to separate only the first two elements of the range. There are too many commas in this expression. Try using a different guess.List of common error messages The following list of error messages is in alphabetical order. ( See page 27 of this guide. 307 Mathcad can handle only numbers of magnitude up to about 10 . rather than .. twice. Fill in the placeholder. but it does not list all possible error messages. The calculation can be re-started by pressing the [F9] key. These array dimensions do not match. Information about any error message is available on screen. there may be no solution. This array index is invalid for this array. Divide by zero.’ for a range variable definition by typing . This placeholder is empty.
.Quick reference Defining variables and functions Variable .. Function . e.. ) To select all or part of an expression.. Definite integral or type ? ( [Shift]/ ) or type & ( [Shift]7 ) Copyright © 2010 The Open University SUP 01835 6 6.... ‘factor’. or type [Ctrl][Shift]. display u =.. Differentiation and integration Matrix or vector Indefinite integral Printed in the United Kingdom by Cambrian Printers... click on it to obtain the vertical and horizontal blue editing lines.. then Format menu. define a suitable range variable for the graph range. type u= . ) Example Key sequence A:30 u[0:1 i:0. Matrices and vectors.. ( Pressing [Delete] will rub out forwards. ( Alternatively. or type @ ( [Shift]' ).1 . click in the graph to select it.g. e. ‘series’ ( to obtain a Taylor series ) and ‘solve’. Enter the x-axis expression(s) in the placeholder on the horizontal axis. Use the left [←] and right [→] arrow keys to position the vertical editing line. u1. Symbolic calculations Symbolic evaluation . . and press the [Backspace] key to rub out.multiply * ( [Shift]8 ) divide / powers ^ ( [Shift]6 ).. . Graph ► X-Y Plot. use or Insert menu. Numbers – Calculations. To draw a graph... Add + subtract . To edit an expression... ) To format a result...g. ) or type [ left square bracket or type .. semicolon or type : colon ( [Shift]. then Format menu. type 9*4. Formatting Prior to drawing a graph. Aberystwyth..simplify Other useful symbolic keywords are ‘expand’. Text Region or type " double-quote ( [Shift]2 ).. or type [Ctrl]m or type [Ctrl]i Derivative . and then press [Space] repeatedly until the editing lines enclose what you require. then enter values in the four axis limit placeholders... u2.. .. or type : colon ( [Shift]. To evaluate numerically. as a table of values. say n. and then display un =....g. click in the expression or table to select it.. Use .. Result. click in the graph to select it. you can define a suitable range variable....g. e. To fix the scale.. e..... Graph ► X-Y Plot. Subscripted variable Range variable .. and the y-axis expression(s) in the placeholder on the vertical axis – to plot more than one curve.. use the toolbars or the keyboard.10 f(x):4*x^3 Entering and editing expressions To enter an expression..8= to obtain To display a sequence of values u0.1. Displaying results and formatting To enter basic mathematical operators use the ‘Calculator’ toolbar or the keyboard. ) Text – To enter text : Insert menu.. and round brackets ( and ) to group terms. use or type = . Graphs – Drawing.... ( a full stop ) for the decimal point.. To format the traces or axes. or type [Ctrl]. and fill in the placeholders.. Symbolic keywords... separate expressions with commas. type u[n= .. click on it... ( Pressing the [Insert] key will make the vertical editing line switch sides.
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