You are on page 1of 35

HEALTH AND SAFETY (H&S) CONSTRUCTION SEMINAR KEMPTON PARK, 10-11 FEBRUARY 2011

DESIGNING FOR CONSTRUCTION HEALTH AND SAFETY (H&S) AND ERGONOMICS

PROFESSOR JOHN SMALLWOOD CONSTRUCTION RESEARCH EDUCATION AND TRAINING ENTERPRISES (CREATE) createjs@yahoo.co.uk

COPYRIGHT 2003 REVISED 2005, 2008, 2010, AND 2011
1

Macro Construction H&S environment

Figure 1: Construction H&S – the macro environment (Smallwood, 1995)

2

Introduction (1)
 Although not inherently dangerous, there are numerous hazards and risks in construction  Systems, procedures and other strategies can mitigate and, or eliminate the hazards and risks – designing for construction H&S and ergonomics is one such strategy  Design dictates the materials and methods to be used  Design occurs upstream of procurement and construction  Designers act / contribute during procurement and construction in addition to during design  H&S issues apply / arise during all phases of projects: concept and initiation; detailed design and documentation; construction, and commissioning
3
© 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood

1993)  450 Reports of construction fatalities and disabling injuries in the USA – 151 (33. 2006)  ‘Designing for H&S’ is a recognised competency  All religions – ‘I am my brother’s / sister’s keeper’  Ethics / Moral issue  Corporate social responsibility (CSR) 4 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood . the hazard that contributed to the incident could have been eliminated or reduced if design-for-H&S measures had been implemented (Behm.Introduction (2)  Design contributes to fatalities – design (in general) is cited as the cause of 35% of fatal accidents due to the 35% contribution of falls from heights to fatalities (Commission of the European communities.6%) cases.

Designing and safety Natural-light openings. Port Elizabeth (Smallwood) 5 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

Cape Town (Smallwood) © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood 6 .Designing for safety ‘Balustrade’ precast concrete cladding.

Designing for ergonomics and H&S Precast concrete stair flights. Port Elizabeth (Smallwood) © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood 7 .

Designing and ergonomics and OH ‘Bush-hammered’ concrete. Port Elizabeth (Smallwood) 8 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

Legislation  South Africa:  Designers liable for the impact of design on construction H&S and ergonomics in terms of Section 10 of the OH&S Act  Construction Regulations include designer responsibilities  United Kingdom: Construction (Design and Management) (CDM) Regulations:  Clients and designers linked to construction H&S  Integrate design and construction (H&S Coordinator) 9 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

and landscape architect 10 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .Construction Regulations (1) Definition of ‘designer’:  A person who prepares a design  A person who checks and approves a design  A person who arranges for any person at work under his control to prepare a design  An architect or engineer contributing to. or having overall responsibility for the design  Building services engineer designing details for fixed plant  Surveyor specifying articles or drawing up specifications  Contractor carrying out design work as part of a design and build project  Temporary works engineer designing formwork and false work  Interior designer. shop-fitter.

Construction Regulations (2) Relative to Structures 9 (2) designers are required to:  (a) Provide clients with all relevant information that may affect the pricing of the work  (b) Inform Principal Contractors (PCs) of any dangers or hazards and provide information for the safe construction of the design  (c) Include a geo-science technical report. the design loading of the structure. and the methods and sequence of construction in a report made available to the PC  (d) Modify the design or make use of substitute materials where the design necessitates the use of dangerous structural or other procedures. or materials hazardous to H&S  (e) Consider H&S during maintenance subsequent to the completion of the project 11 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

Construction Regulations (3)  (f) Conduct inspections to ensure conformance of construction to design  (g) Stop construction work not in accordance with design  (h) Conduct a final inspection and issue a completion certificate  (i) Minimise ergonomic hazards – commissioning and other phases 12 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

Construction Regulations (4) Clients required to:  4 (1) (a) Prepare and provide Principal Contractor with H&S specifications (designer input)  4 (1) (b) Provide PC with any information that may affect H&S (designer input)  4 (1) (f) Provide sufficient H&S information when changes made to design and construction (designer input)  4 (1) (h) Ensure that PCs have made provision for the cost of H&S in their tenders (designer input)  4 (2 ) Discuss contents and approve H&S plan (designer input) 13 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

Construction Regulations (5) Clients may:  4 (5) Appoint an agent in terms of the responsibilities. but in terms of 4 (6) must be competent and have the resources 14 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

Influence of designers (1)  Directly:        Concept design General design Choice of structural frame Details Provision for services (construction ergonomics) Specification of materials. finishes and processes Consideration of H&S:  During design coordination  During constructability reviews  Reference to H&S:     During pre-tender site visit Upon site handover During site visits / inspections During site visits / meetings 15 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

availability for storage 16 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .  Site coverage e.Influence of designers (2)  Indirectly:  Selection of / advice regarding type of procurement system  Selection of / advice regarding preparation of contract documentation  Decision regarding / advice with respect to project duration  Status of design upon commencement of construction (contractor pre-planning)  H&S prequalification of contractors  Site location e. exposure to elements. power lines etc.g.g.

General design (1) Shape of structure i. irregular plan shape Pitch of roof i. pre-assembly and pre-casting:       Reduces elevated in-situ work  Reduces manual handling  Engenders mechanisation 17 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .e. high pitch Over sailing sections (access to soffit / working overhead) External work and finishes (elevated work to facades) Position of ablutions relative to municipal services (depth of excavations)  Pre-fabrication.e.

Delhi.General design (2) Bahia Temple. 2005) © 2008 : Prof JJ Smallwood 18 . India (Smallwood.

General design (3) Bahia Temple. 2002) © 2008 : Prof JJ Smallwood . India (The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahia’is of India. Delhi.

India (The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahia’is of India. 2002) © 2008 : Prof JJ Smallwood . Delhi.General design (4) Bahia Temple.

General design (5) (Steel Construction. 2004) © 2005: JJ Smallwood 21 .

Choice of structural frame (1)  Load bearing masonry:  Mass of materials  Manual handling / Bending and twisting  On-site storage (housekeeping!)  Timber frame:      Pre-fabrication Light weight Less on-site storage = enhanced housekeeping Less manual handling Engenders mechanisation 22 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

Choice of structural frame (2)  Structural steel:     Less on-site storage = enhanced housekeeping Pre-assembly Less manual handling Very challenging elevated work  Reinforced concrete:  On-site storage (housekeeping!)  Manual handling / Bending and twisting / Use of body force  Challenging elevated work 23 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

Details (1)      Affect constructability Affect work method Affect work postures Affect required plant and equipment May require access 24 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

Details (2) Externally installed full fenestration. Dublin (Smallwood. 2004) 25 © 2008 : Prof JJ Smallwood .

of services e. in vertical ducts Method of fixing  Therefore.g. optimum:  Coordination  Layering  Sectional area (vertical ducts) 26 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .Provision for services (1)  Affects construction ergonomics:     No. in ceiling Layering (horizontal plane) Space for working and fixing e.g.

g. ceiling / drywall panels and glass shop fronts 27 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood .mass per unit / m / m2 / m3  Rough surface  Sharp edges  Toxic  Large e.Materials (1) May be / have:  Heavy .

7% [37 / (492 – 12)] 28 © 2011 : Prof JJ Smallwood .Impact of design(ers) (1)  1 334 member practices of the South African Institute of Architects (SAIA) and 492 members of the South African Institute of Architectural Technologists (SAIAT):  Response rates:  SAIA: 5.6% [72 / (1 334 – 38)]  SAIAT: 7.

38 4.25 4.38 4.37 4. Tech’s Mean Score 4.49 4.59 4. 2009) © 2011 : Prof JJ Smallwood .29 4.Impact of design(ers) (2) Architects Parameter Mean Score 4.38 4.92 Rank 1 3 2 5 4 6 7 Mean Mean Score 4.46 4.67 4.74 4.20 3.58 Rank 1 3 4 2 5 6 4 Arch.07 3.75 Rank 1 2 3= 3= 5 6 7 29 Project quality End-user ergonomics Environment Project cost Project time Project health and safety (H&S) Construction ergonomics Table 1: Importance of various project parameters to Architectural Practices and Architectural Technologists (Smallwood.94 3.29 4.19 3.35 4.37 4.

99 Client meetings 9 8 8 2.41 2.83 3.84 3.57 Working drawings (Upstream) 2 1 2 3.32 3.51 1.18 Table 2: Frequency at which Architectural Practices and Architectural Technologists consider / 30 refer to H&S on various occasions (Smallwood.76 1.24 Pre-tender meeting 12 14 13= 2.65 3.76 Constructability reviews 8 9 9 3.04 Design coordination meetings 7 7 7 3.74 Site handover 10 10 10 2.49 Concept (design) (Upstream) 3 2= 3 3.46 2.78 2.14 Site inspections/discussions 5 4 5 3.11 Site meetings 6 6 6 3. Tech’s Mean Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Occasion (Stream) Score Score Score Detailed design (Upstream) 1 2= 1 3.18 Evaluating tenders 14 12= 13= 2.86 2.73 3.38 2.35 2.06 2.81 3.31 Pre-qualifying contractors 13 11 12 2.86 2.97 2.30 3.57 1.61 3.32 2.16 2.97 2.Impact of design(ers) (3) Architects Arch.30 3.80 2.65 2.50 1. 2009) © 2011 : Prof JJ Smallwood .54 2.48 Deliberating project duration 11 12= 11 2.46 Preparing project documentation 4 5 4 3.

67 3.32 Position of components 7 7 6 3.57 Details 2 6 3 3. Tech’s Mean Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Aspect Score Score Score Plan layout 1 1= 1 3.17 Finishes 6 11 8 3.97 3.54 2.75 3.35 Specification 5 5 5 3.97 3.80 Content of material 13 13 14 3.96 2.63 3.81 3.04 2.41 2.96 Schedule 12 10 11= 3.79 2.38 3.81 2.60 Mass of materials 16 16 16 2.08 Type of structural frame 11 9 9 3.95 2.38 2.Impact of design(ers) (4) Architects Arch.78 2.65 3.05 Site location 14 8 10 2.54 2.38 Method of fixing 4 4 4 3.16 3.62 2.50 2.35 2. 2009 © 2011 : Prof JJ Smallwood .24 2.93 Edge of materials 8 12 11= 3.00 3.03 3.18 3.17 2.21 2.01 2.38 2.38 3.45 Table 3: Frequency of which Architectural Practices and Architectural Technologists consider / refer to 31 H&S relative to various design related aspects (Smallwood.60 Design (general) 3 1= 2 3.93 Texture of materials 9 15 13 3.92 3.78 Surface area of materials 15 14 15 2.18 Elevations 10 3 7 3.

detailed design.Engendering H&S by designers  Consideration of H&S throughout all stages of design: brief. and during commissioning and maintenance phases of projects (and recycling and deconstruction) 32 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood . and pre-casting  Minimal work at elevated heights  Self-finished materials  Engendering of mechanisation  Appropriate procurement systems  Provision for H&S in contract documentation  Reference to H&S during pre-tender. concept. and working drawings  Pre-fabrication. pre-assembly. pre-contract and contract phases of construction.

decision regarding project duration. and status of design upon commencement of construction  Designers are liable for the impact of design on construction H&S 33 © 2003 : Prof JJ Smallwood . preparation of contract documentation. pre-qualification of contractors on H&S. method of fixing. and specification of materials and finishes  Indirectly through: selection of procurement system.Key points  Design occurs upstream of construction  Designers influence H&S directly and indirectly  Directly through: general design. choice of structural frame. details.

J.  Republic of South Africa. 1995. Government Gazette No 25207 Construction Regulations 2003. Government Gazette No. Port Elizabeth. Unpublished MSc (Constr Man) Dissertation. The Influence of management on the occurrence of loss causative incidents in the South African construction industry.  Commission of the European Communities. Brussels: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 14918 Occupational Health and Safety Act. The Center to Protect Workers’ Rights: Silver Spring. 1993. 2003. University of Port Elizabeth.  Republic of South Africa. Pretoria. M.  Smallwood. 2006. Pretoria. 34 © 2008 : Prof JJ Smallwood . An Analysis of Construction Accidents from a Design Perspective. Four guides for the ‘temporary or mobile construction sites’ directive.J.References (1)  Behm. 1993.

Mining Engineering Category Winner 12 North Shaft Headgear – Impala Platinum. 2004. Steel Construction. August 2004.References (2)  Steel Construction. 32 – 34. 35 © 2005 : Prof JJ Smallwood .