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GROUND PENETRATING RADAR DATA PROCESSING: A SELECTIVE SURVEY OF THE STATE OF THE ART LITERATURE.
Luc van Kempen, Hichem Sahli
A member of: Address:
Information Retrieval and Interpretation Sciences ETRO(Electronics and Information processing) IMEC(Interuniversity Micro Electronics Center) Luc van Kempen, Hichem Sahli VUB(ETRO), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium Tel.: ++32-2-629 2858 Fax.: ++32-2-629 2883 Electronic mail: lmkempen,firstname.lastname@example.org
Ground Penetrating Radar data processing: a selective survey of the state of the art literature.
Vrije Universiteit Brussel - Faculty of Applied Sciences ETRO Dept. IRIS Research group Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels - Belgium E-mail: lmkempen,email@example.com
L. van Kempen, H. Sahli
The main purpose of this text is to give an overview of the recently published algorithms and methods in the eld of GPR data processing for anti-personnel mine detection. Although some of the papers mentioned do not directly address this topic, the ideas and methods explained in them can be generalized for the application of detecting man made objects in subsurface layers. Two main subsections will be distinguished: The processing of vertical slices called B-scans, and that of horizontal slices called C-scans. Within these subsections, several processing aspects will be addressed, and each time a brief introduction is followed by an overview of the described methods.
. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . 2. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . .4. . . . . . . . . .2 Application and comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .3. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Comments and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Some First Results on GPR Data (Obtained by our own tests). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .3 Results . . . . . . . . .4 Polarimetry . . . . . . . . .Contents 1 General Introduction 2 B-scan Processing 2. . .5 Soil parameter estimation . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Test Results . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .6. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtering . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Array Beam Imaging . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 FK Migration 12] . . .2 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Clutter removal and C-scan reduction . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Theory . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .4 SAR Polarimetry . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .3 First results . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Velocity of propagation . . . . .1 Introduction . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 2. . . .5 Identi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Application to electro-magnetic waves . .2 Kircho Migration . . . . . . . 2. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .5. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Processing .6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source Signal Deconvolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Tomography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. 2. . . . .6 Migration . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . .1 2. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .5 Phase Shift Migration 12] . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 11 12 12 13 17 17 20 21 21 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 27 27 29 29 29 29 30 30 31 3 4 3 C-scan processing 23 . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . 3. . . . Hyperbola estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Calibration . .3. . . . . . . .2 Permittivity and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .6 Averaging and ltering . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 X-T-V data matrix . . . . . . .5 Karhunen Loeve transformation . .
. C-scan reduction . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restoration . . . .2 3. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . Comments and results . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . 2 31 31 31 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . .1 3. . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1 General Introduction The main purpose of this text is to give an overview of the recently published algorithms and methods in the eld of GPR data processing for anti-personnel mine detection. several processing topics will be addressed. Although some of the papers mentioned do not directly address this topic. 3 . the ideas and methods explained in them can be generalized for the application of detecting man made objects in subsurface layers. and each time a brief introduction is followed by an overview of the described methods. and that of horizontal slices called C-scans. Within these subsections. Two main subsections will be distinguished: The processing of vertical slices called B-scans.
but the results are not even remotely satisfactory. The transform was applied in the horizontal direction. This is the most classic and widely used way to eliminate the problem of the air-ground re ection. Then some ideas on how to estimate the physical properties of the soil will be proposed. Five algorithms were tested. 2. after which the inverse transform was applied. which consisted of a di raction hyperbola. This seems to be the most interesting method. In 11] a number of di erent algorithms to do so were compared and evaluated on synthetic data. This was not only the most time consuming method.1 Introduction When one considers a line of equidistant one dimensional signals called A-scans one gets a two dimensional structure (B-scan) that characterizes the properties of the subsurface as a function of depth. We will start with some preprocessing techniques as ltering and deconvolution. Windowed average subtraction. and the coe cients of the lowest octaves (which correspond to horizontal energy) were set to zero. The wavelet used in this case was a Daubechies wavelet with 20 coe cients. On the synthetic data that was presented to the ve algorithms. Here the average A-scan is not calculated over the whole B-scan. but the rst results seem to be satisfactory. and subtracting this from each individual A-scan. The general purpose of processing these data structures is to extract these subsurface properties. but only over the A-scans within a window around the signal that is treated.ltering. which reduces the e ciency of this method. namely: Subtraction of the average A-scan. We will end with an overview of migration techniques. Some additional ne tuning on the choice and the length of the wavelet can be done. so that the extraction of signal features is easier and more accurate in further steps. and a number of background clutter signals. Nothing is said about the calculation cost of this method. When calculating an average A-scan over the whole B-scan. but will also modify the di raction hyperbola substantially. FK. but in many cases it is not very e cient. The application of the Discrete Wavelet Transform.2 Filtering One of the major problems in processing GPR data is the removal of the air ground re ection. This is an adapted version of the general average subtraction method. one only succeeds in eliminating the perfectly horizontal background clutter signals. These steps are necessary to enhance the quality of the data. the two latter (wavelet and sliding average) gave the best results in eliminating the various background signals and preserving the di raction 4 . Application of a horizontal high pass Butterworth lter. The paper shows that this will reduce the di erent background signals e ectively. Secondly we will discuss a method for extraction of the hyperbolic features in the B-scans. This subtraction can adapt to slowly varying signals so that slightly oblique surface re ections can be eliminated.Chapter 2 B-scan Processing 2.
If the low frequency component is clearly separable form the higher frequency signal. For the edge detection the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) is used. !2) = G(!1 )G(!2 ). j!1 j + j!2 j = Bns 0. Another idea presented here is called eigen ltering. is compared with a separable one de ned by: 1. In 22] some processing is suggested to improve resolution of near surface targets. First the deeper clutter in the B-scan is considered to be the result of a low frequency component called wow. j!1 j + j!2 j < Bns Gns (!1 .2) and the latter one seemed to give better results. The method that is proposed to compensate for sloping surfaces or time drifts in the measurement system is to align the A-scans according to the large air-soil interface peak. For the low-pass lter a non-separable lter de ned by: 1. j!j = Bs 0. a reasonable cut o frequency can be chosen. j!j < Bs Gs (!1 . !2 ) = : 1=2. O course the results of applying these methods to real data remains to be seen. The sliding window averaging will only result in good background elimination if the number of A-scans that is present over the width of one di raction hyperbola is large (or in other words if the size of the sliding window can remain small with respect to the hyperbola size). Although the GPR used for this experiment is of a lower frequency (100 MHZ) and the dimensions of the considered objects are thus larger. This will give a mask with edge locations that is multiplied with the detail image of the same scale. otherwise (2. Here the main goal is to reduce the speckle noise that is present in the image. The length of this median lter is derived from the spectrum of the signal. but even better results are obtained when "band-passing" the eigen images (using the second up to the fourth ones). Another problem studied in 22]. This was done manually. The multi-scale pyramid decomposition and reconstruction used here. Finally the sum of this modi ed detail image and the interpolated image will give the reconstructed image to be passed on to the reconstruction step at the next scale. In the reconstruction step the interpolated image is passed through an edge detector. The image can be partially reconstructed omitting. This way each trace is ltered with its own lter length. . which corresponds to a bandpass lter whose passband is determined by the spatial dispersion G of the underlying Gaussian pulse. The detail image dm is obtained by subtracting an interpolated version of um from um?1. some of these eigen images. B-SCAN PROCESSING 5 hyperbola. but the application on other GPR data remains to be studied.CHAPTER 2. The approach considered is a nonlinear multi-scale one.1) where Bns is xed at 2 =3. This last method was shown to reduce the clutter quite e ectively. ordered by decreasing coherence. G(!) = : 1=2. otherwise 8 < 8 < (2. This can be used to eliminate the large air ground re ection. decomposes the image um?1 at scale m ? 1 into a coarser image um by low-pass ltering and down-sampling. An automated version can be considered. A residual mean lter with a 25 point window (residual means that the ltered data is subtracted from the raw data) is compared to a bandpass lter (here 20-500 MHz) and to a residual median lter. However the choice of the cut o frequency. The wavelet ltering has to be investigated further. To reduce this. The cut o period is then divided by the sampling interval to get the number of data points. every A-scan is ltered. Omission of the rst one already eliminates the background re ection. was the time zero aligning. The idea is to use the singular value decomposition (SVD) to decompose the image into orthogonal components (Eigenimages). but is not mentioned in the paper. Another method applied to lter B-scan images is proposed in 24]. After applying this lter the zero crossings of the output are considered edges if the brightness gradient exceeds a threshold T . which was evident in the shown data is not that self evident in all GPR data. the resulting data is quite comparable with that of a higher frequency GPR and smaller objects. This seems to yield a very good result on the shown data.
The paper does not mention any values for the lter frequencies. The theory is based on the principle of mean squares estimation and is summarized as follows: The posed problem can be written as: p y(n) = s(n) + v(n) (2.5) Since it goes that: @J = E 2(s(n) ? X h(k)y(n ? k)) de(n) ] @h(i) dh(i) k de(n) = ?y(n ? i) dh(i) E (s(n) ? X (2. The parameter G is chosen equal to 3.7) (2.9) This can be rewritten as: k h(k)y(n ? k))y(n ? i)] = 0 X Rsy (i) = We see that the values for the lter parameters are dependent on the autocorrelation function of the signal Ryy and the cross correlation function Rsy between the signal and the original. Solving this equation for h(k) can be done by taking the transform of the equation: Ssy (z ) (2.4) J = E e2 (n)] = E (s(n) ? s ^(n))2 ] = E (s(n) ? Minimization will lead to: X k h(k)y(n ? k))2 ] (2. The fact that it is adaptive means that it will calculate its parameters. Our problem is now to nd the values of h(k). The Wiener lter is an adaptive digital lter. B-SCAN PROCESSING 6 The method was applied to a real GPR image with Bs = Bns = 2.6) (2. but the elimination of the air soil interface is done in the traditional way (average subtraction). These values will be calculated while minimizing the approximation error: k h(k)y(n ? k) (2. The Wiener lter is proposed as a B-scan ltering method in 25]. and estimate the noise spectrum Svv . If we also assume that the noise and the original signal are not correlated we can write that: so the lter parameters can be calculated. The speckle noise reduction is best with the separable lter.3) with y(n) a signal composed by an original signal s(n) and a noise signal v(n) (all values are zero for n < 0). Out of this signal we will try to calculate an estimation of s(k) called s ^(n). The threshold T seems not to be critical. k h(k)Ryy (i ? k) Ssy = Sss = Syy ? Svv (2.10) H (z ) = S yy (z ) On the basis of the data one can calculate the signal spectrum Syy . This will be written in the form: s ^(n) = X where h(k) is independent of n.11) . but those have to be adjusted to the used data. according to the data present locally in the image.8) (2.CHAPTER 2.
Bottom: A detailed view of one of the A-scans. B-SCAN PROCESSING 7 The ltering of the data was done in a matlab environment. deconvolution is an ill posed operation.1: The results of the application of the optimized Wiener lter to a B-scan. 2. The value of was set to 1% of the maximum source signal power. Fourier transforming to the frequency domain gives: R(f ) = S (f )G(f )H (f ). The recorded signal r(t) can be represented as a convolution of the source signal s(t).12) Figure 2. middled by a so called water lever parameter . Inverse Fourier transforming the function R0 (f ) will result in the deconvolved function .13) where S (f ) is the complex conjugate of S (f ). a white noise is added. The new equation will become: R0 (f ) = R(f )S (f )=(S (f )S (f ) + ) (2. the response function of the ground g(t) and the response of the receiver h(t): r(t) = s(t) g(t) h(t). top: The B-scan before and after ltering. Due to the band limited nature of the emitted wave and the e ect of noise. without distorting the signal itself.1 average energy in object signals ? 1 SNR = average energy in background signals (2.3 Source Signal Deconvolution In order to increase the resolution of the GPR source signature. before and after ltering. deconvolution in GPR data was applied in 10]. The best values for the parameters (block size for ltering and noise estimation) were chosen according to the empirical SNR de ned as: The results were surprisingly good (compared to other methods) since the background and measurement noise were almost completely attenuated. The main aim of deconvolution is to remove the e ect of the source waveform from the recorded data: R0 (f ) = R(f )=S (f ) = G(f )H (f ). An example of the lter results by the Wiener lter can be found in gure 2. To regularise this.CHAPTER 2. The deconvolution was performed using complex spectral division. which lters the B-scans in blocks.
Since both axes are displayed with discrete values one can write: TOF = j T . the peak energy occurs at a frequency that is 30% lower than the nominal frequency of the antenna. When looking at the power spectrum of this source signal.4. The coordinates of the intersection will give the detected line. These polar coordinates are then discretized. and given by: TOF = 2(D2 + (S ? Sc )2 )1=2 =v j 2 = + (i ? )2 (2. The second method gives no useful results because the e ects of coupling to the ground on the emitted wave are not accounted for.2 Theory In 23] a method for determining linear structures (as the air soil interface) and hyperbolas is introduced. 2. but that an accurate way to measure the source signal still has to be found. space) and these curves will intersect for all points on the same line. Standard HT for straight lines HT for hyperbolas If D is the depth of the scattering object.14) with v the velocity of propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium.1 Introduction When scanning over a re ective object with a Ground Penetrating Radar. This will result in a sinusoidal curve in the Hough space ( . Any point (Xi . Each occurrence of . The rst method results in a useful wave. One of the major problems in applying this method is the knowledge of the exact source signal.CHAPTER 2. both for the selection of the bright pixels. however. However.15) . to be able to use the hyperbola features for all these applications. and second by lifting both into the air and measuring the transmitted signal in that case.4 Hyperbola estimation 2. x are the horizontal and vertical scanning steps). In this article this is experimentally estimated in two ways: rst by measuring and averaging the direct wave between the source and the receiver. when both are coupled to the ground. which (if the receiver response is assumed a constant) is equal to the ground response g(t). Yi ) lying on a line satis es = Xi cos + Yi sin where and are the polar coordinates of the line. the position of the object (can be used in C-scan processing and aligning operations) and the soil structure (the velocity of propagation in the soil can be calculated from such a hyperbola as shown in the next section). Yi ) in the image all allowed values of are scanned and each time the corresponding is calculated. is counted. which used in the deconvolution is able to improve interpretation of the data (in this case only geologic structures were investigated). the B-scan will show a hyperbolic structure in the re ection. This hyperbola contains information about the re ective object itself (to be used as features in a pattern recognition program). and S the horizontal position of the antenna. This discretisation will lead to the following parametric equation of the hyperbola: with the three parameters . Sc its horizontal position. B-SCAN PROCESSING 8 r0 (t). A brief overview of the theory is given. the Time Of Flight (TOF) of the wave is: (2. the rst step has to be the extraction of the hyperbola from the B-scan image.4. and the high spots in the distribution will de ne the detected lines. It is based on a modi ed version of the Hough transform. a threshold has to be applied. The main conclusions of this article are that source signal deconvolution can be useful in interpreting the data. 2. as for the selection of detected line. S = i x and Sc = ic x ( T. So. which was searched for. For each bright pixel (Xi .
The monograph is calculated once for each antenna in lab conditions. The corrected formula is shown here. the hyperbolas are well detected.19) 2 2 = (jM ? jN )= (iM ? iN )(iM + iN ? 2 )] (2. The method remains to be tested on other images. jL ). Since the knowledge of these properties can improve the use of GPR for mine detection both in the acquisition stage (use of the appropriate acquisition parameters) as well as in the processing stage.5. If we automatically discard triplets that generate hyperbolas with upward pointing tails. Since this velocity (v) is dependent on two other properties (permittivity ( r ) and conductivity ( )).21) NOTE that in the formula in the article an error was discovered: the factor two in the denominator of was placed in the wrong position.5. The procedure that is followed is called the Spectral Domain Moment Method. jM ). based on antenna characteristics and simple local tests. Therefore the Randomized Hough Transform (RHT) is proposed. and G] is calculated through the correct formula's. this equation can result in I ]. 2.18) By picking three distinct bright points in the image PL = (iL. The high spots in the accumulator space ( .permittivity plane.3 Results The results shown in the paper 23] are on synthetic data. This is repeated a xed number of times (500 to 6000). corresponding to possible hyperbolic arcs occurs in a 3D array while scanning over the bright pixels of an image. This accumulates votes only to curves passing through triplets of points selected at random.CHAPTER 2. 2. . G] is computed by a complex integration of Green's function with antenna geometry. an estimation of these parameters can also be useful.6) or tomography (see 3. B-SCAN PROCESSING 9 = 4D2= T 2v2 (2. The results seem very good. When E ] is applied as a testing function (driven by the voltage V ). The input impedance can then be found by dividing the applied voltage with the current (calculated from the current density). where E ] is the electric eld applied to the antenna. . ) provide the parameters that identify the most likely hyperbolic arcs. PN = (iN . the knowledge of the physical properties of the local soil is needed. This is a very calculation intensive method.2 Permittivity and conductivity .1 Introduction 2. jN )] one can obtain the values for . the local permittivity and conductivity of the soil are being estimated.4. PM = (iM .17) = ic (2. some articles focus on obtaining an accurate estimate of these parameters. and one real image (a DeTeC image).2).16) = 4 x2 = T 2 v 2 (2. that will show the resonant frequency and resonant resistance curves. and also remains to be seen what happens if the average subtraction is not applied.20) 2 = jL ? (iL ? )2 (2. and : 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 )] = (i2 N ? iL )(jM ? jN ) ? (iM ? iN )(jN ? jL )]=2 (iN ? iL )(jM ? jN ) ? (iM ? iN )(jN ? jL(2. This is a two dimensional graph in the conductivity . The accumulation of votes of the triplets . and I ] is the unknown current density. The most important of these properties is the velocity with which the signal will propagate in the material. In 1]. The rst step is to produce the antenna monograph. This will highly in uence the shape of the di raction hyperbola in the B-scans and thus also any use of this hyperbola thereafter. (which have no physical meaning) the number of calculations is further reduced. and results in solving following matrix equation: E ] = G] I ]. 2. .5 Soil parameter estimation In many processing algorithms based on GPR data such as migration (see 2.
more easy to use methods to estimate the velocity of propagation v in the medium are presented in 2]. The formula of the two way travel time t versus the o set x can then be given as: This equation is quite similar to the one in the previous section. but at an unknown depth (Z coordinate unknown). If we can extrapolate the hyperbola out of the B-scan image. it will be su cient to search for the intersection of the corresponding curves in the monograph. and the resonant resistance is the resistance at that frequency. and z the depth of the re ector. In practice this method leaves the problem of measuring the antenna's monogram. then: 2zknown 2zknown v (2. In practice the placement of a large plane re ector can cause di culties. The travel times can be estimated out of the number of samples in the one dimensional signal between the signal emission and the rst re ection peak. but it can be possible to do so using the Hough transform as described in 2. If a reference object is used that re ects in all directions. Locating objects of known depth. is known and z . we know for every x. Geometric scaling. where x is the horizontal distance between the emitter and the receiver (this is twice the x of the previous method).4. This formula will then easily su ce to estimate the propagation velocity v.24) . If the depth zknown of a reference object is known. The expression for the two way travel time t(x) (which yields the hyperbola) is: 4x2 + 4z 2 = 4x2 + t2 t(x) = w = v v2 v2 v2 0 r r 2. the scanning movement will lead to a di raction hyperbola. These are things that remain quite di cult to be done in practice. the horizontal distance between the object and the antenna.23) Where t0 is the vertical two way travel time. the depth of the object. is unknown. the voltage V (and thus the test function E ]) is chosen and the matrix G] is calculated for di erent values of permittivity and conductivity. A number of simpler. The resonant frequency is that frequency for which the reactance part of the impedance becomes zero. The length of the wavepath w will be w2 = 4(x2 + z 2 ). For each of these values the matrix equation is solved. where x. the time t(x). as well as the in situ measuring of the resonant frequency and impedance.3 Velocity of propagation (2. CDP recording. and that is positioned at a known horizontal location (XY coordinates known). x2 + 4z 2 = t(x) = w v v2 v2 r (2.CHAPTER 2. and the known sample frequency with which the signal was acquired. The problem of estimating the di raction hyperbola out of the measured data was not at all addressed in this paper. Again the velocity v can be estimated from at least two A-scans (if more scans are used the accuracy of the estimation will improve). Here one will vary the o set x between the emitter and receiver antenna and use a plane re ector at unknown depth. B-SCAN PROCESSING 10 To obtain the monograph. The wavepath between emitter and receiver can in this case be expressed as w2 = x2 + 4z 2. This is not discussed in the paper. and so the corresponding resonant impedance is calculated.22) tpick + terr tpick ? terr This will give an upper and lower boundary for the estimated velocity. who's coordinates will give the local permittivity and conductivity.5. and the two way travel time tpick is measured up to an error terr (tpick = tacc terr ) out of one of the A-scans. and selecting the frequency with zero reactance) and the corresponding resonant resistance is determined. When on the speci c location the resonant frequency is measured (measuring the impedance at di erent frequencies.
The reason for adding the rst and last intensity values in the next formula is not explained in the article. see 2. tj . (Here i. and ! the frequency. tj . vn )g ave(xi . In practice for each value of space xi and time tj . tj ) 0 p(xi . the following values are calculated: average intensity: 1 ave(xi . I (xi . This image is then processed by migration in the wavenumber-frequency domain (FK migration. the velocity which gives the best results can be selected.5. tj ) represents an apex the curve in function of v should theoretically rise from the rst velocity v1 where the hyperbola is under migrated. the magnetic permeability (usually chosen 1). The peak intensity will be used to detect possible apexes. B-SCAN PROCESSING 11 Use of standard velocities. but if the main goal is to know the local propagation velocity. I (xi . one of the three previous methods would be much more interesting.2). performed with the correct propagation velocity v will concentrate the energy present in the di raction hyperbola in its apex. tj . with x the horizontal position. j and peak intensity (For one position (x. tj . In addition. tj ) = p(xi . tj ) < 0 (2.5. tj ) = peak value: max1 k n I (xi . If the local properties of the soil are known (by lab tests or by general knowledge) these formulas can be useful. the conductivity (S/m).25) where 0 = 8:8854x10?12As=V m. tj ) 0 ? min1 k n I (xi . tj ) = n n X k=1 I (xi . A B-scan is considered as a two dimensional x ? t radar re ection. If this process is then repeated for a number of possible velocities. tj ) + maxfave(xi . tj . 2. v1 ). A personal interpretation of their presence is given in this paragraph. vn )g ave(xi . If a point (xi . tj .27) pv(xi . t) after averaging over all the velocities v. tj ). I (xi . where c is the standard speed of light in vacuum. tj ) ? maxfave(xi .CHAPTER 2.6) for various propagation velocities v. If the relative dielectric permittivity r of the survey area is known (see c . tj ) < 0 (2. vk ) (2.28) This expresses how much this peak intensity di ers from the average intensity at that particular point. 1] tried to estimate them locally.) p(xi . and then fall back to the last velocity . The re ected intensity will show a sharp peak in the v direction at the position of the hyperbolic apex of the re ection. tj ).26) k range from 1 to n). vk ) ave(xi . tj . The knowledge of the parameters permittivity and conductivity becomes thus the new problem. and t the one way re ection. v can be approximated by v = p If. 2. I (xi . vk ) ave(xi . v1 ). This will thus be a three dimensional intensity structure called I (x. t.4 X-T-V data matrix The method presented in 18] uses migration techniques to estimate the propagation velocity as a function of depth. This is the intensity for each position (x. to a maximum at vp where the hyperbola is correctly migrated. The main idea of this method is to use the fact that migration. v). the velocity v at which this intensity peak occurs coincides with the propagation velocity between the ground surface and the depth of the hyperbolic apex. This will result in a three dimensional data structure: the x ? t ? v data matrix. however the conductivity of the local soil is also known a more correct formula for the local velocity can be used: v=p c s p r r 2 1 + ( =! 0 r )2 + 1 (2. t) the maximum intensity over the v direction in absolute value.
This is indeed very important in the seismic point of view. acquired at the surface. A particular example of such a point is the point at one end of the under migrated hyperbola.1 Introduction Migration is an image processing technique that until now has mainly been developed in the eld of seismic data processing. The main aim of migration techniques (both in time.CHAPTER 2. There the purpose is to reconstruct. This is due to the width of the emitted beam "antenna footprint". tj ) at which the peak value pv(xi .and frequency-domain) is to give an idea of the exact physical position and shape of the re ectors in the subsurface. on the basis of re ection data. ts ) the following binary image is created: 1 jI (xi . If these areas are too large the candidate has to be rejected. which is quite large. the peak value should be small. In doing so. and comparing this result with a second threshold T2 . This will cause the antenna to receive re ections of point scatterers that are not directly below it. Finally extracting the intensities along the estimated v(t) curve out of the x ? t ? v data matrix will result in the reconstructed image. If now the curve will rise at one of the extrema in v. In the resulting image all pipes can be seen and their horizontal position as well as their depth can be determined. ts ). since these re ectors are of main interest. Since this re ection is not perpendicular to the antenna surface. One drawback of the method is the calculation complexity. Results: the method was applied to a B-scan taken with a GPR at 400 MHz. tj . over an area with a large number of pipes at several depths and constructed of several materials. Those values smaller than this threshold are then considered as real hyperbola apexes. so that that value will be higher than the average. extract their apex position and to estimate the propagation velocity. To eliminate erroneous candidate apexes one uses the fact that in the well migrated image the hyperbola is focused at its apex. So including those values in the formula will eliminate those points. tj ) is larger than threshold T1 are extracted and interconnected regions are obtained.ts ) j p(xs . At the rst extremum in v the energy at that point will be large. a point scatterer will cause the presence of a hyperbolic structure in the image. Within each region the points with maximal peak intensity p(xs . ts ). the whole re ecting structure that is present in the sub-surface. Thus for all the possible apexes (xs . Here the type of re ectors that are of main interest are the point scatterers. As the migration continues this energy will drop steadily to the other extremum. ts ) ? T1 (2. Therefore the points (xi . ts ) ? T1 In this binary image the regions around the candidate apex points are selected where the local intensity is larger than the candidates peak intensity minus the threshold T1 . If a certain point represents a hyperbola apex the peak intensity will be maximum at that velocity (vp ) where the energy of the complete hyperbola is concentrated in the apex (xs . vk )jvk =vp (xs.29) 0 jI (xi . The method was applied to an image if pipes at di erent depths and of di erent sizes. Indeed. So rst the candidate area value will be normalized by dividing it by the peak value pv(xs . vk )jvk =vp (xs. In summary this method allows to simultaneously detect the hyperbolas. If this is done for hyperbolas at di erent depths the result will be a propagation velocity distribution as a function of depth (or time). the time that the . Ibinary (xi . Here the di erence between the peak intensity and the average will be large. The idea of using these methods originates in a certain observed similitude in the non-migrated data. tj .6. vk )jvk =vp (xs. The ideal migration will be an accurate transformation from the position-time domain to the position-depth domain. ts ) are selected as possible hyperbola apexes. This is achieved by introducing the extremum values in the formula. tj . What we will attempt is to apply these methods (after adaptation) to data coming from GPR sensors. The method results were compared to those of standard migration and were found to be much better. but since it does not represent an apex. much emphasis is laid on the reconstruction of plane re ectors with a certain dip (inclination downward). and is causing said re ection data. At the same time a curve propagation velocity vs propagation depth was constructed.6 Migration 2. this will indicate that that particular point does not completely correspond to the model of a hyperbola apex.ts ) = 2.ts ) j < p(xs . B-SCAN PROCESSING 12 vn where the hyperbola is over migrated. This way we have a curve with a large peak intensity.
and the paragraph will be ended with some discussion. and a scanning receiver. So although the e ect on the resulting data seems quite similar. First a number of techniques. Indeed. All this is based on 12]. (At some points in the text the terminology is borrowed from seismic and vibration methods) 2. with the apex at the position of the object. the underlying physical principles are di erent. but will remain quite narrow.2 Kircho Migration . in this case the emitted beam is not widening. This is why in the X-time diagram the hyperbolic structure appears. 13]. This type of migration is based on the di raction summation principle. at depth z = 0. We have to emphasize that in migration the moment of re ection is considered time t = 0 and that the position of re ection is regarded as the source. So in this case the beam widening does not appear in the emitted beam.2: The problem: the re ected energy of the object is spread out over the di erent receiver positions leading to the measurement hyperbola. When this beam reaches a point scatterer. The idea of migration is to recombine this energy in one position. it will be di racted in a wide area. The basic idea is to try to calculate the wavefront at a certain time and position. In order to mathematically comprehend this type of migration we need to introduce some concepts. but here the underlying physical principle is very di erent. but in the re ected one. The next sections will introduce some of the existing approaches to this problem. 15] and 16]. each with their particular properties. The known data is recorded at all times. when it is known at another time and position. 14]. B-SCAN PROCESSING 13 Figure 2. Note that to be able to record this type of data one has to have one emitter in a xed position. and also multiple re ections are excluded. then a possible cross-over to electro-magnetic migration is mentioned. and what we want to calculate is the originating wavefronts at time t = 0 at all depths z . developed for seismic processing are summarized.CHAPTER 2. The movement of the wave towards the re ector is not at all considered. The e ect of point scatterers in the seismic approach is also the presence of a hyperbola.6. beam will need to travel to the object and back will be larger than when the antenna is directly above the object.
while the amplitude is attenuated by the geometrical spreading factor jr ? r0 j. Formally. The eld due to an imploding source is represented by the backwards Green's function: 0 0 (2. a one way propagating wave will not produce backward propagating wavefronts. The problem with Huygen's Principle is that it predicts two secondary wavefronts. tjr0 . tjr0 . a corollary to Huygens' principle can be stated: Each point on a wavefront at time t can be thought of as a secondary point sink. V 0 t (2. tjr0 . then the sphere expands from the origin with speed c. An imploding point source point sink is one where the spherical wavefront collapses to the source point as time increases.30 describes an expanding sphere in x-t space. z. t) can be predicted by a surface and volume integration over the wavefront: Huygens Principle Kircho Migration Theory P (r. t0 ) P (r0 .30) G(r. Kirchho 's equation derived from Green's Theorem says that the eld P (x. one inward propagating and the other outward propagating. z. If the source explodes at t0 = 0 and r0 = (0.31) G(r. can be reconstructed by taking the envelope at t ? dt of imploding wavefronts that collapse to the secondary sinks. and the interior volume integral contains the body forces represented by F (x. then we would be constantly bombarded by echoes of our conversations with others. and is pointing in the direction of the wave propagation. The past wavefront at t ? dt. Equation 2. Here the primed (unprimed) variables indicate the source (receiver) variables. To cure this problem. G is the causal Green's function described earlier. we try to use data at the surface to reconstruct the past history of wave. B-SCAN PROCESSING 14 Point Source The pressure eld due to an impulsive point source that erupts at t0 and is located at r0 in an homogeneous velocity medium is given by Green's function: 0 0 (2. Huygens' principle states: Each point on a wavefront at time t can be thought of as a secondary point source. Therefore we will be using the backwards Green's function to continue the measured elds at the surface in the downward direction towards the subsurface scatter sources. In this way it can be shown that the inward propagating wavefront disappears. For backward propagating wavefronts. tjr0 . The future wavefront at t+dt can be reconstructed by taking the envelope of exploding wavefronts at t + dt originating from the secondary point sources. t ) dS 0 dt0 G(r. tjr0 . t0 )dV 0 dt0 S 0 ? XX 0 0 t 0 (r . t0 )dS 0 dt0 dn0 S t XX + G(r. t0 ) = (t ? t ? jr ? r j=c) where c is the velocity of propagation. t) (see Morse and Feshbach Volume I for the derivation in the time domain). t0 ) = (t ? t + jr ? r j=c) jr ? r0 j jr ? r0 j For forward propagating wavefronts. and the receiver is the probe scanning the surface. The source is the re ector in the subsurface.32) 0 . This contradicts reality where. Kircho in the 1800's suggested that the outward propagating secondary wavefront could be correctly predicted from the primary wavefront by taking the envelope of a distribution of secondary monopole and dipole wavefronts. 0). t0 )F (r0 . In migration. t0 ) dP dn 0 0 0 where n0 is the normal vector on the surface S 0 . that is an earlier wavefront. t) = XX dG(r. 0.elds in the subsurface. If not. in a homogeneous medium.CHAPTER 2.
t0 ) can be inserted into the equation to eliminate the rst surface integral term because (2. z. although for variable velocity a high frequency Green's function can be used.35) G0 (x. tjx0 . Homogeneous subsurface velocity is assumed. Assume that the semi-sphere of integration goes to in nity so that there are no contributions from the semi-sphere for nite evaluation times. t0 ) dz 0 dz 0 . B-SCAN PROCESSING 15 Here the rst term represents the surface monopole sources. y0 . Since we wish to reconstruct ancient wave elds from current data we use the backwards Green's functions. z. tjx0 . z 0 = 0. ?z 0. the second term the surface dipole sources. y0 .33) (2. For a planar surface. y.CHAPTER 2. y. and the third the volume sources. y. t0 ) ? G(x. z 0 = 0. tjx0 . the image Green's function G0 = G(x. z 0 = 0. tjx0 . y0 . z 0 . y0 . We assume that the exploding re ector is just outside the volume of integration. The practical form of the downward continuation operator can be derived in the following way: 1. To migrate data we have to nd a downward continuation of the recorded data into the earth. y. z. z. 3.3. The coordinate system for the above equation can be seen in gure 2. 2. This means that we will now look at the point on the surface as the source (exploding re ector) of the inverse propagating wave eld. y0 . y. Also. t0 ) = 0 and dG0 (x. Figure 2.3: The coordinate system of the theory. In that case the volume integral term in the equation becomes zero. tj.34) (2. x0 . t0 ) = 2 dG(x. the initial condition terms in this equation are assumed to be zero. z.
z 0. This assumption d (t ? t0 + jr ? r0 j=c) = ?1 d (t ? t0 + jr ? r0 j=c) djr ? r0 j dz 0 c dt0 dz 0 ?r j z where djr dz = jr?r j = cos( ). y. zz=z*dz. z 0 .z). jr ? r0 j=c + t) cos( 0) P jr ? r jc 0 t 0 (2. o set and depth.0.38 is the downward continuation operator for data recorded on a plane. end end end M = M/c. dn0 = dz 0 and the dn means that the backward propagation model will be accurate at deeper levels where this is true. t = sqrt(r2)/(c*dt).dx. S 0 % % KIRCHOFF MIGRATION PROGRAM % % nx = number of traces at z=0 along at recording plane % DP(x. The remaining term can be evaluated with the identity: dG = dG = 1 d (t ? t0 + jr ? r0 j=c) + O( 1 ) (2. The Kircho migration is obtained by evaluating the continued eld in equation 2.36) dn0 dz 0 jr ? r0 j dz 0 jr ? r0 j2 The second order term inverse in jr ? r0 j can be neglected because jr ? r0 j is large.37) Using this result to evaluate the dipole term in equation 2. % for x = 1:nx for z = 2:nz xx = x*dx. Migration tricks to improve quality of migrated images Here are some tricks. Since we assume a plane horizontal surface.CHAPTER 2. y0 . 0 0 0 0 (2.0). for itrace = 1:nx r2 = ( (xx-dx*itrace)^2 + zz^2 ). costheta = z/r2.38) Equation 2.z=0. y0 . z 0 .32 gives: XX S 0 t 0 X X d (t ? t0 + jr ? r0 j=c) () P (r.z) = DP(itrace. z ) = P (2. M(x. y0.t)*costheta + M(x. B-SCAN PROCESSING 0 16 dG term in equation 2. jr ? r j ) cos( 0) M (x. t) dG P (x0 . t0 ) ccos = ? dn dt0 jr ? r0 j = X S S 0 _ (x0 . but there are undoubtedly other tricks that are as or more e ective than these.t) = time derivative of pressure eld trace at (x.32 becomes: 4. % c = 1/2 the actual velocity %(dt.38 at t = 0: 0 X _ (x0 .dz) = sample intervals in time. .39) c jr ? r jc which is evaluated using the MATLAB program below.
calculated out of such a scalar component P 0 (~ r. 2.40) (2.6. based on the electro-magnetic variant of Kircho migration seems certainly warranted. The parameters were estimated on the basis of the information present on the website of the DeTeC group of the EPFL. Edges of your data set should be padded (for several wavelengths at least) with traces identical to the edge traces.4: An example of some preliminary migration results : (a) Before migration . So these simple tests show that further study of a migration algorithm. The migration process can introduce high frequency noise into the image. 2. where the low-pass frequencies are consistent with the bandpass range of signal. An example of these preliminary results can be found in the next gure. t) will have to satisfy following boundary conditions: . One can also see that the dimensions of the main re ection after migration are closer to the real dimensions of the object. where the used data originated. While migrating subsequent B-scans. 2. The migrated eld P M (~ r. The suggested algorithm in the previous paragraph was implemented and slightly altered (in its present form it does not work). Tapering decreases ringing in your migrated image at the expense of some resolution loss. For electromagnetic ~ and electric eld E ~ must satisfy the di usion equation.3 Some First Results on GPR Data (Obtained by our own tests). the model can be improved by iteratively changing the velocity model with each new migration image. Such noise can be eliminated by low-pass ltering. Post-migration ltering.5 350 400 −1 450 450 500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 −8000 500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 (a) (b) Figure 2. Data tapering. t). wave propagation. B-SCAN PROCESSING 17 1. and these padded traces should be gradually tapered to zero amplitude.5 150 4000 150 200 2000 250 0 300 −2000 350 −4000 400 −6000 200 0 250 300 −0. This idea is similar to apodization (gradual darkening of lens edge) of telescopic lenses. the magnetic eld H ~? 4H ~? 4E 0 n (2.6. 3.4 Application to electro-magnetic waves ~ @H @t = 0 ~ @E n @t = 0 Also an extrapolation of the theory towards electro-magnetic waves was made ( 16]). which suppresses optical di ractions from the edges of the lens.CHAPTER 2. (b) After migration In the gure one clearly sees that the hyperbolas present in the original image have much more converged towards their apex after migration. t) be any scalar component of an observed Electromagnetic Field.41) 0 Let P (~ r. 1 50 8000 50 100 6000 100 0.
43) @t0 On the other hand we will de ne a Green's function g that answers to the following condition: r. let us rst de ne a few notations: ~ r : Cartesian coordinates of the observer (in two dimensions: ~ r = (x. ~ or H ~.43 with g(~ r.44 with P M (~ r0 .42) 4P M (~ r.45) Ugrad(V )dS = I (grad(U )grad(V )dv + ZZZ U r2 V dv (2.t ) ? 2 0 0 0 0 n Z t+ 0 dt0 0 + M (~ r0 . > T for z > 0 for j~ rj ! 1. P : Any scalar component of E g(~ r. )jz=0 = P 0 (~ r. which states that since: (2.47) then: Ugrad(V ) ? V grad(U )]dS = U r2 V ? V r2 U ]dv So when we apply this theorem to the rst integral of equation 2. t0 : Real time of the source. ) ? P M (~ r. t0 ) + 0 n @g(~ r ?~ r0 ) (t ? t0 ) (2. Before going deeper into the solution of the problem. tj~ r0 . G(~ r . t0 ) ? g(~ r. tj~ r0 . t : Real time of the receiver. t0 ) + g(~ r. ) = 0 @t 18 for 0 T for < 0 .e. tj~ r0 . 0 = T ? t0 : Inverse source time. tj~ r0 . i. the scanning device on the surface. t0 )r2 r. ~ r0 : Cartesian coordinates of source (in two dimensions: ~ r0 = (x0 . t0 ) = 0 (2. tj~ r0 . t0 ) = ?4 (~ r2 r. z0 ). T ? )jz=0 0 n @P M (~ r. t0 ) = ?4 P M (~ r. t0 ) @g(~ dt0 dV0 P M (~ 0 .46) (2. t0 ) n @t @t 0 0 0 I ZZZ ZZZ ZZZ We will now use Green's theorem. An example of a real life observer is the receiver. t) r . tj~ r0 . z > 0 (2.44) 0 g (~ @t0 If we now multiply 2. we get the following equation: r P M (~ r . t0 ) : Green's function for di usion. t j ~ r r0 . z ). t0 ) dV0 P M (~ 0 g (~ 0P Z t+ ZZZ @P M (~ r0 . tj~ r0 . = T ? t : Inverse receiver time. tj~ r0 . t0 )r2 r0 .45 and perform the time integration on the second this will result in: . B-SCAN PROCESSING P M (~ r. The source is the point of re ection. t0 ) and 2. t0 ) : Green's image function for g.CHAPTER 2. ) ! 0 0 These three equations describe a boundary value problem. t0 ) and integrate the result over space + and over time from 0 to t . T : Period of receiver registration. which can be solved using Green's theorem and Green's functions for the di usion equation. On one hand we can write that the migrated eld at source coordinates has to satisfy: @P M (~ r0 .
44 and 2.53) 4 ( ) = p2 + Solution of this di erential equation for results in: ? = 4 e 0 0 n @ @ u( ) where u( ) is the Heaviside step function: n 0 p2 n (2. tj~ r0 . B-SCAN PROCESSING P M (~ r. tj~ r .51 in equation 2. tj~ r0 . tj~ r0 .51) p ~ (2 )N Application of equations 2. tj~ r0 . t0 )) ? P M (~ r0 .59) 0 u( ) Z + 1 + ?1 Z Z eipx Rx e 1 + 2 ?1 ? eipy Ry e 0 1 dpy n ?1 ? eipz Rz e 0 dpz This is of course assuming we work in three dimensions. t )g(~ r.54) (2. )dVp (2. We can write that g(~ r. ) = 1 N ei~ ~.58) (2. tj~ r0 .56) (2. We will de ne R r?r ~0 . and = t ? t0 . t0 ) = 1 Z ei~ @ dV ~ ?p2 ? pR (2.57) (2. or three-dimensional Fourier integral: Z ~ (p pR ~ . tj~ r0 . t0 ) is the result of an one-.50) r2 g ( ~ r . t) = 41 Z t+ 0 19 4 This is due to the fact that the causality principle dictates that g(~ r. t0 ) = 0 when t < t0 . t0 )) ZZZ +v dV P M (~ r .48) Z Z 1 1 ~ ~ i~ p R pR ?4 (2 )N e ( )dVp ?p2 ? 0 n @ ~ = (2 )N ei~ @ By assuming equality of the integrals we can deduce following formula for : dVp ~ (2. .49 of the Green's function will result in: u(t ? t0 ) = g(~ r. We now ~ =~ still have to construct a Green's function that can be used in this case.55) 1 t ? t0 > 0 0 t ? t0 < 0 Insertion of this de nition of into formula 2. Fourier variables associated to R On the basis of this equation we can say that: @g(~ r.50 results in: 0 0 0 0 0 dt0 dS0 g(~ r. t )] t0 =0 I (2. t0 )grad0 (g(~ r. t j ~ r . t ) ? 0 0 0 n 0 n p ~ 0 N @t0 (2 ) @ because @t0 = ?@ .2 or 3 depending on the number of dimensions and p ~ contains the ~. t0 )grad0 (P M (~ r0 . Also one can state that: 1 Z ei~ ~ dV = (R pR ~) (2. t0 ) = (2 )4 N = (2 )4 N 0 n n ~e pR u( ) ei~ Z p2 ? 0 n dVp ~ px ? 0 n dpx p2 y n p2 z (2. two-. N will be 1.49) g (R ~ (2 ) with to be de ned. If only two dimensions are available (for example x and z the second integral becomes 1).52) (2.CHAPTER 2.
but at the earth surface. !) = (? !2 + k2 )P (k . z. t) = 0 r p(x. z. The formula of the wavefront at depth z is then: P (kx . t) = ?2 4 r. Given is also the known velocity of propagation c = c(z ) that can be either constant or variable with depth. q 2 ! 2 leads to the solution: De nition of kz = sgn(!) c2 ? kx P (kx .65) 2. y0 . t) ? c1 @ p(@t 2 2 2 2 (2. z0 . tj~ r 0 .48 with this constraint that z0 = 0 the resulting formula for the migrated eld will become: G(x.64) P M (x. B-SCAN PROCESSING When we concentrate on the exponent in the rst integral we can change variables: 20 ipx Rx ? p2 x 0 n px = ? p = ? 0 p 0 2 n ip 0 ? p n Rx 2 0 2 ? 0 n ? 4 2 n Rx 4 2 n Rx (2. t0 ) = 4 n n N 0 4n R2 What we measure is the wavefront emitted by the source. y0. z. tjx0 .68) Assuming upward coming waves only we can state that A = 0. !) = Aeikz z + Be?ikz z (2. !) @z 2 c2 x x Where P (kx . If we now introduce Green's image function in equation 2. z. t0 ) = g(x. z. z.5 Phase Shift Migration 12] This type of migration takes place in the frequency domain. Given is the data p(x.69) .66) (2. t0 ) dS0 P M (x0 .6. ?z0. t). t0 ) dg In this case Gjz0 =0 = 0 and grad0 (G) = 2 dz 0 Z t+ I 0 (2. y. y0 . The rst integral will thus become: Z 1 ?? e 0 ?1 + n 2 2 2 ? 0 4n Rx ? 0 4n Rx dpx = e Z 1 ?? e 0 ?1 + n 2 d = r 0 n 2 ? 0 4nRx e (2. t) that is measured along a plane at z = 0. z. t0 ) ? g(x. The wave equation will then be: Applying a Fourier transform that has the kernel ei!t results in: x. z0 . z. 0. Since at z = 0 we have the measured data B = P (kx . !). !) is the Fourier transform of p(x. y. The general theory behind this approach can be summarized as follows for seismic applications.61) where = px ? i 0 2 n Rx . z. t0 ) dg(~ dz 0 z0 =0 (2.62) Performing the same transformation for all integrals results in following total Green's function: p u(t ? t0 ) (2. t0 ) which will be de ned as: 0 0 g(~ r. z. y0. tjx0 .67) @ 2 P (kx . tj~ r 0 . !) = P (kx . y.60) (2. z = 0. !)e?ikz z (2. 0. tjx0 . tj~ r0 . y. z. 0.63) e 2 For our implementation however we will use the image Green's function G(~ r.CHAPTER 2. thus at z0 = 0. z.
which can be added in the detection step.6 FK Migration 12] s (2.6. 0. the electro-magnetic properties of the soil change. end. It would allow us to better pinpoint those regions in a scanned surface that deserve a closer look. . scaled by k!z .CHAPTER 2. d = i t(D). 0. If it is possible to have an accurate estimation of the properties of the soil to perform this transformation e ciently the results could be used in several steps of the pattern recognition algorithm.71) so that: With this change the formula for the migrated image becomes: d! = kz c2 dkz ! (2.5 that is only valid for a constant propagating velocity c.73) This way the migration can be performed by a two dimensional Fourier Transform of the transformed data. general migration techniques will become useless. it remains to be checked): for iz = 1:nz z=iz*dz. end. end. end. kz = sgn(w)*sqrt((w/c)^2 . D=0.6.72) (2.iw). for ik = -iknyquist:iknyquist kx=dkx*ik. z ) will then be the inverse Fourier transform of the downward continued wavefront at t = 0. This will seriously reduce the computational complexity.6. !)e?i(kx x+kz z) (2.z) = M(:. z ) = p(x. when scanning one B-scan. The trick is to change variables in the formula for the migrated image: 2 x ! = ?kz c 1 + k 2 kz 2. M (x. but the main requirement will remain that the properties of the soil must not change too drastically within one image. t = 0) = XX An idea of a MATLAB code for this type of migration can be (just an idea. It is possible to measure them or even to approximate them on the basis of tables of laboratory measurements. !)e 2. if abs(kx) < abs(w/c).70) This method is a variant of the phase shift method described in paragraph 2. for iw = -wnyquist:wnyquist. B-SCAN PROCESSING 21 The migrated image M (x. kx ! P (kx . Z Z z i(kz z+kx x) M (x.kx^2). D(ik) = e^(i*kz*z)*P(ik. z.7 Comments and Discussion The rst thing one has to emphasize is that the accuracy of the migration will depend on the knowledge of the physical parameters of the soil. M(:. z ) = c2 dkz dkx k ! P (kx . The migrated image will give more accurate information about the exact position and depth of re ectors. w=dw*iw. Indeed if.z) + D(:).
extrapolating the migration algorithm to directly calculate the 3-D migration results) to give a view of the objects shape.CHAPTER 2. In uence on the results from noise and clutter also have to be studied further. This type of information can be used in the recognition algorithm as a supplementary feature. it seems that this approach holds enough promises to warrant further study. Nevertheless. B-SCAN PROCESSING 22 Further it would be quite thinkable that the shape of the original re ector would be better represented in the migrated image. This could especially be done when migrating all B-scans of a C-scan (or even better. . O course all this depends on the knowledge of the properties of the soil.
This system produced a signal having a frequency content from approximately 500 MHz to 3. The data was acquired with a low-power single-pulse video-band pulser with a resistively loaded dipole antenna having an approximate beamwidth of 140o. ) is the emitted wave eld. z 0 . )u(x.2. In this case these sources will be the scatterers in the subsurface. z 0.5 GHz. y. z . y. y.2) . z 0. ) is the Green's function for a homogeneous background: r0 this can be expressed as: If the source is an isotropic radiator (the same amount of energy is emitted in all directions) at position 23 g(x.1) Here is a convolution. 3. With this. z ) in the subsurface (this is what we want to estimate). by scanning a regular two dimensional horizontal grid. )] g(x. and continue with a pseudo tomographic process called array beam imaging. z ) as the result of a synthetic two-dimensional planar array of antennas.1 Introduction 3. y. )dz 0 jkr (3. y. Most of these methods are based on array scanning systems with a resolution smaller than the detected objects.2. then for each wavelength in the emitted signal we can write: r(x. but a di erent way of acquiring data. is applied to the data before the actual processing. If we consider the measured data r(x. 3. the surface was scanned with 1. ) = Z o(x.Chapter 3 C-scan processing 3. u(x. y. This method was designed to detect anomalies in solid concrete. We will discuss polarimetry. y. y. We will rst address the problem of tomography that will try to inverse the problem.2 Tomography The general idea of tomography is to use the acquired data and a propagation model to solve the inverse problem and to nd the position and shape of the sources. The main idea behind the processing is the plane-to-plane backward propagation method.2 Reconstruction In 4] a tomographic method is introduced for impulse radar operating in pulse echo mode. and g(x. y. z 0 .27 cm sample spacing.1 Introduction A C-scan is a three dimensional data structure that is acquired. Finally we will show some ways to compress the three dimensional structure in a two dimensional image. (3. z 0. and we have the object distribution o(x. A preprocessing step consisting of standard background subtraction as well as pulse deconvolution. ) = e 4 r p 2 2 2 where r = x + y + z and wavenumber k = 2 = . which is not really a processing technique.
y. y. 3. ) = C @k Z o(x. y. based on acoustic. )d Z The wave propagation is modeled as a spatial linear lter given as: (3. )dz 0 ( jk(r?r0 ) jk(r?r0 ) dr0 o(r) 4e (r ? r ) ] 4e (r ? r ) dz 0 0 0 p 2 ?fy 2 j 2 z 1= 2 ?fx 2 2 fx + fy = 1= 2 e H (fx . z .5) where R is the spectrum of the received wave eld and + denotes a pseudo inverse.1 Introduction 3.3) and the received wave eld becomes: r(x.4 is derived with respect to k: r0 (x. There is an overlap in applicability and in those cases a "dual technology" approach is quite attractive. This method warrants further study for the application in detection in more cluttered environments. z 0. C-SCAN PROCESSING jk(r?r0 ) u(x. The estimate for the source (object) distribution is then given by the 2D inverse Fourier transform of S . y. y. z ) = R(fx.6) with C a constant. fy . For electromagnetic waves elds in the GHz (radar) range have the same wavelength (10 cm range) and therefore the same resolution capability as the before mentioned seismic waves. So the actual lter is applied to the gain compensated data and. After a derivation with respect to the wavenumber (inverse proportional to the wavelength) the data is ltered by the proposed wave propagation lter. which will exactly compensate the factor r ? r0 in the denominator. For Seismic waves. y.3 Array Beam Imaging The method described in this paragraph is called Array Beam Imaging (ABI) and is concentrated upon processing three dimensional radar data to achieve an accurate 3D visualization of the data. z 0 . seismic or electromagnetic waves. high frequency elds (KHz range) allow the general shape characteristics of a land mine to be resolved. This method is based on 6]. z 0 ) g2 (x. y. fy . To remove the dependency of g2 equation 3. fy . ) = = o(x. z .3. Instead this method uses only the data and some knowledge about the acquisition array. In practice the data has to be recorded for several wavelengths. z . . the object distribution is calculated. the poor propagation of EM waves under wet conditions will result in the use of seismic ABI methods for wet soil conditions. This derivation has a physical meaning: di erentiating with respect to k in the frequency domain corresponds to multiplying by a factor t. Although re ection amplitudes are equivalent for seismic and EM waves. or in other words remove the loss due to spherical expansion of the incident wave eld. The spatial spectrum of the equivalent source S (the re ecting object is called source) is then given by: S (fx. The resulting data is than the object con guration. The result shown in this article 4] is quite impressive: a good three dimensional image of a scanned structure is created. and EM ABI methods for dry soils. The main aim is to show the level of re ected energy from the interior of a medium. fy . )H + (fx . ) = 4e (r ? r ) 0 Z Z Z 24 (3. z 0 ) g(x.4) 0 otherwise 2 2 where fx and fy are the spatial frequencies in the x and y direction. y. =2)dz 0 (3. This is not a real tomographic method since it does not start from a propagation model it tries to invert. ) = (3. ) = @ r(x.CHAPTER 3.
CHAPTER 3. Again one has to mention that the resulting propagation velocity will only be an average estimate for the top layer in the soil. This is done by placing a number of calibration sources (these are emitting elements) near the receiver array. as well as multiple re ections. when repeating this estimation for all source receiver distances. these distances can be easily recalculated into time shifts.3. So when a signal is emitted towards the array it will travel through the upper layer of the soil. In the further processing it is assumed that the same velocity is homogeneously present in the entire scanned volume. the attenuation coe cient can be estimated. and averaging them. and the total scanned volume is assumed homogeneous. When knowing the distance between source and receiver. Since the calibration allowed to estimate an average propagation velocity. r is the distance between emitter and receiver. For GHz EM elds this will allow to visualize objects of a few cm (within a scanned volume of several cubic meters). the re ected signals emanating from that particular volume element will arrive at the di erent sensors in the array with a time shift that is proportional to these calculated distances. no variance of with the depth is considered). and that for further analysis this attenuation is considered homogeneously present in the whole scanned volume (e. Recording the re ected wave eld is done by an array of receivers that is spread out over the same area as the emitting array. These time shifts will then be applied to the di erent signals in order to focus on that particular volume element. The placement is at the same depth of the array. The distance between the sources and each of the elements of the receiver array is considered known. This method is called beam steering the array. one is also able to estimate the propagation velocity of the medium. The re ected energy from that volume element characterizes its intrinsic re ectivity. One has to mention here that the proposed method will only give the average attenuation between emitter and receiver. .2 Calibration r 0 3. when one looks at the two dimensional plane underneath the array. The used focusing techniques are derivatives of the phased array beam forming method. Since I (r) is experimentally determined. A more accurate value will be achieved. Since the distance between these sources and each of the receivers is di erent we obtain a number of signals for di erent source-receiver distances. As homogeneous propagation velocity was assumed. 3. Out of each of the receivers one time signal is extracted per emitted wave. The size of these volume elements can be in the order of a fraction of the smallest wavelength present in the emitted wave.3 Processing Time shift The data signals coming from the di erent receivers in the array are combined so that the array is used as a lens to focus on a particular small volume element. One can use calibration sources to estimate both attenuation parameters and propagation speeds of the medium. The wave eld will propagate into this medium as an approximation of a plane wave front.g. and is the attenuation coe cient of the local soil.3. and at both sides of it. for each point in this plane the distance towards each of the elements of the receiver array can be calculated.7) I (r) = 1 I where I0 is the emitted intensity. When it encounters targets (objects present in the medium). The basic principle of this method is to calculate the correct time delay that has to be introduced between the signals of the di erent receivers. Indeed. Summing these shifted signals (called stacking) will enhance the signals coming from the particular volume element. part of the incident wave is backscattered. and will partially or wholly cancel re ections from other positions. one can see an exponential decay given by: (3. When one plots the maximum amplitude in these signals in function of these source receiver distances. C-SCAN PROCESSING 25 The wave eld is generated by an array of controlled sources which are in contact with the scanned medium. and estimating the arrival time of the measured signal. so that the signals coming from one particular volume element will be added constructively. Also the e ect of the small objects in the scanned volume on the total attenuation of the wave is considered negligible.
However there are still some large di erences. Again varying the angle will result in one semi circular image of the scanned area. In extreme clutter. but can be improved by the dual eld approach. The total re ectivity of the volume element is then calculated by simply dividing received and re ected total energies emitt r Re ectivity calculation total energy reflectivity = reflected received total energy (3.5 Identi cation Once the complete tomographic image is achieved it is ltered with a lter function "matched" to the 3D shape of a mine. but these time shifts will no longer be linearly increasing from one receiver to the next (as they are for phased arrays) but will be directly dependent on the position of the focused volume element. 3. can also be multiplied by r in order to calculate the real re ected energy at that time and position. one can calculate how much energy arrives at a certain position in the scanned volume: 1 (3.4 Imaging Once we have a physically meaningful re ection coe cients (The "intrinsic re ectivity") for each of the small volume elements. one can create a tomographic image by rendering these values in a three dimensional structure. Eliminating these parts. Computer simulations show a high likelihood of detection under conditions expected in the eld. This ltering is done in the spatial wave number domain. They can obscure nearby re ecting objects by casting shadows. Based on the position of these re ectors the above mentioned processing is inverted to get the parts of the original signals that were the origin of these re ectors. a secondary processing step is applied. and so the obscured ones appear. First of all the goal of a phased array is to be able to scan a larger volume with a smaller array. Clutter will cause many strong re ections that will overlap in time. and then calculating an attenuation coe cient for each frequency) and the emitted energy Eemitt . Normalization of this image gives a three dimensional probability density map.CHAPTER 3. In our case the emitted beam is launched perpendicular to the array. Analysis time is considered quite acceptable for demining purposes. Therefore the emitted beam will be already constituted of time shifted emitted signals so that it is emitted at a certain angle with respect to the array.3. In the Array Beam Imaging method one is not interested in viewing the re ections at a certain angle but in focusing the array to a particular volume element. Estimated price: a few thousand dollars for an image from 2 to 3 m on a side and 1m depth in a minute or two. This will produce an image with sharp spikes at the center of re ecting objects. This process can be repeated until no new objects are found. Scanning will occur when this angle is changed. C-SCAN PROCESSING 26 As was mentioned this method is based on the phased array processing methods.8) E (r) = E The measured re ected energy after focusing of a certain volume element. The general idea is to detect in the tomographic image all visible re ectors. The receiver part in phased array will also be processed with the same time shifts as the emitted part in order to be listening in the same direction as was emitted. .9) 3.3. produces a residual time series in which signals from already imaged re ectors are removed. Relaunching the standard ABI process will then result in secondary re ector images of which all already detected objects were deleted. In an attempt to resolve this problem. Based on the knowledge of the attenuation (the attenuation as function of frequency is achieved by passing the same sliding frequency lter on the data obtained by calibration. and is assumed to be a plane wave. performances are lowered. This will also result in time shifts between the di erent signals.
Summation of these images will then result in a sharper. This will result in the generation of a new time signal for each of the lter positions (one time signal is expanded to N time signals which each contain a small fraction of the frequency content of the original signal). This is performed directly at the acquisition stage and further processing is done on these stacked signals.10) = t r E2 S21 S22 E2 4 r2 t and E t represent the emitted. This can be measured by simply assembling the four di erent constructions that are possible. Another type of processing that can be applied here is to lter each time signal with sliding narrow frequency lter.11) HH: Horizontal polarization emitted. t represents the left circular polarization (L) ant the When using circular polarization the component E1 t component E2 the right one (R). These In this formula the terms E1 2 1 2 eld components will determine the polarization. r and E r will represent the re ected components.4. The active nature of radar will allow emitting a polarized wave.4 Polarimetry 3. The rst simple possibility is to summate a number of acquisitions (called stacking). the second component will be zero.CHAPTER 3. The basic formula that is used in this approach is the formula of the scattering matrix of an object.6 Averaging and ltering 3. In 7] the theoretical principle of radar polarimetry is presented.4. it is simply another way of acquiring data. before starting the actual processing algorithm. The ABI process can thus be repeated for each of these ltered signals to create a tomographic image representing a fairly narrow frequency band. more complete total image. HV: Horizontal polarization emitted. and E r and E r the received elds. Horizontal polarization measured. If the above mentioned calibration process is repeated for each of the di erent frequencies (the signals used for calibration are also passed through the same sliding frequency lter) the frequency dependency of the soil properties can be obtained. Vertical polarization measured. Since wave speeds and attenuations are frequency dependent.3. which can be linear or circular. and the second one E t the vertical used. The main principle of polarimetry is quite di erent in radar applications than in Infra red ones. use of a broader spectrum in the emitted signal can lead to blurring of the image. This is however not a signal processing tool. the rst component E1 2 one (V). This will result in signals with more discriminating object information than the background. and the receiver part can be tuned to be sensible to a certain type of polarization.1 Introduction Acquiring radar polarimetric data can enhance the contrast between di erent parts of the scanned scene. C-SCAN PROCESSING 27 To enhance the Signal to Noise ratio. The re ecting objects will due to their shape and structure be sometimes more re ective for certain polarization types than others. The same division in linear or circular The terms E1 2 components goes here. The scatter matrix itself will show how much of a certain type of polarization is re ected by the scattering object. a number of preprocessing steps can be introduced on the data. If the emitted beam is completely horizontally polarized.2 Theory SHH SHV SV H SV V (3. t r 1 E1 E1 S11 S12 p (3. This requires a repeatable wave generation process by the source. If linear polarization is t will be the horizontal polarization (H). 3. For the linear case the scattering matrix will become: where: 3. .
This is re ected and upon arrival again decomposed in its horizontal (Ecos2 ( )) and its vertical (Ecos( )sin( )) components. RL: Right polarization emitted. and a factor perpendicular to it. Left polarization measured.17) It can be shown that this type of representation can be directly calculated out of the circular polarization scatter matrix as follows: S ] = ej ej s ks S ]s + kd S ]d( ) + kh S ]h( ) .14) Swire = 1cos sin2 sin2 2 Sdiplane = 1 2 cos2 sin2 ?cos2 1 2 sin2 (3. Left polarization measured. Horizontal polarization measured. Diplane (two sided corner re ector (relative orientation of 45o): This is simple to see because a spherical target will not disturb linear polarization in re ection. diplane and helix. If horizontal polarization E is emitted the parallel factor will be Ecos( ).15) Here is the orientation angle of the diplane versus the incident beam. One can notice here immediately that HH and VV polarizations will give di erent results. Once a scatter matrix has been measured through four experiments it can be decomposed into a number of these canonical matrices. Right polarization measured. and for the circular case: where: 28 SRR SRL SLR SLL (3. The same is valid for vertical re ections. C-SCAN PROCESSING VH: Vertical polarization emitted. LL: Left polarization emitted. The arriving polarization is decomposed in a factor along the line. VV: Vertical polarization emitted. Vertical polarization measured. Right polarization measured. and so one can look for objects with a speci c shape. Only the parallel factor will be re ected. The scatter matrices for certain canonical shapes can be calculated as there are for linear polarization: Sphere: 0 Ssphere = 1 0 1 (3. LR: Left polarization emitted. Line target: 1 2 sin2 2 (3. For example the decomposition can be done in sphere.12) RR: Right polarization emitted. This is the SDH decomposition: (3.13) Here is the orientation angle of the wire.CHAPTER 3. Helix: 1 1 j Shelix = 2 j ?1 (3. So horizontal polarization will be re ected as perfect horizontal polarization and the same is valid for vertical polarization.16) Note here that this transfer matrix between incident linear polarization and re ected circular one.
. The theory of this transformation is explained in 19]. still the HH images showed more contrast. Also the VV and HH polarizations are compared.3 Test Results 3. Although due to the relationship between the re ection coe cient and Brewster's angle for vertically polarized waves the experiments should have shown more penetration for VV versus HH. The main idea is to reduce the sequence of images into one or two images in which all the dynamic information of the sequence is concentrated. 3. although in the experiment with the various backgrounds (especially with grass) even this best result was not very good.4 SAR Polarimetry In 9] a very brief overview is presented about the tests with an UWB polarimetric SAR. LIN and SDH appear to have the best contrast between the di erent targets. and also presents other ways to mathematically represent the use of polarization (next to the scatter matrices. and one with one mine in di erent backgrounds as sand. It retakes the representation shown in 7] (This seems to be the most widely used presentation for this type of applications). In other words the areas that change throughout the sequence (such as objects) will be accentuated. if somewhere one of the latter representations is used. grass. The three combinations of linear polarization (HV. This is a purely theoretical paper.1 Introduction Another idea to process C-scan data is the application of the Karhunen Loeve transformation.CHAPTER 3. that can be used for reference. Two experiments were set up: one with di erent types of mines in a sand background. In 8] the polarimetric SAR was used to detect buried mines form the ground. gravel and mould. The HH polarization seemed to give the best result in both experiments.5. the phases however might also give some additional information. HH and VV) were then shown and the resulting images were quite di erent for the di erent polarizations. In the examples only the magnitudes of the di erent components were used.5 Karhunen Loeve transformation 3. Here no theory about polarimetry is given. 3.4. only the results are analyzed. 21] is a review paper about this type of decomposition in scatter matrices. also the Mueller matrix and Stokes vector as well as the eigenvector analysis of the covariance and coherency matrices are introduced).4. Furthermore it is also suggested to create pseudo color images where each of the polarization combinations represents a di erent color: red green blue LIN HV HH VV CIRC RL RR LL SDH ks kd kh The three types of representation were then compared on the basis of an airborne SAR image. C-SCAN PROCESSING ks + jSLLj < jSRR j : kd ? jSLLj > jSRR j : kd + jSLLj < jSRR j : kh ? jSLLj > jSRR j : kh = = = = = = = s = 29 if if if if 1=2( RR + LL ? ) 1=4( RR ? LL + ) RL ? 1=2( RR + LL ) jSRL j jSLL j jSRR j jSRR j ? jSLLj jSLL j ? jSRR j Here jSij j is the magnitude and ij the phase of the complex value Sij .
. In the original sequence ( gure 3. C-SCAN PROCESSING 30 First it would be logical to apply this transformation to the subsequent C-scans. An interesting thing to investigate could be the result of the Karhunen Loeve transform on the data after 3D migration was applied.1). Indeed if somewhere in the subsurface an object is present the resulting image will show its position independently of the objects depth. and that it can be performed directly on the not preprocessed data.1: A number of slices out of the original C-scan.CHAPTER 3.5. The actual object re ections will cause another cluster closer to the origin. Advantages of the method are that it does not need any training or parameter estimation.5. Possible ideas for further research could be the study of the covariance matrix used for the transformation. Preliminary tests of the transform on the available data showed that indeed after applying the transform and averaging the ve rst transformed images (the original sequence had 512 images) the (x. there are some images where the object can be seen (still within some clutter. Slice 50 Slice 100 Slice 150 Slice 200 Figure 3. Since the Karhunen Loeve transform does not use any learning it is not able to normalize the clusters like the Kittler and Young transform and so the cluster far from the origin will be predominant in the transformation. 3. So not the background re ection but the actual useful signal will be attenuated. A possible application would be to calculate this position in the three dimensions by performing the transformation not only on C-scans. The top 300 C-scans were used each time (since almost no useful information could be found in the lower ones). but most of the images give no or very little indication of the presence of an object.y) position of the object could be detected with a simple threshold. but also on the B-scans and the slices perpendicular to the B-scans.3 First results The Karhunen Loeve algorithm was adapted and implemented. A few tests were performed to see whether the Karhunen Loeve transformation applied to the B-scans would be able to remove this re ection. Indeed it is quite thinkable that this matrix already holds enough information to pinpoint the position of the object.2 Application and comments 3. The answer was no. The resulting program was executed on a number of test C-scans. A possible drawback of the method is that in very inhomogeneous soils the inhomogeneities can add up to a greater dynamic range than that caused by the presence of an object so that the object can be masked. In this case the transform will remain indecisive. because the large re ection present in all the B-scans will cause a cluster of points in the dixel space far from the origin. Another problem is the presence of the air-ground interface re ection.
If the original three dimensional C-scan data is denoted Axyz .6.6 Clutter removal and C-scan reduction 3. This is the major drawback of the method. This section describes our own interpretation of the method. First for each slice in the C-scan its average gray value is subtracted. This seems to give good results on a synthetic example. based on the paper. This method is based on the assumption that the correlation between subsequent slices is larger in those areas where objects are present than in those where there are none.6. then 3. C-SCAN PROCESSING 31 First Transformed Second Transformed Third Transformed Figure 3. The transformed sequence ( gure 3. Besides that also two image restoration methods are mentioned. since this antenna footprint has to be measured or at least estimated. and the absolute value is taken. however shows a clear indication of the object presence in a reduced background clutter environment. Fortunately it seems that a circular Gaussian is a good estimate for this footprint.2: The three rst transformed images. so that the experimental estimation becomes easier.18) .2 Restoration In order to get a more focused view of a C-scan slice the application of an inverse lter is suggested. on real radar data the results will probably be less convincing. NOTE: In 20] some of the formulas are not very clear.3 C-scan reduction ARxyz = jAxyz ? AVz j AVz = ( N ?1 N ?1 X X 0 0 Axy ) z (3.CHAPTER 3.6. in search for speci c objects. while reducing clutter and enhancing object presence. This method will use a target mask (usually a subset of the main image) to assess the degree of 2D cross correlation within the image. 3. where x. Another way is to use a two dimensional correlation lter.2). This interpretation seemed to be the correct one after discussion with the author.1 Introduction In 20] Daniels introduces a method to compress the di erent slices of a C-scan into one image. What is essentially meant is that one tries to perform a deconvolution with the antenna footprint. The proposed method will encompass a number of steps. y and z range between 0 and N ? 1. 3.
4 Comments and results Alternatives to the method were suggested as deconvolving the matrices ARMWz with the antenna footprint before the nal combination to the CARMW matrix in 3. . or even further.23) Where peak means the peak value in the matrix. Finally the results can be added to gain a clearer image. However if one would take the range to wide. Finally the combination of all depths is done based on this weighted data set: CARMW = " N ?1 X z=0 ARMWz : #2 " N ?1 X z=0 peak(ARMWz ) # (3. This would highlight objects that spread even further in depth. k) = Z Z AZ (z ):AZ (z ? k)dxdy (3. The results shown by Daniels on a set of radar data seem rather promising.z :ARz ]: Rz. One could also extend the comparison to z ? 2 to z + 2. The resulting submatrices are then weighted with a coe cient kz derived from the statistical properties of each submatrix ARz .6. If this is done for all possible k values one will obtain an N dimensional vector which expresses the "correlation" between slice z and all the other slices in the set. and the sinusoids are chosen so that their sum is always one. with: ARMz = Rz.19) Here AZ (z ) = fARxy gz . and the clutter won't. and to subdivide the image into subregions and treat them separately. This is done by multiplying the slice at depth z with that at depth z ? k and then integrating over x and y.z+1 :ARz+1 ] ARMWz = kz :ARMz kz = ((0:5:mean(ARz )) + std(ARz )) (3. If such a vector is calculated for each of the depths z one obtains an N N dimensional matrix R(z. Next an intermediate matrix ARM is calculated for each depth z : (3. The slices with a large energy and variance (the energy is concentrated in a certain region) are this way extra highlighted. This will result in one value which expresses the "correlation" between slices z and z ? k. and blur out the objects. a PMN mine and a stone.20) In this set of matrices the areas which show a certain "correlation" between subsequent slices will be extra highlighted. The proposed method was implemented on three C-scans of a PFM-1 mine. 3.23.22) This coe cient expresses how much energy and variance of it (this points to an object) is present in each submatrix.z?1 :ARz?1 ]: Rz. The main idea is that for a certain depth z we wish to express the slice at that depth resembles the slices at other depths. The regions are weighed sinusoidically in order to have a uent transition from one region to another. and are quite good.CHAPTER 3.3. The results can be seen in gure 3. k) which will be used in further steps. Note that the raw data was used (so no prior background subtraction or ltering). the background would become prominent. C-SCAN PROCESSING 32 Since the main idea is that the object information will be spread out over several depths.21) (3. A possible application could be to use this method in the same way as the Karhunen Loeve transform and maybe even combine the results of both as well for detection as for shape extraction. normalizing the submatrices. a number of cross correlation vectors can be derived from the matrix AR such that R(z.
C-SCAN PROCESSING 33 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 50 50 50 60 60 60 70 70 70 80 80 80 90 90 90 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 PFM-1 PMN Stone Figure 3. a PMN mine and a stone.CHAPTER 3. .3: The resulting CARMW images starting from a C-scan of a PFM mine.
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