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Experiment 1: Soil Sampling Technique Aim To collect the soil sample from the research spot.

Apparatus Metal cylinder (Tin can), hammer, nail and piston (for digging out the soil). Procedure 1. An empty metal cylinder (tin can) is poked with few holes at its bottom, using a hammer and a nail. 2. The metal cylinder is then pressed into the soil. 3. The soil sample is removed from the cylinder by using a piston. Introduction The most common method that used to take the soil sample without change its natural properties and condition is by using metal cylinder and piston. a) Piston consists of a cylinder with a narrow and quite sharp end. Firstly, the cylinder is pressed into the soil and turns it around to break the soil under the end of the cylinder. b) By using the piston, the soil sample in the metal cylinder can be removed. Then without change the shape or natural content of soil, take it to science laboratory for further investigation.

Metal Cylinder with few holes at its bottom

Metal cylinder is pressed into the soil

The dish and its contents are then weighed. The types of particles in a soil sample are determined by using a filter or soil sieve with different mesh sizes. 5. The cloudy supernatant liquid that is obtained is the strained. To determine the ratio (%) of sand. 4.Discussion 1. silt and clay particles of a soil type. a soil sample is initially dried in the oven. 6. This step is repeated until the filtrate is clear. From the percentage of sand and silt obtained. The product of this first sifting is sifted again using a sieve with a very fine mesh (0. . 3. silt 40% and clay 30%. 2. which is then collected and weighed so that the particles that are able to pass through the fine mesh of this sieve are then collected in a fairly large evaporating dish of known weight.02 mm) to separate sand. then weighed and sifted using a sieve with a 2 mm mesh size to remove gravel. For example. Distilled water is added to the contents of the evaporating dish after weighing. if the percentage of sand is 30%. the texture of the soil sample can be determined by referring to the texture triangle. Based on the percentage of sand. and then the texture of the soil being studied is peaty clay in character. silt and clay. Silt left in the evaporating dish is then dried and weighed to obtain its weight and the percentage of silt in the soil sample understudy. the percentage of clay can be determined by subtraction of these percentages from 100%. The contents are stirred and then left for hours to settle.

Then the mixture is put somewhere to settle where it won’t be disturbed at all for 48 hours. sand and clay components of the soil sample is calculated by using the formula below:Formula . according to density and surface area of particles. (2) Shake the contents vigorously. It needs to be about half full of soil. which is not decomposed. The percentage of stone. (4) Measure the volume of the various fractions of soil sample. Explanation 1. 2. 100 cm3 soil sample. Observation The heaviest particles sink to the bottom followed by the fine clay particles are the last to settle out of suspension. Organic matter. (3) Allow the mixture to settle out. Occasionally it will settle as a band before the clay.Experiment 2: Determination of Texture of Soil Aim To determine the texture of soil Apparatus 500cm3 measuring cylinder. either floats or sinks to the surface after the clay particles. 300 cm3 water Procedure (1) Add the soil sample to the measuring cylinder and cover with water. The soil is put in the container and filled to three quarters full with water and the top is closed with a lid or cork for shaking vigorously for a minute to make sure all the soil particles are broken down into suspension in the water. for 48 hours. The amount of soil depends on the size of the container. 100 cm3 sample of the soil that collected from research area is added into a 500 cm3 measuring cylinder and followed by 300 cm3 of water(distilled water or rainwater is the best if water comes from a source that is hard or produces lime scale).

sand.40 Sample II Sample III Height ( cm ) 0.40 25.50 1. 2.  Subclasses of loamy sands and sandy loams that are based on sand size are named similarly. Soil texture is the weight proportion of the separates for the less than 2 mm as determined from a laboratory particle-size distribution.10 0. Field criteria for estimating soil texture must be chosen to fit the soils of the area.88 2.60 1.30 10. The texture classes are : • Sands • Loamy sands • Sandy loams • Loam • Silt loam • Silt • Sandy clay loam • Clay loam • Silt clay loam • sandy clay • Silt clay • Clay  Sands are subdivided into coarse sand. 10.10 0.57cm for clay.80 5.60 1.90 5.00 10.90 1.70 1. 1.93 8. fine sand. .67 1.53 100. the field texture is referred to as apparent because it is not an estimate of the results of a laboratory operation.83 4.57 1.97cm high.00 19.00 Discussion 1.33 10.67cm for slit.83cm for fine sand. Field estimates should be checked against laboratory determinations and the field criteria should be adjusted as necessary. and very fine sand. The field texture is a tactile evaluation only with no inference as to laboratory test results.40 0. 4.60 0.58 9.69 51.50 19. 1.10cm for water and 0. 5. For these.47 Percentage (%) 1. Conclusion The soil sample settle down in 6 fractions that is coarse sand at the lowest fraction for 4.97 19.30 10. 3. 1.Result Types Humus Water Clay Silt Fine sand Coarse sand Total Sample I 0.33cm for humus at the highest.50 Average 0.20 0.00 19.80 4. Some soils are not dispersed completely in the standard particle size analysis.70 1.

Steps 4 and 5 are repeated until a consistent weighing (constant mass) is obtained. 7. The mass [C] is recorded. The soil sample is put into the oven at 1100C. When the sample is cool. Mass [B] is recorded. 8. The percentage of water content is calculated as follow: 9. Material 80 gm soil Procedure 1. Result Calculate the percentage water content of the soil sample by using the formula . The pie dish containing the soil sample is placed in the oven at 1100C for 24 hours. 3. The sample is then removed from the oven and cooled in desiccators. 2. the mass is again weighed and recorded. thermometer. The sample is returned to the oven at 1100C for the further 24 hours. 4. The experiment is repeated on soil samples from different area. 5.Experiment 3 : Determination of Water Content of Soil Aim To determine the water content of soil Apparatus Aluminum foils pie dish. A broken-up soil sample is added to the pie dish and weighed. oven. 10. balance. tongs. desiccators. The empty aluminum foil pie dish is weighed and its mass [A] is recorded. 6. The soil sample is retained in the desiccators for experiment 4.

23 1.74 12.82 66.83 67. It is among the few minerals needed for living and the growth of plants.29 Average 1.95 65. Water combined chemically Water also can be a part of soil structural with the existing of the soil grains to be part from it structural.06 18. This can be done by repeating several times of the heating and cooling process and followed by measurement until a constant weigh achieved.90 66.21 Discussion 1. 2. Quantity of water in the soil depends on size of soil grains where size of soil grains decreases.05 66. 3.03 78.72 78. The size of soil grains decreases the ability to support water increases because there are many spaces that can be used to store water. Hygroscopic water This water is the water that formed as a layer of water molecule on the surface of soil grains.68 12. Conclusion The average water content of the soil is 18. Hence.88 65.05 78. Gravity water Gravity force will cause the rain water flows downward.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Title Mass of pie dish.82 65. It exists due to strongly adhesive forces on the soil grains and plants cannot use it. (g) Mass of pie dish + soil (dry). that is: 1. Ground water can be divided into 4 important groups.10 78.00 18. water content of capillary in the soil increases. The size of soil grains determines the ability of soil to support water. Clay contains more capillary because the size of soil grains in clay smaller than sand. (g) Mass of water.98 12. dissolving of water will occur where water that carried with mineral salts will flow to the bottom of soil until the roots of plants cannot penetrate to this level. this water cannot be used by the soil.20 80.28 Soil Sample Sample II Sample III 1. . (g) Mass of soil (dry). Soil sample evaporate to lose its water in the experiment but this process cannot lose the water content in crystallized chemical compound of soil so that the soil sample is dried in the oven at 110°C to fasten the process of evaporation.95 80.22 79.22 80. Therefore.96 65. so that the plants can absorb it. This water cannot stay longer in the soil after thunderstorm. clay can support more water than sand or loam.21%. The water in the thin layer was pulled by strengthening forces of plants are the forces that can release water from strengthening forces of soil grains. However. Water form a thin layer around every soil grains.02 18.01 18.73 11. (g) Mass of soil. 2. 3. (g) Mass of pie dish + soil. 4. Capillary water Water can be maintained in the spaces between the soils grains. (g) Percentage of water in soil (%) Sample I 1.

Experiment 4: Determination of Organic Matter Content Aim To determine the organic content of soil sample Apparatus Desiccators and lid. The dried soil sample from experiment 3 is added to the crucible and weighed. 3. covered with lid. The mass (A) is weighed and recorded. to red-heat for 1 hour to burn off all the organic matter. The mass recorded (B). fireclay triangle tongs Material Dried soil sample Procedure 1. The experiment is repeated on soil samples from different areas. the soil is burned the soil is weighted . Step (3) and (4) are repeated until constant mass (C) recorded. 4. The percentage of organic content is calculated as follow: A = weight of empty crucible B = weight of dried soil sample + crucible before heated C = weight of dried soil sample + crucible after heated 7. The soil sample is heated in the crucible. 5. 6. Bunsen burner. tripod. Allow cooling for 10 minutes and removing to the desiccators. 2. The crucible and sample are weighed when cool. asbestos mat. The crucible and lid are heated strongly in the Bunsen Flame to remove all traces of moisture and placed in the desiccators to cool.

00 Discussion 1.92 Average 21.02 23.30 44. and the ability to hold chemical elements in a form readily accessible to plants.62 6. 5. ii. Soil samples must be heated until red heat so that the organic substance in the soil burned completely to ensure more accurate data.76 43.23 44.82 44. The soil is heated in oven to evaporate the humidity of soil.64 42. 4.84 8.38 23. is less valuable for plant growth than are the products formed during active decomposition.51 6. .80 42.96 22. Steps must be taken in order to ensure the oxidization process of organic component in the soil sample is complete. i. Conclusion The average percentage of organic matter in the soil sample is 8. Humus. as the end result of this process.30 2.99 42. The temperature of 110 0C is the most suitable temperature for drying process of the soil samples. water intake and reservoir capacity.48 22. ability to resist erosion. Heating.40 10.41 1. 3.00%.23 1.78 45. weighing and cooling process must repeat until a constant result is obtained. Humus has a profound effect upon the physical properties of mineral soils with regard to improved soil structure. iii.98 1. The lid must be opened and closed frequently to allow entrance of oxygen for burning purpose.Result Calculate the percentage of organic matter of the soil sample by using the Formula No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Title Mass of crucible (g) Mass of crucible + soil ( dry with organic matter ) (g) Mass of crucible + soil ( dry without organic matter ) (g) Mass of soil used (g) Mass of organic matter (g) Percentage of organic matter (%) Sample I 21.79 Soil sample Sample II Sample III 21. 2.48 22.

The water in the can is carefully removed and the volume of water is measured by using a measuring cylinder. 7. metal seeker Material Water 1. . The base of the can is perforated using a drill. 500 cm³ beaker. The water level in the beaker is marked. The water level in the beaker fell by an amount corresponding to the volume of the water in the can. The water level in the beaker was lower than the original level because water will be used to replace the air which was present in the soil. 3. The can is then gently dug out. 5. 6. The volume (a) obtained is recorded. sample can be determined as follows: 9. 4.Experiment 5: Determination of Air Content of Soil Aim To determine the air content of soil Apparatus Tin can of volume about 200 cm³. is placed gently back into the beaker of water and the soil in the can is loosen with seeker to allow air to escape. 8. The open end of the can is pushed into the soil from which surface vegetation has been removed until soil begins to come through the perforations. Volume of water added (b) is recorded. Procedure The empty can is placed with its open end uppermost into the 500 cm³ beaker and the beaker is filled with water above the level of the can. eight small holes is made. The experiment is repeated on soil samples from different area. turned over and the soil from the surface is removed until it is level with the top of can. with open end uppermost. The can of soil. Water is added to the beaker from a full 100 cm³ measuring cylinder until the original level is restored. The percentage air content of the soil 2. The percentage of air in the soil is calculated.

46 48.33 200.00 720.740 cm³ = 170 cm³ Percentage of air in the soil = (170/410) cm³ × 100% = 41. The air can be found in the spaces between soil particles. If compared with air in atmosphere. 2.00 45.00 230.5% (3 significant places) Title Volume of soil sample used (cm3) Volume of water used (cm3) Volume of mixture water and soil (cm3) Volume of air in soil sample (cm3) Percentage of air in soil sample (%) 1.00 410. 3. roots system of plants and limited air in the .Result The percentage volume of air in the soil sample can be calculated by using the formula as shown as below: Volume of soil used = 410 cm³ Volume of water added to soil sample = 500 cm³ Total volume of water + soil sample = 500 + 410 cm³ = 910 cm³ Total volume of water + soil sample (after shaking) = 740 cm³ Volume of air = 910 cm³ .34 Average 410.00 500. Soil samples Sample I Sample II Sample III 410.00 710.00 200.00 500.00 500.00 740. Air in the soil is essential to provide oxygen for aerobe organisms that live in soil and plants roots to precede respiration.78 46.00 170. it is then shaken vigorously so that all the spaces between soils particles were filled up with water.00 410.53 Discussion The soil sample collected must be taken out from the ground by pressing a tin can against the soil to make sure the natural content in soil sample can be preserved and the arrangement of soil will not be loose and air from atmosphere will not occupy the empty spaces in soil as these conditions will affect the result of experiment.00 41. After the soil sample was placed into the measuring cylinder containing water.00 500.00 723. 4. air in the soil has higher percentage of carbon dioxide gas because of the respiration of soil organism.

aeration of soil can be improved by the soil fertilization and organisms’ activities in soil such as earthworms which can loosen the soil by burrowing in the soil. The experiment is repeated on soil samples from different areas. Experiment 6: Determination of Soil pH Aim To determine the soil pH Apparatus Long test tube. Small spaces between soil particles can maintain water to undergo capillary action and prevent the entrance of air. 10cm³ pipette Material Universal indicator Procedure 1. For instance. Conclusion The average percentage of air content in the soil sample is 45. volume of air in the sand is bigger than volume of air in clay that both have equal weight because the arrangement of clay and soil particles are closer than sand that has loose arrangement and bigger particles. 3. spatula. Seal the test tube with the bung as shown in the figure below.ground. Concentration of carbon dioxide increases with depth of soil. However gas exchange occurs through diffusion process between air in soil and air from atmosphere. air will be push out when rainwater diffuses into the spaces in the soil but at the same time air from atmosphere will be suck into the soil with the rainwater. Add about 1cm³ of soil to the test tube and 1cm³ of barium sulphate. If there is too much water in the soil. which ensures flocculation of colloidal clay. . test tube rack. 2. Besides. Add 10cm³ of distilled water and 5cm³ of BDH universal indicator solution. Compare the colour of liquid in the test tube with the colours on the BDH reference colour chart and read off the corresponding pH. Shake vigorously and allow contents to settle for 5 minutes. 5. 4.53%.

The soil sample is neutral. with water in the soil. oil palm tree and orchid needed acidic soil with value of pH 4. there is carbonic acid formed by the dissolving of carbon dioxide gas that is released from the respiration of soil organisms. 3. 2. pH is one of the main factors that affect plants’ growth. there are certain plants that needed acidic or alkaline soil for better growth. Therefore. pH is to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. Other than that. 4. potato tree. Generally. Besides that. we can notice that the properties of the soil sample. However. carrot vein needed alkaline soil.Result The colour of the universal indicator remains unchanged. The pH value is used to measure acidic and alkaline of soil. soil that contains many humus and soil that carries water always acidic. For example. Conclusion From the result. pineapple tree. Acidic soil will show a small value of pH.5 is the most suitable condition for most of the plants. acid is released by bacteria and fungus that decompose organic substance to yield humus. Meanwhile. The pH of the soil is pH 7 which is neutral. plants like tea tree. The pH value in the range of 6. Discussion 1. .5 while other plants like groundnut.0 to 7.

The soil sample is prepared and placed to the filter in Tullgren funnel. The organisms collected in the beaker are identifying by using microscope. Bearmann funnel Material 4% formalin solution or alcohol solution 70 % Using Tullgren Funnel To Extract Soil Organisms Introductions The Tullgren funnel technique is based on the negative respond of animals towards bright light. Magnifying glass. switched on and let the instrument for 24 hours. Retort stand. Glass slide. The filament light is fixed. Microscope. 1. 3. . 4. The bright light force the soil organism downwards and they eventually fall into the formalin. Procedure Tullgren funnel is set up as shown in diagram below. beakers.Experiment 7: Determination of the Type of Soil Organisms Aim To determine the type of soil organisms Apparatus Tullgren funnel. 2. high temperature and low moisture.

All pebble in soil sample must smashed before put on the rough net to make sure there are no organisms hide in a pebble and the soil become loosen because pebble might cause organisms cannot move freely. 3. .An example of the Tullgren funnels arrangement Result Macroorganisms collected from Tullgren Funnel Precaution 1. 3. moisture. Basic principle Tullgren Funnel is based on environment factors that affect the soil organisms is temperature. and light. and small insects can be collected by using Tullgren Funnel. 2. hot and dried place. high temperature and low moisture. Soil organisms will keep themselves away from a light. organisms collected are sensitive to the light. Surface of funnel should be dark in colour and able to prevent condensation so that water will trap tiny organism before it drops into the beaker. Soil mesofauna such as ant. 4. Light will decrease the moisture and increases soil temperature in Tullgren Funnel. These organisms need to be drop down into alcohol solution 70 % or formalin 4% so that embalmed organisms which drop into the beaker can be killed. Bigger soil organisms need to be taken out before the soil is put on the net because bigger soil organisms cannot be removed through the rough net in Tullgren Funnel. termite. 2. Discussion 1. Conclusion From the results.

2. The soil sample is prepared and placed to the filter in Bearmenn funnel.Using Bearmann Funnel To Extract Soil Organisms Introduction The Baermann Funnel is used to isolate mesofauna living in the soil at the bottom of ponds and canals. The higher temperature and light intensity in the upper water layer when compared to the base of the funnel. causes these aquatic soil organisms to move downwards and gather at the stem of the funnel. An example of the Bearmann funnels arrangement Result Microorganisms collected from the Baermann Funnel Summary of soil analysis Experiment 2 Object Percentage of Humus Result 1.69 % . The organisms collected in the beaker are identifying by using microscope. When the clip opened. 3. switched on and let the instrument for 24 hours. 4. these organisms fall into the beaker containing formalin and can be identified. The filament light is fixed. Procedure 1. This technique is based on the fact that aquatic soil organisms such as nematodes and Tubifex which are denser than water. Bearmann funnel is set up as shown in diagram below.

paramesium . mites.53 % 7 ( neutral ) Ant.93 % 8.53 % 18.40 % 25.21% 8.88 % 2.58 % 9.00 % 45.3 4 6 7 Percentage of Water Percentage of Clay Percentage of Silt Percentage of Fine sand Percentage of Coarse sand Percentage of water in soil Percentage of organic matter Percentage of air in soil sample pH Organism found in soil 51.

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