By
Dr. Ungku Anisa Ungku Amirulddin
Department of Electrical Power Engineering
College of Engineering
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 1 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives
DC Drives Outline
Introduction to DC Drives
Separately Excited DC Motor
Speed Control Methods
Speed Control Strategy
Operating Modes
References
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 2
Introduction
DC Drives – Electric drives employing DC
motors as prime movers
Dominated variable speed applications before
introduction of Power Electronic converters
Still popular even after Power Electronics
Advantage: Precise torque and speed control
without sophisticated electronics
Applications: Rolling mills, hoists, traction, cranes
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 3
Introduction
Some limitations:
High maintenance (commutators & brushes)
Expensive
Speed limitations
Sparking
Commonly used DC motors
Separately excited
Series (mostly for traction applications)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 4
Separately Excited DC Motor
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 5
L
f
R
f
i
f
a
a
a a a a
e
dt
di
L i R v + + =
+
e
a
_
L
a
R
a
i
a
+
v
t
_
+
v
f
_
dt
di
L i R v
f
f f f f
+ =
a f t e
i i K T = Electromagnetic torque
e
f v a
i K e =
Armature back e.m.f.
K
t
= torque constant
K
v
= voltage constant (V/Arad/s)
K
v
= K
t
Separately Excited DC Motor
Motor is connected to a
load.
Therefore,
where
T
L
= load torque
J = load inertia (kg/m
2
)
B = viscous friction
coefficient (Nm/rad/s)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 6
L e
T B
dt
d
J T + + = e
e
Separately Excited DC Motor –
Steady State Condition
Time derivatives = 0.
Therefore,
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The developed power
(5)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 7
L a f t e
T B I I K T + = = e
f f f
I R V =
e
f v a
I K E =
e
f v a a
a a a a
I K I R
E I R V
+ =
+ =
e
e d
T P =
Speed Control Methods for
Separately Excited DC Motor
From equation (3),
Three possible methods for speed control:
Armature voltage V
a
Armature resistance R
a
Field current I
f
(by changing field resistance R
f
) ¬ flux 
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 8
( )
e
f v
a
f v
a
f t
e
f v
a
f v
a
f v
a a a
T
I K
R
I K
V
I K
T
I K
R
I K
V
I K
I R V
2
÷ =


.

\

÷ =
÷
=
e
e
e
T
e
f v
a
I K
V
intercept =
( )
2
f v
a
I K
R
slope =
Speed Control Methods
– V
a
control
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 9
( )
e
f v
a
f v
a
T
I K
R
I K
V
2
÷ = e
e
T
e
V
a
↓
T
L
Requires variable
DC supply
f v
a
I K
V
Speed Control Methods
– R
a
control
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 10
e
T
e
R
a
↑
T
L
Simple control
Losses in external resistor
Rarely used.
f v
a
I K
V
( )
2
f v
a
I K
R
slope =
( )
e
f v
a
f v
a
T
I K
R
I K
V
2
÷ = e
Speed Control Methods
–  control
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 11
e
T
e
I
f
↓
f v
a
I K
V
( )
2
f v
a
I K
R
slope =
T
L
Not possible for PM motor
Normally employed for
speed above base speed
( )
e
f v
a
f v
a
T
I K
R
I K
V
2
÷ = e
Speed Control Strategy for
Separately Excited DC Motor
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 12
Base speed e
base
= Speed at rated V
a
, I
f
and I
a
e = 0 to e
base
¬ speed control by V
a
e > e
base
¬ speed control by flux weakening (+, i.e. I
f
↓)
T
e
V
a
control  control e
base
Speed Control Strategy for
Separately Excited DC Motor
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 13
e = 0 to e
base
¬ speed control by V
a
e > e
base
¬ speed control by flux weakening (+)
T · I
a
 ¬ For maximum torque capability, I
a
= I
a max
P
d
= E
a
I
a
= (K
v
I
f
e)I
a
= constant when e > e
base
in order to go beyond e
base
,  · I
f
· (1/e)
e
Per unit
quantities
V
a
1.0
I
a
I
f
, T
e
, u
V
a
control  control
e
base
Speed Control Strategy
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 14
Torque and power relations below and beyond e
base
e
Per unit
quantities
V
a
1.0
I
a
I
f
, T
e
, u
V
a
control  control
e
base
P, T
T
e
T
e
= K
v
I
f
I
a
P =T
e
e
P
constant power constant torque
Operating Modes
Motoring
Back EMF E
a
< V
a
I
a
and I
f
are positive
Motor develops
torque to meet load
demand (i.e. T
e
=T
L
)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 15 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives
Operating Modes
Regenerative Breaking
Motor acts as generator
Develops E
a
> V
a
I
a
negative (flows back
to source)
I
f
positive
Machine slows down
until E
a
= V
a
Used only when there
are enough loads to
absorb regenerated
power
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 16 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives
Operating Modes
Dynamic Breaking
Similar to
regenerative
breaking
But V
a
removed,
replaced by R
b
Kinetic energy of
motor is dissipated
in R
b
(i.e. machine
works as generator)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 17 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives
Operating Modes
Plugging
Supply voltage V
a
is
reversed
V
a
assists E
a
in
forcing I
a
in reverse
direction
R
b
connected in
series to limit
current
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 18 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives
Operating Modes 
Four Quadrant Operation
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 19
Q1
+V
a
, +E
a
¬ + e
+I
a
¬ +T
Power = +ve
Q4
V
a
, E
a
¬  e
+I
a
¬ +T
Power = ve
Q2
+V
a
, +E
a
¬ + e
I
a
¬ T
Power = ve
Q3
V
a
, E
a
¬  e
I
a
¬ T
Power = +ve
References
Rashid, M.H, Power Electronics: Circuit, Devices and
Applictions, 3
rd
ed., Pearson, NewJersey, 2004.
Dubey, G.K., Fundamentals of Electric Drives, 2
nd
ed., Alpha
Science Int. Ltd., UK, 2001.
Nik Idris, N. R., Short Course Notes on Electrical Drives,
UNITEN/UTM, 2008.
Ahmad Azli, N., Short Course Notes on Electrical Drives,
UNITEN/UTM, 2008.
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 20 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives