# Data Sheet

Submit this portion of the lab to Canvas
Sarah McMahon 3/26/13

Table 1: Norms F1 [i] Men Women [e] Men Women [a] Men Women [o] Men Women [u] Men Women ~300Hz ~370Hz ~870Hz ~950Hz ~570Hz ~590Hz ~840HZ ~920Hz ~730Hz ~850Hz ~1090Hz ~1200Hz ~530Hz ~610Hz ~1840Hz ~2330Hz ~270Hz ~31 Hz ~2290Hz ~2790Hz F2

Table 2: Spoken F1 [i] [e] [a] [o] [u] 282.11 619.83 946.95 611.37 317.77 F2 1454.46 864.58 1238.78 1152.53 803.08

Table 3: Low Pitch F1 [i] [e] [a] [o] [u] 343.55 647.73 806.75 647.40 374.58 F2 2393.19 1980.27 1183.47 1025.82 959.17

Table 4: High pitch F1 [i] [e] [a] [o] [u] 769.80 770.13 766.66 767.91 773.82 F2 1508.92 1497.70 1531.89 1536.30 1547.49

Questions 1. Define the term formant.

A formant is a resonance in the vocal tract.
2. How many formants are in the human voice?

In the human voice there are hundreds of formants but the formants that we focus on the most are formants one, two, three, four, and five.
3. What does F1 do and how can one alter it?

Formant one is formed in the back of the thought. It is responsible for darker vowels. To alter it one can change the length in the thought, the vowel shape, the size of the thought, the opening in the back of the thought, and the surface of the pharynx.
4. What does F2 do and how can one alter it?

Formant two is formed in front of the arch of the tongue. This formant is also responsible for vowel sound. Unlike formant one, formant two is responsible for brightening the vowel sounds. To alter this formant one can change the length in the thought and mouth, the vowel shape, the size of the thought and mouth, the opening in the mouth, and the surface of the pharynx.
5. What do F3, 4,5 do and how can one alter them? Formant four, five, and six are all formed in the collar of the larynx. These formants are responsible for what we call “singers ring”. All three formants cluster from 2,800 to 3,200Hz. Theses three formants are very difficult to impossible to alter.

Analysis

1. Compare the results of your spoken vowels with the norms in Table 1. How do they compare. What might explain any inconsistencies?  My [i], [e], and [o] vowel has very different formant two numbers compared to the norms for women. This is most likely because I was brightening my vowels a bit too much. My [i] leaned more towards a [I] vowel. This is the same with my [e] and my [o] vowel. This is probably because of where my speaking voice is in my range, and because of my American accent. 2. Compare the results of your sung vowels on the low pitch with the norms in Table 1. How do they compare? What might explain any inconsistencies?  My low pitch results were more like the table 1 norms than my spoken table. I think this is because in singing I tend to open the back of my through, which is where formant two is formed. Inconsistencies may come from the way I produce pitches, which tends to be on the brighter side of singing. Some inconsistencies may also come from the specific pitch I was producing and where it sat in my voice.

3. Compare the results of your sung vowels on the high pitch with the norms in Table 1. How do they compare? What might explain any inconsistencies?  My high pitch notes are far different than my spoken vowels. In fact all of the formant numbers are almost the same. This shows that when you are in the highest part of your range all of your vowels are the same because you need to be able to produce the pitch and that just wont happen with the closing of the formants that produce certain vowels. 4. Compare the results of the sung vowels (high and low) against each other. How do they compare? What might explain any inconsistencies?  My high notes have a very large formant one influence. For every vowel other than [o] my formant two was almost as large as or larger than my high notes formant two. I think this is because to get out the high note that I was asked to sing I have to brighten the vowel and in the low note I was free to use my formant two more.