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Pavement Maintenance

Cornell Local Roads Program


NEW YORK LTAP CENTER

Pavement Maintenance

by

David P. Orr, PE Senior Engineer Cornell Local Roads Program

Cornell Local Roads Program


416 Riley-Robb Hall Ithaca, New York 14853-5701 Tel: 607-255-8033 Fax: 607-255-4080 Email: clrp@cornell.edu Web site: www.clrp.cornell.edu
March 2006 CLRP No. 06-5

PREFACE
Millions of dollars are spent each year maintaining and repairing pavements all over New York State. Since inadequate drainage is the source of many of the problems, the Cornell Local Roads Program offers a one-day course devoted exclusively to drainage. I was fortunate to develop that course, Roadway and Roadside Drainage, in 1997. Another issue I have seen in my travels around the state is that of selecting the correct pavement repair, particularly with regard to pavement surviving winter weather and heavy traffic. In many textbooks and training manuals, there is a concentration either on the management of the pavement or on the specific repair. While these items are important, I feel it is essential to focus on the selection of the repair. Management of highway systems can only be accomplished with a thorough knowledge of why pavements fail and what it takes to fix them. To this end, this class on Pavement Maintenance was developed. We considered other titles such as Pavement Preservation and Pavement Fixes. This manual discusses choosing the proper repair techniques for paved and unpaved roads. It also goes into more detail on some of the most common asphalt pavement maintenance techniques such as patching and chip seals. It is not intended to provide all of the training needed to properly select and perform pavement maintenance. It is intended to answer the most common questions and to help you get what you expect when it comes to pavement repair. David P. Orr, P.E. Senior Engineer Cornell Local Roads Program Ithaca, New York March 2006

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank several people for helping out with this manual. Some of them may not even realize that they played a role. In 1996, just after I joined the Cornell Local Roads Program, Jim Dean, the Town of Orangetown Highway Superintendent, asked me to teach a class on pavement maintenance. That class was repeated and upgraded several times, and has evolved into this manual and workshop. Ken Osborne and the members of the Liquid Asphalt Distributors Association (LADA) have provided insight and help with getting materials and examples. Chris Blades and Ed Kearney teach our class on Asphalt Paving Principles. That workshop and this one work well as a pair. Finally, I need to thank Lynne Irwin, Director of the Cornell Local Roads Program. His lecture in a class on Pavement Engineering gave me the idea of developing a class that focusses on understanding the solutions to repairing pavements.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1. Introduction............................................................................................................................ 1 2. Why Roads Fail Prematurely ................................................................................................. 5 3. Repair Techniques ............................................................................................................... 13 4. Pavement Distresses............................................................................................................. 17 5. Choosing the Right Repair................................................................................................... 29 6. Crack Repairs....................................................................................................................... 33 7. Patching................................................................................................................................ 41 8. Thin Wearing Courses ......................................................................................................... 47 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Crack Treatment Materials ..............................................................................63 Publications......................................................................................................64 Videos ..............................................................................................................65 Resources .........................................................................................................66 NYSDOT Regional Offices .............................................................................68 Glossary ...........................................................................................................69

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List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39

Map of NY State towns & cities by population - 2000......................................1 Spread of wheel load pressure through the pavement .......................................5 Pavement deflection...........................................................................................6 High severity alligator cracking.......................................................................18 Sealed longitudinal cracks ...............................................................................19 Low severity transverse crack..........................................................................19 Medium to high severity block cracking .........................................................20 High severity edge cracking.............................................................................21 Medium severity rutting...................................................................................22 Shoving of asphalt surface ...............................................................................23 Potholes caused by poor drainage....................................................................24 High severity ravelling of asphalt surface .......................................................25 Bleeding during hot weather............................................................................26 Polishing of asphalt surface .............................................................................26 Overlay delamination.......................................................................................27 Pavement deterioration curve ..........................................................................30 Pavement repair alternatives ............................................................................31 Crack with high level of edge deterioration.....................................................33 Basic crack repair configurations.....................................................................35 Crack sealing creating a safety hazard.............................................................36 Crack routing ...................................................................................................38 Heat lance.........................................................................................................39 Basic wand application of crack sealer............................................................39 Finishing a crack with a squeegee ...................................................................40 Cut boundaries .................................................................................................42 Finished patch ..................................................................................................43 Self contained spray patch truck ......................................................................44 'Rolling' a cold mix patch.................................................................................46 Spreading stone for chip seal ...........................................................................47 Proper spacing of emulsion and chip spreader ...............................................48 Slurry seal equipment schematic .....................................................................49 Micropaving equipment schematic ..................................................................50 Chip seal placement .........................................................................................55 Residual asphalt ...............................................................................................56 Average Least Dimension of chip seal after curing.........................................57 Self propelled aggregate spreader....................................................................59 Spray bar alignment .........................................................................................59 Spray lap coverage...........................................................................................59 Improper spacing of emulsion and chip spreader ............................................60

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List of Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14

Average distribution of government expenditures on highways in NY ............2 Pavement repair techniques ...............................................................................2 Maintenance activities .....................................................................................29 Pavement repair matrix ....................................................................................32 Determining the type of maintenance for cracks .............................................34 Guidelines for crack repairs .............................................................................35 Properties of crack filling materials.................................................................37 Proprietary cold patches on NYS OGS bids, 2005 ..........................................45 Cost effectiveness of various demand patching methods ................................46 Distresses repaired by selected thin wearing courses ......................................48 Aggregate gradations used for slurry seals (ISSA 1998).................................49 Sieve sizes for common chip seal aggregates (NYSDOT spec.) .....................52 Asphalt emulsions and residual asphalt content ..............................................53 Emulsion application rate adjustments ............................................................58

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1 - Introduction
_____________________________________________________________ Pavement MANAGEMENT: Doing the right repair in the right place, at the right time. Pavement MAINTENANCE: Doing inexpensive repairs on good roads to keep them good. - Foundation for Pavement Preservation The proper maintenance of roads, considering the State at large, is unquestionably of more importance than any of the problems that are solved and to be solved either in construction or maintenance of more expensive roads. - State of New York Department of Highways, 1910 The pressure on highway and street departments to do more with less is always a concern. Whether in the largest city (New York) or the smallest town (Montague in Lewis County), the cost of construction and maintenance of highways can be a sore subject. As shown in Table 1, the average distribution of government moneys spent on highways in 1997 varies from 2.8 percent for counties to almost 20 percent for towns. Not too many years ago, the highway department was the largest department in many towns and counties and a substantial portion of the budget in villages and cities.

Number of Persons
Under 2,500 2,500 to 9,999 10,000 to 19,999 20,000 to 49,999 50,000 and over

Figure 1 - Map of New York State towns and cities by population, 2000, source: New York State Department of Transportation

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Table 1 - Average distribution of government expenditures on highways in New York State, 1997, source: Local Government Handbook Function Highways Counties 2.8% Cities 5.5% Towns 19.8% Villages 10.2%

While the portion of the budget spent on highways and streets has decreased, traffic levels have increased and the public continues to demand better roads. It is critical that we get the most out of every dollar we spend. We must spend these limited funds wisely. In many books and manuals, this is defined as pavement management. While it is important to do the right repair at the right place at the right time, it is cheaper to maintain roads in good shape than it is to fix roads that are broken. Pavement maintenance is doing repairs on good roads to keep them good. A good pavement maintenance program is usually part of an overall management plan. It can also be used as the starting point to develop such a plan. One of the most important keys to successful pavement maintenance is to know what the proper repair is. This can range from doing nothing to reconstructing the entire road. It may be better to do nothing rather than to make a repair that fails prematurely. We have all had to make a repair, even when it was not our first choice. In such a case, it is important to know what may go wrong and how to reduce the chances of it happening again. Understanding the reasons is important to making the correct choice. There are many different pavement maintenance techniques. There are even different ways to list them. Table 2 shows possible repair techniques for asphalt and gravel surface roads, listed in order of increasing cost and durability. Concrete and brick streets are not addressed. Table 2 - Pavement repair techniques Asphalt concrete surfaced pavements Do nothing Drainage maintenance Crack treatment Patching Area repairs Wearing courses Overlays Recycling Reclamation Total reconstruction Gravel surfaced pavements Do nothing Drainage maintenance Blading or grading Reshaping Patching Wearing courses Recycling Reclamation Total reconstruction

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This manual focusses mainly on asphalt surface-treated roadways. Almost forty percent of the roads in the United States are gravel, but much of the discussion on why roads fail prematurely is applicable for all types of road surfaces. For more details on gravel road maintenance, the Gravel Roads Maintenance and Design Manual from the South Dakota LTAP Center is a good resource. See Appendix B for the the complete publication information, and Appendix D for the SD LTAP contact information.

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_____________________________________________________________ In a perfect world, pavement would last forever. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Before deciding on the proper repair, we need to understand why there may be premature distresses. Before discussing why roads fail prematurely, we need to start with, What is a road? What is a road? A road allows transportation from point A to B in all weather and traffic conditions. While a basic definition, this does not answer the question of why we build roads. Essentially, we build roads to reduce the stress on the native material (i.e., subgrade) under the pavement. To do this, we have to place good materials on the subgrade to spread out the load. Figure 2 shows how the load is spread out by the pavement. A thicker pavement will result in less stress on the subgrade. Figure 3 shows how pavement deflects under a wheel load. As the pavement flexes, there will be a combination of compression (pushing) and tension (pulling) stress in the pavement. This can eventually lead to cracking due to fatigue.

Figure 2 - Spread of wheel load pressure through the pavement The amount of deflection and stress in the pavement is also related to the amount of moisture in the subgrade soils. If the subgrade soils are wet, there will be a great deal of deflection under the wheel loads. The deflection will be much less for the same soil when it is well drained. The excess moisture in spring thaw will result in higher stresses in the pavement. Larger loads and thinner pavements result in more stress on the pavement. Pavements will fail sooner than expected if: There are heavier loads than expected There are more loads than expected The pavement is too thin for the traffic loads The materials used in the pavement are weaker than expected

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Figure 3 - Pavement deflection

Understanding fatigue
Fatigue is the failure of a material due to repetition of many loads. The larger the load, the fewer the number of cycles needed to cause failure. In a pavement, the result is typically cracking or rutting. Roads with heavier trucks or weakened pavement during spring thaw are more susceptible to fatigue failure. To understand this, take a paper clip and bend it back and forth until it fails. To simulate the summer, bend it to 45 each time. Count how many cycles it takes to fatigue the paper clip. To simulate spring thaw, bend to 90. A very weak pavement with heavy loads might be like bending the paper clip to 180.

45

90

180

We need to build pavements to handle the loads. If the loads are heavy and frequent, we need to build a thick, well-drained pavement that does not bend as much. Premature failure Pavements fail prematurely because of many factors. When boiled down to the basics, there are four primary reasons pavements fail prematurely: Failure in design Failure in construction Failure in materials Failure in maintenance

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Generally when a road or street fails before we expect it to, one of these four factors is the primary cause. Multiple factors can occur, but usually one of the four is the most critical.

The think system


Think of a section of highway in your municipality that never seems to last as long as you expect. Pick one of the four factors above that you think is most likely to be the prime factor to premature failure. As you read the section below, see if your choice stays the same. Design Most roads are not specifically designed. They have evolved from paths and trails to the pavements we have today. This does not mean we need to go out and have a full-blown engineering design done for every road repair. In fact, most roads work just fine. However, there are still many issues that need to be examined. Do we understand the conditions on the road? What is the traffic level? Has anything changed since the last major improvement? Is anything likely to change? For low-volume roads, the most important design challenge is accounting for weather and drainage conditions. If the drainage is done correctly, and the road is built to certain minimums of thickness and quality, it should hold up just fine. However, there are still many failures due to design. Under-designed A road that cannot handle the loads is under-designed. This could be due to a failure to account for conditions such as an increase in truck traffic. For instance, new roads to industrial and commercial areas should be designed. Before the municipality takes over a road, it must feel confident the road will last as long as possible. Get an engineer to help design the road if you are not sure. Ask for a professional engineering certification that the road will last the desired number of years. Failure to account for conditions Even if the road is built to a quality standard, there may be premature failure if any conditions remain unaccounted for in the design. The condition assessment problem that leads to the most premature failures is a lack of good drainage. This is not a construction or materials problem in many cases. When inspecting the road before work is done, the quality of the drainage MUST be assessed. Failure to do so will almost always result in premature failure. Changes after construction If you build it, they will come. As soon as you build a smooth section of pavement, vehicles that had detoured in the past may suddenly decide to use the new roadway. If you failed to anticipate this increased traffic, your road may fail too soon. This can be especially bad if there is extra truck traffic in the spring during the thaw.

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Examples of failure in design


Overlay too thin for traffic load (Too thick is also not desirable. It wastes money.) Failure to account for a spring in the middle of the roadway Use of a chip seal over a badly cracked road Selecting crack seals to fix badly deteriorated cracks Using asphalt cement stabilizer when the fines content is too high (above about 12 percent)

Construction Just as design can lead to premature failure, poor quality construction can cause a roadway to fail early. Many construction failures do not appear as defects for several years, so it can be difficult to determine the reason for the failure. Whether the work is done in-house or by contract, it is important to get the job done right. If you are doing the work yourself, are you ready? Has the crew been trained? What training do they need and where can you get the training? Municipalities have some of the best snowplow crews anywhere. Part of that expertise is experience. You do something enough and you get pretty good at it. Part of the expertise is training. Riding with that old-timer can be some of the best training you can get. If you are contracting the work, are you ready? Do you need an inspector for the work? Is the inspector trained and ready to make sure the municipality gets what they pay for? What kind of contract are you using? Construction may be the most difficult step because there are so many questions to be asked and answered. The problem with not asking the questions is that we usually do not get a second chance to do the work again. Fortunately, experience is a great teacher, and for most operations some basic training and practice is enough to make sure the work is done right. Complicated and specialized work can still be problematic and failures due to construction can occur. Poor workmanship The best laid plans often go astray. If the work is not done properly then it may not last. A very common problem in culvert installation is the failure to compact the backfill in thin even lifts. It may be faster to put in thick lifts, but coming back to fix the problem after settlement occurs is not a good alternative. Training and pride in your work go a long way towards overcoming workmanship issues. Using incorrect equipment Everyone knows you should hit a nail with a hammer, yet how many of us have used a wrench instead? Using the wrong tool in pavement maintenance can lead to premature failure. A rubber-tired roller should be used on a chip seal. A steel drum roller can crush and break the aggregate. NOT using a piece of equipment can also cause problems. Leaving gravel unrolled because no roller is available is a bad solution.

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Using equipment improperly Even if you have the right piece of equipment, it is important to use it correctly. A distributor with misaligned fans will lead to streaking. Using a compressor to blow out cracks can put water into the cracks. Know what a piece of equipment is for and how to use it properly. Failure to follow plans Do you have plans? Engineering drawings are not required for pavement maintenance, but writing down the steps and having a plan is a valuable tool. Examples of items in a good plan include stakeout, detours, materials, construction steps, and plans in case of poor weather. Without a plan, how do you know whether anything was done incorrectly? Lack of training Lynne Irwin likes to say: How do you know what you dont know, if you dont know that you don't know it? A crew cannot be expected to do something if they do not know how. Provide training for everyone. It can be on-the-job, tailgate talks over breaks, hourlong training at an association meeting, or all-day training from the Cornell Local Roads Program or a vendor. Wrong time of year or poor weather We cannot control the weather, but we can account for it. A surface treatment placed in October is not likely to work as well as one placed in July. On the other hand, if it rained during construction in July, it is not likely to do very well either. Know the limitations for the repair. You may have to do the work anyway, but you will be better prepared to overcome the problems that may arise.

Examples of failure in construction


Failure to compact cold patch with the truck tire Failure to place the aggregate in a chip seal before the asphalt emulsion breaks Using an air compressor without an oil/water separator to clean cracks (can introduce water and cause a loss of bond) Paving over a base that is not properly prepared Doing any work with asphalt emulsions after late October (or on any cold day)

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Materials Using the wrong material in the right place or the right material in the wrong place can lead to premature failure. Sometimes the problems are obvious. Sometimes the problem does not appear to be related to the material choice. Backfilling an underdrain trench with large stone is actually a materials problem. The stones will retain silt particles brought in by the drained water and will lead to premature plugging of the pipe. Be sure to select the correct material for the job. Wrong material The wrong material will lead to premature failure. Using a dirty gravel base is a classic example. The use of the less expensive material can lead to much larger expenses in the future. Understand what the limitations of a particular product are before you use it. Ask the vendor, other highway departments, or the New York State Department of Transportation. Get a clear picture of the best material for the job. Material does not meet specifications Once you select the material, make sure it meets specifications. By some estimates, 1/4 of the wire in the main cables of the Brooklyn Bridge did not meet the specifications. When the contractor was caught, the extra expense of more cable was paid out of their contract. Some failures are due to a material not meeting specifications. One recommendation is to always sample the materials on site. It is not always possible to go back and get a sample after the construction is complete. Material installed incorrectly If material is put in incorrectly, there can be premature failure. Is this a construction issue or a material issue? It could be both. It should be neither. Sometimes the problem is failure to install the item using a newer technique. For instance, Superpave asphalt concrete needs to be rolled differently than older Marshall Mix design asphalt concretes. Incompatibility with other materials Aggregate charge incompatibility is cited almost every time a chip seal fails. In reality, it almost never occurs. Much more common is using a dusty stone that does not adhere to the asphalt emulsion. When this problem occurs, the consequences can be dramatic.

Examples of failures in materials


Chip sealing over a good quality surface gravel (a good surface gravel has too many fines to be a base gravel) Using an asphalt emulsion to seal cracks Using a cheaper cold patch that may last only a few hours Using a dusty or wet aggregate in surface treatment operations

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2 - Why Roads Fail Prematurely

Maintenance The most common maintenance problem is that not enough maintenance is done. This is a budgetary, planning, and communication issue that is sometimes very difficult to overcome. Once we decide to perform maintenance we need to remember that ALL maintenance techniques can be designed to fit the conditions and need to be constructed properly using the correct materials. Premature failure of pavement maintenance is usually a failure of design, construction, or material.

Design The most common design issue is a lack of design. The first step in design is selecting the correct repair to fix the problem. In too many cases, the choice of repair is made for nontechnical reasons. In addition, many maintenance repairs are made without any design. Even a chip seal can be designed to obtain the best result for the municipality. Knowing what needs to be done to get the right repair is one of the most critical steps in the design of pavement maintenance. Construction Once a technique has been chosen, it needs to be done correctly. The failure to construct the maintenance repair properly is a major cause of premature failure. A classic example is the lack of truck tire rolling of cold mix patch in the winter. Instead of lasting several months, it lasts less than a day. Material Using the correct material is critical. It may be less expensive to buy cheaper gravel, patch, or emulsion, but can you afford the cost of replacement if it fails prematurely?

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3 - Repair Techniques
_____________________________________________________________ There are many different pavement maintenance techniques. Before deciding which technique to use, make sure you know all of the possible choices. Some problems can only be solved with certain techniques. The list below describes the basic repairs that need to be in your pavement repair toolbox. All Pavements Do nothing This is the most common repair choice, because of cost. It is used whenever economics dictate that no better choice exists. It is used on good and bad roads. A brand new road needs no repairs. On a poor, badly cracked surface, the best technique may be to do nothing. It may be better to leave a road in rough shape than to cover over the problem and have it recur almost immediately. Drainage maintenance This is absolutely critical to allow roads to last as long as possible. Drainage is the single most common problem that leads to premature failures. For more details on drainage, refer to the Cornell Local Roads Program manual, Roadway and Roadside Drainage (see Appendix B). Asphalt Surfaced Pavement Crack repairs When cracks are narrow (1/4 inch to 1 inch) and not deteriorated on the edge, crack repairs are a good alternative. Crack repairs generally fall into two categories of work: sealing and filling. Sealing prevents the intrusion of water and debris into a working crack. A working crack is one that moves noticeably (more than an eighth of an inch) due to weather or traffic loads. Filling reduces the infiltration of water into a non-working crack. Patching Patching is a year-round activity that is done to keep road surfaces drivable. Most patching is done to fill potholes. Ruts, slippage and other pavement defects may also be fixed best by patching. Patching does not fix base problems. Types of patches include: cold asphalt throw and roll, hot asphalt semi-permanent, and spray patching. Patching is very economical if done properly. Area repairs Unlike patching, area repairs involve a more extensive repair. An area repair involves a cut out and replacement of a bad section of a road or street. It is relatively expensive for the area repaired, but since it fixes any base problems and is not wasteful, it can be the best alternative for roads with small areas of distress.

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Thin wearing courses Sometimes called surface treatments or seals, there is a large family of alternatives that fall into the field of a thin wearing course. They are generally less than one inch thick. This large variety of repairs is used to waterproof the pavement, restore skid resistance, and restore oxidized surfaces. Some surface treatments can fill minor ruts. Cracks and other defects will reflect through. Thin wearing courses do not add any structural strength. Overlays Generally greater than one-inch thick, an asphalt concrete overlay adds strength and can correct minor ride defects. Good timing is critical, due in part to the relatively high expense versus other maintenance activities. In an urban area, loss of curb reveal can be a problem. A tack coat is an important step to help make sure the technique has as much chance of success as possible, Details of overlay construction can be found in the Cornell Local Roads Program manual, Asphalt Paving Principles (see Appendix B). Recycling Recycling is the reuse of the asphalt surface, but it does not usually reuse the base. This environmentally-friendly technique fixes cracks and restores the surface, but it does not fix any base quality or drainage problems. Any isolated base or drainage problems should be repaired prior to recycling. Reclamation Reclamation or stabilization improves the base, as opposed to recycling, which does not. This is done via the addition of aggregates or chemicals to improve the quality of the base. When completed properly, it provides an almost new road. Reclamation can be very cost-effective, but the choice of stabilizing agent is very critical. Total reconstruction This is a very expensive technique, but it may be the only option for a badly deteriorated road. Total reconstruction can be cost-effective if done in conjunction with utility replacement. This choice is usually a last resort.

Gravel Surfaced Pavements Dust control Dust palliatives (emulsions, wood lignins, and salts) are used to keep the dust on the surface of the pavement and to improve safety for the traveling public. As opposed to stabilization, dust control is the primary reason for application and generally no working of the surface is needed. In many cases, dust control operations are scheduled to coincide with blading or grading. Blading or dragging A grader routinely needs to be used to resmooth a gravel surface. This is done with the blade of the grader set to vertical with a slight down pressure. Going slow is the key to success.

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Sometimes this is called dragging, after the historical practice of using a horse-drawn wooden drag to perform the same function. Reshaping Reshaping and grading are done when blading is not enough. This generally requires pulling the gravel material into a windrow and respreading with the grader. Rolling the surface will improve the durability of this repair. Patching and area repairs For gravel roads, most patching is done in conjunction with other work. Scarify the material in the area needing patch to a depth of an inch more than the deepest pothole. Filling in potholes on gravel roads is usually not successful. Stabilization Usually one of the highest levels of repair on a gravel road, stabilization involves using chemicals or aggregate to help improve the quality of the material in the pavement. Asphalt emulsion, portland cement, calcium chloride, and salt have all been used as chemical additives. The choice of additive is critical to the success of the repair. Overlays and surface treatments Placing an asphalt overlay or surface treating the gravel is sometimes necessary to deal with increased traffic. When performing this repair, be sure the gravel surface does not have too many fines. If the fines content is above eight percent, the new surface will probably trap moisture and fail prematurely. Total reconstruction As with asphalt surfaced roadways, total reconstruction is a very expensive technique, but it may be the only option. For most gravel roads, this is usually done only when the road will be paved with asphalt.

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4 - Pavement Distresses
_____________________________________________________________ To understand which repair to choose, it is important to understand the distresses that occur in a pavement. Some repairs do not fix certain distresses. Since this manual concentrates on asphalt maintenance techniques, only asphalt surface distresses are listed below. For gravel roads, see the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publication, Problems Associated with Gravel Roads. More detailed information on asphalt pavement distress is available in the Distress Identification Guide from the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program. See Appendix B. The severity and extent of a distress determine the proper repair. If a distress covers more than one-third of the pavement surface, the entire roadway may need to be repaired. If the distress is isolated to a couple of small areas, then spot repairs may fix the problem. Low severity distresses usually require less extensive repairs. For example, a thin wearing course may seal fine cracks of low severity. Once the distress is very severe, crack repairs may not be enough to properly fix it. The four major categories of common asphalt pavement surface distresses are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Cracking Surface deformation Disintegration (potholes, etc.) Surface defects (bleeding, etc.)

Cracking Cracks in asphalt pavements can take many forms. The most common types of cracking are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Fatigue cracking Longitudinal cracking Transverse cracking Block cracking Slippage cracking Reflective cracking Edge cracking

Fatigue cracking (Alligator cracking) Fatigue cracking is commonly called alligator cracking. This is a series of interconnected cracks creating small, irregular shaped pieces of pavement. The cracking pattern gives the appearance of alligator skin or chicken wire.

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It is caused by failure of the surface layer or base due to repeated traffic loading (fatigue). Eventually the cracks lead to disintegration of the surface, as shown in Figure 4. The final result is potholes. Alligator cracking is usually associated with base or drainage problems. Small areas may be fixed with a patch or area repair. Larger areas require reclamation or reconstruction. Drainage must be carefully examined in all cases.

Figure 4 - High severity alligator cracking Longitudinal cracking Longitudinal cracks are long cracks that run parallel to the center line of the roadway. These may be caused by frost heaving or joint failures, or they may be load induced. Understanding the cause is critical to selecting the proper repair. Multiple parallel cracks may eventually form from the initial crack. This phenomenon, known as deterioration, is usually a sign that crack repairs are not the proper solution. Filling or sealing longitudinal cracks can work if the cracks are narrow and not deteriorated too much. Figure 5 shows sealed longitudinal cracks. Multiple cracks may require patching or area repairs to fix the problem.

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Figure 5 - Sealed longitudinal cracks Transverse cracks Transverse cracks form at approximately right angles to the centerline of the roadway. They are regularly spaced and have some of the same causes as longitudinal cracks. Transverse cracks will initially be widely spaced (over 20 feet apart). They usually begin as hairline or very narrow cracks and widen with age. If not properly sealed and maintained, secondary or multiple cracks develop, parallel to the initial crack. The reasons for transverse cracking, and the repairs, are similar to those for longitudinal cracking. In addition, thermal issues can lead to low-temperature cracking if the asphalt cement is too hard. Figure 6 shows a low-severity transverse crack.

Figure 6 - Low severity transverse crack

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Block cracking Block cracking is an interconnected series of cracks that divides the pavement into irregular pieces. This is sometimes the result of transverse and longitudinal cracks intersecting. They can also be due to lack of compaction during construction. Low severity block cracking may be repaired by a thin wearing course. As the cracking gets more severe, overlays and recycling may be needed. If base problems are found, reclamation or reconstruction may be needed. Figure 7 shows medium to high severity block cracking.

Figure 7 - Medium to high severity block cracking Slippage cracking Slippage cracks are half-moon shaped cracks with both ends pointed towards the oncoming vehicles. They are created by the horizontal forces from traffic. They are usually a result of poor bonding between the asphalt surface layer and the layer below. The lack of a tack coat is a prime factor in many cases. Repair requires removal of the slipped area and repaving. Be sure to use a tack coat in the new pavement.

Reflective cracking Reflective cracking occurs when a pavement is overlaid with hot mix asphalt concrete and cracks reflect up through the new surface. It is called reflective cracking because it reflects the crack pattern of the pavement structure below. As expected from the name, reflective cracks are actually covered over cracks reappearing in the surface. They can be repaired in similar techniques to the other cracking noted above. Before placing any overlays or wearing courses, cracks should be properly repaired.

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Edge cracking Edge cracks typically start as crescent shapes at the edge of the pavement. They will expand from the edge until they begin to resemble alligator cracking. This type of cracking results from lack of support of the shoulder due to weak material or excess moisture. They may occur in a curbed section when subsurface water causes a weakness in the pavement. At low severity the cracks may be filled. As the severity increases, patches and replacement of distressed areas may be needed. In all cases, excess moisture should be eliminated, and the shoulders rebuilt with good materials. Figure 8 shows high severity edge cracking.

Figure 8 - High severity edge cracking Surface deformation Pavement deformation is the result of weakness in one or more layers of the pavement that has experienced movement after construction. The deformation may be accompanied by cracking. Surface distortions can be a traffic hazard. The basic types of surface deformation are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rutting Corrugations Shoving Depressions Swell

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Rutting Rutting is the displacement of pavement material that creates channels in the wheel path. Very severe rutting will actually hold water in the rut. Rutting is usually a failure in one or more layers in the pavement. The width of the rut is a sign of which layer has failed. A very narrow rut is usually a surface failure, while a wide one is indicative of a subgrade failure. Inadequate compaction can lead to rutting. Figure 9 shows an example of rutting due to subgrade failure.

Figure 9 - Medium Severity Rutting Minor surface rutting can be filled with micropaving or paver-placed surface treatments. Deeper ruts may be shimmed with a truing and leveling course, with an overlay placed over the shim. If the surface asphalt is unstable, recycling of the surface may be the best option. If the problem is in the subgrade layer, reclamation or reconstruction may be needed.

Corrugation Corrugation is referred to as washboarding because the pavement surface has become distorted like a washboard. The instability of the asphalt concrete surface course may be caused by too much asphalt cement, too much fine aggregate, or rounded or smooth textured coarse aggregate. Corrugations usually occur at places where vehicles accelerate or decelerate. Minor corrugations can be repaired with an overlay or surface milling. Severe corrugations require a deeper milling before resurfacing. Shoving Shoving is also a form of plastic movement in the asphalt concrete surface layer that creates a localized bulging of the pavement. Locations and causes of shoving are similar to those for corrugations. Figure 10 shows an example of shoving. Repair minor shoving by removing and replacing. For large areas, milling the surface may be required, followed by an overlay.

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4 - Pavement Distresses

Figure 10 - Shoving of asphalt surface

Depressions Depressions are small, localized bowl-shaped areas that may include cracking. Depressions cause roughness, are a hazard to motorists, and allow water to collect. Depressions are typically caused by localized consolidation or movement of the supporting layers beneath the surface course due to instability. Repair by excavating and rebuilding the localized depressions. Reconstruction is required for extensive depressions.

Swell A swell is a localized upward bulge on the pavement surface. Swells are caused by an expansion of the supporting layers beneath the surface course or the subgrade. The expansion is typically caused by frost heaving or by moisture. Subgrades with highly plastic clays can swell in a manner similar to frost heaves (but usually in warmer months). Repair swells by excavating the inferior subgrade material and rebuilding the removed area. Reconstruction may be required for extensive swelling.

Disintegration The progressive breaking up of the pavement into small, loose pieces is called disintegration. If the disintegration is not repaired in its early stages, complete reconstruction of the pavement may be needed. The two most common types of disintegration are: 1. 2. Potholes Patches

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Pavement Maintenance

Potholes Potholes are bowl-shaped holes similar to depressions. They are a progressive failure. First, small fragments of the top layer are dislodged. Over time, the distress will progress downward into the lower layers of the pavement. Potholes are often located in areas of poor drainage, as seen in Figure 11. Potholes are formed when the pavement disintegrates under traffic loading, due to inadequate strength in one or more layers of the pavement, usually accompanied by the presence of water. Most potholes would not occur if the root cause was repaired before development of the pothole. Repair by excavating and rebuilding. Area repairs or reconstruction may be required for extensive potholes.

Figure 11 - Potholes caused by poor drainage Patches A patch is defined as a portion of the pavement that has been removed and replaced. Patches are usually used to repair defects in a pavement or to cover a utility trench. Patch failure can lead to a more widespread failure of the surrounding pavement. Some people do not consider patches as a pavement defect. While this should be true for high quality patches as is done in a semipermanent patch, the throw and roll patch is just a cover. The underlying cause is still under the pothole. To repair a patch, a semi-permanent patch should be placed. Extensive potholes may lead to area repairs or reclamation. Reconstruction is only needed if base problems are the root source of the potholes.

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4 - Pavement Distresses

Surface defects Whereas the previous types of distress are mostly related to the supporting layers beneath the surface, surface defects are related to problems in the surface layer. The most common types of surface distress are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ravelling Ravelling (see Figure 12), is the loss of material from the pavement surface. It is a result of insufficient adhesion between the asphalt cement and the aggregate. Initially, fine aggregate breaks loose and leaves small, rough patches in the surface of the pavement. As the disintegration continues, larger aggregate breaks loose, leaving rougher surfaces. Ravelling can be accelerated by traffic and freezing weather. Some ravelling in chip seals is due to improper construction technique. This can also lead to bleeding. Repair the problem with a wearing course or an overlay. Ravelling Bleeding Polishing Delamination

Figure 12 - High severity ravelling of asphalt surface Bleeding Bleeding is defined as the presence of excess asphalt on the road surface which creates patches of asphalt cement. Excessive asphalt cement reduces the skid-resistance of a pavement, and it can become very slippery when wet, creating a safety hazard. This is caused by an excessively high asphalt cement content in the mix, using an asphalt cement with too low a viscosity (too flowable), too heavy a prime or tack coat, or an improperly applied seal coat. Bleeding occurs more often in hot weather when the asphalt cement is less viscous (more flowable) and the traffic forces the asphalt to the surface. Figure 13 shows an example of bleeding during hot weather.

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Pavement Maintenance

In some cases, a repair can be made by applying hot sand or slag to blot up the excess asphalt. This is a very difficult problem to solve. It sometimes requires removing the bleeding pavement and placing a new surface. A thin wearing course will only solve the problem temporarily. The bleeding asphalt will eventually work its way upward.

Figure 13 - Bleeding during hot weather Polishing Polishing is the wearing of aggregate on the pavement surface due to traffic (see Figure 14). It can result in a dangerous low friction surface. A thin wearing course will repair the surface.

Figure 14 - Polishing of asphalt surface Delamination Delamination is a failure of an overlay due to a loss of bond between the overlay and the older pavement (see Figure 15). Common causes of delamination include: wet or dirty surface during paving of the overlay, failure to use a tack coat, or poor compaction of the overlay. Proper paving techniques, including cleaning the surface and use of tack coat, will reduce the chances of delamination.

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4 - Pavement Distresses

Figure 15 - Overlay delamination

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5 - Choosing the Right Repair


_____________________________________________________________ According to the Foundation for Pavement Preservation, pavement maintenance involves doing the right treatment, at the right place, at the right time. To achieve this, good management and an understanding of the choices are required. For a given set of conditions, at a given time, there is usually one best repair. If a road needs an overlay, a chip seal will not suffice. If crack repairs will do the job, there is no good reason to place a more costly slurry seal. Sometimes the wrong choices are made due to politics, citizen complaints, or lack of money. If such choices are made, it is important to understand why they were made and what the consequences are. Maintenance activities There are four different categories of maintenance activities: demand, routine, corrective and reconstructive. Table 3 explains how these different activities fit into a pavement management plan. Some can be performed before significant deterioration occurs. An example is a chip seal done before cracks develop. Preventive maintenance must be done before even moderate cracking occurs, or it will not last as long as it should. Table 3 - Maintenance activities Type of maintenance Demand Routine Preventive Corrective Planned? Performed before deterioration? No Not necessarily Yes No Extends pavement life? Not necessarily Sometimes Yes Yes

No Yes Yes Generally

Demand maintenance: Performing a technique to correct a hazard or meet a service request. Pothole patching in the spring is the most common form of demand maintenance. Routine maintenance: Performed on a routine basis for operational reasons. Examples include mowing grass, cutting shoulders, and striping centerlines.

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Pavement Maintenance

Preventive maintenance: Application of a treatment before significant deterioration occurs. It typically extends the life of the pavement and is usually planned. Surface treatments are usually considered preventive maintenance. Corrective maintenance: Fixes pavement failures after they have occurred. A semi-permanent area patch is a form of corrective maintenance. A truing and leveling layer to fill minor ruts, with a follow up overlay, is another example. Corrective maintenance generally costs more than preventive or routine maintenance. Planned maintenance is generally preferred to unplanned (demand) maintenance, and preventive maintenance is preferred to corrective maintenance. Figure 16 shows the relationship between condition and the life of the pavement. The pavement starts in very good shape and deteriorates slowly at first. Maintenance repairs done early in the life of the pavement are much less expensive. Figure 17 shows the relationship between pavement condition and the various levels of maintenance. These two figures show that routine and preventive maintenance are the most economical options. Reconstruction techniques are the most expensive, and are usually done when there is no other choice. Although not shown in Figure 17, there are times in the life of a pavement when the best alternative is to do nothing. This is usually when the pavement is not a candidate for maintenance, and rehabilitation or reconstruction are not yet justifiable.

Figure 16 - Pavement deterioration curve

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5 - Choosing the Right Repair

Figure 17 - Pavement repair alternatives

Selecting the repair The first step is to evaluate the road. Divide the road network into segments, and do a condition survey on each segment. A condition survey documents the extent and severity of each type of pavement distress. Using the results of the condition survey, determine the possible pavement repairs. During the evaluation, ask the following questions: What kind of maintenance can fix the defects found? What repair, if any, will extend the life of the pavement? Which maintenance technique will be the most cost effective? Table 4 shows a basic matrix to help select the proper repair. The table only shows which repairs may be used to fix a given distress at a reasonable price. Generally, the less expensive solutions will be in the lefthand columns. Within a treatment category, specific operations may not fix the distress in question. One example is a fog seal, which will not restore skid resistance, due to low friction. In actual field evaluation, other factors will need to be taken into account.

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Table 4 - Pavement repair matrix Repair Treatment Category


Crack treatments Patching 1-10 years $1.005.00/s.y. $2.75 /in./s.y. $3.00-7.50/s.y $0.602.00/s.y. $1.002.00/in./s.y 3-10 years 5-15 years 10-20 years 15-50 years Overlays Recycling Reclamation 3-5 years $0.251.75/l.f. Thin wearing courses Reconstruction 25-50 years $40.0050.00/s.y.

Pavement Maintenance

Average duration

Average unit cost (2005 prices)

Distress to be repaired
X X X2 X X X X1 X X X3 X X X X
4 5 3 4

Low skid resistance X X

Raveling

Bleeding

X X

Rutting X

Low severity cracks

Moderate severity cracks

Cornell Local Roads Program

High severity cracks

X X X

Potholes

Roughness

1 - Micropaving and Novachip will fill some ruts. 2 - Bleeding may reappear after a few years. 3 - See Chapter 6 to help determine which cracks are good candidates for repairs. 4 - Overlays with a shim layer added may be used to fill ruts and improve ride quality. 5 - Cracks will reflect through unless crack repairs are completed first.

6 - Crack Repairs
_____________________________________________________________ Crack repairs are the proper and timely maintenance of cracks using sealing or filling techniques to extend pavement life. Crack repairs are very cost effective if done properly. A crack repair program begins by determining if crack repairs are suitable for the type of distress. Determining Type of Maintenance The first step is to inspect the roadway and examine the cracking. Two different factors need to be examined: crack density and the level of edge deterioration. The width of the crack also needs to be determined. Crack density is a subjective term describing the spacing of the cracks. If there are only a few cracks along the length of roadway, then the density is low. If there are cracks over the full length of the pavement, the density is high. If you are not sure, the density is probably moderate. Edge deterioration is a measure of the condition of the cracks. Spalling, secondary cracks, cupping, and faulting are all examples of edge deterioration. A single transverse crack may be low in density. A badly deteriorated single crack is still low in density, however, it is not a candidate for crack repairs. If the edge is deteriorated too much, crack repairs will not be successful, and patching or area repairs are needed. Crack width is important to determine, if the repair is to be successful. If the crack width is less than 1/4 inch (the width of a pencil eraser), then the crack is too narrow for sealing and filling. A crack this size is not wide enough to allow the repair material to enter and function. Narrow cracks may be surface treated. Alternatively, they can be widened by routing or sawing. Figure 18 shows an isolated crack with a large amount of edge deterioration. The initial crack has spawned many secondary cracks. If all the cracks were combined together, the width would be significantly more than one inch. This is a good candidate for patching.

Figure 18 - Crack with high level of edge deterioration

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Pavement Maintenance

Table 5 shows how crack density and edge deterioration can be used to select the proper type of maintenance. In the table, rehabilitation includes recycling and reclamation. Be sure any drainage issues are resolved when choosing this option. In the case of low density, moderate level cracking, crack repairs may not be cost effective. Pavement should be evaluated on a case by case basis. Table 5 - Determining the type of maintenance for cracks Average level of edge deterioration Crack Density Low Moderate High Low (0-25%) Nothing Crack repair Surface treatment Moderate (26-50%) Crack repair? Crack repair Surface treatment High (51-100%) Patching Patching Rehabilitation

Sealing versus Filling There are two distinct techniques used to repair cracks: sealing and filling. Crack sealing The placement of specialized materials either above or into working cracks using unique configurations to prevent the intrusion of water and debris into the crack. Working cracks are defined as those that experience significant horizontal movements, generally greater than about 1/8 inch over the course of the year. Working cracks are generally more widely open during winter months, and less open in summer months. Cold weather causes the pavement surface to contract, which opens the cracks. Crack filling The placement of materials into nonworking cracks to reduce infiltration of water and to reinforce the adjacent pavement. It is important to remember that sealing uses more flexible materials than filling. This allows the seal to move with the crack. Sealing material is more expensive, but is usually worth the extra money. Substantial savings can result if the cracks are not moving. Table 6 shows the basic guidelines for choosing between crack sealing and crack filling.

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6 - Crack Repairs

Table 6 - Guidelines for crack repairs Crack characteristics Crack width Edge deterioration (spalls, secondary cracks) Annual horizontal movement Type of crack Sealing 1/4" to 3/4" (5 to 19 mm) Minimal to none (equal to or less than 25% of crack length) equal to or less than 1/8" (3 mm) Transverse thermal Transverse reflective Diagonal Working longitudinal Routing/sawing Cleaning/drying Backer rod (if required) Filling 1/4" to 1" (5 to 25 mm) Moderate to none (equal to or less than 50% of crack length) less than 1/8" (3 mm) Longitudinal reflective Longitudinal cold joint Longitudinal edge Distantly spaced block Blowing out debris

Preparation

Materials Various materials can be used to repair cracks. There are many different desirable characteristics. All crack repair materials need to have good adhesion to the sides of the crack. Installation and performance issues are also factors that need to be examined. Table 7 shows the desirable properties of the various materials. Appendix A summarizes the most commonly used cracktreatment materials and provides recommendations for use, as well as basic cost information. As a general rule, materials that are more flexible will perform better in sealing operations. Polymer and rubberized materials have shown the best performance. Configuration Crack repair material is placed in a specific configuration that is most suitable for the application. Three basic configurations are shown in Figure 19. There are many other specialized configurations, but they are all variants or combinations of the three shown.

Flush-Fill

Overband Figure 19 - Basic crack repair configurations

Reservoir

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Pavement Maintenance

Flush-fill The easiest and most common technique is the flush-fill. The material is placed into the crack. Excess material is then removed or blotted up. It is an easy repair, but edge deterioration can result in premature failure. The crack must be clean and dry prior to the repair. Overband Overbanding places material into and over an uncut crack. This technique is better than a flushfill at dealing with small deterioration, but the overband must be kept narrow. As a general rule, no overband should be wider than four inches. The material is slippery when wet and can result in a safety hazard. Multiple cracks filled in this way can lead to a patched area of crack sealant as shown in Figure 20. Reservoir In the reservoir technique, a saw or router is used to prepare a place to insert the repair material. This is more commonly done with sealing repairs. It increases the costs, but it may be necessary in order to provide sufficient working room for the sealant.

Figure 20 - Crack sealing creating a safety hazard Limitations Crack repairs do not restore the structural integrity of the pavement. They can improve the strength of the pavement during wet periods, such as spring thaw, by eliminating or reducing the inflow of water under the pavement. Cracks should be sealed when they are at the middle of their working range. This allows the cracks to expand and contract with less stress on the sealant. A sunny day in spring or fall is a very good time to seal cracks, if all of the other weather factors are favorable.

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Table 7 Properties of crack filling materials

Material type Asphalt emulsion Polymermodified emulsion Asphalt cement Fiberized asphalt Asphalt rubber Rubberized asphalt Lowmodulus rubberized asphalt Selfleveling silicone

Property

Short prep

9 9 99 99 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 99 9 9 99 99 99 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
Filling Filling (sealing) Filling Filling Sealing (filling)

9 9 99 99 99 99 99 99 9 99 99 99 9 9 99
Sealing

99

Easy to place

Short cure time

9 9 9 99 99 99 99 9
Sealing Sealing

Adhesion

Cohesiveness

Cornell Local Roads Program

Resistance to softening and flow in cured state

Flexibility

Elasticity

Resistance to aging and weathering

Resistance to tracking and abrasion

6 - Crack Repairs

Recommended application

37

9 = Applicable

99 = Very applicable

Pavement Maintenance

Cracks should be repaired as soon as possible. Waiting a year can lead to additional deterioration, which may render crack repairs ineffective. A crack repair program can reduce, but not eliminate, the chances of cracks deteriorating too much before the work can be performed. Cracks are a sign of a failure somewhere in the pavement. Crack repairs do not generally fix the associated problems. When performing crack repairs, thought should be given to what future treatments may be needed. Performance There are many factors that can influence the expected life of a crack repair. Proper selection of good repair candidates is critical. When repairs are done on the correct candidates, the repair can last several years. Crack filling is expected to last two to four years when using emulsions or asphalt filler materials. Use of sealing products in non-working cracks has been shown to last six to eight years. Crack sealing without any routing or sawing typically lasts from three to five years. Routing out the cracks increases the life by two years, for a total of five to seven years. Costs Sealant materials costs are provided in Appendix A. As expected, sealing materials cost significantly more than filling materials. The cost of the application varies significantly depending on the construction operation and the productivity. Prices per lineal foot of crack can range from $0.02/foot for simple filling with asphalt emulsion, to over a $1/foot for a routed crack sealed with rubberized sealant. Crack repairs can be bid out by the municipality. The New York State Office of General Services bids out crack repairs with an award available to all municipalities. The award can be found at their web site (www.ogs.state.ny.us) under Highway Bituminous Materials. Construction Operations Crack treatment operations consist of five steps. This does not include traffic control, which needs to be set up properly beforehand. Crack repair operations are generally slow-moving, but special considerations may be needed on high-speed roadways. All five steps may not always be needed, depending upon the specific material configuration and placement options. Each step is described below. Crack cutting (optional) If there is a need to produce a reservoir for the crack material, then sawing or routing is required. Routing has a higher production rate, but sawing produces more vertical faces and a more uniform reservoir. Figure 21 shows crack routing.

Figure 21 Crack routing

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6 - Crack Repairs

Cleaning & drying Because dust and water will adversely affect the adhesion of crack repair materials, this is one of the most important steps. Airblasting with a backpack unit or air compressor will remove dust, debris, and some loose asphalt concrete pieces, but is not effective at removing surface moisture. If a moisture and oil filter is not properly installed, airblasting can actually introduce contaminants to the face of the crack. This is especially problematic when sealing. An alternative is to use a heat lance (Figure 22). This device removes dust and surface moisture. The heat from the lance can also help improve the bond of the crack repair, if the material installation follows closely behind the lance. Other cleaning methods include sandblasting and wire brushing. Depending upon the surface conditions, these methods may improve the quality of the crack repair. Crack repairs should never be done in rainy weather. Even the best heat lance cannot deal with the excess moisture. Material installation The method of installation depends on the material to be placed. Emulsions can be applied with hand held pour pots. Distributor wands with hoses are often used to place material in the crack. Figure 23 shows basic wand application of crack sealer. In most cases, the materials need to be heated. The temperatures can be as high as 425F. Safety around, and with, the crack material is a primary concern. Crews must be trained to properly heat and place the material. Figure 23 Basic wand application of crack sealer Figure 22 Heat lance

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Pavement Maintenance

Material finishing (optional) Squeegees or special attachments on the end of the distributor wand can be used to strike off the excess material. Squeegees are typically molded into a "U" shape which helps control the width of the material. Figure 24 shows a squeegee in use. Even when the work is supposed to be a flush-fill configuration, some material may not get into the crack. To control this excess material, finishing needs to be done with a squeegee or by blotting. Finishing can also reduce waste by pushing excess material into unfilled portions of the crack. Blotting (optional) Figure 24 Finishing a crack with a squeegee

Blotting reduces tracking and soaks up excess material. Sand is typically used, but if necessary it can be done with absorbent paper on a stick.

Crack treatment weather As long as the crack is dry, crack repairs can be done almost any time of year. Spring and fall are very good times to repair cracks. The following conditions are recommended: Temperature above 40F (for sealing working cracks, the temperature should be below 80F) Humidity less than 80 percent No chance of rain

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7 - Patching
_____________________________________________________________ Patching is the single most common pavement maintenance technique. As the repair area gets larger, some agencies refer to it as a box-out or an area repair. The goals and concerns for an area repair are the same as for patching. The difference is scale and economics. Reasons for Patching Patching fixes localized distress and may improve safety by reducing roughness. It is used to repair structurally deteriorated pavement. Patching can also reduce the rate of deterioration of nearby pavement and fix distressed areas prior to pavement overlays. There are three general types of patching: semi-permanent, spray, and demand. Semi-permanent patching is done in the summer to fix potholes, repair poor patches, and replace demand patches placed earlier in the year. It is also performed with utility cuts and culvert installations. These types of patches should have nearly the same strength as the surrounding area. Drainage repairs are generally performed at the same time. The base is replaced if necessary. If drainage and base repairs are not made, the original problem may reappear. Spray patching is done with specialized equipment. It can either be planned or demand driven. A spray patch vehicle can be used in almost any weather, but summer spray patching is generally more successful. Demand patching is an unplanned repair to fix potholes. It is performed in the winter or spring, in all kinds of weather. It is usually done with patch material taken out by dump truck. The choice of material greatly influences the success of the patch. Semi-permanent Patching Semi-permanent patching is essentially a small-scale hot-mix asphalt paving operation. Some of the same concerns about patching (weather, materials and construction) also apply to semipermanent patching. For more details on asphalt paving, see the Cornell Local Roads Program manual entitled Asphalt Paving Principles (see Appendix B). A recent Pennsylvania study found semi-permanent patching to be three times more cost effective than other patching techniques, when full life cycle costs were considered. The initial capital cost is high, but the overall success rate may justify it. The study found that the lesspermanent patches usually had to be repeated multiple times, which made them more costly in the long run.

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Pavement Maintenance

Construction of semi-permanent patches Mark the patch boundaries When determining the area to be patched, straight boundaries are better (see Fig. 25). These are easier to cut and compact. Cut at least 12 inches beyond any severe cracking. The width of the patch area should accommodate the compaction equipment. Be sure to cut into sound material adjacent to the patch. Cut the boundaries The boundaries should provide a vertical face. A saw is preferred, but a jackhammer can be used. If using a jackhammer, be sure to keep the blade vertical. Remove the old material

Poor

Cut Boundary Good

Cut Boundary
Figure 25 Cut boundaries

Remove the old broken asphalt. Try not to damage the good material outside the cut boundary. For larger area repairs, a small milling machine may speed up the process. The material removed can be used in other pavement repairs. The depth of removal will depend upon the site. In some cases, all of the asphalt is removed. If a lower layer of material is intact, try to leave it in place. Clean and repair the foundation After the old asphalt layer is removed, inspect the base and its drainage. In many cases, replacing the base and drainage is already planned. There will never be an easier time to replace the base than while the surface is open. When replacing the base, do not dig all the way to the edge of the cut boundary. Settlement may result in a premature failure along the edge of the patch. Since a pothole is evidence of distress, it is usually a good idea to remove at least the top couple of inches of the base material. The new patch will then be slightly thicker than the surrounding asphalt concrete layer. This will provide a bit of insurance if the underlying problem is not resolved during the repair. Apply a tack coat A tack coat should be applied to the vertical faces of the old asphalt. The tack coat should be sprayed or brushed into place. It should never be poured, which will lead to puddling and possible bleeding. RS-2 asphalt emulsion can be used as the tack. In some cases, the bottom of the hole may need to have a tack coat applied. This is especially true when patching over asphalt or concrete base materials. If patching over gravel, a tack coat may be able to replace the prime coat that is normally used. It can be hard to justify using two different materials to help bond the various layers together.

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7 - Patching

Fill the hole with patching material Place enough material in the hole to allow for compaction. As a general rule, one quarter inch of compaction will occur for every inch of material placed. If the patch is four inches thick, the material should be placed to one inch above the surrounding area. The material chosen will depend on the availability of hot-mix, and the number of patches being done. Doing several patches at once can be more efficient and allow for the purchase of full truck loads. For more information on the types of asphalt mixes available, refer to Asphalt Paving Principles (see Appendix B). Do not back the truck into the hole. This will damage the edge of the cut area. If the patch is very large, plywood can be layed down, to spread the load out and allow the truck to carefully back into the excavated area. Move the material around with a shovel. Dragging the asphalt with a rake can lead to segregation. Compact the patch Compaction can be done a variety of ways. A roller is best. Put down no more than six inches at one time. If the patch is deeper than six inches, use multiple lifts. A plate tamper may be used, but the compactive effort is much smaller and the required density may not be achieved. This can result in premature failure. When using a plate tamper, keep the lifts no more than three inches thick.

Figure 26 Finished patch

A compacted patch should be flush with the surrounding surface. If properly compacted, the patch will not settle significantly and create a traffic hazard. Figure 26 shows a properly finished and compacted patch. Cleanup Clean up the site. Pick up any loose material, and police the area around the patch. This is primarily for safety. Loose material hit by passing vehicles could also expose a municipality to liability. This is good for public relations as well.

Spray Patching Spray patching potholes is a very effective technique. It requires a specialized truck or trailermounted equipment. These units can be purchased or rented as needed. The quality of spray patch is very good. One advantage is that the equipment can be used in almost any weather. The equipment is self-contained. In some cases it can be done by the driver alone. The trailermounted patchers require a driver and an operator, but can sometimes reach patches more easily than the truck-mounted devices. In all cases, traffic control is critical to ensure safety. Figure 27 shows an example of a self-contained spray patch truck.

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Pavement Maintenance

Spray patching involves the following steps. Blow debris from the hole Spray a tack coat of binder on the sides and bottom of the hole Blow a mixture of aggregate and binder into the hole Top off with a layer of uncoated aggregate, to blot the surface and prevent tracking Figure 27 Self-contained spray patch truck Demand Patching (Cold patch) Demand patching is one of the most common pavement maintenance techniques. There is usually pressure to make repairs as quickly as possible. Some municipalities have a 24-hour standard for patching potholes. If the patch fails, the municipality still has a liability problem, and has to go back and refill the pothole. Demand patching restores safety, but does not repair the underlying distress. Materials Demand patching materials generally come in three different forms: Standard cold patch or plant mix Fiber reinforced patch material Modified cold patch (proprietary)

Materials can be prepared ahead of time and placed into stockpiles or even packed in buckets or bags. Bags of patching mix can be kept in the back of a pickup for emergency repairs. The extra weight can also help improve the vehicles traction in the winter. The optimum material is made with high quality aggregate. The binder needs to contain antistripping agents. These agents deal with the water found in many potholes which are filled in the winter and spring. The material needs to be workable at low temperatures, but still have stability under traffic. This unique combination of properties makes cold patch material difficult to manufacture. Less expensive mixes tend to either strip or have no stability under traffic. They cannot handle the traffic load placed upon them, and they fail very quickly. The first major improvement to cold patch was the addition of fibers. This improved the stability, but also increased the price. More recently, proprietary mixes with specially formulated binders have been produced. These materials can be twice as expensive as standard mixes, but may be more cost effective, due to a higher success rate. Proprietary mixes are bid out by the New York State Office of General Services (OGS). New products are being developed all the time, so a comprehensive list of materials cannot be easily produced. Table 8 lists the proprietary cold patch products bid out in 2005 via OGS.

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7 - Patching

Table 8 - Proprietary cold patches on NYS OGS bids, 2005 Patch name BOND X DURO PATCH HYPERPATCH I.A.R. MAC-V MC-400P NORJOHN SPC OPTIMIX PARCO PATCH PERFORMIX QPR S-K MOD SYLCRETE EV TOP MIX UPM Producer or manufacturer Seaboard Asphalt Products, Inc. Gorman Bros. Vestal Asphalt, Inc. I.M.U.S., Inc. Midland Asphalt Corp. Koch Materials Co. Norjohn Ltd. Optimix, Inc. Peckham Materials Corp. Seaboard Asphalt Products QPR, A Division Of Lafarge N.A. Suit-Kote Corp. Sylcrete Corp. Tech Mix Unique Paving Materials

There are differences between the various proprietary cold patch materials. Some work better in cold weather, some are easier to finish, some are more forgiving under traffic. When choosing which material to use, price is not usually a significant factor. All of the proprietary materials are similar in price. The one you should use is the one which will work properly in your conditions. Repair technique Cold patch should be compacted with a roller or a plate tamper, but in practice it is rarely done. Speed of repair is the primary reason for this, which has earned the technique the name Throw and Go. The problem with Throw and Go is that the lack of compaction causes the material to fail very quickly. Patches placed one day are often gone the next. A more effective technique is Throw and Roll. The only difference is that the truck is used to compact the mix. Truck tires do a fairly good job of compacting the mix. With compaction, more patches will survive the season. The steps of Throw and Roll are listed on the next page. The production speed of Throw and Roll is not much less than Throw and Go. Rolling over the patch typically increases the survival rate (the number of patches that will survive the season) from 10 to 25 percent . Using a proprietary mix, as opposed to a standard cold patch, can double the survival rate to 50 percent.

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Throw and Roll steps 1. Place the material into a pothole (remove as much water and/or debris as possible from the hole beforehand). 2. Compact the patch using truck tires, as shown in figure 28. 3. Verify that the compacted patch has some crown (1/4 inch above the surrounding pavement). 4. Move on to the next pothole.

Figure 28 'Rolling' a cold mix patch Cost effectiveness Table 9 illustrates the effect of rolling the patch, and using modified mixes. Typically reported survival rates are given for each technique. The price is the average from the NYS OGS. The calculations are for 20 tons of cold patch. The productivity is 20 tons per day for Throw and Go and 15 tons per day for Throw and Roll. The total cost assumes that the failed potholes have to be refilled up to three times. Even with the higher initial cost and slower production rate, Throw and Roll is more cost effective. The higher survival rate of a proprietary mix can justify the extra initial expense. Table 9 - Cost effectiveness of various demand patching methods Throw & Go (standard cold patch) $45/ton $900 $676 $200 $1,776 10% $4,813 Throw and Roll (standard cold patch) $45/ton $900 $901 $267 $2,068 25% $4,782 Throw & Roll (proprietary cold patch) $72/ton $1,440 $901 $267 $2,608 50% $4,564

Method Price ($/ton) Materials Labor Equipment Initial cost Survival rate Total cost

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_____________________________________________________________ Chip seals, slurry seals, surface treatments, micropaving, and thin overlays all fall under the category of thin wearing courses. They all have some common characteristics and are used in similar places. Figure 29 shows a chip seal in progress. Purpose of Thin Wearing Courses There are some critical differences between the various surfacing techniques, but they all do the following: Seal and protect the layers below Provide a skid resistant surface Seal oxidized surfaces Figure 29 Spreading stone for chip seal

Thin wearing courses are considered preventive maintenance, and are not expected to provide structural support to a pavement. They are used to seal very fine cracks and to waterproof the pavement. They can also improve skid resistance and restore a weathered, oxidized surface. Some specific wearing courses, micropaving and Novachip, can fill minor ruts up to 3/4 inch. The effective use of thin wearing courses relies on their application before any serious pavement deterioration has occurred. Timing of application is therefore critical. One of the myths about thin wearing courses, and chip seals in particular, is that they are not engineered, and are more art than science. There is plenty of science and engineering behind the proper selection and placement. Types of Thin Wearing Courses The most common thin wearing courses are listed in Table 10, which also shows the basic distresses they repair. Not mentioned in the table are fog seals, cape seals, double chip seals and sandwich seals. These are used less frequently, and thus will not be discussed here

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Table 10 - Distresses repaired by selected thin wearing courses Waterproofs the pavement Sand seal Chip seal Slurry seal Micropaving NovaChip Thin overlay Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Restores skid resistance Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Restores an oxidized surface Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Trues & levels minor ruts No No No Up to 3/4" Up to 1/2" No

Overlays (up to one inch thick) are a type of thin wearing course. Until almost one and a half inches are placed, there is not a significant strength increase provided by the asphalt concrete overlay. A thin overlay will not correct minor ruts. Unless a separate true and leveling course is applied first, traffic will recompact a single lift of asphalt back in the existing ruts. Micropaving and Novachip, on the other hand, were designed to fill minor ruts.

Sand seal A sand seal is a layer of asphalt emulsion covered by a layer of fine aggregate (sand). It is not as durable as a chip seal. Sand seal has an expected lifespan of four to five years, if placed at the right time, and in the right place. Chip seal Also known as a surface treatment, a chip seal is a layer of asphalt emulsion covered by a layer of single-sized aggregate. Timing of the construction, and the weather during construction, have major influences upon the success or failure of a chip seal. Chip seals will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. Figure 30 shows the proper spacing between the laying of the emulsion and the chip spreader during a chip sealing operation.

Figure 30 Proper spacing of emulsion and chip spreader

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Slurry seal A slurry seal is a mixture of fine aggregate, mineral filler, slow setting asphalt emulsion, and water. A specialized piece of equipment combines the ingredients, places the mixture in a spreader box, then lays the material onto the pavement surface. Portland cement and other additives are used to control the setting time. This allows traffic on the slurry sooner. Figure 31 shows a slurry seal equipment schematic.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Aggregate Bin Filler Bin Aggregate Flow Gate Aggregate Conveyor Belt Emulsion Injector Water Injector Pugmill Spreader Box Slurry

Slurry seals come in three different Figure 31 Slurry seal grades, based upon the largest aggregate. equipment schematic Sizes range from 1/8 to 3/8 inches. Table 11 lists the aggregate gradations used for slurry seals. Asphalt content will vary from 6.5 to 16 percent, depending on the application. Aggregate gradations are tightly controlled to ensure proper mixing. One disadvantage of slurry seals is the long curing time needed until traffic can use the road, up to two hours after construction. Use of quick-set slurries will improve the setting time. Table 11 - Aggregate gradations used for slurry seals (ISSA 1998)

Percent passing
Sieve size 3/8" (9.5 mm) #4 (4.75 mm) #8 (2.36 mm) #16 (1.18 mm) #30 (0.60 mm) #50 (0.33 mm) #100 (0.15 mm) #200 (0.075 mm) Type I gradation 100 100 90-100 65-90 40-65 25-42 15-30 10-20 Type II gradation 100 90-100 65-90 45-70 30-50 18-30 10-21 5-15 Type III gradation 100 70-90 45-70 28-50 19-34 12-25 7-18 5-15

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Micropaving Micropaving, also called microsurfacing, is a slurry seal with the addition of a polymermodified asphalt emulsion (see Fig. 32). Micropaving can fill minor ruts up to 3/4 inches deep in a single pass. The polymer and other additives allow for rut filling and reduce the time until traffic can resume. The polymer is usually rubber latex. Other rubber type compounds are also used. Micropaving comes in two different grades, based upon the largest aggregate. There are two aggregate gradations available: Type 2 (1/4 inch) and Type 3 (3/8 inch). Microsurfacing overlays are applied in two passes. The first pass, often called the scratch course, evens out surface irregularities such as wheelpath rutting, and prepares the pavement for the surface course. The second course provides a smooth wearing surface. No compaction is required, but the emulsion must cure before traffic is allowed on the surface. Traffic can usually resume in less than one hour after application.

Aggregate Bin Mineral Filter Bin Additive Storage Metered Aggregate Metered Micro-Surfacing Emulsion Metered Water & Additive Pugmill Micro-Surfacing Surfacing Spreader Box Brown to Black Color Road Water Spraybar

Figure 32 Micropaving equipment schematic

Microsurfacing will seal the pavement, thereby reducing oxidation and weathering of the old surface. Less oxidation keeps the pavement resilient to fatigue and low temperature cracking. Minor surface distresses such as ravelling may also be prevented or corrected. The final thickness of microsurfacing is approximately 1/2 inch (12 mm) to 7/8 inch (20 mm).

NovaChip NovaChip (referred to as paver placed surface treatment in NYSDOT specifications), was developed in Europe and introduced in the United States in 1992. Paver placed surface treatment consists of a warm polymer modified asphalt emulsion coat, followed immediately with a thin hot mix asphalt (HMA) wearing course. A self-priming paver applies the warm emulsion coat directly in front of the paving screed. Three gradations are available for the HMA wearing course: Types A, B or C. The nominal maximum aggregate sizes are 1/4 inch, 3/8 inch, and 1/2 inch for Types A, B, and C, respectively. The HMA overlay is placed from one to one and a half aggregate particles thick. Like Micropaving, NovaChip will seal the pavement, reducing oxidation and weathering of the surface. Surface distresses such as raveling and moderate rutting may also be corrected.

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Gradations available for HMA wearing course: Type A is the finest gradation and is considered the lightest duty mix. Its fine surface texture is excellent for urban and suburban applications, with some light truck traffic. It will also reduce the noise. Due to its fine surface texture, it should not be used for high speed traffic. Type A is not recommended for highways which are borderline candidates for preventive maintenance. A coarser gradation should be used in those cases. Type B is the middle gradation. It is durable enough to handle moderate to heavy truck traffic on highways with moderate speeds. Type B can also be used in lighter duty applications, if a slightly thicker lift is desired, or if more surface distress is present. Type C is the coarsest gradation and heaviest duty mix. Type C can be used for any application, regardless of traffic levels. This mix is recommended for high speed and high traffic applications, and for applications with moderate rutting. This type may be noisier under traffic.

Thin overlay A thin overlay is placed with conventional paving equipment, and is generally less than one inch thick. Just like other thin wearing courses, it provides a new surface and waterproofs the pavement. Reflective cracks will come up through the overlay in one to two years. Crack sealing the year before application can reduce this problem. A 1/4 inch (6 mm) mix is a very thin hot mix asphalt (HMA), using the Superpave mix design procedure. It consists of a high quality aggregate mixture and a PG 64-28 binder, modified to meet an elastic recovery requirement. Just like a standard hot mix, a tack coat is strongly recommended, to bind the thin lift mix to the surface. The tack coat used is diluted asphalt emulsion (see Table 13). Materials for thin wearing courses Except for hot mix asphalt used in thin lift asphalt concrete mixes and Novachip, all thin wearing courses have two materials in common: asphalt emulsions and aggregate. The characteristics of both are critical to the success of most thin wearing courses. Aggregate Aggregate is just a fancy term for stone and sand. Coarse aggregate is stone, fine aggregate is sand. Using a NYSDOT approved material is always recommended. Aggregate approved by NYSDOT has been tested to ensure that it meets minimum standards. For wearing courses, the following characteristics are important: Cleanliness Aggregates containing foreign matter (vegetation, shale, soft particles, clay coatings, or clay lumps) are unsatisfactory. For use in wearing courses, no more than one percent fines should be allowed. Any more than that and the asphalt emulsion will be bound up by the fines rather than acting as a binder for the larger aggregate.
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Toughness The aggregate particles are the actual driving surface of a roadway. They must be able to resist wear and crushing. A good quality aggregate can handle all kinds of traffic without breaking apart. Soundness In New York State, all surface aggregates must be able to handle freezing and thawing without breaking down into smaller particles. Shale, for instance, should not be used as a surface material. Shale breaks down into much smaller particles as it freezes and thaws. The 'soundness test' uses a solution of magnesium sulfate. The aggregate sample is put through a number of soaking/drying cycles. The percent loss by weight of each size fraction of material is determined and used as a measure of soundness. Aggregates for wearing courses are subjected to a more severe soundness test than aggregates for subbase courses. Particle shape Crushed, cubical stone is best for wearing courses. Crushed faces help improve both friction for traffic and stone interlock. Cubical stones perform better and last longer in surface treatments. Polishing Some limestones and dolomites have a tendency to polish under traffic wear. This reduces friction and creates a safety hazard. Wearing course aggregates must not be prone to polishing. High friction aggregates are usually specified. Absorption A small amount of absorption is desirable in asphalt mixes. This allows the aggregate to absorb some asphalt, forming a link between the asphalt film and the aggregate. Highly porous aggregate is not desirable, it absorbs too much asphalt. Burnt slag and other synthetic aggregates are highly absorptive, but they have a rough surface texture which makes them attractive for use in asphalt mixes. Particle Sizes Table 12 shows the sieve sizes for the most common aggregates used in chip seals. 1ST stone has a tighter gradation band and is preferred over 1A or 1. Table 12 - Sieve sizes for common chip seal aggregates (NYSDOT Standard Specifications, Section 703-02, English units) Size Designation 1A 1ST 1 Sieve Size (percent passing) 1 inch 100 1/2 inch 100 100 90-100 1/4 inch 90-100 0-15 0-15 1/8 inch 0-15 #200 sieve 0-1.0 0-1.0 0-1.0

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Emulsified asphalts Asphalt emulsions are a mixture of asphalt cement, water, and an emulsifier (similar to a soap or a detergent). Some emulsions have a small amount of petroleum distillate (naptha) added to promote the coating of the aggregate. The emulsion is produced by milling the hot asphalt cement into minute globules, then dispersing it in water treated with a small quantity of emulsifying agent. Between 55 and 65 percent of the final emulsion is asphalt, with the balance being water (see Table 13). Depending on the agent, the emulsion may be anionic (with negatively-charged asphalt particles) or cationic (with positively-charged asphalt particles). Emulsions are made in several grades, as shown in Table 13. Most emulsions can be modified with polymers to improve performance or to meet special needs. Table 13 - Asphalt emulsions and residual asphalt content (NYSDOT Standard Specifications, Section 702) Anionic RS-1 RS-2 HFRS-2 MS-2 HFMS-2 HFMS-2h HFMS-2s SS-1 SS-1h 55% 63% 63% 65% 65% 65% 65% 57% 57% CRS-1 CRS-2 CMS-2 CMS-2h CSS-1 CSS-1h Cationic 60% 65% 65% 65% 57% 57% Typical use Spray patching Surface treatment Surface treatment Cold mix, base stabilization Cold mix, base stabilization Cold mix, base stabilization Cold mix, base stabilization, tack coat (diluted) Stockpile patch Base stabilization Base stabilization, tack coat (diluted)

The RS, MS or SS indicates the setting rate of the emulsion: RS = rapid set, MS = medium set and SS = slow set. The 'h' means that a hard asphalt was used. The 's' means a soft asphalt was used. The 'HF' designates a high-float emulsion. High-float emulsions have certain chemicals added, to allow thicker asphalt films on the aggregate particles with minimal drain-down. The number '1' or '2' relates to the viscosity. A '1' is more fluid and better for penetration and patching, while a '2' is more viscous and better for thin wearing courses.

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For use in thin wearing courses, asphalt emulsions are modified to optimize viscosity, coating properties, and break time. As long as the emulsion remains in droplets, the fluid will coat stones and allow their placement. The right asphalt emulsion will: Be fluid enough to spray properly Retain the proper consistency to wet the applied aggregate Cure and develop adhesion quickly Hold the aggregate tightly Not bleed or strip with changing weather conditions

Breaking of emulsions After a period of time, the emulsion breaks. This is the recombining of the asphalt droplets back into a continuous mass as the water evaporates. Once this occurs, additional stone cannot bind to the emulsion, and the chances of stripping are much greater. Once it has broken, the emulsion will change from a dark brown to black. Curing of emulsions After emulsions are applied to aggregate, they go through a curing period in which the water evaporates from the emulsion. This leaves the asphalt film on the aggregate for cementing and waterproofing. Breaking time The breaking time for an emulsion is controlled by the formulation of the emulsifier. Rapidsetting emulsions are designed to break quickly after contact with the road, and the cover aggregate for a chip seal must be applied within one to two minutes. On a dry, sunny day, the breaking time may be less than one minute. Curing time Curing is the evaporation and removal of the water and any solvents from the emulsion. Total curing can take from 7 to 14 days, depending on the mix type, emulsion used, aggregate type, and environmental conditions. The evaporation rate is one of the most critical factors in how long curing will take. The evaporation rate is affected by temperature, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and shade. Humidity has a major influence on the evaporation rate of an asphalt emulsion. At 60F and 60 percent humidity, evaporation is faster than at 100F and 80 percent humidity. As the fall season begins, nighttime cooling can almost completely stop evaporation. Construction in the middle of the summer is preferred with all thin wearing courses, in order for the emulsions to cure quickly.

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Chip seals Chip seals are the most common thin wearing course. Many of their details are applicable for all other wearing courses. This section is not intended to cover everything about chip seals, it is merely a guide to help explain the process and the most critical factors involved. Additional training and experience is needed for someone to become an expert. If you are interested in training your crew, check with a local vendor. They may be glad to help. In a chip seal, an asphalt emulsion is sprayed on a cleaned road surface, and immediately spread with a layer of single-sized stones. The stones are then rolled. This orients and seats them within the emulsion layer. Figure 33 illustrates these steps. A few days later the surface is lightly broomed to remove any loose aggregate.

Rolling Spreading Spraying


Existing surface

Materials Chip seals typically use rapid-set asphalt emulsions (RS-2, CRS-2, and HFRS-2). Some agencies have used medium set emulsions, but the longer break and curing times are more prone to failure. Polymer modified emulsions have been used on higher volume roadways. These emulsions cost more, but have increased adhesion and may last longer.

Existing surface

Figure 33 Chip seal placement

The aggregate should be a very clean, durable, single sized stone. In New York State, 1ST and 1A stone are most commonly used. The 1st gradation was specifically formulated for use in surface treatments (chip seals). The aggregate should be cubical. Flat particles tend to get rolled onto the flat side, and are more likely to be covered by the emulsion layer. The goal is to embed the aggregate around 70 percent deep into the residual asphalt. Less than 50 percent embedment tends to result in a loss of stone (raveling). More than 80 percent tends to result in excess asphalt on the surface (bleeding).

Application rates The finished chip seal should have one layer of stone embedded 60 to 80 percent into the asphalt binder, with 70 percent being optimum. To determine the amount of asphalt needed to acomplish this, we need to determine the volume of the voids in the stone. When determining the amount of emulsion to apply, there are two different numbers to calculate.

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Residual Asphalt The first number to calculate is the amount of asphalt that will remain after curing. This is the residual asphalt. The other number is the emulsion spread rate, in gallons per square yard or liters per square meter. Figure 34 illustrates the process. The emulsion is a mixture when it is first sprayed. After it breaks, the water and asphalt separate. The water gradually evaporates, and the asphalt remains. It is this residual asphalt into which the stone needs to be 70 percent embedded. In RS-2, the asphalt in the emulsion is 63 percent (see Table 13). The other 37 percent is mostly water. This will cure out (evaporate). To obtain the emulsion spread rate, divide the residual asphalt amount by the percentage of asphalt in the emulsion. If the residual asphalt rate is 0.30 gallons per square yard, then the emulsion spread rate is 0.45 (0.30 63%). As shown in Table 13, the residual asphalt content is not the same for all types of emulsions. Be sure to use the correct percentage in your calculations.

water emulsion residual asphalt

water (evaporated)

residual asphalt

Spray

Break Figure 34 Residual asphalt

Cured

Void calculation After compaction, the void space between the stones is reduced to around 20 percent of the total stone volume. We want about 70 percent of this void space to be filled with asphalt. The amount of asphalt needed can be calculated from the average stone size (see Figure 35). This is a complicated process requiring knowledge of the aggregate gradation, bulk density, and specific gravity, with a correction for aggregate particle shape. Fortunately, there is a much easier process, involving the board spread rate.

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Aggregate Residual asphalt Existing surface

ALD
Figure 35 Average Least Dimension of chip seal after curing Board spread This method provides the aggregate spread rate directly, and it gives a good estimate of the emulsion spread rate. To determine the board spread rate, take a one-square-yard board, and cover it with the actual stones to be used. Spread the stones until they cover the board only one stone deep. Weigh this material. This amount of stone, in pounds, is the board spread value in pounds per square yard. The emulsion rate in, gallons per square yard, is the board spread value divided by the percentage of asphalt in the emulsion. For a 1ST stone with an RS-2 emulsion, a typical board spread value might be around 25 pounds per square yard. The emulsion rate would then be: Emulsion application rate = 25 lbs/yd2 63 = 0.40 gallons/yd2 The results from the two methods of calculation are very close to each other. This gives a starting point for discussion with the vendor. The actual stone spread rate is usually slightly higher than the amount determined by a single stone layer. The difference is called whip off, and is approximately 5 percent. It accounts for the loss of stone due to traffic. Do not add more stone than necessary. This can lead to the dislodging of stones from the surface, which contributes to bleeding. There are more precise methods for determining emulsion application rates. This method allows a simple and quick check of the values provided by the vendor. If you are not sure about the rate, ask the vendor to explain it. Adjustments The condition of the road surface before the chip seal is placed, and the traffic level of the road, may necessitate adjustments. A smooth, dense surface will absorb less asphalt than an open, porous one. An increase in traffic will reduce the need for asphalt emulsion, due to the increased embedment of the aggregate which results. Although adjustments are sometimes needed, even small changes can lead to problems. A change of only 0.04 gallons/yd2 in the wrong direction could result in not enough embedment, or in bleeding. Be sure everyone agrees on any adjustments to the application rate before starting the work. Table 14 lists some emulsion application rate adjustments.

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Table 14 - Emulsion application rate adjustments Surface texture Black, flushed asphalt Smooth, nonporous Absorbent - slightly porous, oxidized Absorbent - slightly pocked, porous, oxidized Absorbent - badly pocked, porous, oxidized Average daily traffic (vehicles per day) Under 100 100-500 500-1000 1000-2000 Over 2000 Adjustment (in Gallons/s.y.) - 0.01 to -0.06 none +0.03 +0.06 +0.09 Adjustment +15% +5% None -5% -10%

Surface preparation Crack repairs and patching should be done at least three months ahead of chip sealing. Depressions, ruts, and bumps should be filled. Due to the short construction season, it is better to do such work the previous year if possible. Even with a rubber-tired roller, a smooth road is easier to surface-treat. The smoother the surface, the better the resulting chip seal. A day before the chip seal is to be done, the surface should be broomed. This can be done several days in advance if necessary. It is better to do it early than not at all. Equipment preparation and calibration The equipment needs to be prepared and calibrated before use. All the mechanical parts need to be checked. The aggregate spreader (Figure 36), or the chipper boxes, definitely need to be checked to make sure they are working properly, the chutes are open, and the correct aggregate spread rate is being applied. The distributor nozzles must be correctly aligned (Figure 37), and the spray-bar height set properly for complete overlap (Figure 38). A triple lap is usually recommended. If either is set up incorrectly, streaking will occur. Prior to application on the road, the chipper and the distributor should be calibrated. The calibration test will also allow a check of the working operation of all of the equipment. To calibrate the stone rate, place a one-square-yard canvas panel on the ground. Have the chipper spread stone across the panel (it may be necessary to anchor the panel). Weigh the stones on the panel. The amount of stone should closely match the figure calculated for the application rate. If chipper boxes are being used, each box needs to be calibrated separately.

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Figure 36 - Self-propelled aggregate spreader

CORRECT - Nozzles at same angle

15-30

INCORRECT - Nozzles at different angles

Variable angle

Figure 37 - Spray bar alignment

. Nozzles

Spray Bar Single lap Double lap Triple lap Road Surface

Figure 38 - Spray lap coverage

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To calibrate the distributor, take a one-square-yard piece of plastic or a wooden panel, weigh it, then place it on the ground and have the distributor drive over it at normal speed, spraying emulsion. Weigh the panel again. Subtract the original weight. To convert from pounds to gallons, multiply the weight in pounds by 0.12. If the emulsion weighs 3.3 pounds, this equals a spread rate of 0.40 gallons per square yard. Alternatively, make a note of the gauge setting on the spray vehicle, have the distributor shoot a measured area, then read off the amount of material placed. This assumes the gauge is working correctly. At the end of the construction day, check the weight tickets versus the area treated. They will not match exactly, but the amount on the tickets should be close to the figure of the area times the application rate. The stones need to be rolled at least once in the first minute after they are spread. The rollers need to be checked to make sure they are working properly and that the tires are properly filled. Decide beforehand how many rollers you will need. It is much better to have too many rollers than too few. You will need at least two rollers to compact a single lane in one pass. Construction Construction is a five-step process. Each step is important for different reasons. Sweep Sweeping dust or materials off the road will help the chip seal bond to the surface. Sweeping can be done before the day of the chip seal operation, but keep a broom on hand to clean up as needed. Spray the emulsion The distributor should place the emulsion just in front of the aggregate spreader. No more than 30 seconds should elapse between the spraying of the emulsion and the spreading of the aggregate. In Figure 39, there is too much distance between the distributor and the spreader. By the time the spreader lays down the aggregate, the emulsion will have broken and the stone will not adhere properly. Spread the aggregate

Figure 39 Improper spacing of emulsion and chip spreader

The aggregate should be placed quickly and efficiently. Self-propelled spreaders are more consistent than spreader boxes, and usually compensate for their extra expense in increased productivity alone. On a two-lane road it is customary to leave a few inches of emulsion along the centerline uncovered with stone when constructing the first lane. Then, when the second lane is constructed, the distributor should shoot the overlap area, and the spreader should lay stones over this zone. This assures that a double layer of chip seal will NOT be built along the centerline. A double layer at that location can be difficult for vehicles to drive over safely.

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Roll the aggregate Rolling is usually done with a rubber-tired roller. The first roller pass should be able to cover all of the chips at least once within a minute of laydown. If this is not possible, get more rollers. The entire surface should be rolled at least twice before leaving for the day. Overrolling is just about impossible. The haul trucks can help the compaction by staggering their wheel tracks. They should approach the spreader by backing over the freshly laid and compacted chip seal. The trucks should go very slowly and avoid any sharp turns or sudden stops. Sweep The final step is to sweep up any loose aggregate. This should be done a day or two after the chip seal is placed. Waiting longer will not help embed any more stones. The sweeper must use very little down-pressure. The objective is to remove the already-loose stones, not to loosen additional material. Chip seal failures The average life of a chip seal in the U.S. is just under six years (5.76). There are many examples of chip seals lasting for 10 or more years. They fail prematurely for a variety of reasons. A recent survey of state and local highway departments found the most common reasons for chip seal failures: Sealing in the wrong weather An improper emulsion application rate An improper aggregate application rate Placing the aggregate too late, after the emulsion has broken.

Each of these problems can be avoided with a little training and planning. Thin wearing course placement weather The closer to the middle of summer, the more likely it is that the surface treatment will succeed. Surface treatments should be placed between Memorial Day and Labor Day in most of New York State. The following weather conditions are preferred. Air temperature above 50F ( The temperature at night should not go below 45F) Pavement surface temperature above 70F and below 130F Humidity below 75 percent No chance of rain Not too windy, but some wind may help the curing of the asphalt emulsion

Thin wearing courses generally cost more per mile of road than other pavement maintenance techniques. Their greater cost will be warranted when it is the proper treatment, put down correctly, at the right time.
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APPENDIX A - CRACK TREATMENT MATERIALS


Recommended application Crack filling Crack filling (possibly sealing) Crack filling Crack filling Crack filling Crack sealing (possibly filling) Crack sealing Crack sealing Crack sealing Crack sealing 0.13 to 0.21 0.53 to 0.78 0.13 to 0.21 0.21 to 0.36 0.21 to 0.36 0.31 to 0.43 0.36 to 0.57 0.57 to 0.76 0.78 to 0.97 5.13 to 7.12 Applicable specifications ASTM D 977 & AASHTO M 140, ASTM D 2397 & AASHTO M 208 ASTM D 977 & AASHTO M 140, ASTM D 2397 & AASHTO M 208 ASTM D 3381, AASHTO M 20, AASHTO M 226 Various state specifications Manufacturers recommended specifications Various state specifications, ASTM D 5078 ASTM D 1190 & AASHTO M 173 & Fed SS-S-164 ASTM D 3405 & AASHTO M 301 & Fed SS-S-1401 Various state modified ASTM D 3405 specifications Manufacturers recommended specifications 2006 Cost range, $/lb

Cornell Local Roads Program Cornell Local Roads Program

Material Example type products CRS-2, CMS-2, Asphalt HFMS-1 emulsion PolymerElf CRS-2P, modified Hy-Grade Kold Flo emulsion AC-10, Asphalt AC-20 cement Mineral-filled asphalt cement Hercules FiberPave+AC, Fiberized Kapejo BoniFibers+AC asphalt Koch 9000, Asphalt Crafco AR2 rubber Rubberized Meadows #164, Koch 9001, Crafco RS211 asphalt Meadows Hi-Spec, Rubberized Koch 9005, Crafco RS221 asphalt Meadows XLM, Koch Low-modulus 9030, rubberized Crafco RS231 asphalt Dow Corning 890-SL, Self-leveling Crafco 903-SL silicone

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APPENDIX B - PUBLICATIONS
The Asphalt Handbook, Asphalt Institute, MS-4, 1989 Edition Asphalt Pavement Repair Manuals of Practice: Materials and Procedures for Sealing and Filling Cracks in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements. Materials and Procedures for the Repair of Potholes in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements, Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), 1999, R&T Report Center, 9701 Philadelphia Court, Unit Q, Lanham, MD 20706. www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/ltpp/mofpract.cfm Asphalt Pavement Maintenance: Field Guide, Minnesota Local Roads Research Board, 395 John Ireland Blvd., St. Paul, MN, MS 330, January 2002 Asphalt Paving Principles, Cornell Local Roads Program, Publication 04-03 A Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual, Asphalt Institute, MS-19, Third Edition Best Practices Handbook on Asphalt Pavement Maintenance, Ann M. Johnson, P.E. Minnesota T2/LTAP Program, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota 511 Washington Avenue S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455-0375 Chip Seal Best Practices: A Synthesis of Highway Practice, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Washington, DC, NCHRP Synthesis 342, 2005 Distress Identification Manual for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Project, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-RD-03-031, 2003 www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pub_details.cfm?id=91 Distress Identification Guide from the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program, North Dakota Local Technical Assistance Program, Publication #LTAP-05-001, August 2005 Gravel Roads Maintenance and Design Manual, Ken Skorseth and Ali Salem, South Dakota Local Technical Assistance Program, Report #LTAP-02-002, April 2002 Inspectors Job Guide and Highway Maintenance Tables, Cornell Local Roads Program Local Government Handbook: 5th Edition, New York State Department of State, Division of Local Government, Albany, NY, January 2000 www.dos.state.ny.us/lgss/list9.html Pavement Preservation: Design and Construction of Quality Preventative Maintenance Treatments, FHWA, National Highway Institute Course No. 131103, November 2004 Problems Associated with Gravel Roads, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-SA-98-045, 1998 Road Red Book of the Bureau of the Town Highways, State of New York Department of Highways, Bulletin No. 1, 1910 Roadway and Roadside Drainage, Cornell Local Roads Program, Publication #98-5 Roadway Maintenance Guide, James D. Thorne, American Public Works Assoc., Kansas City, MO Selecting a Preventative Maintenance Treatment for Flexible Pavements, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-IF-00-027, August 2000 http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pub_details.cfm?id=27 Standard Specifications Construction and Materials, New York State Department of Transportation, Plan and Publication Sales, 50 Wolf Rd., Albany, NY 12232

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APPENDIX C - VIDEOS
The following videos are available on loan from the Cornell Local Roads Program: Asphalt Paving Inspection, Federal Highway Administration CLRP Tape #RM241 Asphalt Crack Treatment, Minnesota Local Roads Research Board CLRP Tape #RM256 Frost Action in Soils, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CLRP Tape #WM128 Sealcoating: A Matter of Science and Skill, Minnesota Local Roads Research Board, 1993. CLRP Tape #RC178 Weather and Loads: The Effect They Have on Roads, Minnesota Local Roads Research Board CLRP Tape #RD133

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APPENDIX D - RESOURCES
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) 444 N. Capital Street, NW, Suite 249, Washington, D. C. 20001 (202) 624-5800 www.transportation.org American Public Works Association (APWA) 2345 Grand Boulevard, Suite 500, Kansas City, MO 64108-2641 (800) 848-2792 www.apwa.net American Road and Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA) The ARTBA Building, 1219 28th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20007-3389 (202) 289-4434 www.artba.org Association of Towns of the State of New York 146 State Street, Albany, NY 12207 (518) 465-7933 www.nytowns.org Asphalt Institute 2696 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511-8480 (859) 288-4960 www.asphaltinstitute.org Better Roads Magazine (subscription free to public works officials) 2720 S. River Road #126, Des Plaines, IL 60018 (847) 391-9070 www.betterroads.com Cornell Local Roads Program 416 Riley-Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701 (607) 255-8033 www.clrp.cornell.edu Dig Safely New York 3650 James Street, Syracuse, NY 13206 1-800-962-7962 www.ufpo.org Federal Highway Administration - Long Term Pavement Performance Program Customer Service: 202-493-3035 Email: ltppinfo@fhwa.dot.gov Website: www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/ltpp/index.cfm Foundation for Pavement Preservation 8613 Cross Park Drive, Austin, TX 78754 1-866-862-4587 www.fp2.org International Slurry Surfacing Association 3 Church Circle, PMB 250, Annapolis, MD 21401 (410) 267-0023 www.slurry.org National Association of County Engineers (NACE) 440 First Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001-2028 (202) 393-5041 www.countyengineers.org New York State Association of Town Superintendents of Highways, Inc. PO Box 427, Belfast, NY 14711 (585) 365-9380 www.nysaotsoh.org

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New York State Conference of Mayors and other Municipal Officials (NYCOM) 119 Washington Avenue, 2nd Floor, Albany, NY 12210 (518) 463-1185 www.nycom.org New York State Department of State 41 State Street, Albany, NY 12231-0001 (518) 473-3355 www.dos.state.ny.us New York State County Highway Superintendents Association 119 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12210 (518) 465-1694 www.countyhwys.org New York State Office of General Services Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12242 www.ogs.state.ny.us South Dakota Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) Box 2220, SDSU, Harding Hall, Brookings, SD 57007-0199 (605) 688-4185 sdltap.sdstate.edu

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APPENDIX E - NYSDOT REGIONAL OFFICES


NYSDOT Web Site: www.dot.state.ny.us Main Office: 50 Wolf Road, Albany NY 12232 (518) 457-4422 Region 1 328 State Street, Schenectady, NY 12305, (518) 388-0388 Region 2 207 Genesee Street, Utica, NY 13501, (315) 793-2447 Region 3 333 E. Washington Street, Syracuse, NY 13202, (315) 428-4351 Region 4 1530 Jefferson Road, Rochester, NY 14623, (585) 272-3300 Region 5 125 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, (716) 847-3238 Region 6 107 Broadway, Hornell, NY 14843, (607) 324-8404 Region 7 317 Washington Street, Watertown, NY 13601, (315) 785-2333 Region 8 4 Burnett Boulevard, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603, (845) 431-5750 Region 9 44 Hawley Street, Binghamton, NY 13901, (607) 721-8116 Region 10 2250 Veterans Memorial Highway, Hauppauge, NY 11788, (516) 952-6632 Region 11 One Hunters Point Plaza, 47-40 21st Street, Long Island City, NY 11101, (718) 482-4526

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APPENDIX F - GLOSSARY
AASHTO - American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials AADT - The Annual Average Daily Traffic - can refer to one-way or two-way traffic. Annual Costs - Any cost associated with the annual maintenance and repair of the facility. Asphalt Emulsion Mix - A mixture of emulsified asphalt materials and mineral aggregate usually prepared in a conventional hot-mix plant or drum mixer at a temperature of not more than 260F (127C). It is spread and compacted at the job site at a temperature above 200F (93C). Cape Seal - A thin wearing course that involves the application of a slurry seal a few days after placing a chip seal. Cape seals are used to provide a dense, waterproof surface with improved skid resistance. Chip Seal - A thin wearing course in which a pavement surface is sprayed with asphalt (usually emulsified), then immediately covered with aggregate and rolled. Chip seals are used primarily to seal the surface of a pavement which has non load-associated cracks, and to improve surface friction. They are also used as a wearing course on low-volume roads. Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) - A process in which a portion of an existing bituminous pavement is pulverized or milled, the reclaimed material is mixed with new binder and virgin materials, and the resultant blend is placed as a base for a subsequent overlay. Emulsified asphalt is especially suited for cold in-place recycling. Although not necessarily required, a softening agent may be used along with the emulsified asphalt. Cold Milling - A process of removing pavement material from the surface of the pavement either to prepare the surface (by removing rutting and surface irregularities) to receive overlays, to restore pavement cross slopes and profile, or to re-establish the pavements surface friction characteristics. Crack Filling - A maintenance procedure that involves placement of materials into non-working cracks to substantially reduce infiltration of water and to reinforce the adjacent pavement. Crack filling is not the same as crack sealing. Crack Sealing - A maintenance procedure that involves placement of specialized materials, either above or into working cracks, using unique configurations to reduce the intrusion of debris into the crack, and to prevent intrusion of water into the underlying pavement layers. Dense-Graded Asphalt Overlay - An overlay course consisting of a mix of asphalt cement and a well-graded (also called dense-graded) aggregate. A well-graded aggregate is uniformly distributed throughout the full range of sieve sizes. Emulsified Asphalt - A mixture of asphalt cement and water, which contains a small amount of an emulsifying agent. Emulsified asphalt droplets, which are suspended in water, may be either the anionic (negative charge) or cationic (positive charge) type, depending upon the emulsifying agent. Fog Seal - A light application of slow setting asphalt emulsion diluted with water. It is used to renew old asphalt surfaces and to seal small cracks and small surface voids.

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Pavement Maintenance

Heater Scarification - A form of Hot In-Place Recycling in which the surface of the old pavement is heated, scarified with a set of scarifying teeth, mixed with a recycling agent, and then leveled and compacted. Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR) - A process which consists of softening the existing asphalt surface with heat, mechanically removing the surface material, mixing the material with a recycling agent, adding (if required) virgin asphalt or aggregate to the material, and then compacting the material back on the pavement. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) - A high-quality, hot mixture of asphalt cement and well-graded, highquality aggregate, thoroughly compacted into a uniform dense mass. Hot Surface Recycling - See hot in-place recycling. Initial Costs - All costs associated with the initial design and construction of a facility, placement of a treatment, or any other activity with a cost component. Life Cycle Cost - The present value, in dollars, of initial cost, plus annual maintenance cost, plus road user cost. Microsurfacing - A mixture of polymer modified asphalt emulsion, mineral aggregate, mineral filler, water, and other additives, properly proportioned, mixed and spread on a paved surface. Mineral Filler - A finely divided mineral product, at least 70 percent of which will pass a 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve. Pulverized limestone is the most commonly manufactured filler, although other stone dust, hydrated lime, portland cement, and certain natural deposits of finely divided mineral matter are also used. NovachipTM - A thin wearing course placed on existing pavements. Sometimes called an ultrathin friction course, it consists of a layer of hot-mix material placed over a heavy, polymer modified emulsified asphalt tack coat. The total thickness of the application is typically between 0.40 and 0.80 inch (10 and 20 mm). It can be used to reduce deterioration caused by weathering, raveling, and oxidation, and also to fill ruts and to smooth corrugations and other surface irregularities. Open-Graded Friction Course (OGFC) - A thin wearing course consisting of a mix of asphalt cement and open-graded (also called uniformly-graded) aggregate. An open-graded aggregate consists of particles of predominantly a single size. Partial-Depth Recycling - See cold in-place recycling. Pavement Preservation - The sum of all activities undertaken to provide and maintain serviceable roadways; this includes corrective maintenance and preventive maintenance, as well as minor rehabilitation projects. Pavement Preventive Maintenance - A planned strategy of cost-effective treatments to an existing roadway system and its appurtenances, which preserves the system, retards future deterioration, and maintains or improves the functional condition of the system (without increasing the structural capacity). Pavement Reconstruction - Construction of a new pavement structure, which usually involves complete removal and replacement of the existing pavement surface and base, using new and/or recycled materials.

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Appendix F - Glossary

Pavement Rehabilitation - Work undertaken to extend the service life of an existing pavement. This includes the restoration, placing an overlay, and/or other work required to return an existing roadway to a condition of structural and functional adequacy. Recycling Agents - Organic materials with chemical and physical characteristics selected to address any binder deficiencies and to restore aged asphalt material to desired specifications. Rejuvenating Agent - Similar to recycling agents in material composition, these products are added to existing aged or oxidized AC pavements in order to restore flexibility and retard cracking. Rubberized Asphalt Chip Seal - A variant of conventional chip seals in which the asphalt binder is a blend of ground tire rubber (or latex rubber) and asphalt cement, to enhance the elasticity and adhesion characteristics of the binder. Commonly used in conjunction with an overlay to retard reflection cracking. Sand Seal - An application of asphalt material covered with fine aggregate. Used to improve the skid resistance of slippery pavements and to seal against air and water intrusion. Sandwich Seal - A surface treatment that consists of application of a large aggregate, followed by a spray of asphalt emulsion that is in turn covered with an application of smaller aggregate. Sandwich seals are used to seal the surface and improve skid resistance. Scrub Seal - Application of a polymer modified asphalt to the pavement surface, followed by the broom-scrubbing of the asphalt into cracks and voids, then the application of an even coat of sand or small aggregate, and finally a second brooming of the aggregate and asphalt mixture. This seal is then rolled with a pneumatic tire roller. Slurry Seal - A mixture of slow-setting emulsified asphalt, well-graded fine angular aggregate, mineral filler, and water. It is used to fill cracks and seal areas of old pavements, to restore a uniform surface texture, to seal the surface to prevent moisture and air intrusion into the pavement, and to provide skid resistance. Stockpiled Cold Mix - A maintenance mix consisting of aggregate and emulsified asphalt, which can be stored and readily used for up to six months, depending on the formulation of the emulsion used and the aggregate characteristics. Stone Mastic Asphalt Overlay - An overlay course consisting of a mix of asphalt cement, stabilizer material, mineral filler, and gap-graded aggregate. A gap-graded aggregate is similar to an open-graded material but is not quite as open. Surface Texture - The characteristics of the pavement surface that contribute to surface friction and tire noise. User Costs - Costs incurred by highway users traveling on the facility and the excess costs incurred by those who cannot use the facility because of either agency or self-imposed detour requirements. User costs are typically comprised of vehicle operating costs (VOC), accident costs, and user delay costs. Working Crack - cracks which experience significant horizontal movements, generally greater than about 2 mm (0.1 in).

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