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or more variables to determine their effect on the variable of interest (called the response variable or dependent variable). Response variable: Main variable of interest (continuous) Factors: Other variables (typically discrete) which may have an effect on the response. • Quantitative factors are numerical. • Qualitative factors are categorical. The levels are the different values (for each factor) used in the experiment. Example 1: Response variable: College GPA Factors: Gender (levels: Male, Female) # of AP courses (levels: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4+) The treatments of an experiment are the different factor level combinations. Treatments for Example 1:

Experimental Units: the objects on which the factors and response are observed or measured. C) Environment (levels: Natural Sunlight. Observational study: The analyst simply observes treatments and responses for a sample of units. B. Artificial Lamp) There are how many treatments? (Could also have a quantitative factor…) If 5 plants are assigned to each treatment (5 replicates per treatment). there are how many observations in all? . Example 1? Designed experiment: The analyst controls which treatments to use and assigns experimental units to each treatment. Example 2: Plant growth study: Experimental Units: A sample of plants Response: Growth over one month Factors: Fertilizer Brand (levels: A.

522) If there are more than two treatments.Completely Randomized Design (CRD) A Completely Randomized Design is a design in which independent samples of experimental units are selected for each treatment. We want to test for any differences in mean response among the treatments. Visually. between group means)? Top figure? Bottom figure? . Instead. Suppose there are p treatments (usually p ≥ 3). we analyze the variance in the data: Q: Is the variance within each group small compared to the variance between groups (specifically. we could compare all the sample means for the different treatments. (Dot plots. p. Hypothesis Test: H0: µ 1 = µ 2 = … = µ p Ha: At least two of the treatment population means differ. we cannot just subtract sample mean values.

SST = ∑n ( X i =1 i i p i − X )2 ni = number of observations in group i X = sample mean response for group i X = overall sample mean response SST measures how much each group sample mean varies from the overall sample mean. To make these measures comparable. weighted by the sample sizes by each group. we divide by their degrees of freedom and obtain: Mean Square for Treatments (MST) = SST p–1 . The Sum of Squares for Error (SSE) measures variation within groups.How do we measure the variance within each group and the variance between groups? The Sum of Squares for Treatments (SST) measures variation between group means. SSE = ∑(n i =1 p i −1) si 2 si 2 = sample variance for group i SSE is a sum of the variances of each group.

and we would reject H0: µ 1 = µ 2 = … = µ p in favor of Ha.95. MST SST = . s22 = 14. 2 = 261. Sample variances for each group: s12 = 22.3.8.1. then the variation between groups is much bigger than the variation within groups. n2 = 10. n3 = 10. s32 = 20. n4 = 10.42. 3 = 270.26. => = 257.8.0. n1 = 10. If F = MSE is much bigger than 1. => n = 40. s42 = 27.1) Response: Distance a golf ball travels 4 treatments: Four different brands of ball 1 = 250.Mean Square for Error (MSE) = MST MSE SSE n–p The ratio is called the ANOVA F-statistic.07. 4 = 249. Example (Table 10.

SSE = MST = MSE = F= This information is summarized in an ANOVA table: Source Treatments Error Total df p–1 n–p n–1 SS MS SST MST SSE MSE SS(Total) F MST/MSE Note that df(Total) = df(Trt) + df(Error) and that SS(Total) = SST + SSE. the ANOVA table is: . For our example.

99 is “clearly” bigger than 1 … but how much bigger than 1 must it be for us to reject H0? ANOVA F-test: If H0 is true and all the population means are indeed equal. ∑ n −1 . Assumptions: • We have random samples from the p populations.f.f. we can see F = 43. where Fα based on (p – 1. . n – p. In example. We would reject H0 if our F is unusually large. n – p) d.Note: SS (Total ) df (Total ) is simply the sample variance for the 2 (X − X ) entire data set. Rejection Region: F > Fα.f. p – 1 and denominator d. Picture: H0: µ 1 = µ 2 = … = µ p Ha: At least two of the treatment population means differ. then this F-statistic has an F-distribution with numerator d.

3 (Multiple Comparisons of Means) covers this issue. Which treatment means differ? Section 10. • All p population variances are equal. .• All p populations are normal. Example: Perform ANOVA F-test using α = .10.

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