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American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages

A Dialogue on the Dialogue: The Baxtin-Vinogradov Exchange (1924-65) Author(s): Nina Perlina Reviewed work(s): Source: The Slavic and East European Journal, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Winter, 1988), pp. 526-541 Published by: American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages Stable URL: . Accessed: 30/11/2012 20:28
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Both attendedPetrograd and graduatedin 1918. Baxtin carriedon a powerful exchangewithhis conRussian opponentViktorVladimirovi6 Vinogradov. They also tracedthe relationof Baxtiniandialogicprinciple narrative and to thesystem themodernmulti-voiced (W.32." stimulated intotheaesthetic. from1924 to 1965. discovery cientpower to guide our readingand writing practicesas the classical disAristotle introduces artshave done?"(Bialostosky.168.82. Krysinski) system of classical rhetoric-a themedevelopedby Don Bialostoskyin his paper Criticism. The participants in the Congressdiscussedepistemological problemssuch Scientific as "The Theoryof BakhtinianDialogue and the Contemporary and HumanisticWorld" (S."Baxtin of Dialogue. Bialostosky and suggests "interlocutors" and Plato as Baxtin'shypothetical contemporin the to Baxtin'sdiscoursetheory aryparallelsand polemicalcounterparts and Paul de Man worksof TzvetanTodorov. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . cursive 788). Ponzio). Indiana University The theme of theSecond International BaxtinCongress (May 1985). lifeitselfhad carefully arrangedthe preconditions Baxtinand Vinogradovwereboth born in 1895. dialogic and fromthe practicesthatrhetoric discovera discursive practicedistinct suffihave "Baxtin's dialecticshave rationalized?" does Second.' socio-linguistic." "Dialogics as an Artof Discoursein Literary to The purpose of Bialostosky'spaper was the quest forthe resolutions discourse does of Mixail Baxtin's account two problems. entices one to pair himwith The open-ended natureof Baxtin'saesthetics of all a greatnumberof hypothetical epochs and nations.It was as if temporary for thesedisputations.216 on Fri. MerleBrown. Salvestroni). a In reality. Suvin). as a Theorist a thorough inquiry and philosophicalspheresof discoursecommunications.RichardRorty.A DIALOGUE ON THE DIALOGUE: THE BAXTIN-VINOGRADOV EXCHANGE (1924-65) Nina Perlina. University Slavistof ?axmatov's school. Both werewell read theotheras a promising 526 as a Classicistand Roman scholar."The Relation of Othernessin Bakhtin"(A. speech-partners For more than forty did exist. (793-94). 4 (1988) SEEJ. however. and "Stage Dialogue Includinga Possible World" to (D."First.No. speech-partner years.

268). Yet his works of the late 1920s "On the Theoryof "On Literary Prose. Imagination. Vinogradov officially edged scholar and a memberof the Soviet Academyof Sciences. to Vinogradovin Baxtin'sarticle One findsthe first polemicalreference v slovesnomxudoiestof 1924.2Baxtin remainedin shadow untilthe 1960s.82.and literary genres.3 they This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192."theauthorcompleted of theusual academicand social seminalworksof the 1930swhiledeprived at first in the cityof Gor'kij (from8 February1934).as wellas his large. Up until the end of the Second World War.cumulative and his polemicaland powerful Stiliteratury studyO jazyke xudolestvennoj Baxtin'sand Voloreci. in another themostuncompromising."The Problem set of criticalobservations. 224-25. may have resulted (His laterreticence or moral qualms-we do not really know which. both the academic world. 'inov's theories dialogue.56-175). yethighly respectful and exiledin 1929. 119) was polemically literatury (1959).all containnumerous xudolestvennojprozy. as continuedtheirworkin ominousisolationfrom his theSovieteditorsof Vinogradovelegantly put it.A Dialogueon theDialogue 527 in Russian and European philologyand complemented theirknowledge of literature and linguistics with readingsof contemporary and psychology In the 1920s." (O jazyke direct references 240-50. Prehistory 42. listika.117.O jazyke xudoi.surrounded and academic by friends philosophicalaesthetics. ideas to thesubtext and carehis polemicwithBaxtinian shifted Vinogradov fullycamouflagedit. Vinogradov'sseminalworksof the 1920s. prozy. 65. his wifehad senthima volumeof Pu'kin editedby Toma'evskij. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .344). After an acknowlreturned Moscow and became to war. each other'sachievements.Baxtinrefers ofDostoevin in the Novel" and "From the articles "Discourse Poetics and the sky's of The Novelistic Discourse" 67. and then the in thetownof Vjatka" (Vinogradov. in theworkof art. of the Text in Linguistics. where surroundings.However. Philologyand the Human Sciences:An Experimentin PhilosophicalAnalysis"(Speech Genres.or. perhapsmostpowerful (Voprosy. challenged teorija of poeticutterance.materialai formy Baxtin's and last vennomtvorvestve" 11).216 on Fri. "Problema soderzanija.168. Knowingly theychallengedone manner.) AfterBaxtin's arrest. Both enduredyearsof hardship. confederates. feltcomfortable it was onlyup until1929to 1930thatVinogradov referring fromcautiousness to Baxtindirectly. Dialogic (Problems. In addiinspired by Vinogradov'sO jazyke xudoiestvennoj of timesin Problems a number to Vinogradov tion. poeticeskoj poetika(1963). in an articlewritten in 1959-61. theyheld independent positions but were whollyaware of and willingly."and "Poetic and Rhetoric" Literary Styles.whenhis name and workswererediscoveredin theUSSR and in theWest."as to such complexBaxtinianideas as "theauthor-hero and the of runthrough theory polyphony poeticdiscourse.Baxtinwas arrested Vinogradov in 1934.

last.Vinogradov.Vossler. and aesthetic correctness about theepistemological. have theiroriginsin thelinguistic set of oppositions:"interOn thisbasis Vinogradovadvances thefollowing lexical oftheword. epistemological positions by developing From theirrespective vantagepointsBaxtinand Vinogradovwereexamineach experienced in theskillof projecting the antagonist's ing one another. speculative projectionsof of one's own intellectual theopponent'sviewsagainstthebackground purthecore of theongoingBaxtin-Vinogradov discussions. New worksof the author. chology system philofunction towardlanguagein its social and communicative sophicalattitudes (Humboldtand Saussure. as themain mediator methodon theduality between immanent (thesolid bodyof ergon projective and energeia (the entirety) language. "parole"is projected upon the"langue.82-97). for the of and the but not Humanities. philosophical.528 Slavic andEastEuropean Journal As Baxtin and Vinogradovwere buildingtheirrespective theoriesthey of bothpolemically the fundamental reinterpreted concepts Potebnja(Mysl' and Saussure.92-130." "parole"vs. and psystylistics.14.Spitzer.languageas a cultural-historical literary of originalauthors.216 on Fri. xudo. ijazyk). least. Spet (Vnutrenjajaforma of academic the in similarity readingsonly amplified glaringdifference taken the two men in their ideas.estvennoj of a writer's individualdevelopVinogradovsuggeststhatthe dynamics theliterary how an authorfunctions within mentdemonstrates languageof his epoch.Such slova).thesignificance of poetics.168.""stylistic nal form structure. The seminal featuresof the writer's personality-his style. linguistic.whosepenetrating readingsof Potebnja." the figure aspects poetic in different and positionof the author/narrator poetic genres. Baxtin.enerin people's social contacts. relationships and thedialogue.Spet.functional(or "compositional-syntactical") This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. These viewsagaist his own intellectual purview.Spet. As Vinogradovsuggestsin his of Social Linguistics. natare all well had numerousreservations documented. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . viewconstituted The subjectsof thesediscussionswerethe linguistic and communicative of of the awareness: the interpretation "poeticI.all originalstylistic literary inventedby him.82.yetclearlyenvisioned languageof theepoch) (O jazyke prozy. Humboldt).his "parole"--are projected against a wider immanentplane-the national structures language." interpretation on the speechof literary The keytermsof Vinogradov's"discipline works" theories of Potebnja. urally. word-lexeme. "langue"(Stilistika.projective. based his Vinogradov geia.theirpoeticconsciousness contributions individual proplane of the standardliterary jected againstthe wide. 146-81. Saussureand. system.4 WhileBaxtinsaw the open-ended nonfinalizing powerof language.185). of the immanent.varietiesof lanmannersin theirrelationto the standardliterary individualnarrative of the between the the and balance monologue guage epoch.linguisitics. become componentsof and findtheirplace withinthe universalsystemof the literary language.Saussurevs.and Saussure.

widest. nor is it a visual representation. yetopen-ended is builton the foundation of "interhuman" The entire edificeof his theory communication. an understanding of another person.In 1924 he formulated component-let us call it the 'image'-is neither objections:"The aesthetic nor the word. to theSaussuriandesignSpeaker-Listener. the more intensively in their theorPotebnja. Baxtin envisions Having introduced an originaltheoryof discoursemighttake and all the possible directions idea of discoursegenres. Thus.17-18). Vinogradovproposed his theoryof speech genres inspiration in the same timeperiodas Baxtin. and social a along the psychological.82. ideologeme. 221-25).Baxtin 81.A Dialogueon theDialogue 529 the core of his methodsadvanced by Vinogradov.charged has a Baxtin's term"intention" withthe individual'svolitionalintention. and Vinogradovincludedstandardlinguistics to agreewiththeir ideas. This adhesion of information. observesthatthemostimportant component theactual "eventof existence.and language and literary Formalism. linesof thatof Christiansen of his understanding of the dialogue. Perlina. this whereas use of term volitional connotation. 60-102. and theory within Vinogradov linguistics perceived language as the ergon. of a metalinresponsive positionin thedialogue-is indeeda phenomenon Its is of a linguistic not a unit guisticnature."takesplace in some "inter"in dem Zwischenmenschlichen.theless Baxtinwas willing is well known fromhis Baxtin's interpretation of Saussurian liguistics "The Problemof Speech Genres"and fromthe apt commentaries givento thisworkby Western scholars(Speech Genres.The polemical edge of this concept is directedagainst Vinogradov. 280-86. Vinogradov's qualitative. the messagegenerated that exceeds the meresemanticsum of the containsinformation partners two lexicalcompoundsauthoredby thespeakers. It is the idea-conception. 5 Referring of any speechcommunication.55). an originalaesthetic rather formation whichis implemented words through in poetry. in Philosophy Arts.the prominentand eruditeantipode among the expertsin Social Linguistics.and ultimatespace within whichhe located all individualspeech manifestations (the worksof This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192." betweenspeech partners. smalleststructural compound an or an order-word-lexeme phrase-but utterance. Clark and Holquist.yethe founda place forit thebodyof standard of styles.through visible tangiblematerialin visual arts-the image is a whichneverconcurswiththe the 1920s. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . interpretation implies any discourseact.of the and the preparationof the answer-taking on an active interlocutor.?pet.Vinogradovfounda strong methodological in Saussure.168." "sobytiebytija. advancesa strongly structuralized. as MartinBuber called it elsewhere(1:176-77. aid and creative Like Baxtin. of literary the history taste. In by both speech any dialogue. ies of poetics.nor withany formation other material combination"(Voprosy.216 on the largest." human space.

92-97). and socio-historical intoan aesthetic system. 3:34-36) and brought fragmenty of of structural levels within the theory "multiplicity system"closer to Saussure (Poetika.82. O jazyke xudofestvennoj prozy. an to: provides approach 1. school by of individualstyles intothe styleof a literary 2.In opposition to the Baxtiniantheoryof his theory of literary discourse.288-90).culture. Vinogradovdistinguishes betweenthe the subcategory individualpoeticstyleof an authorand thestyleof a literary school. One can see thatat thisstage of his scholarlydevelopment Vinogradovhas revised his revised Gustav Spet'sEstetiEceskie (2:69.VinoIntroducing and projecfunctional. thegrouping for the individualfeatures and indicating centersof gravity finding of of schools within the broader styles literary sphere literary/poetic method). cally individualizedproperties. Whiletheformer forms for and material category providesthebackground thelatterorganizestheentirety of literary writings poetic speech/language. Stylistics all its speech/language. 2. Within of poetic speech.Vinogradovintroduced styles-a linguistic of disciplinewhose aim was "to studythe foundationsand peculiarities speech. language(immanent-functional of literary of thedisintegration schoolsand thedegeneration 3. In his and projectivemethods mind the combinationof immanent.241). and psychologisemantic.369-77. psyand aesthetically motivated selections fromamong the variety chologically formsprovidedby colloquial and written of linguistic language.The smalleststructural (Baxtin's ideologeme) systemof speech genreswas not a word-utterance but a word-lexeme.216 on Fri. The studyof the poetic stylesof different authorsin theirhistorical features successionby projecting individual against stylistic/linguistic of thehistory thebackground of language. gradov developeda combinedusage of immanent. thestudy these of theirindividualstylesinto verbal cliches by reassembling of newerstylistic into components formations remnants (a combina- This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. functional. including variousaims and typesof expression. withall of its grammatical.530 andEastEuropean Journal Slavic elementof his different authors. Stylistics of poeticspeech/language. Accordingto him withinwhichit is possible to build thereare two linguistic subcategories and thediscipline on thespeechof literary works: stylistics of colloquial and written 1. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . tional methods(O jazyke xodolestvennoj prozy.intellectual ideas.168.bits of energeia). and literarytaste (a combinationof immanentand projectional methods). Accordingto Vinogradov. this new disciplineof the speech of literary works. poetic speechis the resultof purposeful.its diverseformsand various functions" (O jazyke xudo6estvennoj prozy.

168.6For Vinogradov-and herehe is an outspokenantipodeof Baxtin-poetic languageis not an ideological. Vinogradov in of are documented "Naturalistideskij groappreciation Spitzer'swritings tesk" (completed1920. 49.seen together" (Spitzer. "O granicax". inquiries historicalapproach to language and literature (Stilistika. 334). The Baxtinian"event "law formula" founda homologousexpression in theSpitzerian of existence of continuousmetamorphosis. His earlyknowledge and referred to Spitzernot infrequently. In oppositionto Baxtin and his confederates. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. tured.yetapt ( one aspectis evervalid" (Classical. 119).45." Baxtin's observations about Spitzer'sworksweresporadic. 168-69)." His reservations of speech literary expressedin the 1960s about workin whichSpitzerapplied theunified Stilstudien-the literary-linguistic of verbalartand intellectual methodto thehistory culture-signaleda shift in Vinogradov'smethodologies. lems. BaxtinparticDie Umschreibungen des Begriffes 'Hunger'in Italieniularlyvalued Spitzer's schen(1920). 337. 128). 325. 129). Vinogradovimpliedthatthis original a to language provided parallel to his own "disciplineon the approach works.everything individual. "theidea and thewordare. Saussure's General Linguisticsand Spitzer's "aestheticlinguistics. 482-85) and "Problema skaza v stilistike" 1925.repreand separate. Dialogic Imagination. see Poetika.3-7)." in their Baxtin and Vinogradovconsciouslyemphasizedthe difference of the same thetheoretical interpretations positionsby givingcontrasting ories. Speech Genres. and Stilstudien (1928) for Umgangssprache of themetalinguistic aesthetic to theforeground their advancement propertiesof individualdiscourse. but a linguistic achievement that is purposefully "manufacconstructed. see O jazyke xudo(written In the 1920s Vinogradovwas attractedto festvennoj prozy.A DialogueontheDialogue 531 tion of all threemethodswhichtogether make possible an inquiry manners into specificstylesof parodies and innovative narrative as well as theirgrouping into new genreunits(O jazyke xudotestvennoj prozy.82.ideageia) and system (ergon). Spitzer's inquiries broad to (a approach languagestudiesknownas "individual speechpatterns or "aesthetic stylistics" linguistics")." standsalone.literature. at every the reading.In contrast of discursive Vinotional approach towardthe poetics and theory styles. Italienische (1922).23. Vinogradovproposes an of structure and exchangebetweenthe elements (enerongoingreciprocity to the Baxtinianphilosophical. from and givenan aim different thatof naturalsocial language.published1921. as an "abstract (Vololiobjectivism" gradov'spositioncan be characterized nov.Baxtinaptlynotedthatin Spitzer(as thelatter moment of once phrasedit elsewhere). on empirical projectional styles.206).216 on Fri. 61.Classical. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . accordingto which"nothing is fitted intotheWhole-in fact. 160. fromhis earlierimmanent methodsbased intoindividual to a chronological. sentstheWhole. into and the evolutionof cultural language. Marksizm.

Spitzer study: types problems 1. Vinogradovacknowledgedthat "our nativeconcept of poetics has providedan autonomousanalogy to the Western conceptsintroduced and Oskar Walzel" (Stilistika." and he discussed this linguistic phenomenonby relatingindividual norms of oral formsto the standard language and literary periphrastic speech. their feelings messages yetto makethesecret forms.withhis interest language and individualdiscoursemanifestations. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Both Baxtin and Vinogradovnoticed his approach to normative Baxtin. 176). Italienische desBegriffes and Die Umschreibungen Spitzer's Umgangssprache theattention of both Baxtinand Vinogradovat thesame 'Hunger'attracted time. As a understandable to theiractual addresseesby usingperiphrastic advanced two in of his linguist.532 Slavic andEastEuropean Journal whilerestoring of style thehistory studies However. tiveor a friend) Thus Baxtinrecognized This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.while making the obfuscatedmeaningclear to theirfriends and families(the true in the dialogues)? partners 2.Leo expertin the Italian language. How was it thatdifferent authorsand addressers.could be understood immediately by anotherreader(a relain who was thereal speechpartner. in Russia. by Karl Vossler.was assignedto the Germanmilitary bureauto keep control overthecorrespondence censorship of war.216 on Fri.and misery in the military to hide attempted experienced prisoncamps.evenin themid-sixties. to similar to their and devices code messages? linguistic stylistic For Spitzer. Umschreibungen 'Hunger' DuringtheFirst World War Spitzer. thetextsof theletters revealedthecore of "individual stylistics. Spitzerused forhis as a unique opportunity thisappointment to collectsourcematerial on the affinities academic research and differentiations betweenvernacular and normative Italian and on the varietiesof individualdiscursive styles in the correspondence manifested the Italian prisoners of war and between families. when they were both at very importantstages of their academic Baxtin was forming his interpretation of discoursegenres. isolated fromone resorted anotherand unawareof one another'stechniques. Studious philologist of Italian prisoners thathe was. Italian prisoners they despair. to be in individual foundSpitzer'smostastonishing observations discourse. imposed readers).82. Spitzerhad observed that the same messageexpressedin an utterance perceivedas insignificant as or undecipherable by a reader(the censor) who was not conceptualized the addressee. on the internally bivalentnatureof human speech. desBegriffes is easyto summarize. their In his book Spitzeranalyzed various circumlocutions inventedby the of war to describethestarvation. The prisoners and thoughts from thecensors. How did the authorsof the letterssucceed in hidingthe messages fromthe censors(the undesirable. development: his interpretation The content of Spitzer's and Vinogradov of speechgenres.168.

from the Withoutthe interspeech partner cannottake place. linguistics 119) (Speech Genres.and the special requirements worksof art ("nauka o Vinogradov'sdisciplineon the languageof literary This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.82. understanding to the in agreement withor by contrast identification processimplemented of rhetoric. Examples providedby Spitzerpointed to the adhesion of information theultimate thatcharacterizes and thefinalresults goals of reply-exchange of understanding.216 on Fri. of lexical and stylistical Vinogradov appreciated the systematization all the cited circumlocutions within which categories Spitzer grouped inventedby the prisoners.syntax. Philology.thatis.into a 'viewpoint. For Vinogradov. involved intellectual.' and so forth (the Vosslerschool. social styles ( a synecdoche.A Dialogue on theDialogue 533 of his the source material collected by Spitzer an ideal manifestation "intentionaleffort.and the Human Sciences" (1959-61). believed that Spitzerhad ular language and can identify as a glossa. and rhetoric of vernacmethodsSpitzerapplied to thelexicology.. and ideologicallevels. as a lexical Spitzer. iftheyare transformed into 'social 'world view' (or some languageor speech sense of the world).To understand periphrase meant to fix the projectionof this phrase in the wide space of the lexicon and to definethe promptordinatesof the new phraseologicalor lexicalunit. as a borrowing from thelocal or substandard. dialect. BaxtinaddressedSpitzer'slast publication. Spitzer'slatestwork)makessuch a transformation. Vinogradov textbecomescomprehensible and had how an undeciphered demonstrated true to the individual methods that made an reading suggested interpretive thehiddenmessageof an individual actual message.familiar dailyspeech. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Circumlocutions locutor"theactual eventof existence" formsgain additionalmeaningthrough and periphrastic the metalinguistic the understanding connection-through by anotherpersonwho is actively in thedialogueat theemotional.language(functional) enterinto theserelationships. apparently.." found at the root of any discourse communication. can theyspeak withone anotherand so forth? forth).Can languagesand dialects(territorial.or as a hybridformedby professional is an a carrierof an idiolect.In all of these cases. no understanding is possibleifa true is withdrawn communication. Aesthetic voices. As Baxtininsisted.""ustanovka.As Vinogradovrealized fromhis readingsof a new formof speechas an invariant. into a Only if a nonlinguistic approach is takentowardthem. stylistics.' .and scientific languageand so jargons).and especially. transformed In his notes "The Problemof linguistics the Text in Linguistics. normative semasiology. thatis.. In the 1920s Baxtin found in Spitzera unique linguisticscholar who into metalinguistics. andLiterary Linguistics History: of languagewithin thelanguagesystem or within The elements the 'text'(in the strictly linguisticsense) cannot enterinto dialogic relations. and UmschreiVinogradovsaw in Spitzer'sItalienischeUmgangssprache to a new boundarydiscipline betweenlinguistic stylisbungen prolegomena the merits of Spitzer'sworkswerein the ticsand poetics.168.

30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .thepre-eminent Vinogradov'ssystem.Followingtherecommendations theauthor of from selectsthe mostpersuasive the material of the figures speech rough normativelanguage.98).carefully selectedpoetic form overideologicalcontent. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. a genuineFormalist. 113). of prose. malism:"In thepoeticlanguagetheform finds social which in its national.534 Journal Slavic andEastEuropean is a hybrid formation whosecomponents literatury") jazyke xudo'estvennoj are Spitzer's "aesthetic linguistics"and the achievementsof Russian Formalism. of dialogue.dialiterary genres.Vinogradov. O jazyke of discourseand attacked Baxtinian theories 98-175) xudolestvennoj prozy.After facthe involvedhimself thefirst edition of Problems realizedthatBaxtinwas ofDostoevskij'sCreation. inspired individual and by Spitzer. In hisearlyworksof the 1920s. form of discipline content and content are bothcomponents on ideologies. language.It also defiedthe Baxtinianinterpretation and the philosophyof language. and forthesocial. As late as 1963.Vinogradov'spolemicwiththe logicality. In Baxtin." and builds thebasis of principles prose genres(O jazyke xudozestvennoj prozy. and poetic takesprecedence poeticform are ideologemes. expression the acoustic form.but rather unitswithin a new epistemological introducing within whichmonologicdiscoursewas absorbed by and redisperspective.168. six years before his death.suggests of genreconstruction.understood stylistics poeticlanguageto be a linof naturallanguageand thatgrowsabove theentirety guisticsuperstructure social speech. Vinogradov fromthe camp of Foremphatically quoted Vinokur. of Baxtinand achievements Vinogradovwas fullyaware of the greatest his school. of O xudolestvennoj The chapter"Pobtikai ritorika" proze (1930.and he aimed theedge of his polemicsagainsttheseminalworks of the group-Baxtin's book on Dostoevskij and Vologinov'sMarksizm. Vinogradov accentuatedthelinguistic and psychological aspectsof poeticsand restored to rhetoric its inalienablerights rulesand recomto provideauthoritative mendationsfor all socially persuasivespeech manifestations and speech For is "a normative defines rhetoric which genres.his old confederate The contentof the is thecontent. theory genres Vinogradov.7 Vinogradov not advocating a mere shiftof balance betweenmonologicand dialogic the workof art. Within thenovel. In Vinogradov. who Baxtin expression" (Stilistika. hybrid of rhetoric.82.216 on Fri.and aesexpresssion theticstance of his works. genreof modern is a of of two different intentions the author. and theothermoral. a for form another content that does not possess its own acoustic provides to and his school. Baxtinists withrespect to dialoguewas perhapstheonlyexception wherein in thephilosophicaldebates. Contrary believedthatpoeticlanguageis but an inaccurate and thatpoetic metaphor discourse and poeticsbelongamongideologicalsuperstructures. By means of rhetoriche also finds an adequate forhis rhetorical prose. ideological.

A Dialogue on theDialogue 535 of dialogic communicative awaretributed among different subcategories ness. WhereBaxtinfounddialogic reaccentuation the hidden or "wordwith the son's utterance. 240)..216 on Fri.tothedomain oflinguistics! as I conceive (O jazyke 294) prozy.a dialogic rejoinderwas generatedby and belonged to its was a conjurorof his own inimitable absolute owner. posed it fromlinguistics the Baxtinistsand Vinogradov made theirverbal duels and cascades of sharplungestruly spectacular: TheBaxtinists. xudolestvennoj Accordingto Vinogradov. multi-voicedness.the methodsadvanced by Baxtin broadened thefieldof discussion. in the immediacy of discourse. xudofestvennoj The duel wenton.' of parodyand skaz are just as irreBaxtin'sand Vinogradov'streatment What Baxtinexplainsas the writer's concilablydifferent. Vinogradov'sdialogistwas designedto shiftthe expectaof theframework fromdialogue to monologue. polyphonic the a loophole.. In the book O xudoestvennojproze Vinogradov enthusiastically of accepted all Baxtin's observationsthat provided poetic interpretation of Baxtinian thefundamental Dostoevskij'sworks.a speechpartner was theprotagonist of Vinogradov'spoeticsystem. groundedselecpsychologically formsof literary tion of thesemanticand syntactic's timeshe let go of hermother!" right: youngthing 11.for was born betweenthe speech partners. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.theindividual and authoritative speechmanifestation. Vinogradovargued that Baxtin and Volosinov did not resolvethe problemof the poeticsof dialogic utterance. Vinogradov'stheory tiatedby his binaryformula-purposeful.82. .in agreement withtherulesof rhetoric.yetchallenged principle and dialogic discousetheory study-his philosophicalaesthetics (O jazyke prozy. Horace was attacking: What. even that a real-life monologicprodialogue is built by a set of clear-cut of anotherpernouncements. Within Baxtinianpoetics. dialogic orientaas tiontowarda specific Vinogradovintroduces typeof dialogicawareness.168." Vinogradovdiscoveredthe speaker's attemptto muffle and to voice of the opponent. to discredithis speech-manifestations. Vologinov. "O granicax.poeticsholds on to theapron of linguistics! "Whena pretty becomesripefora man.Within tionsof thelistener of theidea. to the maximum yetdid not guaranteenonambivalent conclusions. When Baxtinstatedthatany individualdiscourseact a nonfinalized." I havethetemerity the blow: ofpoetic field to assign theentire Vinogradov. parrying stylistics. is internally demonstrated Vinogradov open-ended rejoinder. was a rheta speechpartner theframework was to make his oratorythe only effective orician whose main intention utterance For Baxtin. rather theytransThis philosophicalcontestbetween to gnoseology.56-175). Vinogradov. (Voprosy. over the dialogic reply of advance his own monologic pronouncement anotherperson. ofit. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Each speechpartner of dialogue was substanmonologicpronouncement.

Accordingto Vinogradov.. 3.penetrating confessor. is a project the 1920s. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of theauthor'sI. 63-86."in theplace of suasive.It is not difficult to findthe closestparallel to thisapproach in i grammatmodernpoetic theories: Roman Jakobson'sPoezija grammatiki ika podzii(Poetryof grammar of psychologically method a seriesoflinguistic on semantic selections nent-projectional suggests and syntactic levels.167-258).yet unfinished.of thegreatbard. theauthor'sI findsitsplace within limitsof his creation. Romantic. From the 1940s through the 1960s.Vinogradovrevampedhis discipline on the language of literary worksby includingin it severalaspects of the of The of thesewere the conceptof the literature. His immamotivated art.the author.thedichotomy and hero fixesand settlesthe position of a literary work in the world of As Baxtin insists. workas a volitionalact of thewriter's thatfindsits expression in creativity a seriesof intentional selectionsand in grafting poetics onto psychology.536 Slavic andEastEuropean Journal a shifting of psychological interests and a changein the typesof linguistic to lifenewspeechgenres. perin theplace of "anotherperson.his disciplineon thelanguage of literary and linguistically substantiated. of the poet's I towardthe stylistic matrix of the orathe orientation frenzied order to be aesthetically literature.168. distancedtreatment of the perintimate. most theory important I in different and the author's/narrator's poet's literary genres relationship to fictional characters withinhis works.3-7. (Das literarische psychoaesthetics Kunstwerks).thatis. thepsychologically and emotionally markedindividualtreatment of fictional of theauthor'sown poeticcreacharacters within thelimits tion: objective. 2. individualpsychology to throughthe poet's intention implemented his style and to projecthis individual manifest speechpatterns against thelanguageof a contemporary/historical epoch. of dialogicrelations between author Accordingto Baxtin. etc.subjective.Yet at the same time.has to put himself his fictional character. sonages(O jazyke xudotestvennoj prozy."The Authorand Hero in Poetic Activity" (Estetika. idiolects selection thateventually of fictional bring and individual dialectsof writers themselves.Vinogradov calls them"symbolic" and "compositional" selections. 751-56) and grammar In treating a literary a similarity whichdid not go unnoticed by theexperts. worksof Vinogradov'spoetics.idle chronicler.7-180) is the titleof Baxtin's seminal.216 on Fri.theauthoris thecreatorof the This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. whose elements are: formula polynomial 1. the intentional of his stylistic association/dissociation mannerwith the requirements of the dominantspeech genresof his time. theartistic Thus. characters/narrators.82. hispose. of Roman Ingarden's Vinogradovis a followerof pet and a forerunner des literarischen VomErkennen Kunstwerk.

creationis isomorphousto the infinity of God's ended universe of artistic In Baxtin. and psychological strategies.thepositionof theauthoris conceptualized createduniverse. the obscure storyof disputedtextsis but a carnivalesque because in Baxtinevenplaand lugubrious of Baxtin'stheory.Authorship the master's ownership legalizes is an an of his activity. as the individual'slegal privilege tardizedform.and therefore himself emanations. analogyto thefigure is builtby thewordsor discourse-units The artistic creation thatpossess the dwellsin the interadhesion.Every text has been created by systemthat has insurmountable the unmistaksomeone. Baxtin'spoetic utterance qualityof incessant One's humanspace.168.The aesthetic embracesthe ideationalpurviews of his heroes. (one's own selfas well as the I of unfathomany otherperson)is designedin theimageof God. 1:22-28.82.yetbeingenvelopedby the and their of thecharacters voliauthor'spoetic horizon. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . textis an element According limits. That is to say.helpedto attribute severalvexedpolemicalpublications rather in advancingand forming to the pen of Dostoevskij. understanding person's homoform of people's social and ideational contactsin the sphereof the "interhuman.Der Begriff 98-107). thanBaxtin. everyindividualI. logical." a literary of a rigidlinguistic to Vinogradov. Baxtin'sopen(Judische Schriften. In this sense. by and by analogyto theBook of Genesis. The problem of can be resolvedby a textological authorship approach thatcombineslinguistic. is uttered to lifeby some yetit is brought ideologicalstatement by oneself. "authorship" over the product to the ergon."Authorship" (the copy(Who right)or as an academic issue of textualdivinationand attribution his attenwrotethistext?)neverinterested Baxtin.and aestheticideas of Hermann Cohen. and developing and further ideas.216 on Fri.cultural-historical. energeia.In Baxtin'sterms.theindividualities activities remainunboundand unrestrained. and it willcontinue itslifein someoneelse's awareness. whoseentire able nature is nevertheless to the world created by Him transgredient derReligion. even an anonymousor plagiarizedworkpreserves able psychologicaland stylistic hallmarksof its author.their comprehending processof generating is the characterized adhesion Authoring genuinely dialogic replicating.and he readilyswitched tion to "authoring"-an ideationalconceptwhichdefinesthe teleologyof can be bestdefined as a homology culture. justification in reveals a and basshameful. pragmatic. of theCreator.philosophical. to the Authoring.9 otherprotagonist.A Dialogueon theDialogue 537 is transgredient of his poetic to all forms entireartistic work. whereno one has theprivilege of absoluteauthorship. Accordingto Cohen. by of the comprehending of it is a another views. Vinogradov'smerits This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. although giarism dialogicality. tionaland discursive This antinomyof Baxtinian aestheticsfindsits resolutionin the neoKantian religious. Vinogradov. open-ended contrary.theauthorfinds outsidetheworldwhich horizonof the author has been createdby him fromwithin.

theownership of thevexedtextsto theundisputable and attribute authors.Formalist poeticlinguistics. discussionof Humboldt's philosophyof language withinthe culturalframework of the twentieth see Postovalova. Vologinov'spolemics withVinogradovare also knownfromMarksizmifilosofijajazyka(1929). he now relatesthe evolutionof of productive forcesand the relationsof produclanguageto the historical development of individual thanto the history awareness(as it was in 1929).within of the two mencomes to itsfinalconclusion:usingVinogradov'stextology as an aid. literatury. And intoa wholly-weighted linguistic textology discipline thearea of thediscipline createdby him.who is who in the Baxtin school. 2 For biographicaldata and an overall inquiryinto Vinogradov'stheoryof language and to Vinogradov's Selected Works literature see tudakov's afterword and commentary (Poetika.approach to the subject. ratherthan an immanent."publishedin 1928.82.rather comprehensive The fact that Marr's teachingon speech and language is hardlycompatible with the Baxtiniandiscoursetheorydoes not seem to botherVologinov. a collectionof the papers presented at the to thiscollectionsubstituted new papers for their particular." supportthe Baxtiniandialogic principleof discoursecommunication.whosetopic is theimmanent features and evolution of individualpoetic styles.and while reproaching he feelscomfortable withrelativism. These volumes includethe seminalworksof the 1920sand 1930s.werebased on Humboldt'slinguistic and philosophical postulates: "Language is an energeia. NOTES 1 An earlierversionof thispaper was read there.285-358). however. I refer to originalpresentations thetype-written copyof theCongressproceedings. Thus in 1930 Vologinov of language to the foreground advances the sociological interpretation and plays down the dialogic propertiesof discourse." "Language is a system." Vinogradov'sinterpretation. 465-508. 93-96. Following Marr.538 Slavic Journal andEastEuropean are unsurpassable.see Shukman.For a briefreporton the Congress. one can answerthe question. in whichall of Vologinov'sreservain developing tionsabout Vinogradov'semphasison linguistics thetheory of poeticstyles In "O granicax. Poetikaand O jazyke xudolestvennoj Compare. Ja. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . century This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.13-35. 3 Vinogradov'sunwillingness to polemicizewiththe Baxtin school afterthe arrestof the the militant leader can be seen fromthe factthathe leftunanswered attackon his theories-Vologinov's long paper "O granicaxpottikii lingvistiki" (1930)."Vologinov's "The LatestTrendsin Linguistic fying Thoughtin the West. virtually transformed "the innerformof the word"intoa component of Symbolist For a general and. withhis own eclecticism. tion.and Marksizm ifilosofijajazyka. later. Baxtin'sidea of theutterance can be interpreted as an intentional guistic objectiof Humboldt's"inner form oftheword. whose aim was to denounce his entireapproach to verbal art. 176-205.216 on Fri. along withthepsychological emphasisadded to Humboldtianideas by Potebnja and ?pet. Since several contributors in Italy (or publishedtheirCongresspapers elsewhere).thatthe dialogue it is here. Vinogradov 4 In the 1920s Wilhelmvon Humboldthad an immensely on Russian linstronginfluence theories.Vinogradov'sworkswritten fromthe late 1950s through the 1960s provide a socio-historical. Marr and his "novoe utenie o jazyke" (new studyof language).Vologinovleaves the ranks of the Baxtiniststo follow a new leader-N.See also Tagliagambe and Maxia. for a careful Titunik's borrowingof Vinogradov's textologicalstrategies and/orMedvedev analysisof theworkswritten by Baxtinand/orVologinov is an honorablecontribution to thememory of both Russianscholars.168.80-87. O jazyke xudolestvennoj prozy.

Voprosy literatury PMLA 101 Bialostosky. real-life dialoguesas wellas expandeddialogicforms in Bachtin. In the main body of theworkhe analyzesthreeindividualinterpretations given by the famous social activistsof the 1870s to the same social eventof theirtime-the himwithcruelty to his daughter. of Texas Press. Trans. of Texas Press. Vinokur(O jazyke xudolestvennoj B. M. Kazanskij.VernW. Speech Genres Ed. Austin:Univ.skaz. i estetiki." (1986):788-97. Baxtinand his friends analogyto theSaussurianand Jakobsonian adapted this wordingfromthe Formalists.Alterity partner the dialecticaltirade into the ian discoursecommunication theoryand thus introduces Ponzio also interprets of Baxtin'sdiscourse themetalinguistic features dialogicdichotomy. equivalent. CarylEmersonand Michael Holquist. Baxtin. the power of the dialogic discursiveawareness overthelinguistic dominated and combinations (Saussure." corresponded understanding of thespecific universe-theartistic world the authoras thecreator and inimitable artistic of thenovel.Hence.216 on Fri. by discourse acts.M.M. Baxtin. M. FourEssays byM. 1975. M.Don H. Spasovi6. M. Baxtin. lawsuitagainstK. 7 By naming thefirst edition of thebook TheProblems Creation-"problemy ofDostoevskij's rather than "poetiki"-Baxtinwantedto avoid any confluence withthe Fortvorcestva. Bakhtin]. and G. Estetikaslovesnogo Poetics. Withinthe Baxtinianframework. Caryl Emersonand Michael Holquist. McGee.82. M.M.Werke. Tomagevskij. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1984. [M. Kroneberg Vinogradovuses charging theheatedpolemicsaroundtheKroneberg case (theparticipants werethedefense attorney in essays in the V.M.Jakobson. [M.336-38).1979.Trans. Austin:Univ. [M. processof selections rather thanspeech Vinogradov). seemsto be a moreappropriate discourse genres. and Saltykov-?6edrin of liberal press) as ultimateproof of his notion of the internally monologic structure in artand publicoration. M. 8 In the chapter"Poetika i ritorika"fromthe 1930-edition of O xudolestvennoj proze (0 connectionis verystrong.TheDialogic Imagination: Michael Holquist.A Dialogue on the Dialogue 539 5 The term"speechgenres"(recevye tanry)was introduced by Vinogradov. "Dialogics as an Art of Discourse in LiteraryCriticism.: Xudol. Minneapolis:Univ. and Other Late Essays. and trans.1986. of to his philosophicaland aesthetic creation.: Iskusstvo. M.and it prozy." The idea of malistterminology thatput a heavyemphasison poeticstylesand stylistics. of contemporary as categories studies. O jazyke xudolestvennojprozy. semiotic theory WORKS CITED Ed. ofDostoevsky's son. In the introin Rhetoric ductorychapterto this work Vinogradovtracesthe evolutionof Aristotle's Russian thought fromthe eighteenth the twentieth centuries (fromLomonosov through to ?pet)." "Semiotics between Peirceand Bach9 AugustoPonzio ("Dialogue and Alterity in Baxtinand Abduction")discussesan impliedthird tin.168. Dostoevskijin TheDiary of a Writer. see Cudakov's afterword to Vinogradov.ostensibly.M. the Aristotelian jazyke xudolestvennoj reads as a theoreticalmanifestoof Vinogradov and his confederatesB. Bakhtin]. 300-306. forpapers of the Baxtinschool. Bakhtin]. of the formalist yet theychangedthe semantics keythisterminologically to a meta-linguistic formula phraseand transferred hybrid perspective.CarylEmerProblems Baxtin. and theauthor'sorientation towardthe narrative betweenVinogradovand the Baxtingroup. M.Martin. 6 For an unbiased and veryinteresting synopsisof thepolemicson thedialogue.""The Symbol.discourse genres. M.1981. Bakhtin. lit-ra.Here I use thedemarcation vs. M.314-15. Baxtin. prozy. Buber. "tvoriestvo.1962. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.Ed.98-176). M. tvorxestva. speechgenres wherever genres possible. of MinnesotaPress. Munich:K6sel Verlag.

Schr6der. V.ed.Izbrannye A. Xar'kov:Darre. 31-49. E. Mikhail Bakhtin. 1923. 1922." TheBakhtin Theorist Newsletter/ Shukman. ?pet. Spitzer.Leo. Huber. Spitzer. of theWord'Stimmung. Hanau: Clauss and Feddersen. Umgangssprache. P.B. tudakov.: Priboj.SelectedWritings. Dolezel. A. Press. 1 (1984):13-28. L. Xristiansen. Russian Christiansen.1986. le Bulletin Bakhtine 2 (1986):134-36. Press.Roman. Gumbol'dta.Cambridge:Harvard Univ. G. Ponzio. Spitzer. Izbrannye V. Hermann.ipovnik. prozy.Leo. 1963.: Kolos. Vinogradov. R. Nauka. RussianPoeticsin 10. 1983. no. Ann Arbor:Univ. Philosophieder Kunst. and MartinBuber:Problems of Dialogic Imagination. nauk. 3-4 (1985):261-77. Ann. M. 1974.Jiidische Schriften. Augusto.A. no. no. akad. Stilstudien. T6pelman Cohen. Silvano and Sandro Maxia. 535-64. P. Augusto. Die Umschreibungen 1920. 1929. 1982.Leo.168. G. Trans. des Begriffes Halle: Karras. 1892. to an Interpretation Ideas of World Prolegomena Harmony: Spitzer. History: Essays in Stylistics." Trans. Italienische and Literary Princeton: Princeton Univ. metodav Vologinov. G. 3-4 (1984):273-92. I. Classicaland Christian Baltimore: JohnHopkinsUniv. G. Filosofijaiskusstva. (Combined withCahiersde Linguistique Thdoretique [1984]. O jazyke xudolestvennoj M. "MikhailBakhtin Perlina. Cohen."The LatestTrendsin Linguistic Thoughtin theWest."Semiotika56. literatury. . This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Jazyk kak dejatel'nost':opyt interpretacii koncepciiV. 1909. Etjudyi variaciina temuGumbol'dta. "Bakhtinand/orVoloshinovand/orMedvedev:Dialogue and/orDoubletalk?" Titunik. V. Potebnja. Translation. in Twentieth Literature 9. N. 1981. literatury. Poetryof Grammar ofPoetry. 'Hunger'in Italienischen. N. 1976. Alekseev and Vinogradov. V. and Abduction.1963. Ed. A. The and Grammar Jakobson. Milan: Franco Angeli. der Religionim Systemder Philosophie.82. V. R. Y. Tagliagambe. Oxford:RPT. Ed. teorija poetika. trudy.: GIXL. 3.216 on Fri. 1927.: Nauka. Hague: Mouton. Vol. Hermann. B.Leo. Ann Shukman. "Bakhtin of Dialogue (Cagliari-May 1985). "Dialogue and Alterity et Appliquie21. Augusto. Clark.Leo. M. O jazyke xudolestvennoj trudy. Stolz.: Nauka. vol. SPb. Anitkov.M. 1984. 1911. of MichiganPress. I. Katerina and Michael Holquist. Linguistics 1962."Semiotics Inquiry/Recherches otiques4.: Postovalova.' Bonn: K.V. eds. Voloshinov].540 Slavic andEast European Journal Broder. Alterity M. reei. 1.1984.: AN SSSR. Vnutrennjaja xudo. Vinogradov. ?pet." Studies Nina. Press. Pobtikarusskoj M. V. 1980."The Symbol. pobtieeskoj Vologinov. In Bakhtin SchoolPapers. P.: Gos. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1948.Kr6ber."Semiotic SemiPonzio. Theory. Esteticxeskiefragmenty. N.: Arno Press.and Lj. [V. no. Marksizmi filosofija sociologiceskogo jazyka. I.) betweenPeirceand Bachtin.3rdprinting.1915.V. Munich:M. Fedotov. Vinogradov. 1959. Bachtinteoricodel dialogo. V. G. Giessen: A. N. Century in Bachtin. M.V. Noel Owen. 2 (1984):159-73. Mysl'ijazyk. Spitzer." Revue Roumainede Linguistique 29 Ponzio. In Languageand Literary ed.: trans. V.1980. forma slova. and Nietschmann. V. Titunik. 1928.2nd printing. Stilistika. Osnovnye problemy naukeojazyke.Der Begriff Verlag.

This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. al. V.82. 30 Nov 2012 20:28:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1930. "O granicaxpoetiki i lingvistiki. Desnickijet." nauke.A Dialogue on theDialogue 541 In V bor'be za Marksizmv literaturnoj Vologinov.168. L.ed.: Priboj. 203-40.V. N.216 on Fri..