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Speed Control of DC Motors

By
Dr. Ungku Anisa Ungku Amirulddin
Department of Electrical Power Engineering
College of Engineering
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 1 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives
DC Drives Outline
Introduction to DC Drives
Separately Excited DC Motor
Speed Control Methods
Speed Control Strategy
Operating Modes
References

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 2
Introduction
DC Drives – Electric drives employing DC
motors as prime movers
Dominated variable speed applications before
introduction of Power Electronic converters
Still popular even after Power Electronics
Advantage: Precise torque and speed control
without sophisticated electronics
Applications: Rolling mills, hoists, traction, cranes
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 3
Introduction
Some limitations:
 High maintenance (commutators & brushes)
 Expensive
 Speed limitations
 Sparking
Commonly used DC motors
 Separately excited
 Series (mostly for traction applications)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 4
Separately Excited DC Motor

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 5
L
f
R
f

i
f

a
a
a a a a
e
dt
di
L i R v + + =
+

e
a


_
L
a
R
a

i
a

+

v
t


_
+

v
f


_
dt
di
L i R v
f
f f f f
+ =
a f t e
i i K T = Electromagnetic torque
e
f v a
i K e =
Armature back e.m.f.
K
t
= torque constant
K
v
= voltage constant (V/A-rad/s)
K
v
= K
t

Separately Excited DC Motor
 Motor is connected to a
load.
 Therefore,


where

T
L
= load torque


J = load inertia (kg/m
2
)
B = viscous friction
coefficient (Nm/rad/s)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 6
L e
T B
dt
d
J T + + = e
e

Separately Excited DC Motor –
Steady State Condition
 Time derivatives = 0.
Therefore,
 (1)

 (2)

 (3)

 (4)
 The developed power
(5)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 7
L a f t e
T B I I K T + = = e
f f f
I R V =
e
f v a
I K E =
e
f v a a
a a a a
I K I R
E I R V
+ =
+ =
e
e d
T P =

Speed Control Methods for
Separately Excited DC Motor
 From equation (3),




 Three possible methods for speed control:
 Armature voltage V
a
 Armature resistance R
a
 Field current I
f
(by changing field resistance R
f
) ¬ flux |
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 8
( )
e
f v
a
f v
a
f t
e
f v
a
f v
a
f v
a a a
T
I K
R
I K
V
I K
T
I K
R
I K
V
I K
I R V
2
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
=
e
e
e
T
e

f v
a
I K
V
intercept =
( )
2
f v
a
I K
R
slope =
Speed Control Methods
– V
a
control







Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 9
( )
e
f v
a
f v
a
T
I K
R
I K
V
2
÷ = e
e
T
e

V
a

T
L

Requires variable
DC supply
f v
a
I K
V

Speed Control Methods
– R
a
control







Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 10
e
T
e

R
a

T
L

Simple control
Losses in external resistor
Rarely used.
f v
a
I K
V

( )
2
f v
a
I K
R
slope =
( )
e
f v
a
f v
a
T
I K
R
I K
V
2
÷ = e
Speed Control Methods
– | control







Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 11
e
T
e

I
f

f v
a
I K
V

( )
2
f v
a
I K
R
slope =
T
L

Not possible for PM motor
Normally employed for
speed above base speed
( )
e
f v
a
f v
a
T
I K
R
I K
V
2
÷ = e
Speed Control Strategy for
Separately Excited DC Motor







Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 12
 Base speed e
base
= Speed at rated V
a
, I
f
and I
a
 e = 0 to e
base
¬ speed control by V
a
 e > e
base
¬ speed control by flux weakening (|+, i.e. I
f
↓)
T
e
V
a
control | control e
base

Speed Control Strategy for
Separately Excited DC Motor







Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 13
 e = 0 to e
base
¬ speed control by V
a
 e > e
base
¬ speed control by flux weakening (|+)
 T · I
a
| ¬ For maximum torque capability, I
a
= I
a max
 P
d
= E
a
I
a
= (K
v
I
f
e)I
a
= constant when e > e
base

in order to go beyond e
base
, | · I
f
· (1/e)






e
Per unit
quantities
V
a

1.0
I
a

I
f
, T
e
, u
V
a
control | control
e
base

Speed Control Strategy





Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives 14
 Torque and power relations below and beyond e
base




e
Per unit
quantities
V
a

1.0
I
a

I
f
, T
e
, u
V
a
control | control
e
base

P, T
T
e

T
e
= K
v
I
f
I
a

P =T
e
e
P
constant power constant torque
Operating Modes
Motoring
 Back EMF E
a
< V
a
 I
a
and I
f
are positive
 Motor develops
torque to meet load
demand (i.e. T
e
=T
L
)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 15 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives
Operating Modes
Regenerative Breaking
 Motor acts as generator
 Develops E
a
> V
a
 I
a
negative (flows back
to source)
 I
f
positive
 Machine slows down
until E
a
= V
a

 Used only when there
are enough loads to
absorb regenerated
power
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 16 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives

Operating Modes
Dynamic Breaking
 Similar to
regenerative
breaking
 But V
a
removed,
replaced by R
b
 Kinetic energy of
motor is dissipated
in R
b
(i.e. machine
works as generator)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 17 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives

Operating Modes
Plugging
 Supply voltage V
a
is
reversed
 V
a
assists E
a
in
forcing I
a
in reverse
direction
 R
b
connected in
series to limit
current
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 18 EEEB283 – Electrical Machines & Drives
Operating Modes -
Four Quadrant Operation
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Q1
+V
a
, +E
a
¬ + e
+I
a
¬ +T
Power = +ve
Q4
-V
a
, -E
a
¬ - e
+I
a
¬ +T
Power = -ve
Q2
+V
a
, +E
a
¬ + e
-I
a
¬ -T
Power = -ve
Q3
-V
a
, -E
a
¬ - e
-I
a
¬ -T
Power = +ve
References
 Rashid, M.H, Power Electronics: Circuit, Devices and
Applictions, 3
rd
ed., Pearson, New-Jersey, 2004.
 Dubey, G.K., Fundamentals of Electric Drives, 2
nd
ed., Alpha
Science Int. Ltd., UK, 2001.
 Nik Idris, N. R., Short Course Notes on Electrical Drives,
UNITEN/UTM, 2008.
 Ahmad Azli, N., Short Course Notes on Electrical Drives,
UNITEN/UTM, 2008.
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