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Version 1.1 This Briefing Note and referenced information is a public consultation document and will be used to inform Government decisions. The information and analysis forms part of the Evidence Base created by Defra’s Market Transformation Programme.
The aim of this Briefing Note is to provide details and reference sources of the underlying data in central plant air conditioning unit models, along with the key assumptions used in these models. There are three main sections to this Briefing Note, corresponding to the main variables of the MTP modelling approach: o o o Ownership & stock Sales Usage & lifespan
Each section also includes an indication of the overall confidence in the dataset, to provide a sense of the robustness of the model.
1.1 Product Definitions
• Air conditioning systems can be divided into; o small, where unit and split air conditioners dominate, o medium, where the market is divided between multi-split systems and air-cooled systems, and o large, where the cooling is mostly delivered by air that is cooled centrally (as in a variable air volume or VAV system) or in a combined system with fresh air-cooled centrally, and further cooling provided within the room spaces by a large number of Fan Coil Units (FCUs).
Version: 1.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010
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http://efficient-products.defra.gov.uk 0845 600 8951
1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 2 of 18 http://efficient-products. As a rule.g. costly or unavailable. Absorption chillers are available in a wide range of sizes from 17kW to MW size.• This Briefing Note focuses on large systems where central plant air conditioning units are defined as systems. noise from the compressor is problematic. Hybrid systems are relatively common and combine absorption chillers with electric systems for load optimisation and flexibility. However. The cooling effect occurs when refrigerant evaporates thereby removing heat. The resulting gas is regenerated into liquid by applied heat. that deliver heating.6-50 kW. Compared to water- Version: 1. In directfired units. As a result. Capital cost is the primary constraint on the widespread adoption of absorption chiller systems. of all chiller types purchased in 2007 only 2% were of the absorption variety. These systems use either lithium bromide/water or ammonia/water solutions. water is the refrigerant in the former and ammonia in the latter. although as their most effective application is using waste heat in association with CHP systems. Ambient air is fan-forced over the chiller’s condenser coil to expel heat into the atmosphere. or components of systems. representing 76% of all absorption chiller sales in 2007. Absorption chillers are an alternative to regular compressor chillers where: electricity is unreliable. There are three principle types: Absorption chillers • Absorption chillers use a heat source to produce chilled water.gov. these devices produce cooling with a higher energy-related carbon output than a mains-driven electrical chiller. Absorption chillers are generally classified as ‘direct-fired’ or ‘indirect-fired’. • • • • Air-cooled chillers • Air-cooled chillers utilise air to cool heat rejection coils. this briefing note is only concerned with the cooling demand provided by Central Plant Air Conditioning. completing the cycle. such as a boiler or heat recovered from combined heat and power (CHP) or an industrial process. the heat source can be gas or some other fuel that is burned in the unit. or excess or waste heat can be cost-effectively utilised (e. from CHP plant or industrial processes). Chillers • Chillers are an integral component of air-conditioning and comfort cooling systems. the market is also limited. Indirect-fired units use steam or some other transfer fluid that brings in heat from a separate source.defra. cooling and ventilation services to a building from a central unit and accompanying distribution system.uk 0845 600 8951 . The largest market sector for absorption chillers is between 17.
and 5% were over 901 kW. 12% were less than 17. In this evaluation. or forced by a fan when required. The unit is typically connected to ductwork running the span of the space to be conditioned. Of all chillers purchased in 2007 88% were of the air-cooled variety. comprising 43% of total water-cooled chiller sales in 2007. if not carefully controlled. The resulting exhaust air can be saturated with water vapour resulting in a plume of visible discharge air. Ambient air travels through the cooling tower either by natural convection. • • Air Handling Units ● Air handling units (AHUs) manage the distribution of air within a building or space. however. This is because the cooling/heating elements will derive their ● • Version: 1. which can be fitted with variable speed drives to regulate their frequency of operation enabling them to ‘throttle down’ when large-volume ventilation is not required. therefore they will be considered when optimum efficiency is a priority. the AHU market has been simplified to model only the fan and electric drive system. AHUs may also incorporate heat recovery. They are.gov. generally less energy efficient than water-cooled units. sized from a few kW to a few MW. In 2007 21% of air-cooled chiller sales were sized 201 – 350 kW.5 kW. Almost all of the energy consumption in an AHU is attributable to the fans. or where the space available is insufficient to accommodate an air-cooled chiller. 10% of all chillers purchased in 2007 were of the water-cooled variety. and heat is transferred from the water to the air. Cooling and heating coils are fed independently either from a chiller or other refrigeration unit and a boiler. The heat rejection water is distributed with a cooling tower by means of a fine spray or splash bars. and do not require a dedicated water supply. to create a greater surface area. Water-cooled chillers • Water-cooled chillers are used where a high cooling demand exists. sound attenuators and heating/cooling coils. • A range of commercial and industrial applications are available. either through re-circulating exhaust air (known as direct heat recovery) or by extracting only heat from the exhaust stream via a heat exchanger. such as large commercial and industrial buildings. require more space.uk 0845 600 8951 .cooled chillers. The largest market sector was between 100kW to 350kW. They can also be considered when a cooling tower is already in place. This is achieved through a combination of exhaust and supply fans.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 3 of 18 http://efficient-products.defra. air filters. The improved cooling provided by this type of chiller results in higher system energy efficiency. air-cooled chillers are easier to locate and maintain.
defra. other electrical demands inside the FCU are very small compared to that required by the fan.com/news/aug08/reviews/080725081501computrol. This is because the cooling/heating elements will derive their thermal energy from outside of the FCU and will be accounted for in their respective models. It is part of an HVAC system found in residential.uk 0845 600 8951 .htm Fan Coil Units • A fan coil unit (FCU) is a simple device consisting of a cooling and/or heating coil and fan. other electrical demands inside the AHU are very small compared to that required by the fan. commercial. Also. In this evaluation. • Version: 1.gov. and industrial buildings.automatedbuildings. Also. Typically a fan coil unit is used to control the temperature in the space where it is installed.thermal energy from outside of the AHU and will be accounted for in the respective models for chillers or other cooling systems and boilers.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 4 of 18 http://efficient-products. Schematic of an air handling unit (AHU) Obtained from http://www. the FCU market has been simplified to model only the fan and electric drive system. or serve multiple spaces. a thermostat or by a building management system. It is controlled either by a manual on/off switch.
1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 5 of 18 http://efficient-products.001.296.593 Year 2010 2020 2030 TOTAL 1.1 Summary Figure 1 Central Air Conditioning Plant stock Table 1 Summary figures – stock (model output) Stock 2008 .669 126.96.36.199 Ownership & stock 2.2 Data sources – stock No direct data available – derived from sales data – see below.uk 0845 600 8951 . Version: 1.209 235.364 10.133 39.448 AHU 224.116 Absorption Chiller 917 1.389 2.445 247.gov.958 FCUs 1.276 1.defra.461.217 5.2030 AirWater cooled cooled Chiller chillers 32.900 2.427 1.363.299 46.688 1.440 1.
see Section 3.3. Stock data calculated in MTP model from earliest obtainable recorded sales data from BSRIA (2007) report. Consistent with expert opinion and anecdotal evidence. although precise rate of growth may vary.stock 2. Stock data obtained from sales data of MTP model 2008.uk 0845 600 8951 .1 Historic data Table 2 Interpolation & background calculations – stock data Year Product type All Methodology & assumptions The modelling adopted is sales-based. Stock data obtained from projected sales data. sales increased linearly by 1. Approach taken/rationale Obtained best available sales and lifetime data from approved industry research body BSRIA. It calculates stock automatically using a sales projection. 460 units were sold. Real stock data are put in as a check only. Version: 1. Thereafter. AHUs All All FCUs 1986 2001 FCUs 2. This data series is usually incomplete.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 6 of 18 http://efficient-products. Projected absorption & air-cooled chiller and AHU stock data may be inaccurate. Correlation with any available stock data may be required.5 Confidence level • The confidence level indicated below is due to limited sales data (5 years). Assumption that in year of product’s introduction to the market. Stock data obtained from sales data of MTP model 2008.defra.4 Data issues – stock Table 4 Data issues – stock Issue/risk All stock estimates have been derived from sales data.3. For sales assumptions. 1981 2001 2002 2003 2008 1960 1985 All chillers. 2. to help evaluate the output sales from the model. Stock data calculated in MTP model from recorded sales data from BSRIA (2009) report.gov.2 Future analysis Table 3 Extrapolation & background calculations – stock data Year Product type All Methodology & assumptions The modelling adopted is sales-based. based on latest extrapolation from BSRIA (out to 2012) and then on expected market factors. the product lifetime and a sales churn calculation which accounts for products purchased in previous years gradually leaving stock.490 units each year. It calculates stock automatically using a sales projection. 2.3 Methodology & key assumptions .2. the product lifetime and a sales churn calculation which accounts for products purchased in previous years gradually being taken out of commission at the end of their lifetime.
sales are modelled to grow at a rate of 7% pa.defra. Current. the key factors envisaged to affect absorption chiller sales include technological improvements and changing climatic conditions (e. Air-cooled chillers • BSRIA reports that currently. From 2022. and an additional demand for cooling. Version: 1. lack of alternative technologies for large chillers. as is modelled from 2017. From 2014 2022 the sales are modelled to fluctuate as the technology seeks to assert itself as an alternative to small air-cooled chillers. air-cooled chillers account for 88% of the chiller market.1 Summary Absorption chillers • In the medium to long-term (beyond 2012). recession-related stagnation is expected to be followed by modest growth related to the 2012 Olympics. BSRIA notes that 100-300kW units dominate the market and that there is a general trend of growth in this product sector due to perceived energy efficiency.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 7 of 18 http://efficient-products.g.gov.uk 0845 600 8951 . Continued growth is expected from 2008 – 2014. the rate of growth may be 1% pa. at a time when air-cooled units that were installed during the economic recovery and the Olympics reach the end of their economically serviceable lives and water-cooled systems are installed as more efficient alternatives. excessively warm summers and higher average temperatures). Water cooled chillers • For water-cooled chillers.Figure 2 Confidence indicator for stock data Data quantity / size of data set HIGH LOW LOW HIGH Source integrity / robustness of data 3 Sales 3. given the trend away from high Specific Fan Powers (SFPs) and large volumes of air for cooling. Although overall sales may grow in the long term due to new construction. and further expansion of this market share over the years to 2030 is unlikely.
gov. air conditioned buildings. Thereafter. the AHU market trend is downward as competing technologies and natural ventilation strategies reduce market demand. As a consequence sales are very sensitive to the construction of air-conditioned buildings. a temporary surge in sales is expected from 2015 to 2016 which demonstrates a degree of volatility in the market seen between 1990 and 1998. After volatile demand early this century. A gradual increase in market demand over the years leading up to the late 1990s is followed by higher sales as a result of a surge in construction of large.uk 0845 600 8951 . Fan Coil Units • FCUs are present in medium sized systems and a large proportion of larger ones. This volatility is reflected in the measured sales data from BSRIA.Air handling units • Sales are projected to decrease in line with the overall trend seen from recorded sales data. and construction of a few large buildings can cause a significant and temporary increase in sales. The projections before and after the period reported by BSRIA do not show such volatility due to smoothing. growth in sales are expected to resume.defra. • Version: 1. However.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 8 of 18 http://efficient-products. Thus the market is very volatile. and projections are based on a steadier rate of growth through to 2030.
981 2.083 13.442 FCUs 55.defra.960 Air-cooled chillers 1.uk 0845 600 8951 .1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 9 of 18 http://efficient-products.947 3.291 105.Figure 3 Summary figures – sales Table 5 Summary figures –sales Sales Absorption chillers 75 118 222 Year 2010 2020 2030 TOTAL 70.255 Water cooled chillers 337 502 904 AHUs 12.330 87.137 Version: 1.gov.309 11.415 90.854 70.
AHUs All chillers Expert assumption BSRIA Report 19653/6A – Chillers (UK) Sept 2007 October 2008 February 2009 MTP Technical Expert BSRIA 2003 – 2008 All chillers BSRIA Report 50571/6A Ed2 – Chillers (UK) Jan 2009 February 2009 BSRIA 2009 2012 All chillers BSRIA Report 50571/6A Ed2 – Chillers (UK) Jan 2009 February 2009 BSRIA 2013 – 2030 All chillers Expert assumption February 2009 MTP Technical Expert 1960 – 1985 1986 2001 1960 1979 FCUs Expert assumption Expert assumption Expert assumption March 2009 FCUs October 2008 March 2009 MTP Technical Expert BSRIA AHUs MTP Technical Expert Only data source available Recorded sales data from this leading trade body used to compile stock data in MTP model Recorded sales data from this leading trade body used to compile stock data in MTP model Sales data projected by this leading trade body used to compile stock data in MTP model Expert judgment of sales data used to compile stock data in MTP model Only data source available Only data source available Only data source available Low High High High Low Low Low Low Version: 1.3.gov.2 Data sources .uk 0845 600 8951 .1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 10 of 18 http://efficient-products.defra.sales Table 6 Sales data sources Year Product type Reference Reference date Author Justification Confidence in sources (High/Low) 1980 2001 2002 All chillers.
FCUs February 2009 BSRIA 2013 – 2030 AHUs.gov. FCUs February 2009 MTP Technical Expert Recorded sales data from this leading trade body used to compile stock data in MTP model Recorded sales data from this leading trade body used to compile stock data in MTP model Recorded sales data from this leading trade body used to compile stock data in MTP model Sales data projected by this leading trade body used to compile stock data in MTP model Expert judgment of sales data used to compile stock data in MTP model High High High High Low Version: 1.Year Product type Reference Reference date Author Justification Confidence in sources (High/Low) 2002 AHUs BSRIA Report 19653/6B– Airside Products (UK) Nov 2007 BSRIA Report 19653/6B – Airside Products (UK) Sept 2007 BSRIA Report 50571/6B Ed2 – Airside Products (UK) Jan 2009 BSRIA Report 50571/6B Ed2 – Airside Products (UK) Jan 2009 Expert assumption March 2009 BSRIA 2002 FCUs February 2009 BSRIA 2003 2008 AHUs.uk 0845 600 8951 .defra.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 11 of 18 http://efficient-products. FCUs February 2009 BSRIA 20092012 AHUs.
sales increased uniformly by 1. Recorded sales data from BSRIA (2009) report.3. as BSRIA notes that a higher rate of uptake would only be achieved through Government incentives.1 Historic data Table 7 Interpolation & background calculations – sales data Year 1980 2001 2002 2003 – 2008 1960 – 1979 1980 2001 1960 1985 Product type All chillers All All AHUs AHUs FCUs Methodology & assumptions Sales data obtained from 2008 MTP model.3 Methodology & key assumptions – sales 3. A 6% pa growth rate is assumed as a consequence of Olympic legacy development. Sales data obtained from 2008 MTP model. due to trend moving away from large volumes of air for cooling. 2% pa growth rate due to weathering of economic downturn until 2012 by the product market and reflecting an expanding construction market (especially for development-sized projects) due to Olympics legacy projects.3. 6. As such.3. This is a conservative estimate. Sales data obtained from 2008 MTP model. 460 units were sold. which are proving popular for large-scale public sector projects such as hospitals and new school buildings under the Building Schools for the Future (BSF) Programme. 20202023 20232030 Absorption chillers Absorption chillers 20132014 Air-cooled chillers 20152016 Air-cooled chillers Version: 1. Expert assumption on linear increase in sales of 370 units per year from starting value of 100 units sold in 1960.defra. although precise rate of growth may vary. 6% pa growth to reflect increased popularity of the product in displacing aircooled chillers in some applications. Earliest obtainable recorded sales data from BSRIA (2007) report.2 Future analysis Table 8 extrapolation & background calculations – sales data Year 20092012 20132015 20162019 Product type All Absorption chillers Absorption chillers Methodology & assumptions Projection of sales made in BSRIA (2009) report. by new construction from Olympics legacy development. That sales will behave as described by the BSRIA (2009) report’s assertion that post-2012 will see recovery in the construction market and this market will be buoyed. in part. a 4% growth rate is modelled to represent market recoil. 1986 2001 FCUs 3. 5% pa growth in the market due to increased application of CHP systems.uk 0845 600 8951 .gov. Assumption that in year of product’s introduction to the market. Consistent with expert opinion and anecdotal evidence.490 units each year. Thereafter.5% pa growth due to increased uptake by the market in light of applications using CHP systems and potentially solar absorption cooling towards the end of this time period.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 12 of 18 http://efficient-products.
This is to reflect that water-cooled chiller products will initially struggle to displace the established market of air-cooled chiller equipment. Assumption that sales will behave as described by a 1% pa growth rate in sales after 2012. sharp increase in sales resulting in 5% pa growth in the market is modelled as a response to a surge in replacement demand for units installed around 2000. 2% pa decline in market due to assumed volatility such as market prices etc. but increased competition from water-cooled chillers is expected. Version: 1. 2013 Water cooled chillers Water cooled chillers Water cooled chillers Water cooled chillers Water cooled chillers Water cooled chillers AHUs 20142015 20162017 20182019 20202022 20232030 2013 – 2014 2015 – 2016 AHUs 2017 2030 2013 2015 AHUs FCUs 2016 2030 FCUs 3.uk 0845 600 8951 . A steady decline in the market of 1. A general trend of 2. diversification into other technologies is not projected until uptake of other ventilation technologies is proven successful.5% pa is modelled to reflect the replacement of the product by other technologies and natural ventilation strategies.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 13 of 18 http://efficient-products. This is commensurate with improvements in the technology that have seen the trend to move away from AC units to DC (electronically commutated) units that are more efficient and require less maintenance. 7% pa growth estimated as these units replace the air-cooled chillers installed during the (expected) 2012 construction period which reach the end of their serviceable lives. 7% pa growth to reflect increased popularity of the product in displacing aircooled chillers in some applications.Year 20172030 Product type Air-cooled chillers Methodology & assumptions Conservative growth of 1% pa estimated due to stable market (albeit with a higher proportion of large-size chillers being sold). Approach taken/rationale Best available sales data has been sourced from leading trade research body BSRIA. A short.This is modelled to continue the general growth trend in the market seen since the product was introduced. 4% pa growth rate as a consequence of new construction instigated by development related to the Olympics legacy developments and the expected stability of the construction market by this time.5% pa growth is assumed due to prevailing opinion in engineering industry that decentralised air conditioning constitutes good practice design.sales Table 9 Data issues – sales Issue/risk Small sample of chiller sales data. This is commensurate with improvements in the technology that have seen the trend away from AC units to DC (electronically commutated) units that are more efficient and require less maintenance. This is in line with recorded trends obtained from BSRIA (2009) report. 7% pa growth to reflect increased popularity of the product in displacing aircooled chillers in some applications. 2% pa decline in market due to assumed volatility such as market prices etc. A general trend of 1% pa growth is assumed due to prevailing opinion in engineering industry that decentralised air conditioning constitutes good practice design. As decentralised cooling and other technologies reach technological maturity in the market place.defra. This is to reflect that water-cooled chiller products will initially struggle to displace the established market of air-cooled chiller products.4 Data issues .gov.
as outlined by UKCIP02 o Expected improvements in the building stock such as passive design and the associated reduced cooling requirement o Unit cost of electricity o The effect of intelligent building systems to accurately control provision of cooling to meet with demand. Policy and BAT Scenarios Usage (hours/year) Water Absorption Air-cooled cooled AHUs FCUs chillers chillers Year chillers 2010 2020 2030 5.000 2.500 2.uk 0845 600 8951 .gov. Table 10 – Usage hours per unit in Reference. reflecting the variety of uses within the air-conditioning market.3.120 3.000 5. Whilst the usage values described portray a reasonable picture of product usage.120 3.defra.500 3.6 Summary • • Average usage hours have been assumed in the following table.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 14 of 18 http://efficient-products. Figure 4 Confidence indicator for sales data Data quantity / size of data set HIGH LOW LOW HIGH Source integrity / robustness of data Usage & lifespan 3.120 3.120 3.000 5.000 1.5 Confidence level • Confidence level rationale based on sales data for only 5 years and related uncertainties.120 3.000 1. they may not accurately convey the patterns of usage associated with the following: o Specific weather events such as an especially warm week in summer o A general trend towards a warmer climate.500 2.120 Version: 1.000 1.
5 15.5 15.uk 0845 600 8951 . Policy and BAT Scenarios Lifespan (years) Water Absorption Air-cooled cooled AHUs FCUs chillers chillers Year chillers 2010 2020 2030 17.5 15.5 17.5 18.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 15 of 18 http://efficient-products.7 Data sources – usage & lifespan Table 12 Usage data sources Year Product type Reference Reference Author date Justific ation Confidenc e in sources (High/Low) Low 1980 2030 1980 2030 Absorption & Air-cooled chillers.5 15.gov.5 18.5 15. FCUs Water cooled chillers Expert assumption October 2008 MTP Technical Expert MTP Technical Expert Only data source available Only data source available Expert assumption April 2009 Low Table 13 Lifespan data sources Year Product type Reference Reference Author date Justific ation Confidenc e in sources (High/Low) Low 1980 2030 All Expert assumption October 2008 MTP Technical Expert Only data source available Version: 1.5 17.5 3. AHUs.5 18.5 18.defra.5 18.Table 11 – Average lifespan of unit in Reference.5 15.5 18.
However.2030 Methodology & assumptions Assumption that lifespan will not be significantly affected due to technological or policy effects. The figure represents 12 hours for 5 days a week. Assumption that products have a constant lifespan. Water cooled chillers: Some water cooled chillers will operate for very short periods. will operate for quite short periods. they are more likely to be used in applications requiring longer running hours.000 hours of annual usage estimated is higher than those assumed for conventional air and water cooled chillers. essentially cooling at peak times only.000 – 2. Fan Coil Units: Air conditioning systems using fan-coil units are mostly installed in office buildings. Lifespan 1980 . 3. Some FCUs operate continuously.8 Methodology & key assumptions – usage & lifespan • Data has been sourced according to the methodology and assumptions as shown in Table 16. Air Handling Units (AHUs): Annual usage of 3. Air-cooled chillers: Some chillers.8. essentially for cooling at peak times only. 3. Thus 5.500 hours per year.2008 3. Version: 1.2008 Methodology & assumptions Assumption that usage remained constant during this time. Absorption chillers. reflecting the typical applications of AHUs in commercial buildings where ventilation and air conditioning may be required throughout operational periods.gov.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 16 of 18 http://efficient-products.2 Future analysis Table 15 Extrapolation & background calculations – usage & lifespan data Year Lifespan 2009 .1 Historic data Table 14 Interpolation & background calculations – usage & lifespan data Year Usage 1980 . and will not be significantly affected by environmental factors or quality/quantity of UK building stock. water cooled chillers will tend to be installed in locations with higher cooling demands.500 hours of annual usage is chosen to represent the overall average of this varied market. 2.120 hours is chosen to represent a typical year of cooling requirements across the AHU market.2030 Usage 2009 . This is represented by an average operating time of 1000 hours per year. Other chillers will have much longer running hours throughout the summer season or all year.120 usage hours per year represents a weighted average equivalent to operation at 60 hours/week. These systems operate for slightly extended office hours. throughout the summer season or all year.defra. Because of this. especially the smaller ones. Absorption chillers have higher capital costs than electric alternatives.8.uk 0845 600 8951 . Others will have much longer running hours.3. which equates to approximately 2.
3. in the absence of data to the contrary Projected usage does not show market capture of absorption chillers by any other technology. A constant lifespan as a single frame of reference has been used in the absence of reliable data. Approach taken/rationale Maintaining constant usage allows the reference line to act as a suitable control case.defra.10 Confidence level – usage & lifespan Data quantity / size of data set HIGH LOW LOW HIGH Source integrity / robustness of data Figure 5 Confidence indicator for usage & lifespan data Related MTP information • BNCAC02: Central Plant Air Conditioning Units Government Standards Evidence Base 2009: Reference Scenario • BNCAC03: Central Plant Air Conditioning Units Government Standards Evidence Base 2009: Policy Scenario • BNCAC04: Central Plant Air Conditioning Units Government Standards Evidence Base 2009: Best Available Technology Scenario Version: 1. either reducing the impact of energy efficiency or exaggerating them.uk 0845 600 8951 . etc.9 Data issues – usage & lifespan Table 16 Data issues – usage & lifespan Issue/risk Usage No change (either historic or projected) in usage data suggests it is independent of quality of building stock and prevailing climate. Lifespan The lifespan of the product does not change over the entire period 1980-2030 (1960-2030 for AHUs) as would be expected through a better use of materials. An investigation into probable degree days and penetration of efficient building envelopes in the market would be required to improve this significantly Hours of usage deemed to be a reasonable annual average in non-domestic buildings for chillers.gov. Constant usage implies lack of technology diversification for particular cooling requirements.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 17 of 18 http://efficient-products. 3. and therefore energy consumption considerably. A changing lifespan would skew the stock model. Value of usage hours of chillers may be inaccurate.
• BNCAC KO01: Central Plant Air Conditioning Units Government Standards Evidence Base 2009: Key Outputs Changes from previous version • This is the second publication. or call the MTP enquiry line on +44 (0) 845 600 8951.1 First created: 22/03/2009 Updated: 15/06/2010 Last reviewed: 15/06/2010 18 of 18 http://efficient-products.uk Version: 1.com quoting the document reference.defra.gov. Consultation and further information Stakeholders are encouraged to review this document and provide suggestions that may improve the quality of information provided.uk 0845 600 8951 .gov. For further information on related issues visit http://efficientproducts. email firstname.lastname@example.org.
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