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Kanu, Ijeoma and Achi, O.K., 2011.

Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria. ISSN 2088-3218 Volume 1, Number 1: 75-86, July, 2011 © T2011 Department of Environmental Engineering Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya & Indonesian Society of Sanitary and Environmental Engineers, Jakarta Open Access

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Practical Case Study

Department of Microbiolog, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State, Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author: Phone/Fax: +23408068750963; Email: Received: 15th April 2011 Revised: 9th May 2011; Accepted: 9th May 2011

Abstract: Industrial wastewaters entering a water body represent a heavy source of environmental pollution in Nigerian rivers. It affects both the water quality as well as the microbial and aquatic flora. With competing demands on limited water resources, awareness of the issues involved in water pollution, has led to considerable public debate about the environmental effects of industrial effluents discharged into aquatic environments. Industrial effluents are characterized by their abnormal turbidity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total hardness. Industrial wastes containing high concentration of microbial nutrients would obviously promote an after-growth of significantly high coliform types and other microbial forms. Organic pollution is always evident and the pollution is made worse by land-based sources such as the occasional discharge of raw sewage through storm water outlets, and industrial effluents from refineries, oil terminals, and petrochemical plants. Waste effluents rich in decomposable organic matter, is the primary cause of organic pollution. Waste waters from textile, brewery, food and beverages, paper, pulp and palm oil industries, the cases chosen, are believed to give a broad outline of industrial wastes as well as disposal problems.
Keywords: Industrial effluents, water quality, BOD, COD, TSS

INTRODUCTION One of the most critical problems of developing countries is improper management of vast amount of wastes generated by various anthropogenic activities. More challenging is the unsafe 75
Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (1): 75-86.

from industries that are near them. which are the major sources of drinking water in Nigeria. The resultant effects of this on public health and the environment are usually great in magnitude [5]. agricultural and domestic sources [4]. pulp and paper industries. River systems are the primary means for disposal of waste. industrial and agricultural land use. toxic metals such as Cd. High levels of pollutants in river water systems causes an increase in biological oxygen demand (BOD). water bodies which are major receptacles of treated and untreated or partially treated industrial wastes have become highly polluted. total suspended solids (TSS). 2011. agricultural and domestic activities. Over the last years. Wastes entering these water bodies are both in solid and liquid forms. Increased industrial activities have led to pollution stress on surface waters both from industrial. Industries are the major sources of pollution in all environments. Industrial wastewaters range from high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from biodegradable wastes such as those from human sewage. As a result. slaughter houses. Based on the type of industry. Ijeoma and Achi. there are very few water quality studies for most African inland waters. which were carried out by individuals and by very few scientific projects concerned with African waters.K. especially the effluents. which may be toxic and require on-site physiochemical pre-treatment before discharge into municipal sewage system [810]. Organic pollution of inland water systems in Africa. it is in these countries that the quality of water. This has entailed a tremendous increase in discharge of a wide diversity of pollutants to receiving water bodies and has caused undesirable effects on the different components of the aquatic environment and on fisheries [6]. there is growing appreciation that nationally. disposal of these wastes into the ambient environment. the available data come from scattered investigations. These effluent from industries have a great deal of influence on the pollution of the water body. Others include those from plating shops and textiles. chemical and biological nature of the receiving water body [3]. and globally. irrigation and aquatic life. total dissolved solids (TDS). 76 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. 1 (1): 75-86. Wastewater from industries includes employees’ sanitary waste. are often contaminated by the activities of the adjoining populations and industrial establishments [2]. the management and utilization of natural resources need to be improved and that the amount of waste and pollution generated by human activity need to be reduced on a large scale. in contrast to the situation in developed countries of the world. Water bodies especially freshwater reservoirs are the most affected. Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria.Kanu. This has often rendered these natural resources unsuitable for both primary and/or secondary usage [1]. process wastes from manufacturing. chemical oxygen demand (COD).. is often the result of extreme poverty and economic and social underdevelopment. According to Tolba [11]. sanitation and nutrition the worst and disease most prevalent. As a result. these effluent can alter the physical. various levels of pollutants can be discharged into the environment directly or indirectly through public sewer lines. . tanneries and chemical industry. and often the quantity. O. Estuaries and inland water bodies. Unfortunately. is lowest. in many African countries a considerable population growth has taken place. Ni and Pb and fecal coliform and hence make such water unsuitable for drinking. Few reviews exist on the state of pollution of African inland waters [12-14]. accompanied by a steep increase in urbanization. Industrial effluent contamination of natural water bodies has emerged as a major challenge in developing and densely populated countries like Nigeria. Cr. These are mostly derived from Industrial. regionally. wash waters and relatively uncontaminated water from heating and cooling operations [7]. In general.

Lagos and Aba depend very much on its rivers. The aim of this review is to assess the impact of industrial wastewater pollution on aquatic environments in Nigeria. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). the rush by African countries to industrialize has resulted in discharge of partially treated or raw wastes into the surrounding bodies of water since the development of treatment facilities cannot keep pace with the rate at which the wastes are generated by the industries [22]. These wastes are usually discharged into water bodies and the cumulative hazardous effects it has on the environment have received much attention. Industrial wastes containing high concentration of microbial nutrients would obviously promote an aftergrowth of significantly high coliform types and other microbial forms. Ijeoma and Achi. Many bodies of water in Nigeria experience seasonal fluctuations. industrial and technological expansion.K.. phenolic compounds and microorganisms [1].Kanu. With competing demands on limited water resources. the wastewaters contain suspended 77 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. In Nigeria. cities like Kaduna. poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). wastewaters from industries and residential areas discharged into another environment without suitable treatment could disturb the ecological balance of such an environment [21]. 1 (1): 75-86. dioxins. Effluent discharge practices in Nigeria are yet too crude and society is in danger. NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFLUENTS Wastewaters are generated by many industries as a consequence of their operation and processing. O. The industrial discharge. with the result that the water quality of the river is further deteriorated. the availability of water supplies has long been a dominant criterion in citing towns or cities and the development of great civilizations. THE USE OF WATER BODIES AS SINK FOR INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS Population explosion. for which the river is employed involving body contact. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) established to check these environmental abuses has had little or no impact on pollution control in our cities [16]. therefore contribute a larger portion of the flow of the river during the dry season. leading to a higher concentration of pollutants during the dry season when effluents are least diluted [23]. As societies throughout the world become more aware of the issues involved in water pollution. However. Some heavy metals contained in these effluents have been found to be carcinogenic while other chemicals equally present are poisonous depending on the dose and duration of exposure. These industrial discharge or wastes include heavy metals. [18-21]. petrochemicals. Uses. there has been considerable public debate about environmental effects of effluents discharged into aquatic environments [15]. The Egyptians civilization flourished around the river Nile. Water pollution is now a significant global problem [17]. Industrial effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning including changes in food availability and an extreme threat to the self-regulating capacity of the biosphere. Undoubtedly. . especially in the industrialized part of the cities. expose serious hazards to users due to the bacterial situation. Depending on the industry and their water use. energy utilization and wastes generation from domestic and industrial sources have rendered many water resources unwholesome and hazardous to man and other living resources. Historically. industrial pollution remains one of the major problems facing Nigerian cities. pesticides. Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria. 2011. haphazardous rapid urbanization.

Pulp and Paper mills. other important quality parameters include pH. Most of these effluents pose inestimable harm to which the microbial entity is the most adversely affected. there are many small to large cottage industrial establishments that discharge such harmful wastewater effluents. Tanneries.092 mg L-1 respectively. Textile dyehouses.. Iron and Steel. Palm oil mills High dissolved solids Chemical plants. conductivity. Tanneries. 1 (1): 75-86. Mean values of P-PO4 at most sampling sites were higher than 0. The dominant soluble nitrogen form in a typical industrial effluent is NO3-N followed by Kjeldahl-N. Packaging houses. 0. Kjeldahl-N and non-ionic ammonia ranged from 0. Tanneries. dissolved inorganics. 0. oils and greases. Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria. Distillers.022 to 0. These are found to be very high in most of the effluents sampled to which humans and the aquatic habitat are adversely affected.007 to 0. restricted benthic fauna diversity and overall development of a fragile 78 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation.084 mg L-1. Power plant. Distillers. O. solids. Oil fields.1 mg L-1 for subject to eutrophication and the characteristics of rivers and the nearby soils near them affect the equilibrium concentrations of N and P between the soil and the overlying water Industrial effluents are also known to exhibit toxicity toward different aquatic organisms. Industrial effluents are characterized by their abnormal turbidity. Tanneries. The effluent total hardness concentrations of a chemical-biological treatment plant were found greater than the influents.33 to 0. especially high temperature and salinity.50 to 2. Textile[24] Industrial effluent characteristics provide basic information about the integrity of the aquatic habitat within such rivers and streams into which they are discharged. Pulp and Paper. The results are presented in terms of the relative flux as a function of time related to hydrodynamic conditions and pollution characteristics of wastewater [28]. Dairies. Textiles High Suspended Solids Breweries. Water softening Oily and grease Laundries. while the nutrient status of wastewater are measured in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Coal mines. the physicochemical analysis of the effluents indicates that most of these industries conform to the recommended FEPA [25] guidelines. In Nigeria.Kanu. and biological oxygen demand (BOD5). Laundries. however.37 mg L-1. In addition. Ijeoma and Achi. 2011. NO1-N and non-ionic ammonia Mean values of NO3-N. Petroleum refineries. An important pollution index of industrial wastewaters is the oxygen function measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Table 1: Examples of Waste Effluents Generated by Selected Industries Type of waste Type of plant Oxygen-consuming Breweries. The coastal residential environment in any industrial effluent site is always under considerable stress due to the prevailing harsh environmental conditions. It is known that the pH analysis of such effluents shows that effluents from food and beverage industries tend to be abnormally very acidic [26]. chemical oxygen demand (COD). acids. heavy metal ions. Tanneries.99 mg L-1 and 0. . exceptions occur in the total dissolved solids (TDS) and Nitrate (NO3-) contents. total suspended solids (TSS) and total hardness. Coal washeries. Iron and Steel Industries. Palm oil mills High acid High alkaline High Temperature Chemical plants.K. Palm oil mills Coloured Pulp and Paper mills. NO2-N. both degradable and nonbiodegradable organics. Sulfite pulp Chemical plants. Textile finishing mills Bottle washing plants. temperature and total suspended solids [27]. Metal finishing. Laundries. Although. bases and colouring compounds (Table 1)[24].

O. clogging and the emergence of unpleasant odours. [32] conducted a comprehensive study of an AS mixture composed of tetra-C14) and pentadecyl (C15) chain lengths to better understand effects on microbial and macroinvertebrate populations and communities. The discharge from the textiles. apart by the chemical properties of specific compounds.K. also bear intense colouration derived from the dyes fibrous materials. may improve the biological degradation. and insect emergence patterns based on 79 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. Periphyton structure (algal population and community dynamics based on taxonomic identity). The net effect is a variation of the acid or basic nature of the water. tranquilizers. Problems caused by excessive PPCPs in the environment include possible inhibition on microorganisms. . A large number of pretreatment systems are employed to remove these pollutants to prevent a host of problems that may otherwise arise in the biological process. a reduction in the cell-aqueous phase transfer rates. a sedimentation hindrance due to the development of filamentous microorganisms.0. antiepileptics. lipid regulators. Belanger et al. Their removal efficiencies are influenced. development and flotation of sludge with poor activity. The application of a pretreatment to hydrolyze the effluents and bioaugmentation. Conventional biological processes (activated sludge. A 56-d exposure of AS was performed at concentrations ranging from 57 to 419 µg L-1 (analytically confirmed exposures) and was accompanied by detailed investigations of periphyton community function (autotrophy. Some of the most representative pharmaceutical and personal care products found in receiving waters include antibiotics. Soap and detergent Industry Alkyl sulfates (AS) are anionic surfactants widely used in household and personal cleansing applications. it is not surprising that research efforts have been directed towards the development of efficient treatment technologies including various physicochemical and biological processes. SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS Pharmaceutical industry Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) industries suffer from inadequate effluent treatment due to the presence of recalcitrant substances and insufficient carbon sources and nutrients.0 -11. drift). by microbial activity and environmental conditions. Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria. and cosmetic ingredients containing oil and grease with very different chemical structures [31]. Wastes produced by the textile industries have characteristically high concentration of chemicals. and reduce the efficiency of the treatment plant. antiinflammatories. Organic pollution is always evident and the pollution is made worse by land-based sources such as the occasional discharge of raw sewage through storm water outlets. The fauna inhabiting the intertidal zone is most likely dominated by a few species probably living at their limit of tolerance [29]. pharmaceutical and personal care products contain many different compounds for which conventional technologies have not been specifically designed. as well as microbial pollution control.. Ijeoma and Achi. Therefore. trickling filters) can effectively accomplish carbon and nitrogen removal. However. heterotrophy. and industrial effluents from refineries. intertidal ecosystem. oil terminals. 2011. Textiles industries produce chemicals with high concentration of caustic chemicals resulting in high pH values varying between 10. Aquatic toxicity of AS under laboratory conditions indicated effects at relatively low concentrations (50-230 µg L-1) for some sensitive species. invertebrate structure (benthic abundance.Kanu. and metabolism of test chemical). 1 (1): 75-86. and petrochemical plants [30].

Kanu. The nature of the processing exerts a strong influence on the potential impacts associated with textile manufacturing operations due to the different characteristics associated with these effluents (Table 2). Kanu et al. characterization of the composite wastewater from both soap and food processing plants indicated that the waste was highly contaminated with organic compounds as indicated by COD and BOD values [33]. 2011. 80 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria. Average residual BOD. generally low in some samples and no similar trends were observed in the control samples. 1 (1): 75-86.. oil and grease values were 30. nitrate-nitrogen orthophosphate-phosphorus which support the growth of algae. O. effluent from the soap manufacturing plant contained significant concentrations of oil and grease amounting to 563 mg L-1. which support the growth of bacteria. A no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) of 222 µg L-1 was concluded for several individual algal and invertebrate species based on univariate statistical analyses. . [23] observed an overall seasonal variation of heavy metals such as lead. Ijeoma and Achi. A multivariate analysis based on principal response curves (PRC) indicated that communities in streams exposed to 222 to 419 µg L-1 were significantly different from the controls leading to an overall conclusion that 106 µg L-1 was the ecosystem NOEC [32]. Soap manufacturing effluent and the combined wastes discharged from an industrial complex were subjected to different treatment processes. An apparent energetic subsidy from C14-15AS at the highest concentrations of 222 to 419 µg L-1 was observed and tied to changes in microbial community processing of AS when added at these high concentrations. residual values did not comply with the regulatory standards.3 mg L-1 respectively [34]. 92 and 8. the concentrations of the other heavy metals were relatively low. mold and some yeast. Biological treatment of the composite combined wastewater significantly removed the organic contaminants in wastewater.K. taxonomic identity were also studied. Heavy metals have been associated with the textile effluents [35]. Effluent from fertilizer plants contain a high concentration of potentially toxic wastes rich in ammonia-nitrogen. Zinc and Mn in the rainy season as compared to other metals for dry season. COD. Textile mill effluent The textile industry is distinguished by raw material used and this determines the volume of water required for production as well as waste generated. namely dissolved air flotation. chemical coagulationsedimentation. yeast and cyanobacteria. Moreover. Cellulolytic bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter have been isolated from spent water from the paper and pulp industries. urea. The occurrence of these microbes in the effluents lead to excessive oxygen demand loading and also disturb the ecological equilibrium of the receiving waters with much loss of aquatic life and intense consequences [15]. Except for iron and zinc. The concentrations of heavy metals were also. For example. Paper mill industry Process water in paper and board mills contains a lot of sugars and lignocelluloses. In a study to assess the seasonal variation in bacterial heavy metal biosorption in a receiving river as affected by industrial effluents. Although coagulation using alum followed by sedimentation removed 52% of COD. Industrial effluents from soap manufacturing industries are known to contain complex chemicals most of which are very toxic and capable of destroying the microbial habitats in a serious adverse way. and biological treatment via a completely mixed activated sludge process.

COD High alkalinity. alkali Nature High in BOD. cotton wax Dyeing Dyestuffs urea. 1 (1): 75-86. will preserve the aquifer. Thickeners.Kanu. The parameters of interest are common waste-derivable chemical constituents such as nitrate (NO3-). sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite were employed independently in oxidizing chromium (III) containing tannery wastewaters to solubilize chromate (CrO42-) under alkaline conditions. high in organic matter and essential nutrients bring about changes in the microflora. urea. reducing agents. starches. and indicator microorganisms. detergents. Ekhaise and Anyansi [33] reported high counts of bacterial population in Ikpoba River in Benin City Nigeria receiving a brewery industrial effluent. waxes. Brewery effluents are high in carbohydrates. Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria.PVA. Table 2 Process Sizing Effluent Characteristics From Textile Industry Effluent composition Starch. heavy metals Highly coloured. 81 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. complete (100%) recovery could not be achieved despite different experimental conditions (temperatures and oxidation time). Similarly. hydrogen peroxide. cross-linkers. Similar results were reported by Kanu et al. low BOD. acids. high SS High pH. Aba. wetting agents Printing Pastes. DS. Hydrogen peroxide was potentially a suitable oxidant as it could recover chromate (CrO42-) up to 98% (from synthetic Cr3+ solution) and 88% (from effluent I). acetic acid.K. Surfactants. nitrogen and the cleaning and washing reagents have been proved water pollutants.Three aqueous oxidants. For all three oxidants.. The amount of chromate recovered was determined via spectrophotometry. with NaOCl. Improvement in the management of domestic wastes. O. acids. Brewery industry Wastewater from Brewery Industry originates from liquors pressed from grains and yeast recovery and have the characteristic odour of fermented malt and slightly acidic [23]. binders. like Escherichia coli. Ijeoma and Achi. Cl2. chloride (Cl-) and sulphate (SO42-). oxidizing agents. waxes. Onwuka et al. Nigeria. polyvinyl alcohol(PVA). low SS. [36] studied eighty-eight (88) samples of the groundwater near industrial effluent discharges in Enugu in order to evaluate its potability. and consequently improve the quality of the groundwater [36]. 2011. high BOD. high BOD.higher than the WHO permissible level (45mg/l) while eight out of the ten samples analyzed to test the bacteriological quality of the groundwater showed evidence of sewage and industrial effluent contaminations. coli in the water indicates faecal contamination. high DS Strongly coloured. oils. [23] of the effect of brewery discharge into Eziama River. NaSiO2 sodium phosphate Mercerizing Sodium hydroxide. SS slightly alkaline. CMC. recovery was 90% from synthetic Cr3+ solution and 49% from effluent I. fats. such as the use of a central sewer.. with Ca(OCl)2. the recovery was up to 94% (from synthetic Cr3+ solution) and 67% from effluent I). reducing agents. oily appearance. . H2O2. For example. Tannery industrial effluent The wastewater effluents from tannery industries were studied to determine the chromium (II) contamination levels. gums. pectins Bleaching Sodium hypochlorite. The identification of E. low BOD. The results clearly indicate that hydrogen peroxide is the most efficient among the three oxidants. The introduction of wastewater. wetting agents Desizing Starch. carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC). The percentage recoveries by the hypochlorites were lower than with those by hydrogen peroxide. NaOH. The study showed that about twentytwo percent (22%) of the samples had concentrations of NO3.

while phenol > chlorobenzene > xylene > toluene > benzene was for Leptothrix. The nitrification stage of the nitrogen cycle will also be greatly impaired in the presence of these groups of chemicals in a river [38]. Hydroxyl and halogenated substituted derivatives were more toxic than methyl substituted derivatives. phenol > chlorobenzene > benzene > xylene > toluene for Thiobacillus.0±0.. These results indicate that wastes containing hydroxyl and chlorosubstituted derivatives of benzene may pose a greater toxicity problem to microbiota than wastes containing methyl-substituted derivatives.0±0. but increased with increased methyl substitution in the case of Nitrosomonas and Leptothrix. these findings were found to be within the permissible limits of effluent discharge specified by the Federal Ministry of environment in Nigeria[25]. Toxicity of the chemicals to the bacteria decreased in the following order: phenol > xylene > benzene > chlorobenzene > toluene for Nitrosomonas. 2011. Nitrobacter. Sensitivity of the bacteria to the test chemicals decreased in the order. the consequent long-term bioaccumulation effects on microbial ecosystem were not reported. [38]. Nitrosomonas > Leptothrix > Thiobacillus > Nitrobacter. 1 (1): 75-86. . Soft drink effluent Ibekwe et al. chlorobenzene. The waste water from both points were clear and had the same residual chlorine (1ppm) and iron (1ppm) concentration. chlorobenzene > phenol > benzene > toluene > xylene for Nitrobacter. Mortality within a period of 5 hours exposure to toxicant was the index of assessment. is the primary cause of organic pollution. However. (37) analyzed the wastewater in the accumulation pond and final discharge point of Nigerian Bottling Company PLC in Owerri. 82 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation.33mg/ml). The static method of acute toxicity assessment was employed. particularly in urban centres of most developing countries. Sewage effluents rich in decomposable organic matter.Kanu.K. The final discharge contained more dissolved solids (20±1. The toxicity of the chemicals to the test organisms decreased in the order phenol > chlorobenzene > benzene > xylene > toluene. Thiobacillus and Leptothrix isolated from the New Calabar River water were investigated by Odokuma and Oliwe. Chemical industry The toxicity of benzene. O. Domestic wastes in the country like in many other developing countries may now contain modern environmental health hazardous substances thus posing additional risk to public health [40-42].8ppm) which was double that of the accumulation pond (10±2. while the accumulation pond showed more acidity with a pH of 6..2. and Streptococcus. Escherichia. species of Lactobacillus and Proteus were isolated from the final discharge point only. hydroxylbenzene (phenol). Bacillus. Although. Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria.2ppm).6±1. Species of organisms isolated included Staphylococcus.26mg/ml) in the final discharge point than accumulation pond (5. Open and indiscriminate dumping of solid wastes in drainages and riverbanks is one of the most critical problems facing the city of Ibadan [39]. Others include Klebsiella. Ijeoma and Achi. The toxicity generally decreased with increased methyl substitution in the case of Nitrobacter and Thiobacillus. Proteus and Serratia. Nigeria to determine their bacteriological and physico-chemical characteristics. It was also found that dissolved oxygen was slightly higher (6. Lactobacillus. Bacterial count after 72 hours was higher with a maximum count of 6 x 107 cfu/ml in the final discharge point. Toxicity of the methyl and dimethyl substituted derivatives of benzene was probably a function of the genetic make up of the bacteria. Impact of organic wastes Contributing to the menace of indiscriminate discharges of industrial effluents in receiving water bodies is the improper disposal of domestic wastes. methylbenzene (toluene) and dimethylbenzene (xylene) to four chemolithotrophic bacteria (Nitrosomonas.

natural purification and dilution were usually sufficient (5). The POME characteristics shown in Table 2 are average values and actual values at a mill can be influenced by the quality of the fruits harvested. The relatively high temperatures in tropical countries accelerate this process. Beside the main product i. a range of nitrogenous compounds from proteins to amino acids. Open drains. the biomass increases considerably and goes beyond the assimilation limit by herbivores. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is one of the major sources of pollutant produced during oil palm processing. POME as a source of wastewater Palm oil mill effluent is an important source of inland water pollution when released without treatment into local rivers or lakes. carrying various pollutants. In this situation. color.2 g/L as ammonia nitrogen and 0. high levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). lakes.) become often the recipient of organic matter in amounts exceeding their natural purification capacity. O.. POME has generally been treated by anaerobic digestion. Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria. High values of COD also indicate the recalcitrance of chemicals that have escaped biodegradation. and suspended solids.9–1. Due to population and industrial growth. 2011.5 g/L total nitrogen [44] It contains various suspended components including cell walls. This secondary organic pollution is considerably greater than the primary organic load.Kanu. contribute to the pollution of streams. The excessive production of organic matter leads to the build up of “sludge” and the mineralization process consumes all dissolved oxygen from the water column. which causes fish kills[5]. leading to eutrophication. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the major causes of eutrophication. the mills also generate many by-products and liquid wastes.m2) from open digester tanks and/or anaerobic ponds [45]. since they travel short distances and consequently offer only limited self-purification of the wastewater. which may have a significant impact on the environment if they are not dealt with properly.K. a characteristic feature of many developing countries [42]. free organic acids and an assembly of minor organic and mineral constituents. Also. Eutrophication affects aesthetics on lakes. hydrocyclone waste and separator sludge. Ijeoma and Achi. Organic wastes mineralize in the receiving water bodies and the resulting nutritive elements stimulate plant production. short fibres. The palm oil mill effluent (POME) is generated from three major sources. 83 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. POME is rich in organic carbon with a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) higher than 20 g/L and nitrogen content around 0. the crude palm oil (CPO).e. Secondary organic pollution is defined as the surplus of organic matter. rivers and results in odour and appearance problems. resulting difficult to perceive the magnitude of pollution being caused to the receiving waters by such discharges. etc. namely sterilizer condensate. while in the past. In Nigeria palm oil is processed locally and industrially through the oil palm belt stretching from Cross River to Lagos State. The characteristic problems associated with palm oil mill effluents are pH. organic pollutants are called oxygen-demanding wastes. On an average 0.5m3 of POME is generated for each ton of crude palm oil produced [43].4 l/min. 1 (1): 75-86. Consequently. a spectrum of carbohydrates ranging from hemicellulose to simple sugars. organelles. Except for a few regions. in Nigeria urban areas do not have any central sewerage system or sanitary excreta disposal system. . inland waters (rivers. palm oil mill wastewater treatment systems are one of the major sources of green house gases due to their biogas emission (36 % CH4 with a flow rate of 5.. The wastewater from most parts of more than 186 urban centres is carried in open drains into streams and rivers. which is the sum of undecomposed organic material introduced into the water body with primary pollution and of the material resulting from an extremely increased bioproductivity within the polluted ecosystem itself [40]. chemical oxygen demand (COD). These chemicals may be persistent in nature and may cause severe environmental problems like bioaccumulation. dark color.

Nigeria Afr. 1995 Characteristics of control of industrial effluents-generated pollution Env. S. The pollutants have been shown to be present in concentrations.Kanu. Levies can be imposed to cover the cost of off-site treatment and disposal.O. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) characteristics[45] Parameters Average values BOD 23. Environ. administrative and technical measures are also necessary to reduce oe eliminate the undesirable effects of industrial effluents in receiving waters. Table . The wastewater is hot and this makes it more difficult to directly treat it aerobically since oxygen transfer would be less efficient [46].3. Daso A P.000mg L−1 COD 55. A. (good style) 2. Ibadan. The effluents also have considerable negative effects on the water quality of the receiving water bodies and as such.Y. A. and Osibanji O. as well as continuous monitoring and surveillance is imperative in order to ensure the protection of water resources from further degradation. 84 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. 1 (1): 75-86. which may be toxic to different organisms. Nigeria.1981 Pollution studies on Nigeria Rivers 11. they are rendered not good for human use.000mg L−1 TN 650mg L−1 TP 120mg L−1 Oil 10. This can be controlled by standards imposed by the authorities. Industrial Effluents and Their Impact on Water Quality of Receiving Rivers in Nigeria. 2011 The impact of industries on surface water quality of River Ona and River Alaro in Oluyole Industrial Estate. Ajayi S. Biotechno. Legal. 2005 Impact assessment of industrial effluent on water quality of the receiving Alaro river in Ibadan Nigeria AJEAM-RAGEE 10: 1-13. 10 (4): 696-702. Osibanjo.1991 Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution by Open Refuse Dump in Ibadan.Y. It is therefore recommended that the careless disposal of industrial wastes without pretreatment should be discouraged.000mg L−1 Volatile fatty acids 1. Imposition of direct charges on industrial effluents by the regulating agency. and Gbadebo A M. O. CONCLUSION The discharge of industrial effluents into receiving water bodies in Nigeria invariably result in the presence of high concentrations of pollutant in the water and sediment.O. Sangodoyin. Mgt. 4. Water quality of some Nigerian Rivers. . Fakayode. Series 2: 87-95 5. Ijeoma and Achi.. & Health 6: 15-18 3. Journal of Discovery and Innovations.K. Pollut. References 1. O.000mg L−1 pH 4–5 Temperature 45–70oC Approaches to pollution control The above review of the effects of industrial effluent pollution on inland waters evidences the need for control of this type of pollution in developing countries. Such measures do lead to raw material recovery and reduction in effluent discharges or lower treatment costs. 3 (1): 24-31. which can best be achieved by reduction or prevention at the source. Sangodoyin. J. 2011.

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