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ㅑ "ya" ㅜ "oo" or "u"
ㅓ "eo" ㅠ "yoo" or "yu"
ㅕ "yeo" ㅡ "eu"
ㅗ "o" ㅣ "i"
ㄴ "n" ㅅ "s" ㅌ " d' "
ㄷ "d" or "t" ㅇ ㅍ " p' "
ㄹ " r " or " l " ㅈ " ch " ㅎ "h"
ㅁ "m" ㅊ " ch' "
Note that " ' " means the letter is aspirated, i.e a sharp sound.
ㅎ+ h ㄱ+ g
ㅏ+ a ㅜ+ u
ㄴ= n ㄱ= k
guk 한국 pronounced HanGuk meaning Korea
Lesson 2 Double Vowels (모음)
ㅟ ㅢ weou wei Lesson 3 Use of Consonants (자음) and Vowels (모음) Vowels in the korean languages may be attached to the left, right or beneath each other in order to form a word, the following are examples of their use : 가 = ka 거 = keo 겨 = kyeo
or floor -. ㅁ+ㅏ+ㄴ=만 m + a + n = man Lesson 4 . and consonant. vowel. the final consonant.Grammer Korean Names . ㅇ ㄹ ㄱ ㄲ ㅇ ㅇ ㄲ ㅎ ㄱ + + + + + + + + + ㅏ ㅡ ㅏ ㅜ ㅗ ㅓ ㅗ ㅏ ㅡ = ㅁ = ㅁ = ㅇ = ㅅ = ㅂㅅ = ㅊ = ㄴ = ㄱ = 아 름 감 꿍 옷 없 꽃 한 극 A Rum Kam Kkoong Ot Eop Kkot Han Guk + + + + + + + + More on constructing words A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "vertical vowel" is written with the consonant on the left and the vowel on the right ㄴ+ㅏ=나 n + a = na A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "horizontal vowel" is written with the consonant on top and the vowel underneath: ㅁ+ㅗ=모 m + o = mo If a syllable has a consonant. In some cases. there is no need to use a consonant at the beginning in which case ㅇ (null character) is used.갸 = kya 바 = pa 뵤 = pyo 즈 = chu 머 = meo 너 = neo 디 = ti 요 = yo 드 = tu 기 = ki 버 = peo 지 = chi 조 = cho 무 = mo 이=i 고 = ko 오=o 두 = too 고 = ko 부 = pu 저 = cheo 마 = ma 나 = na 야 = ya 댜 = tya 도 = to 그 = ku When constructing a word.of that syllable. called patch'im (meaning "supporting floor" in Korean) goes to the bottom -. you must add a mixture of consonants and vowels. beginning with the consonant at the beginning of the word.
the surname always comes first which is opposite of Western Names such as Doojin Pak instead of the Korean method of Pak Doojin. Lee and Pak ).and sa. then you may be able to refer to them directly. Verbs in the polite style can be used as statements.in-order to in-order -to buy bread shops to go The Konglish for this sentence in Korean would be na-do ppang sa-ro kayo (I-do bread . or can be a question stating that you are fine. and may be further emphasised by the tone of your voice.. or "I go" or "he goes" ). (In English) (in Korean) I I (optional) go to the shops bread buy . which is then followed by "the place you are going". In some cases the verb stems may in effect end in consonants in which case -uro is utilised. such as using their first name. In Korean.object . ha. and -ro which means "in order to".verb "Jon the ball kicked" "To Go" in order to do sentences There are a few words that you may add to the end of verb stems at the end of sentences. Lesson 5 . for example the phrase Chal Chinaessooyoliterally means "Well have you been getting on?" which is the opposite from English. However when youare introduced to someone to whom you are not familiar with. The order of the sentences for an example sentence of "in order to buy bread I am goin to the shops" is restructured as "bread buy-in order-to the shops go" In Korean unlike English. suggestions or commands. In general the structure of the Korean sentences is broken down as subject . When you are referring to someone who you know well. or am meeting for the first time. Korean names consist of 3 syllables. the subject of the sentences is optional like "I". Another example is the more common Annyong Haseyo.Sentence Structure and order Korean Sentence Structure and Word order In Korean the structure of sentence differ to English sentences. such as Kayo ( which means "to go". then the "in order section" is next. The first part is the Surname ( such as Kim. it is possible to make these into polite sentences by adding -yo to the end of the words. An example of this would be Doojin-ssi Making Polite Sentences With verb stems which end in vowels such a ka-. For example. questions. Chal Chinaessoyo may be both expressed as a question by asking how someone is. it is the followed by a two-syllable first name. then you would add -ssi to the end of the name. these include -yo which makes sentences polite.In general.
and for younger womanagassi is used for young women. In Korean.yo if the last vowel ends with -a or -o Consonant stem .which literally means "there isnt" or "there arent". In English. However if it were to be used in a formal way. . Uses of the verbs chogi issoyo means "it exist over there". whereas Korean is 'me-with'. we use a particle which comes after a noun that it relates to. For females the word ajumma meaning aunt is used. such as nado (me-too). we would say 'with-me'.Asking for things There Are / There is The Korean verb which means either "there are" and "there is" is issoyo ( 있 어요 ) They are dependent on the context in which you use them. The stem of the verb is iss. or "its over there" Issoyo on its own can mean "I have/he has" Opsoyo means "I dont have" or "I havent got" In a shop When addressing a shop keeper or waiters. Koreans use ajossi literally meaning uncle. * The construction can only be used in verbs involving 'going' and 'coming' and cannot be used with other verbs at the end of sentences. thus forming the ending -oyo. and on what you are talking about. Vowel stem .with the inclusion of o and the polite particle -yo. such as -ayo.ayo Consonant Stem . However in the case where the verb stem ends in vowel. it is the opposite.is ops. we use -a or -o. it is only for the referral of a man. Lesson 6 . for people over 35-ish.oyo In context the oppposite of iss. but is used as a general word when addressing someone in a shop.buy-in order-to go).
For that same reason. if you want to describe A is B . The word chuseyo utilises the polite word stem -yo. Doojin-hago shinae-e kayo meaning 'I am going to town with Doojin'. attached to chu-. Using Copula to describe "this is that" In Korean. or Yoo SangHyun-ssi. one would use the word songsaegnim attached to their surname or full name. Ordering with numbers When asking for 'one' item we say 'hana' which is said after you have selected the meal you wish to order. which means "give me please" Lesson 7 . in Korea women do not take their husbands surname when they get married. The wordhago becomes part of burger. The particle hago can also mean with such as. when you use the ssi. then she may referred to as Kim songsaengnim-puin (Kim mr-wife). For example. For example we would say. in Korean it would be 'burger-hago chips. such like SangHyun Songsaegnim. you cannot say Yoo-ssi. In Korea. this copula is present at the end of a sentence. this literally means teacher. one would say Yoo Songsaegnim or with the full name Yoo SangHyun Songsaegnim. this is a particle so when it is to be used it must be attached to a noun.Using 'and' In Korean.Korean Names and Topics In Korean. For example if Mrs Han is married to Mr Kim. Addressing Korean women. If you want to say A is B(like "This is a Korean book"):A B-ieyo (or B-eyo) this Korean book-ieyo . when you want to address men politely. soju hana chuseyo meaning "soju one give me please". but would rather say SangHyun-ssi. For example. or she maybe reffered to in a similar English terminology such as Misesu Han(Mrs Han). when you say 'burger and chips'. the word for and is -hago. you will have to use special verbs called copula. It is not possible to a Korean persons first name. and behaves a little differently to ordinary verbs.
it makes As for Business or As for me. and the verb ending hamnida (note this is the formal style). containing the ending -jiman which means but. for example. Korean has a special particle. which is comprised of the verb stem shille ha-.. "is happy"). shillye hamnida (excuse me). Describing how things are Korean possess words which mean "is a certain way". Asking a person In Korean. shillye-jiman (I'm sorry but. used in attachment to place emphasis on what is being talked about. Lesson 8 . -nun is attached to a noun. It cant be used to say "is located in"(is underneath". EG soju-nun (as for soju).) which is a abbreviation of the verb and stem shillye ha-jiman . by adding -un or nun. as in: songsaengnim ottaeyo? ( How is teacher ? or What is teacher like? ) saob ottaeyo? (How is business? or What is business like?) Kuraeyo literally means "it is like that". there is a special verb which may be used in the event where you want to ask . "it is". Ottaeyo means is how?. "thats right".. Songsaengnim-un (as for teacher). There is also the verb and stem. "is near") nor can it be used to say "is a certain way" (i. whereas -un is attached to a vowel..More on Grammar -hamnida and -jiman In Korean. "really?" or "is that so?".e "is red". and may be used as a statement such as "it's like that". but -ieyo when B ends on a consonant. On the other hand it may be used as a question Kuraeyo? meaning "is it like that?".It is obvious that you would use -eyo when B ends in a vowel. it is possible to add polite endings to verbs. songsaengnim-ieyo (is teacher) soju-eyo (is soju) IMPORTANT to note that in Korean the copula is only used to describe when this "is equivalent to".
and is best used in order to compare two things.. "The man kissed the dog". Answering questions with Yes and No in Korean This is a tricky aspect of the Korean language. For example. is similar to that of the english "As for". when a subject is mentioned for the first time. so you will need to think carefully. we attach -i to the end of nouns which end with consonants.. or attach -ga to the end of nouns which end in a vowel. but later on in a conversation. When saying 'A is not B'. hanguk hakkwa-ga anieyo ( Not the Korean department ). For example: Question in English = "Do you like Korea ?" Answer in English = "Yes I do like it" or "No i dont" Answer in Korean = "No.. For example. and simply add this to the end of a phrase. she hates it.. Lesson 9 . it is quite different to how we would speak in English. For instance.. By doing this. For a sentence .Using Negative Copula's Negative Copula In Korean. The topic particle. we would say :cho-nun songsaengnim-i anieyo ( I am not a teacher ). the subject particle is used. I love shopping as for mum (ma-nun).. we use the negative copulaanieyo. I do like it" or "Yes i dont" As you can see. songsaenim-i ( teacher ) or maekju-ga (beer) give emphasis on each of these subjects in a sentence. as for me ( na-nun ). it is possible to give emphasis. We would use -iseyo.it can be confusing at first.for example "Are you Mr Han". the subject in this case would be The man. this is switched back to the topic particle. on subjects in sentences. when you are trying to say something is not something else. Han songsaengnim-iseyo? ( Are you Mr Han?) Hangungmal songsaengnim-iseyo? (Are you the Korean Teacher?) Subjects and topics of Korean sentences In Korean. On the other hand. Where is it? .someone if they are someone.
and the other are Sino-korean which is based on the chinese numerals. chom may be used to soften up requests by making it more polite. Using Korean sentences with but..( drink ) mashi-jiman ( drinks." . but. the word chom is used to mean "please"...( buy ) sa-jiman ( buys..) sa.) anj. you must always use issoyo as a verb such that:hakkyo-ga kogi issoyo ( the school is over there )... and the sino korean when used to count minutes.When asking where something is in Korean..but...) Note that for the word iss-jiman the double ss is re-written to itjiman Using polite requests In Korean.. have ) it-jiman ( has....( do ) ha-jiman ( does. We have previously seen that shillye hamnida and the equivalent shillye-jiman mean "Excuse me.....) mashi..but" or "I'm Sorry...( eat ) mok-jiman ( eats.( is/are.. For instance.but.. but. it is also possible to say (X-subject) odi issoyo? When answering a Where is question. for example the pure korean numbers are used when counting hours.... when you use chom in a request immediately before the verb at the end of the sentence.( go ) ka-jiman ( goes. for example Han songsaengnim chom pakkwo-juseyo( Can I speak to Mr Han )..) mok. There are lots of verbs where you may attach -jiman onto.(sit ) anj-jiman ( sits. or you might use it in Soju chom chuseyo ( Please give me the Soju ).. kong 0 il 1 shibil 11 ishibil 21 i 2 Shibi 12 ishibi 22 sam 3 Shipsam 13 ishipsam 23 sa 4 shipsa 14 ishipsa 24 o 5 shibo 15 yuk 6 shimnyuk 16 .. it takes on the effect of please. however do not mistake it to mean the same as the English word for please for all occurances. the first set are known as pure Korean numbers.. but...) iss.. Lesson 10 Numbers and Counting In Korean there are two sets of numbers which are used when counting.but. but . you would say (X-subject) odieyo? However....when making requests.but. here are a few of them:ka. As you can see..) ha. The use of these numbers depends on the context in which it is used. It is most frequently using in relation to chu...
for example if you sayhansongsaengnim-i hakkyo-e kaseyo . .becomes issuseyo anj.becomes kidariseyo iss. The use of -seyo means that you have a special respect for the person. -pshida is attached onto verb stems ending in a vowel.000 shipch'il shipp'al shibku iship 17 18 19 20 ishipku samship 29 30 Lesson 11 Using -seyo Making requests more polite The polite honorific -seyo can be used to make requests more polite. the -ko is utilised by being added to the end of the verb stem.becomes haseyo kidari.becomes anjuseyo If you want to request someone to wait for you. Koreans use -(u)pshida ( literally means lets do). ( But you are also showing special respect for him ). cho-nun mok-ko ship'oyo which means I want to eat. Making Suggestions When making suggestions.you are saying Mr Han is going to school. as you may have guessed. Examples of these are:mashi.becomes mashiseyo ha. For example you may say. What you want to do ? Koreans use -ko ship'oyo which literally means want to.ch'il p'al ku ship saship kuship paek ch'on man 7 8 9 10 40 90 100 1000 10. and this can be added to a verb stem. and -upshida is attached to verbstems ending in a consonant. -seyo is used when the verb stem ends in in a vowel. you would say kidariseyo (Please wait !!). notice that when it is used. and -useyo is used when the verb stem ends in a consonant.
사과: 사과 +가 --> 사과가 참고 '나. etc. [ In spoken language. add 를 보기~ 1. Particles which come after a noun shows 'subject' are: -께서. 책상: 책상 + 이 --> 책상이 2.' 내가 가요. 시계가 비쌉니다. "-이" --> 선행 명사가 자음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a consonant. [Object particle. Grammar 2 을/를 조사. "-을" --> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant. 너. add 을 2. 누구' 뒤에 붙으면 '내가. 안경이 없습니다. "-를" --> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a vowel.' the words change into '내가. add 이 2. 네가. 교과서: 교과서 + 를 --> 교과서를 참고~ 구어에서는 생략되거나 모음 뒤에서 '-ㄹ'만으로 줄여 쓰기도 한다. . 누가 갑니까? 예문~ .] 1.. and 누구.. The watch is expensive. 명사에 붙어서 동사의 '목적어'를 나타낸다. When 이/가 is attached at the end of '나. 책: 책 + 을 --> 책을 2.. . 딸기가 맛있습니다. [Subject particle. 저. 저. The strawberry is delicious. 제가. Comes after a noun and shows the "object" of the verb. 명사 뒤에 봍어서 주어를 나타내는 조사로는 '-께서. and 누가.] 1. 누가'로 된다.연필이 있습니다. 너. add 가 보기~ 1. There is a pencil. "-가" --> 선행 명사가 모음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a vowel. There is not a pair of glasses. . -(에)서' 등이더 있다. 네가.Here are some examples:Umryosu mashipshida ( Lets have a drink ) Lesson 12 . 네가 갔니? 제가 가겠습니다. it may be omitted or abbreviated into '-ㄹ' after a vowel. -(에)서.Grammar 1 + 2 Grammar 1 이/가 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] 주격 조사. . 제가..
. 신문을 봅니다." 예문~ . --> "영활 보고 커필 마셨어요. I buy an eraser. 수영을 합니다. 자우개를 삽니다. .영화를 보고 커피를 마셨어요. . . I swim. I drink a cup of coffee. I read a newspaper. 커피를 마십니다.
that is what the letter should be romanized as the final letter when found at the end of a syllable. 또한. it should be romanized as shi. ㅂ are found directly before a consonant. ㄷ. they should be romanized as k. '또. When ㄱ. 05. Example: 다시 (again) would be dashi. r. they are romanized as g. Example: 밥 (rice) would be bap. '-에게도. -와/과도' 처럼 다른 조사 뒤에 붙기도 한다. ㅂ are found directly before vowel. b. t. 03. [Particle with the meaning of 'also. To avoid confusion of syllables.Rules: 01. When ㅅ is followed directly by ㅣ. If a character has a romanization with letters separated by an "/". Lesson 13 . Example: 후에 (after) would be hu-e. r. p. ㄹ.Grammar 3 + 4 Grammar 3 도 조사. ㄷ. d. too' May be attached to the end of other particles as in '- . 04. 02. 역시'의 의미를 나타내는 보조사. ㄹ. When ㄱ. a hyphen can be used.
] . ] 1. other particles or endings. adverbs.'] [Similar to 'also. [ I meet a teacher.책이 있습니다. "는" ----> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in vowel. [ It's hot in summer. 사전은 없습니다. 우유: 우유 + 는 ---> 우유는 예문~ . [ The movie is interesting. 예습을 합니다. -----> 책이 있습니다. too] . [ There is a book. though. it shows the subject of the sentence or may be used to show 'contrast' or 'emphasis'. [ Topic particle. 신문도 읽습니다. [Locative particle. too] . Attached to nouns. 물: 물 + 은 ---> 물은 2. ] Lesson 14 .] [ Similar to 'in/at or to' ] . '때'를 나타낸다. 수박도 먹습니다. too'] 보기~ 1. ] . 장소나 시간 명사 뒤에 쓴다. "은" ----> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant.Grammar 5 + 6 Grammar 5 에 위치격 조사. 옷은 비쌉니다. However. direction or time'. 책을 읽습니다. too] Grammar 4 은/는 조사. add "은" 2. 소설책도 재미있습니다. I go over the lessons. it's cold in winter. 영화가 재미있습니다. 지하철은 빠릅니다. [ I prepare the lessons. too] . 명사나 부사. 복습도 합니다. 친구도 만납니다. + 수박을 먹습니다.에게도 and -과도.넥타이가 쌉니다. I meet a friend. However. 2. ------> 사과를 먹습니다. add "는" 보기~ 1. There is not a dictionary. I read a newspaper. '위치'나 '방향'. 다른 조사나 어미에 붙어서 문장의 주제임을 나타내거나 '대조'. 겨울은 춥습니다. 사과를 먹습니다. The novel is interesting. However. 예문~ . '강조'의 뜻으로 쓴다. ] .여름이 덥습니다. 선생님을 만납니다. the subway train is fast.버스가 느립니다. [ The tie is cheap. 책이 있습니다. Used after place or time noun and shows 'location. the clothes are expensive. + 노트가 있습니다. 노트도 있습니다. [ I read a book. [ The bus is slow.
옷 한 벌에 4만원입니다.shi ah buh ji . 만 원 -.ajumma (auntie) [Less Polite] Older Man .친척과 관계된 호칭 Older Woman . . . . 지금 은행에 가요. -----> 만 원에 여섯 개입니다. 냉장고: 냉장고 + 에 ---> 냉장고에 [위치: place] 2.ajumni (aunt) [Polite] Older Woman . . 한 그롯 -. or by'] 보기~ 1.여섯 개입니다.000 won by the set. It costs 40.hal muh ni (Grandmother) [Polite] Elderly Man .시아버지 .아버지 . 한 시간에 20페이지를 읽습니다.아주머니 . 도서관: 도서관 + 에 ---> 도서관에 [방향: direction] 예문~ . 예문~ . per.hara buh ji (Grandpa) [Less Polite] Father .] [Similar to 'a. 아침: 아침 + 에 ---> 아침에 [때: time] 3. 가족이 교회에 있어요. 밤에 착을 읽어요.할머니 . There are 10 students in a class.할아버지 .아줌마 . Milk is in the shop. -----> 한 그롯을 이천 원입니다. 일 주일에 두 번 갑니다.이천 원입니다. I read 20 pages per hour. 2. I read a book at night. Grammar 6 에 셈을 세는 단위 명사와 결합하여 단위나 셈의 '기준'을 나타낸다. I go to the bank now.보기~ 1.ajussi (Uncle) Elderly Woman . Lesson 15 .Family Members Relative Titles . . [Added to the unit noun which counts numbers. I go twice a week.ah buh ji Father in law .아저씨 . My family is at church. it shows the 'standard' of the counting or unit. 우유가 가게에 있어요. 한 반에 10명입니다. .
손위 형제 자매 Older Sister .umma Mother .nuna (If the speaker is male) Older Brother .jang in uh reun Dad .형 .uh muh ni Mother in law .시어머니 .오빠 .엄마 .아빠 .동생 .장모님 .누나 .appa [Informal] Mum .장인어른 .언니 .dong saeng (Regardless of speaker's gender) Lesson Created By KkOmA .shi uh muh ni Mother in law .jang mo nim Siblings .Father in law .unni (If the speaker is female) Older Brother .어머니 .hyung (If the speaker is male) Younger Sibling .oppa (If the speaker is female) Older Sister .
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