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Outlet Outlet of the runner Inlet of Outlet of the runner the needle Inlet of the needle

c2 2

Absolute velocity from nozzle:

c1 = 2 g H n

Circumferential speed:

c1 =

c1 =1 2 g Hn

c1u 1 u1 = = 2 g Hn 2 2

Euler`s turbine equation:

u 1 = 0.5

h = 2(u1 c1u u 2 c 2 u )

c1u = 1 cu 2 = 0

For a real Pelton runner there will always be losses. We will therefore set the hydraulic efficiency to:

h = 0.96

The absolute velocity from the nozzle will be:

C1u can be set to 1,0 when dimensioning the turbine. This gives us:

h = 2(u1 c1u u 2 c 2 u )

d Q = z c1u 4

2 s

ds =

Where: Z Q C1u = = = number of nozzles flow rate 2 g Hn

4Q z c1u

B 3.1 > 3.4 ds

Rules of thumb: B = 3,1 ds B = 3,2 ds B = 3,3 ds B > 3,3 ds 1 nozzle 2 nozzles 4-5 nozzles 6 nozzles

Number of buckets

z 17

empirical

Number of buckets

Runner diameter

Rules of thumb: D = 10 ds D = 15 ds D < 9,5 ds D > 15 ds Hn < 500 m Hn = 1300 m

must be avoided because water will be lost is for very high head Pelton

Speed number

= Qz

2 2 ds ds Q= c1u = 4 4

2 g Hn 2 u1 1 = = = = 2 g Hn D 2 g Hn D 2 g Hn D

2 z 1 ds = Q z = D 4

ds = D

z 4

D = 10 ds z=1

ds = D

z 1 1 = = 0,09 4 10 4

The maximum speed number for a Pelton turbine with one nozzle is = 0,09

D = 10 ds z=6

ds = D

z 1 6 = = 0,22 4 10 4

1. The flow rate and head are given

*H = 1130 m *Q = 28,5 m3/s *P = 288 MW

2.

c1u = 1 u1 = 0,48 c1u = 149 m/s u1 = 71 m/s

3.

z=5

4.

ds = 4Q = 0,22 m z c1u

5.

6.

D = 0,005 H n + 8 = 13,65 ds D = 13,65 d s = 3,0 m

D/ds

15

10 400 1400

Hn [m]

7.

u1 = D 2 n D = 2 60 2

u 60 n= 1 = 452 rpm D

8.

Choose the number of poles on the generator: The speed of the runner is given by the generator and the net frequency:

n= 3000 [rpm] Zp

where Zp=number of poles on the generator The number of poles will be:

Zp = 3000 = 6,64 = 7 n

9.

3000 = 428,6 [rpm] Zp

n=

10.

u1 = D 2 n D u 60 = D= 1 = 3,16 m 2 60 2 n

11.

12.

K

9

8 1 4 6

13.

Calculate the height from the runner to the water level at the outlet (for vertical turbines)

GE Hydro

GE Hydro

Example

Khimti Power Plant

1. The flow rate and head are given

*H = 660 m *Q = 2,15 m3/s *P = 12 MW

c1u = 1 u1 = 0,48 c1u = 114 m/s u1 = 54,6 m/s

z=1

Example

Khimti Power Plant

4. Calculate ds from continuity for one nozzle

ds = 4Q = 0,15 m z c1u

B = 3,2 ds= 0, 5 m

D = 0,005 H n + 8 = 11,3 ds D = 11,3 d s = 1,7 m

D/ds

15

10 400 1400

Hn [m]

D 2 n D u1 = = 2 60 2 n= u1 60 = 613 rpm D

8. Choose the number of poles on the generator: The speed of the runner is given by the generator and the net frequency:

3000 n= [rpm] Zp

where Zp=number of poles on the generator The number of poles will be:

3000 Zp = = 4,9 = 5 n

10. Recalculate the diameter:

u1 =

D 2 n D = 2 60 2

D=

u1 60 = 1,74 m n

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