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Stigma Inventories - - Snowden

Perceived public stigma (adapted to UF and won’t be called this on the actual inventory) Please indicate whether you agree or disagree with the following statements. Note: Answer choices for each item are: 0 = strongly agree, 1 = agree, 2 = somewhat agree, 3 = somewhat disagree, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree. 1. Most individuals in the UF community would willingly accept someone who has received mental health treatment as a close friend. 2. Most individuals in the UF community believe that a person who has received mental health treatment is just as intelligent as the average person. 3. Most individuals in the UF community believe that someone who has received mental health treatment is just as trustworthy as the average person. 4. Most individuals in the UF community feel that receiving mental health treatment is a sign of personal failure.* 5. Most individuals in the UF community think less of a person who has received mental health treatment.* 6. Most individuals in the UF community would treat someone who has received mental health treatment just as they would treat anyone. 7. Once they know a person has received mental health treatment, most individuals in the UF community will take that person’s opinions less seriously.*

Personal stigma (won’t be called this on the actual inventory) Please indicate whether you agree or disagree with the following statements. Note: Answer choices for each item are: 0 = strongly agree, 1 = agree, 2 = somewhat agree, 3 = somewhat disagree, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree. 1. I would willingly accept someone who has received mental health treatment as a close friend. 2. I would think less of a person who has received mental health treatment.* 3. I believe that someone who has received mental health treatment is just as trustworthy as the average person. Note: Answer choices for each item are: 0 = strongly agree, 1 = agree, 2 = somewhat agree, 3 = somewhat disagree, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree. Items were adapted from the Discrimination-Devaluation scale developed by Bruce Link and colleagues. Items with a ‘*’ are reverse-scored—i.e., “Strongly agree” corresponds to 5 points instead of 0 points, and so on. To balance out potential effects of question ordering, participants were randomized such that they had a 50 percent chance of being asked the perceived stigma items before the personal stigma items, and a 50 percent chance of the reverse.

Stigma Inventories - - Snowden

Self-Stigma of Seeking Help Scale Scale Description: The SSOSH is a 10-item scale that measures a respondent’s level of comfort or concern with regard to seeking psychological help. The items are scored 1-5 as described below; total score is sum of all 10 items, possible range 10-50. Strongly Disagree = 1 Disagree = 2 Agree and Disagree Equally = 3 Agree = 4 Strongly Agree = 5 Reverse Score items, 2,4,5,7,9

Algorithm Total = 10-22 Low Stigma Total = 23-32 Medium Stigma Total = 33-50 High Stigma Instructions: People at times find that they face problems that they consider seeking help for. This can bring up reactions about what seeking help would mean. Please use the 5-point scale to rate the degree to which each item describes how you might react in this situation. 1. I would feel inadequate if I went to a therapist for psychological help. 2. My self-confidence would NOT be threatened if I sought professional help.* 3. Seeking psychological help would make me feel less intelligent. 4. My self-esteem would increase if I talked to a counselor.* 5. My view of myself would not change just because I made the choice to see a counselor.* 6. It would make me feel inferior to ask a therapist for help. 7. I would feel okay about myself if I made the choice to seek professional help.* 8. If I went to a counselor, I would be less satisfied with myself. 9. My self-confidence would remain the same if I sought professional help for a problem I could not solve.* 10. I would feel worse about myself if I could not solve my own problems.

Example of how items can be scored for this scale:

Stigma Inventories - - Snowden

Now we’d like to understand what you do when you encounter a stressful life event. For the following items, please indicate how often you do the following when you experience a stressful event. Please mark the appropriate column for each row. When I experience a stressful event: I concentrate my efforts on doing something about it. I get emotional support from others. I turn to work or other activities to take my mind off things. I use alcohol or drugs to make myself feel better. I learn to live with it. I make fun of the situation. I get help or advice from other people. I do things to think about it less such as going to movies, watching TV, reading, daydreaming, sleeping, or going shopping. I give up attempting to cope. I engage in physical activities like working out or jogging. I blame myself. If I had a personal or emotional problem I would seek help from a(n): Intimate partner (please skip if you do not have one at this time) Friend not related to you Parent Other relative/family member Mental health professional/school counselor Doctor/general practitioner Clergy member I would not seek help from anyone
Other not listed (please specify):

Never Occasionally Sometimes Always

Very Unlikely

Unlikely Neither Likely

Very Likely

Do you know where to find the Counseling and Wellness Center? Yes No Have you ever received psychological or mental health services from the Counseling and Wellness Center? Yes No My campus does not have a counseling center If so, how helpful were the services you received based on why you attended services? Very Unhelpful Unhelpful Neither Helpful Very Helpful

Stigma Inventories - - Snowden

Demographic Questionnaire Age: How many total years of education have you completed? (For example, one year of college = 13)? What is your race? (One or more categories may be selected) a. ____ White b. ____ Black or African American c. ____ American Indian or Alaska Native d. ____ Asian Indian e. ____ Chinese f. ____ Filipino g. ____ Japanese h. ____ Korean i. ____ Vietnamese j. ____ Other Asian k. ____ Native Hawaiian l. ____ Guamanian or Chamorro m. ____ Samoan n. ____ Other Pacific Islander Are you Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish Origin? (One or more categories may be selected) a. ____ No, not of Hispanic, Latino/a, or Spanish origin b. ____ Yes, Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano/a c. ____ Yes, Puerto Rican d. ____ Yes, Cuban e. ____ Yes, Another Hispanic, Latino/a or Spanish origin Do you consider yourself to be: a) Heterosexual or straight; b) Gay or lesbian; or c) Bisexual Are you a member of Greek Life? Are you an international student? Are you a first-generation college student? Are you a transfer student? Yes Yes Yes Yes _ No No No No _ _ _ _ _

In what academic college do you currently study?

Stigma Inventories - - Snowden

Validity/Reliability/Economy of the Scales Perceived Public Stigma & Personal Stigma of Others We can reliably measure perceived public stigma using an adaptation of the Discrimination- Devaluation (D-D) Scale developed by Link and colleagues, which has been used in several previous studies (Link, 1987; Link, Cullen, Struening, Shrout, & Dohrenwend, 1989). As in the original use of the scale, Eisenberg et al. constructed an index of perceived stigma by coding each response as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 (with higher numbers referring to answers indicating higher perceived stigma) and calculating the average across the 7 items for each individual. There is an observed high internal reliability (Cronbach’s α = .89) in this adapted scale. To measure people’s own stigmatizing attitudes about mental health treatment, Eisenberg et al. adapted three items from the perceived stigma scale by replacing “Most people” with “I.” These three items referred, respectively, to a negative attitude (“. . . would think less of someone . . .”), an accepting behavior (“. . . would accept as a close friend . . .”), and an accepting attitude (“. . . think someone is just as trustworthy . . .”). Eisenberg et al. constructed an index of personal stigma by averaging across the three items on a 0 to 5 scale, where higher numbers refer to higher stigma, as we did for perceived stigma. The internal reliability of this scale was relatively high (Cronbach’s α = .78). All respondents were asked both the perceived stigma and the personal stigma items, and to balance potential ordering effects the order of the two measures in the survey was randomized. (Eisenberg D, Downs MF, Golberstein E, Zivin K. Stigma and help seeking for mental health among college students. Med Care Res Rev 2009;66:522–541.) The SSOSH Self-stigma is an important factor in people's decisions not to engage in therapy. To measure this construct, the authors developed the 10-item Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH) scale. In Study 1 (n = 583), the SSOSH had a unidimensional factor structure and good reliability (.91) among participants. Study 2 (n = 470) confirmed the factor structure. Studies 2, 3 (n = 546), and 4 (n = 217) cross-validated the reliability (.86 to .90; test-retest, .72) and showed evidence of validity (construct, criterion, and predictive) across the study samples. The SSOSH uniquely predicted attitudes toward and intent to seek psychological help. Finally, in Study 5 (n = 655) the SSOSH differentiated those who sought psychological services from those who did not across a 2-month period. (Measuring the self-stigma associated with seeking psychological help. Vogel, David L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Haake, Shawn. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol 53(3), Jul 2006, 325-337.) Protective/Coping Strategies (Brief COPE) Adapted from the Brief COPE. (Carver, C.S. (1997). You want to measure coping but your protocol’s too long: Consider the Brief Cope. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4(1), 92-100.) Adapted from the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. (Ciarrochi, J.V., & Deane, F.P. (2001). Emotional competence and willingness to seek help from professional and nonprofessional sources. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 29 ( 2), 233-246