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Lecturer: Prof .Dr.

Riza Atiq Assignment (4) Smart Video Camera Prepared by:RASHA SALAH SARAH HAZIM (P 64799) (P65407)


A traffic enforcement camera (also red light camera, road safety camera, road rule camera, photo radar, photo enforcement, speed camera, Gatso, safety camera, bus lane camera, Safe-T-Cam) is an automated ticketing machine. It may include a camera which may be mounted beside or over a road or installed in an enforcement vehicle to detect traffic regulation violations, including speeding, vehicles going through a red traffic light, unauthorized use of a bus lane, or for recording vehicles inside a congestion charge area. The latest automatic number plate recognition systems can be used for the detection of average speeds and raise concerns over loss of privacy and the potential for governments to establish mass surveillance of vehicle movements and therefore by association also the movement of the vehicle's owner. Bus lane enforcement: Some bus lane enforcement cameras use a sensor in the road which triggers a number plate recognition camera which compares the vehicle registration plate with a list of approved vehicles and records images of other vehicles.Other systems use a camera mounted on the bus, for example in London where they monitor Red routes on which stopping is not allowed for any purpose (other than taxis and disabled parking permit holders).


Bus lane enforcement:


Red light enforcement: Red light camera A red light camera is a traffic camera that takes an image of a vehicle that goes through an intersection where the light is red. The system continuously monitors the traffic signal and the camera is triggered by any vehicle entering the intersection above a preset minimum speed and following a specified time after the signal has turned red.

Red flex red light camera in Springfield, Ohio, USA.


Speed limit enforcement Speed enforcement cameras are used to monitor compliance with speed limits which may use Doppler, LIDAR or Automatic number plate recognition. Other speed enforcement systems are also used which are not cameras based. Fixed or mobile speed camera systems that measure the time taken by a vehicle to travel between two or more fairly distant sites (from several hundred meters to several hundred kilometers apart) are called automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) cameras. These cameras time vehicles over a known fixed distance, and then calculate the vehicle's average speed for the journey. The name [clarification needed] derives from the fact that the technology uses infrared cameras linked to a computer to "read" a vehicle's registration number and identify it in real-time.[6]

Speed limit enforcement


Stop sign enforcement
In 2007, the Mountains Recreation and Conservation Authority (MRCA), in California, installed the first stop sign cameras in the United States. The five cameras are located in state parks such as Franklin Canyon Park and Temescal Gateway Park. The operator, Redflex Traffic Systems Inc., is paid $20 per ticket. The fine listed on the citation is $100.In 2010 a class action law suit was filed against MRCA.

Stop sign enforcement


Automatic number plate recognition

Automatic number plate recognition can be used for purposes unrelated to enforcement of traffic rules. In principle any agency or person with access to data either from traffic cameras or cameras installed for other purposes can track the movement of vehicles for any purpose. In Australia's SAFE-T-CAM system, ANPR technology is used to monitor long distance truck drivers to detect avoidance of legally prescribed driver rest periods. The United Kingdom's police ANPR system logs all the vehicles passing particular points in the national road network, allowing authorities to track the movement of vehicles and individuals across the country.


Number plate recognition systems Congestion charge cameras to detect vehicles inside the chargeable area which have not paid the appropriate fee

High-occupancy vehicle lane cameras to identify vehicles violating occupancy requirements. Level crossing cameras to identifying vehicles crossing railways at grade Noise pollution cameras that record evidence of heavy vehicles that break noise regulations by using engine braking. Parking cameras which issue citations to vehicles which are illegally parked or which were not moved from a street at posted times. Toll-booth cameras used to identify vehicles proceeding through a toll booth without paying the toll. Turn cameras at intersections where specific turns are prohibited on red. This type of camera is mostly used in cities or heavy populated areas. Automatic number plate recognition systems can be used for multiple purposes, including identifying untaxed and uninsured vehicles, stolen cars and potentially mass surveillance of motorists .Fixed camera systems can mounted in boxes or on poles beside the road or attached to gantries over the road, or to overpasses or bridges. Cameras can be concealed, for example in garbage bins. Mobile speed cameras may be hand-held, tripod mounted, or vehicle-mounted. In vehicle-mounted systems, detection equipment and cameras can be mounted to the vehicle itself, or simply tripod mounted inside the vehicle and deployed out a window or door. If the camera is fixed to the vehicle, the enforcement vehicle does not necessarily have to be stationary, and can be moved either with or against the flow of traffic. In the latter case, depending on the direction of travel, the target vehicle's relative speed is either added or subtracted from the enforcement vehicle's own speed to obtain its actual speed. The speedometer of the camera vehicle needs to be accurately calibrated. The goal of CCTV is to improve the transportation system to make it more efficient and safer by use of information, communications and control technologies. CCTV surveillance has become a common feature of our daily lives. We are caught on numerous CCTV cameras as we move around our towns and cities, visit shops and offices, and travel on the road and other parts of the public transport network.


Whilst the use of CCTV continues to enjoy general public support, it necessarily involves intrusion into the lives of ordinary individuals as they go about their day to day business. This assignment has shown that the public expect it to be used responsibly with effective safeguards in place. Maintaining public trust and confidence in its use is essential if its benefits are to be realised and its use is not to become increasingly viewed with suspicion as part of a surveillance society. The benefits of CCTV applications are Reduction in stops and delays at intersections Speed control & improvement travel time improvement capacity management incident management. Otherwise the global positioning system of satellites, computers, and receivers in which traffic data is incorporated in the map, the driver can get the fastest route, can know the position of the signals ahead, predict traffic jams, etc.

The main functions that CCTV traffic monitoring cameras perform

Shield Drivers: Traffic cameras help monitor the road conditions and warn the drivers against road blocks, accident prone areas, slippery roads, land slides, and no entry areas. Thus help in reducing accidents and violation of laws. Monitor Accidents: Traffic monitoring cameras inform the authority in the control room about accidents sites and thus assist in arranging the emergency vehicles like ambulances. Recordings can be used to get helpful clues and to know who the real offender is. Avoid Traffic Jams: Any kind of road rule violence will be quickly get recorded by the traffic monitoring camera. The traffic managing authorities can take quick action to avoid any commotion in that area. The violator´s vehicle gets recorded in the CCTV making it easy to catch him.

Track Stolen Cars: Whenever a vehicle crosses a point where CCTV cameras are installed, the details of the vehicle gets recorded. In case of stolen vehicles, the vehicle can be easily tracked as the vehicle number gets recorded each time it crosses a traffic monitoring camera. Improves Law Enforcement: Every person on the road gets cautious when they know they are being watched and any kind of violation can land them in trouble. Thus CCTV cameras prevent people from breaking traffic rules and encourage them to drive safely.

architecture of the Smart Camera System Overview For traffic surveillance the entire smart camera is packed into a single cabinet which is typically mounted in tunnels and aside highways. The electrical power is either supplied by a power socket or by solar panels. Thus, the smart camera is exposed to harsh environmental influences such as rapid changes in temperature and humidity as well as wind and rain. It must be implemented as an embedded system with tight operating constraints such as size, power consumption and temperature range. Architecture The smart camera is divided into three major parts: (i) The video sensor. (ii) The processing unit. (iii) The communication unit.


Figure 1: System architecture of the smart camera.

Video Sensor The video sensor represents the first stage in the smart camera’s overall data flow. The sensor captures incoming light and transforms it into electrical signals that can be transferred to the processing unit. A CMOS sensor best fulfills the requirements for a video sensor. These sensors feature a high dynamics due to their logarithmic characteristics and provide onchip ADCS and amplifiers. The first prototype of the smart camera is equipped with the LM-9618 CMOS sensor from National Semiconductor. Its specification is enlisted in Table 1.

Table 1: Video sensor specification.

Processing Unit The second stage in the overall data flow is the processing unit. Due to the highperformance on-board image and video processing the requirements on the computing performance are very high. A rough estimation results in 10 GIPS computing performance. These performance requirements together with the

various constraints of the embedded system solution are fulfilled with digital signal processors (DSP). The smart camera is equipped with two TMS320DM642 DSPs from Texas Instruments running at 600 MHz. Both DSPs are loosely coupled via the Multichannel Buffered Serial Ports (McBSP), and each processor is connected to its own local memory. The video sensor is connected via a FIFO memory with one DSP to relax the timing between sensor and DSP. The image is then transferred into the DSP’s external memory with a capacity between 8 MB and 256 MB.

Communication Unit The final stage of the overall data flow in the smart camera represents the communication unit. The processing unit transfers the data to the processing unit via a generic interface. This interface eases the implementation of the different network connections such as Ethernet, wireless LAN and GSM/GPRS. For the Ethernet network interface only the physical-layer has to be added because the media-access control layer is already implemented on the DSP. A second class of interfaces is also managed by the communication unit. Flashes, pantilt-zoom heads (PTZ), and domes are controlled using the communication unit. The moving parts (PTZ, dome) are typically controlled using serial interfaces like RS232 and RS422. Additional in/outputs are also provided, e.g., to trigger flashes or snapshots. Low-Power Considerations The key power saving strategy used in the most types of smart camera is based on system-level Dynamic Power Management (DPM). Dynamic Power Management The basic idea behind DPM is that individual components can be switched to different power modes during runtime. Each power mode is characterized by a different functionality performance of the component and the corresponding power consumption. For instance, if a specific component is not used during a certain time period it can be switched off.


The commands to change the components’ power modes are issued by a central Power Manager (PM). The commands are issued corresponding a Power Managing Policy (PMP). The PMP is usually implemented in the operating system of the main processing component. In order to decide which command to issue the PM must have knowledge about the system’s workload. Note that switching the component’s power mode requires also some time. Thus, the PM must include these transition time in its PMP in order to avoid malfunction of the system. DPM in the Smart Camera In the smart camera the PM is located in the OS kernel of the host DSP. The power Modes of the individual components are controlled by sending individual commands via the I_ C bus. Each component has its specific power modes comprising different power consumption, speeds and wake-up times. These characteristics are stored in look-uptables in the PM and are used as input for the PMP. If the smart camera is running in Normal Mode for instance it is not necessary to run the corresponding DSPs in full power mode. In this case, the PM sets the DSPs into a lower power mode in a way that real time requirements are still met. If the camera changes its operating mode to the Alarm Mode the PM sets all components back to their high-performance modes.

Figure 2: A sketch of the video processing algorithm for stationary vehicle detection


Software Image Processing To demonstrate the video processing capabilities of the smart camera chose the area of stationary vehicle detection, which is an important application in traffic surveillance. The qualitative decision is based on long-term intensity changes of background pixels. One must focused on the tunnel environment, because background modeling is simpler compared to an outdoor scene with for example swaying trees. As more work will be done, especially for outdoor scenes, One paid attention to design a smart camera for future algorithms as well as to incorporate the video processing algorithms for this application. It was assumed that the camera is static and the ambient light conditions are constant. Thus, intensity changes are only caused by the motion of vehicles or by noise, e.g. reflections, lights of cars. Figure 3(c) shows a sample foreground. Intensity values are grey values between 0 and 255.

Figure 3


Figure 3: Stepping through the algorithm: The first row shows (a) a specific frame with a stationary truck and a sample pixel, (b) the selected long-term background change regions and (c) the foreground regions. The second row shows analysis results for the sample pixel: (d) the intensity profile, (e) the significant part of the background and observation distribution and (f) the update factor over time. More stable over time, the image is spatially convolved with a Gaussian filter with a standard deviation of 1.3 before parameter estimation (see figure 3(a)). In each step, the observation and background distribution are compared as it is shown in figure 3(e). If the significant parts, i.e. between 25%-quintile and 75%quintile, of both distributions do not intersect each other, then a statistical longterm intensity change in this particular pixel is detected. To make the algorithm robust, a further morphological voting step in the vicinity of this pixel is done. If the majority of neighbored pixels do not show the same separation of background and observation distribution, then the gap between both distributions is closed by an updated broader background model (background correction). Regions of pixels with robust changes are selected by a connected component algorithm (see figure 3(b)). Stationary vehicles are detected, if two events happen: (i) The area of a region lies between a minimal and maximal threshold and (ii) each intensity profile (see figure 3(d)) over the last images of all pixels of a region shows a difference greater than . Samples of smart camera systems available in the markets:

Specifications High resolution Smart LPR camera for Highway 1.1/3" SONY super HAD II CCD 2.Color:600TVL B/W: 650TVL plate license


Description: This camera integrates advanced optics, electronics, white light illumination and ambient rejection technology to deliver consistent, reliable and color vehicle body and license plate in 10m distance and slow speed scene. This camera body adopts SONY Super HAD II CCD, and the new ISP to produce high resolution up to 600TVL and clear image. It has the functions as digital WDR , digital noise reduction, highlight suppression. The function of shutter speed adjustable is suitable for fast moving object monitoring. Defective pixel compensation, park line guide display ,privacy mask , motion detect and other complete function .Local OSD menu and remote control functions are very convenient for construction and installation. The unit housing is weather-sealed and field proven for successful application in extreme environments, and this camera is suitable for license plate capture in slow speed.


Features: * 1/3” SONY super HAD II CCD, and new ISP solution design. * High resolution 600TVL(color), 650TVL(BW). * White light LED array features less heat, high brightness and efficiency with several times life period than normal LED. * Digital WDR function can recognize both shadow and highlight object in some backlight scene. Digital noise reduction can reduce the noise in low light. * Shutter speed adjustable, good for different vehicle speed monitoring. * 2.8-12mm auto iris lens for different distance application. * Park line guide and horizontal mirror for rear-view camera application. * DC12V/AC24V dual power supply design, and this design can effectively avoid surge and interference from power supply with multi kinds of protection (option model) * Local OSD menu functions are very convenient for construction and installation. * Special design for relay trigger from vehicle monitoring system to open LED. * LED brightness can be adjusted for different ambient light and license plate reflecting rate application. * Built in fan and heater to work well in different environment, heater is optional.


Super wide movement light inhibition camera .Adopt the most advanced solution for transmitting high degree of SONY Interlaced CCD .Advanced electronic control system with new low-pass filter .image Resolution to increase by nearly 20%,and accurate color reproduction and wider viewing angle illumination

.Merge-type digital signal processing integrated circuit with the analog processing system is un able to achieve a stable the results .BLC provides accurate image correction in particular to adapt to glare .Reversible light environment on the light behind the goal can clearly see that image photo objects to prevent bing caused due to strong back lighting images of bleak. Apply to highways and urban road traffic control monitor license plates cars traffic and other samilaitraffic


Image sensor1/3 PIXIL Horizental resolution Color600 TVL, white and black(IR CUT)700 TVL High effect pixels High effect pixels,broad range lens,Double glass system Night vision,8-25M ir distance.36Pie leds Ir waterproof road traffic cctv camera 1. Image sensor1/3 PIXIL


2. Horizontal resolution Color600 TVL, white and black (IR CUT)700 TVL 3. High effect pixels, broad range lens,Double glass system 4. Night vision, 8-25M ir distance. 36Pieces leds


Specifications >road monitoring waterproof ir wireless ip camera >30m ir ip camera >traffic capture ip camera >road monitoring waterproof ir wireless ip camera >For traffic capture >network ip security camera >icr wireless ip security camera

Model Image Sensor

AD-6869 1/3"SONY


Specifications Adopted imported third generation led-array, higher luminous efficiency, lower power consumption, lower heat and longer life

Camera Types and Enforcement
Camera speed enforcement within Lancashire falls into two categories, both of which use different equipment to detect the speed of motorists. The two types are MOBILE and STATIC enforcement.


Mobile Enforcement The mobile enforcement consists of 10 technicians who work from divisions throughout the Lancashire Area, and have at their disposal 8 fully liveried enforcement vans. All the mobile vehicles are fitted with Type Approved LTI 20.20 UltraLyte 1000 laser speed detection device, a Type Approved Tele-Traffic Display Control Unit, integrated video camera, and professional zoom lens. The recording medium used is DVD +R technology which offers greater flexibility for evidence gathering in speed enforcement


Laser is used as a means of detecting vehicle speed. More detailed information on the devices can be found on the manufacturers’ website at .

The primary evidence in a speeding case is the opinion of the operator as to the speed of the vehicle. Once the operator has formed the opinion that the vehicle is speeding, then they will utilise the laser equipment to confirm their estimation of the speed. All the laser devices are calibrated by the manufacturer every 12 months as required by both the manufacturers and the ACPO guidelines. Example copies of the calibration certificates are shown below. All the mobile operators are trained and authorised to operate the equipment. There are no untrained technicians or un-calibrated speed enforcement devices used within Lancashire.

Mobile enforcement is carried out on sites which are designated as problem sites owing to the number of Road Traffic Collisions or as a result of community concern. All the sites have been risk assessed as to their suitability for use, and are authorised by the relevant Authority for that area. When mobile enforcement is being carried out, the vehicle or operator will be in a highly visible position, and if the operator is enforcing outside the vehicle, he will be wearing full class ‘A’ high visibility clothing. Above is an example of the mobile speed detection photograph.


Static Camera Enforcement Static camera enforcement within Lancashire is almost exclusively carried out by fixed cameras within the yellow camera housings situated at the side of the road. There are almost 300 static camera sites within Lancashire, which may be in use at any given time. The equipment used within the static cameras is a GATSOMETER Type 24 radar with AUS type 35mm wet film camera and flash gun.

More information on the Gatso model AUS can be found at the white lines on the road surface are secondary check marks and are a specified distance apart. Once a vehicle has been identified as breaching the set speed threshold the camera will be triggered to take two photographs. The first will be the evidential photograph with the speed recorded on the Data bar, the second will be 0.5 seconds afterwards and will allow the viewing officer to confirm the speed of the vehicle by calculating the distance the vehicle has travelled between the photographs in the 0.5 second. It is this area where the enforcement differs from the mobile enforcement in that the fixed site is un manned and requires the second photograph for corroboration of the vehicle speed. Below are examples of Static enforcement pictoral evidence.


Traffic counting:



It is convenient to constrain lane mask by using graphical editor especially created for system configuration. This feature connects sharp points given by user into persistent curve.


Fig (18) Number plate registration and recognition: Now the automatic number plate registration and recognition technology is to be analysed. This technology has following peculiarities: • Video camera is oriented to fix front or rear (or both) vehicle license plate. • When car moves through the observational zone recognition program localize number plate and tracks it while car is in this zone. • Symbol recognition module selects frame of the best quality and identifies it as symbol combination. • Recognized number plate, data, time and car image are writing to system database. Processing problem is related to symbol extraction from number plate image and further symbol recognition. The algorithm used is described as follows:


The system: Above described principles were implemented in the complex video system consisting of three main parts: vehicle tracking, number plate recognition, and monitoring center with video server and central database subsystem (Fig. 18) communicating over computer network. Vehicle tracking subsystem is intended to watch transport motion, detect jams, and determine speed violation. If speed exceeds permissible one subsystem begins to track vehicle turning on LPR subsystem that files and transmits number plate data, violation time and date to central database and mobile LPR groups. The latter stop violator, verify data given from him and central database, prescribe penalty. As it is shown information interchange between LPR system installed in mobile group’s notebook and monitoring center is based on data transmission over GPRS network. In case of jam tracking system informs monitoring center and transmits to it traffic video clip.

User interface of vehicle tracking and speed measurement subsystem is shown at Fig. 19, LPR subsystem interface. All system applications are written in C++. Part of them is realized on the base of “Mega Frame” and “Carmen program libraries”.



Conclusion The assignment presented explains of using CCTV with computer vision based approach to road monitoring and traffic analysis problem. Such tasks as vehicle tracking, speed measurement, jam detection and number plate recognition are considered. Approved methods and algorithms are implemented in the intelligent video monitoring system with data transferring over computer networks and archiving in local and central Databases. System implementation confirmed theoretical and design findings, suitable efficiency of proposed methods and algorithms.

Future work will cover complex testing of the system, and more detailed development of modified algorithms. This will include comparison to other (in many cases successful) methods of computer vision.


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