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Supplementary appendix

This appendix formed part of the original submission and has been peer reviewed. We post it as supplied by the authors. Supplement to: Pearse RM, Moreno RP, Bauer P, et al, for the European Surgical Outcomes Study (EuSOS) group for the Trials groups of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the European Society of Anaesthesiology. Mortality after surgery in Europe: a 7 day cohort study. Lancet 2012; 380: 1059–65.

Variations in mortality for surgical patients across 28 European nations: An international seven day cohort study

Rupert M. Pearse,1 Rui P. Moreno,2 Peter Bauer,3 Paolo Pelosi,4 Philipp Metnitz,5 Claudia Spies,6 Benoit Vallet,7 Jean-Louis Vincent,8 Andreas Hoeft,9 and Andrew Rhodes10 for the European Surgical Outcomes Study (EuSOS) group for the Trials groups of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the European Society of Anaesthesiology* *see appendix

1. Reader (Associate Professor), Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Marys University of London, UK EC1M 6BQ 2. Professor, UCINC, Hospital de São José, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, E.P.E., Lisbon, Portugal 3. Professor, Medical University of Vienna, Austria 4. Professor, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genoa, Italy 5. Associate Professor, Dept. of Anaesthesia & General Intensive Care AKH Wien, Medical University of Vienna, Austria 6. Professor, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin, Germany 7. Professor, Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, University Hospital, Lille Nord de France 8. Professor, Erasme Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium 9. Professor, Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Bonn, Germany 10. Reader (Associate Professor), St George’s Healthcare NHS Trust and St George’s University of London, UK

Correspondence to: Rupert Pearse, Adult Critical Care Unit, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB United Kingdom e-mail: r.pearse@qmul.ac.uk Tel: +44 20 3594 0346

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Supplementary table 1. Percentage of patients presenting with co-existent diseases and proportions of procedures categorized as minor, intermediate or major per country. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CAD, coronary artery disease; IDDM, diabetes mellitus taking insulin; NIDDM, diabetes mellitus not taking insulin.
Co-morbid factors (% of patients)
Smoker Cirrhosis Heart failure COPD CAD IDDM NIDDM Cancer Stroke n

Hospital factors
Patients per hospital University hospitals n (%) Minor

Grade of Surgery (% of patients)
Intermediate Major

Belgium Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom

21·4 22·4 17·8 21·0 23·3 23·4 18·8 25·4 23·2 29·1 23·2 11·7 24·5 20·5 26·5 12·5 21·0 19·9 27·2 19·7 24·4 34·1 22·4 19·1 21·9 16·5 21·1 18·1

1·5 1·6 2·2 0·7 1·0 0·6 1·1 1·4 1·4 0·6 2·4 0·0 0·7 1·6 0·7 0·5 0·8 0·3 0·5 1·4 1·5 0·0 1·0 0·6 1·5 1·3 0·9 0·5

5·9 4·7 8·9 0·7 4·2 6·3 5·4 4·7 10·5 3·1 5·6 6·2 3·9 2·3 4·0 7·7 6·2 5·2 3·3 5·7 8·8 3·5 1·9 5·2 3·1 4·9 3·5 2·5

12·4 6·6 8·9 8·1 13·6 6·9 12·7 10·7 11·3 7·8 12·2 11·1 13·8 10·9 7·6 4·3 9·2 8·4 11·8 9·9 6·6 4·8 8·0 6·8 11·3 10·0 7·9 14·5

13·2 13·4 17·8 12·2 12·4 19·8 16·2 8·3 14·5 16·0 21·3 17·3 11·2 8·3 27·8 32·0 11·2 13·8 30·2 8·3 32·1 16·5 27·2 10·2 7·7 12·7 9·9 13·4

5·0 3·8 4·4 2·5 3·7 2·9 6·7 4·0 6·6 2·8 5·6 1·9 4·2 3·5 4·3 2·4 5·4 4·4 6·5 4·4 2·6 3·5 5·4 3·5 4·7 6·2 3·6 4·0

7·9 8·6 11·1 9·2 7·1 5·8 9·5 6·8 7·6 9·4 10·3 6·2 6·1 7·4 4·0 4·5 4·7 4·6 5·8 10·4 8·5 10·6 8·5 6·4 10·1 4·8 5·2 6·5

7·1 4·9 4·4 1·8 3·1 6·3 5·2 3·7 6·5 2·6 4·3 1·2 4·0 5·8 3·3 4·0 7·2 4·8 3·0 5·6 4·4 2·4 5·8 2·9 4·2 5·6 3·7 3·8

4·2 3·8 2·2 4·6 5·3 2·9 6·0 3·4 4·6 3·4 5·8 6·8 2·2 4·2 4·0 6·4 4·9 4·1 3·5 4·4 3·5 2·4 4·2 3·7 4·5 5·7 2·3 4·5

16 16 1 2 15 4 12 23 37 29 9 4 18 35 3 3 18 10 6 19 22 2 10 5 61 10 5 103

93 110 45 217 67 182 89 99 143 62 69 41 48 76 101 125 90 69 66 78 59 43 116 104 89 131 204 103

7 (44%) 8 (50%) 0 (0%) 2 (100%) 6 (40%) 2 (50%) 3 (25%) 16 (70%) 19 (51%) 11 (38%) 3 (33%) 3 (75%) 15 (83%) 15 (43%) 2 (67%) 2 (67%) 6 (33%) 4 (40%) 1 (17%) 9 (47%) 11 (50%) 2 (100%) 5 (50%) 2 (40%) 43 (70%) 7 (70%) 2 (40%) 52 (50%)

32·1 23·7 68·9 42·9 28·5 11·0 20·6 40·4 42·0 21·9 20·1 11·7 20·4 28·7 7·3 28·0 17·9 16·1 45·1 27·9 20·9 18·8 34·9 41·3 17·5 30·1 23·1 20·1

42·3 56·5 26·7 47·7 47·2 50·1 49·7 42·7 42·9 55·7 61·0 56·8 54·3 43·3 51·3 62·1 44·2 47·8 42·1 47·5 61·6 37·6 50·0 45·4 49·7 46·6 56·1 45·9

25·7 19·8 4·4 9·4 24·3 38·9 29·7 16·8 15·1 22·5 18·8 31·5 25·2 28·1 41·4 9·9 37·9 36·1 12·8 24·6 17·6 43·5 15·1 13·3 32·8 23·3 20·8 33·9

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NIDDM. OR.Supplementary table 2. diabetes mellitus taking insulin. ASA. odds ratio. COPD. Random model 1 (n=22488) Country n= 10 OR Age (per year) Male sex Smoker (yes/no) ASA score 1 2 3 4 5 Grade of Surgery Minor Intermediate Major Urgency of surgery Elective Urgent Emergency Surgical specialty Orthopaedics Breast Gynaecology Vascular Upper gastro-intestinal Lower gastro-intestinal Hepato-biliary Plastic / cutaneous Urology Kidney Head and neck Other Laparoscopic surgery Co-morbid disease Cirrhosis Heart failure COPD 1·02 1·10 0·84 0·96 1·53 6·48 41·30 0·78 1·40 1·64 3·47 1·07 0·60 0·85 1·72 1·79 1·32 1·23 0·93 0·72 0·23 0·66 0·64 3·28 2·86 1·13 p-value <0·0001 0·17 0·06 0·66 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·009 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·65 0·08 0·38 0·003 0·002 0·09 0·31 0·73 0·07 0·04 0·03 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·24 Random model 2 (n=13899) Country n= 9 OR 1·01 1·17 0·94 0·95 1·47 6·33 16·94 0·96 1·31 1·51 2·42 0·88 0·86 0·89 1·58 1·41 1·59 1·48 0·66 0·88 0·33 1·07 0·86 3·09 1·51 1·35 p-value <0·0001 0·05 0·52 0·61 0·001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·66 0·012 -<0·0001 <0·0001 0·47 0·57 0·56 0·03 0·10 0·008 0·06 0·10 0·52 0·13 0·71 0·25 <0·0001 0·014 0·015 Random model 3 (n=10037) Country n= 9 OR 1·02 1·26 0·96 0·91 1·62 9·32 128·06 1·30 3·07 2·56 4·35 1·16 0·86 0·31 1·31 3·35 2·22 1·35 0·73 0·80 1·80 0·61 0·52 3·91 2·16 1·23 p-value <0·0001 0·04 0·75 0·56 0·004 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·08 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·50 0·75 0·004 0·39 <0·0001 0·001 0·32 0·38 0·42 0·24 0·07 0·004 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·23 Without UK (n=35873) Simulation Results OR Lowest 1·01 1·10 0·75 0·88 1·36 6·15 16·94 0·78 1·31 1·51 2·42 0·88 0·60 0·31 1·31 1·41 1·32 1·23 0·66 0·72 0·23 0·61 0·52 3·09 1·51 1·13 Highest 1·02 1·26 0·91 0·96 1·62 9·32 128·06 1·30 3·07 2·56 4·35 1·16 0·87 0·85 1·72 3·35 2·22 1·48 0·93 0·88 1·80 1·07 0·75 3·91 2·86 1·35 Analysis of whole dataset n= 46073 OR 1·01 1·15 0·90 0·94 1·51 6·75 35·61 0·93 1·59 1·71 3·20 1·02 0·76 0·76 1·61 1·88 1·54 1·35 0·79 0·78 0·51 0·82 0·69 3·64 2·10 1·21 p-value <0·0001 0·003 0·07 0·36 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·22 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·85 0·12 0·04 0·0001 0·0001 0·0001 0·025 0·12 0·042 0·05 0·09 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·0008 OR 1·01 1·17 0·91 0·88 1·36 6·15 31·32 0·97 1·63 1·81 3·36 0·89 0·87 0·81 1·49 1·91 1·65 1·41 0·71 0·82 0·59 0·81 0·75 3·67 1·90 1·15 p-value <0·0001 0·003 0·13 0·08 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·68 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·29 0·46 0·14 0·004 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·01 0·04 0·15 0·15 0·10 0·002 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·09 3 . American Society of Anesthesiologist’s score. IDDM. Sensitivity analysis for univariate logistic regression model utilising three random (disjoint) sub-samples of countries (models one to three) and a fourth model containing the whole set excluding the United Kingdom. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. diabetes mellitus not taking insulin.

Coronary artery disease IDDM NIDDM Metastatic cancer Stroke 1·67 1·73 1·02 1·80 1·57 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·89 <0·0001 0·001 1·64 1·80 1·03 1·96 1·68 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·83 <0·0001 0·001 2·14 1·64 1·14 2·04 1·33 <0·0001 0·016 0·51 <0·0001 0·25 1·71 1·78 1·05 1·98 1·53 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·59 <0·0001 <0·0001 1·64 1·64 1·02 1·80 1·33 2·14 1·80 1·14 2·04 1·68 1·73 1·73 1·05 1·91 1·57 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·61 <0·0001 <0·0001 4 .

1·32 34734/35049 8810/8923 2529/2557 1·00 1·44 2·23 1·28 .0·94 0·99 .1·46 2·23 .11·87 0·58 .1·33 0·63 . Binary logistic regression analysis (single level) (n=46073/46539) assessing pre.2·99 0·21 .1·97 0·42 .5·69 0·60 .2·64 1478/1486 1755/1767 45/45 427/434 994/1000 726/727 1070/1071 2264/2278 5243/5284 1795/1803 619/621 162/162 854/856 2622/2673 300/302 373/375 1566/1627 686/689 391/397 1477/1489 1290/1298 85/85 1150/1156 514/518 5412/5433 1304/1314 1019/1019 10452/10630 1·07 2·77 0·70 0·89 0·94 0·45 0·40 1·05 0·76 1·13 1·09 0·38 2·02 1·85 8·53 1·07 0·61 0·41 7·73 1·18 2·32 0·89 4·52 1·01 1·17 0·49 0·66 1·00 0·78 .1·56 1·48 .Supplementary table 3.1·37 0·25 .1·30 0·73 .1·70 0·09 .0·61 0·81 .or intraoperative factors relating to hospital mortality.1·26 0·84 .3·74 3·58 .3·44 0·10 .0·75 0·42 .2·29 6·13 .0·80 0·26 .4·92 0·46 .0·89 0·22 .1·71 0·65 .1·49 0·70 .1·71 0·98 .2·75 1·50 .1·63 1·89 .1·04 Odds ratio 95% confidence intervals p-value <0·0001 0·69 <0·0001 0·72 0·73 0·76 0·007 <0·0001 0·71 0·01 0·37 0·69 0·18 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·84 0·01 0·006 <0·0001 0·23 <0·0001 0·88 <0·0001 0·97 0·09 0·001 0·07 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·004 0·06 <0·0001 0·50 0·59 0·76 0·49 5 .1·37 0·62 .1·43 11932/12041 22070/22231 12071/12170 1·00 0·83 1·15 0·73 . n Country Belgium Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom (reference) Urgency of surgery Elective (reference) Urgent Emergency Grade of surgery Minor (reference) Intermediate Major Surgical specialty Orthopaedics Breast Gynaecology Vascular 12123/12214 1496/1500 3952/3972 2354/2376 1·08 0·91 0·96 1·10 0·87 .10·48 0·90 .1·40 0·32 .0·94 0·86 .1·56 1·80 .0·78 5·71 .

2·04 0·99 .1·01 0·001 0·07 0·36 0·53 0·23 0·035 0·74 <0·0001 <0·0001 11540/11642 21418/21582 11482/11574 1545/1559 88/90 46073/46539 46073/46539 1·00 0·77 1·06 3·85 13·51 1·36 2·01 0·02 0·66 .1·11 0·24 .0·89 0·89 .0·00 0·001 0·54 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·002 <0·0001 <0·0001 6 .1·23 0·66 .0·95 0·82 .2·72 0·01 .1·51 0·67 .1·33 1·01 .4·75 8·07 .1·56 0·86 .22·60 1·12 .1·25 3·13 .Upper gastro-intestinal Lower gastro-intestinal Hepato-biliary Plastic / cutaneous Urology Kidney Head and neck Other (Reference) Age (per year) ASA 1 (reference) 2 3 4 5 Metastatic cancer Cirrhosis Intercept 2214/2228 4937/4972 2237/2247 2404/2247 4846/4881 456/463 5614/5640 3440/3463 46073/46539 1·57 1·24 1·14 0·91 0·85 0·47 1·04 1·00 1·01 1·21 .1·64 1·49 .

Hierarchical binary logistic regression model (n= 46073/46539) assessing pre. American Society of Anesthesiologist’s score.Supplementary table 4. Variable Country Belgium Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom (reference) Urgency of surgery Elective (reference) Urgent Emergency Grade of surgery Minor (reference) Intermediate Major Surgical specialty Orthopaedics Breast Gynaecology Vascular Upper gastro-intestinal 12123/12214 1496/1500 3952/3972 2354/2376 2214/2228 0·79 1·08 0·92 0·95 1·57 0·62 – 1·01 0·72 – 1·60 0·68 – 1·25 0·72 – 1·27 1·18 – 2·07 11932/12041 22070/22231 12071/12170 1·00 0·79 1·12 0·68 – 0·91 0·96 – 1·32 34734/35049 8810/8923 2529/2557 1·00 1·78 3·23 1·56 – 2·04 2·66 – 2·64 1478/1486 1755/1767 45/45 427/434 994/1000 726/727 1070/1071 2264/2278 5243/5284 1795/1803 619/621 162/162 854/856 2622/2673 300/302 373/375 1566/1627 686/689 391/397 1477/1489 1290/1298 85/85 1150/1156 514/518 5412/5433 1304/1314 1019/1019 10452/10630 1·65 1·89 0·82 1·30 1·16 0·60 0·44 1·36 0·85 1·20 1·23 0·47 2·61 1·70 4·98 1·21 0·63 0·51 6·92 1·43 3·19 1·06 2·15 1·12 1·39 0·58 0·86 1·00 0·81 – 3·40 0·94 – 3·80 0·04 – 16·70 0·23 – 7·46 0·52 – 2·61 0·16 – 2·28 0·19 – 1·05 0·73 – 2·56 0·50 – 1·43 0·67 – 2·16 0·43 – 3·50 0·07 – 3·41 1·30 – 5·27 0·98 – 2·97 1·22 – 20·29 0·21 – 6·95 0·28 – 1·41 0·17 – 1·49 2·37 – 20·27 0·72 – 2·83 1·61 – 6·29 0·11 – 10·05 0·91 – 5·07 0·30 – 4·22 0·89 – 2·18 0·23 – 1·49 0·25 – 2·97 n Odds ratio 95% confidence intervals p-value <0·0001 0·17 0·07 0·90 0·77 0·72 0·45 0·06 0·34 0·54 0·55 0·69 0·46 0·007 0·06 0·025 0·83 0·26 0·22 <0·0001 0·30 <0·0001 0·96 0·08 0·86 0·15 0·26 0·81 <0·001 <0·0001 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·001 0·16 <0·0001 0·06 0·72 0·60 0·75 0·002 7 .or intraoperative factors relating to in-hospital mortality using a two level model (patient / hospital) with hospital as a random factor. ASA.

Lower gastro-intestinal Hepato-biliary Plastic / cutaneous Urology Kidney Head and neck Other (Reference) Age (per year) ASA 1 (reference) 2 3 4 5 Metastatic cancer Cirrhosis Intercept 4937/4972 2237/2247 2404/2247 4846/4881 456/463 5614/5640 3440/3463 46073/46539 1·13 1·10 0·83 0·74 0·38 1·15 1·00 1·00 0·88 – 1·45 0·81 – 1·49 0·59 – 1·15 0·56 – 0·98 0·18 – 0·82 0·88 – 1·49 1·00 .1·01 0·36 0·53 0·26 0·03 0·01 0·32 <0·0001 <0·0001 11540/11642 21418/21582 11482/11574 1545/1559 88/90 46073/46539 46073/46539 - 1·00 0·76 1·20 4·75 18·03 1·39 2·13 0·01 0·64 – 0·90 0·98 – 1·46 3·74 – 6·04 10·73– 30·31 1·14 – 1·71 1·54 – 2·95 0·01 – 0·01 0·002 0·07 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·002 <0·0001 <0·0001 8 .

Random model 1 (n=22337) Countries = 10 OR Age (per year) Co-morbid disease Metastatic disease Cirrhosis Urgency of surgery Elective (reference) Urgent Emergency Grade of surgery Minor (reference) Intermediate Major ASA score 1 (reference) 2 3 4 5 Surgical procedure Orthopaedics Breast Gynaecology Vascular Upper gastro-intestinal Lower gastro-intestinal Hepato-biliary Plastic / cutaneous Urology Kidney Head and neck Other (reference) 1·01 1·20 1·35 p-value <0·0001 0·25 0·31 Random model 2 (n=13751) Countries = 9 OR 1·01 1·56 2·41 p-value 0·003 0·01 0·001 Random model 3 (n=9985) Countries = 9 OR 1·01 1·52 3·44 p-value 0·046 0·06 <0·0001 Without UK n= 35261 OR 1·01 1·55 2·20 p-value <0·0001 0·0001 <0·0001 OR Lowest 1·01 1·20 1·35 Highest 1·01 1·56 3·44 Simulation Results Analysis of whole dataset n= 46073 OR 1·00 1·39 2·13 p-value 0·0001 0·002 <0·0001 1·00 1·80 3·27 <0·0001 <0·0001 1·00 1·70 2·36 <0·0001 <0·0001 1·00 1·90 3·01 <0·0001 <0·0001 1·00 1·77 3·25 <0·0001 <0·0001 1·70 2·36 1·90 3·27 1·78 3·23 <0·0001 <0·0001 1·00 0·72 1·00 0·002 0·97 1·00 0·81 1·25 0·08 0·13 1·00 0·94 1·23 0·73 0·29 1·00 0·81 1·17 0·008 0·10 0·72 1·00 0·94 1·25 0·79 1·12 0·001 0·16 1·00 0·75 1·23 4·47 24·05 0·02 0·15 <0·0001 <0·0001 1·00 0·81 1·25 6·19 7·75 0·17 0·21 <0·0001 <0·0001 1·00 0·78 1·18 4·66 54·16 0·22 0·48 <0·0001 <0·0001 1·00 0·73 1·09 4·45 16·05 0·001 0·45 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·73 1·09 4·45 7·75 0·81 1·25 6·19 54·16 0·76 1·20 4·75 18·03 0·002 0·07 <0·0001 <0·0001 0·78 0·98 1·18 0·91 1·58 1·03 1·13 0·90 0·82 0·17 0·90 1·00 0·95 0·15 0·58 0·81 0·06 0·12 0·12 0·50 0·90 0·09 0·64 - 0·80 1·23 0·77 0·91 1·06 1·01 1·15 0·65 0·67 0·11 1·54 1·00 0·32 0·53 0·33 0·74 0·82 0·96 0·59 0·17 0·11 0·02 0·50 - 0·77 0·87 0·48 1·01 2·54 1·52 0·90 0·86 0·64 1·95 0·93 1·00 0·34 0·80 0·08 0·98 0·002 0·13 0·76 0·68 0·16 0·22 0·81 - 0·77 1·26 0·94 0·94 1·60 1·18 1·14 0·78 0·77 0·46 1·22 1·00 0·05 0·29 0·71 0·73 0·003 0·25 0·42 0·20 0·09 0·07 0·18 - 0·77 0·87 0·48 0·91 1·06 1·01 0·90 0·78 0·64 0·11 0·90 - 0·80 1·26 1·18 1·01 2·54 1·52 1·15 0·90 0·82 1·95 1·54 - 0·79 1·08 0·92 0·95 1·57 1·13 1·10 0·83 0·74 0·38 1·14 - 0·06 0·72 0·60 0·75 0·002 0·36 0·53 0·26 0·04 0·014 0·32 - 9 .Supplementary table 5. American Society of Anesthesiologist’s score. Sensitivity analysis for two level model utilising three random (disjoint) sub-samples of countries (models one to three) of the dataset and a fourth model containing the whole set excluding the United Kingdom. OR. odds ratios. ASA.

surgical procedure category. Age*grade of surgery (p=0·007) and country*age (p<0·0001). American Society of Anesthesiologist’s (ASA) score. Odds Ratio Belgium Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 1·65 1·87 0·82 1·25 1·14 0·57 0·42 1·38 0·82 1·18 1·16 0·52 2·97 1·70 5·21 1·14 0·62 0·48 6·66 1·42 3·11 0·98 2·07 1·12 1·41 0·56 0·87 1·00 95% confidence intervals 0·80 – 3·40 0·93 – 3·77 0·04 – 16·65 0·22 – 7·17 0·51 – 2·57 0·15 – 2·18 0·18 – 1·01 0·73 – 2·60 0·49 – 1·39 0·65 – 2·12 0·41 – 3·29 0·07 – 3·70 1·47 – 5·99 0·98 – 2·97 1·28 – 21·25 0·20 – 6·56 0·27 – 1·39 0·16 – 1·42 2·28 – 19·49 0·72 – 2·81 1·57 – 6·16 0·10 – 9·23 0·88 – 4·87 0·30 – 4·18 0·90 – 2·21 0·22 – 1·44 0·25 – 2·99 - p-value 0·17 0·08 0·90 0·80 0·75 0·41 0·05 0·32 0·46 0·59 0·79 0·51 0·002 0·06 0·02 0·88 0·24 0·19 0·001 0·31 0·001 0·99 0·10 0·86 0·13 0·23 0·82 - 10 . Country estimates from two level model (hospital and patient) assessing in hospital death as the dependent variable together with the following independent variables: age.Supplementary table 6. presence of metastatic disease or cirrhosis. urgency and grading of surgery. Age*urgency (p=0·017). In addition the following interaction factors were included in the model: ASA*urgency (p<0·0001).

Austria Rui Moreno. Lille Nord de France Jean-Louis Vincent. Erasme Hospital.Appendix: Members of the EuSOS Study group 1. Hosp St. University of Genoa. Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central. Germany Benoit Vallet. Berlin. Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central. United Kingdom (Chief investigator) Paolo Pelosi. Medical University of Vienna. António dos Capuchos. Portugal Rupert Pearse. St Georges University of London. United Kingdom Brigitte Leva. António dos Capuchos. Germany Philipp Metnitz. Portugal Rupert Pearse. United Kingdom (Chief investigator) Vasco Ramos.923 investigators participated in the EuSOS study EuSOS Steering Committee Peter Bauer. Portugal Andrew Rhodes. United Kingdom Russell Hewson. European Society of Anaesthesiology. London. Barts Health NHS Trust. Hosp St. United Kingdom Claudia Spies. Belgium Rui Moreno. IRCCS AOU San Martino. Hosp St. Queen Marys University of London. Charité-Universitaetsmedizin. Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central. United Kingdom 11 . Belgium EuSOS Management Team Sandrine Damster.IST. European Society of Anaesthesiology. Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust. Université Libre de Bruxelles. St Georges University of London. University Hospital. Queen Marys University of London. António dos Capuchos. Queen Marys University of London. United Kingdom Marta Januszewska. Austria Andreas Hoeft. Italy Andrew Rhodes. Belgium Kim Golder. Universitätsklinikum Bonn. Medical University of Vienna.

Eric Hoste*. Bernadette Yemnga 12 . Fernande Lois. Nikolaas De Neve CHU Charleroi: Patrick Biston*. Sofie Louage. Luc Vanlinthout Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc ASBL: Marc De Kock*. Michael Piagnerelli Cliniques de l'Europe (St-Michel): Vincent Collin* Ghent University Hospital: Nadia den Blauwen*. Veerle Van Mossevelde. Pascal Georges. David Kahn. Sebastiaan Kindt. Bruno Verhamme* Sint-Vincentius Antwerpen: Patrick Druwé. Luc De Crop. Patrice Forget. Robert Rutsaert*. Herbert Spapen* AZ Sint Lucas Gent : Kris Leleu*. Rita Jacobs. Luc Foubert*. Jan Poelaert*. Ingrid Lahaye. Mona Momeni. Audrey Pospiech. Francis Rosseel. Charlotte Clauwaert. Dirk Rijckaert OLV Hospital Aalst: Koen De Decker. Godelieve Opdenacker. Irina Grosu. An Verbeke Heilige Hartziekenhuis Roeselare: Pieter Derumeaux. Christophe Gardin.National study groups * signifies Local lead Investigator Belgium National Co-ordinator Eric Hoste. Ghent University Hospital University Hospital Brussels: Luc Huyghens.

Marcel Vercauteren* Erasme Hospital. Luc van Obbergh. Carine Smitz.ZNA Stuivenberg: Jean-Luc Jadoul*. Université Libre de Bruxelles: David Fagnoul*. Edith Collard* Antwerp University Hospital: Philippe Jorens. Dirk Reyntiens. Manu Malbrain Cliniques Universitaires UCL de Mont-Godinne: Dana Bosinceanu. Jean-Louis Vincent 13 .

Antonio Žilić*. Mirjana Lončarić Katušin. Igor Balenović. Karolina Rezek. Branka Mazul-Sunko. Jelena Vadlja Magaš. Viktor Duzel*. Stela Markić. Mirta Adanić. Mirjana Mirić. Tina Tomić Mahečić. Nikola Ivanov. Katarina Tomulić. Josip Žuni University Hospital Merkur Zagreb: Ivana Acan.Azenic General Hospital Pula: Lada Kalagac Fabris* University Clinical Center Rebro Zagreb: Iva Bačak-Kocman*. Vedran Frkovic 14 . Ivan Mirković* General Hospital Karlovac: Zlata Šarić Bauer. Marija Okić. Elza Ramov. Marek Mitrović. University Hospital Sveti Duh Zagreb Akromion Special Hospital for Orthopaedic Surgery: Krapinske Toplice. Ante Sekulić. Patricia Adrianne Judith Deutsch. Antonija Brozović Krijan. Ada Hauptman. Alfred Božić*. Ivana Haršanji Drenjančevic*. Petar Mišković. Miroslav Župčić General Hospital Dr Josip Benčević: Slavonski Brod. Krešimir Oremuš* University Hospital Dubrava Zagreb: Gabrijela Bešlić. Darija Venzera. Danijela Debelic. Boris Tomasevic. Nataša Visković University Hospital Center Osijek: Silvana Bošnjak. Sanja Peremin. Matija Belavić. Gordana Kristek. Vilena Vrbanović Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka: Mirna Bobinac. Ozana Katarina Tot. Božidar Blažanin. Daniela Bandić. Loredana Divjak. Zrinka Krznarić. Jasna Topić.Croatia National Co-ordinators Tatjana Goranović. Ina Grčić Filipović. Anita Tomašević. Andreja Stojanovic Rakipovic. Nataša Šimić-Korać. Andrej Šribar. Yvonne Lončarić. Mario Pavlek. Jadranka Pavičić Šarić*. Zvonka Gužvinec. Slavica Kvolik.

Martina Kraljev. Mislav Bratanić. Vrančić Danira. Ana Nevešćanin. Ana Marija Pavičić. Tea Grgurević Marinković. Tatjana Petković. Kimer Dušanka.University Hospital Center Sestre Milosrdnice: Inga Mladić Batinica. Dagmar Oberhofer. Stela Marić University Hospital Split: Ivan Agnić. Bulaja Dražen. Mirna Kikec. Srđan Vranković* 15 . Nikola Delić. Božena Ivančev. Renata Krobot* General Hospital Zadar: Tatjana Andabaka. Marinković Srečko. Milana Jelisavac. Biljana Nacevski-Bulaja* General Hosptial Šibenik: Mirna Barižon. Mario Smoje University Hospital Sveti Duh Zagreb: Gordana Brozović. Roca Katica. Tatjana Goranović. Nataša Dropulić. Danči Mihovilčević. Željka Gavranović*. Magda Labor. Branka Maldini. Žaja Joško. Bego Marija. Branka Mazul-Sunko*. Julija Šeric. Orjana Dzepina. Dorjan Kuščević. Marijana Bašić Halužan. Toni Kljaković Gašpić. Nenad Karanović*. Matija Milić. Martina Matolić. Senka Baranović. Darko Ilić. Tatjana Šimurina* General Hospital OB Hrvatski Ponos. Zlatko Marović. Zvjezdana Kotorac Krecek. Kata Šakić General Hospital Varaždin: Margarita Delija Bozovic. Knin: Rosa Grujić.

Nicosia General Hospital Nicosia General Hospital: Theodoros Kyprianou*.Cyprus National Co-ordinator Theodoros Kyprianou. Kyriakos Neophytou 16 .

Milena Brabcová. Tomáš Vymazal* 17 . Kamil Hudacek. Jaromír Vajter. University Hospital Hradec Kralove Karel Cvachovec. Radka Klozová. Katarina Zadrazilova Motol University Hospital: Vladimír Bicek. Ivo Krikava. Motol University Hospital Faculty Hospital Brno: Barbora Belikova. Michal Drab. Petr Stourac*.Czech Republic National Co-ordinators Vladimir Cerny.

Jurgita Pilypaite Odense University Hospital: Nicola Groes Clausen. Morten Freundlich*. Palle Toft* Randers Regionshospital: Line Thorup* Kolding Sygehus: Frank Hansen* 18 . Siv Leivdal Glostrup Hospital: Line Stendell* Sygehus Vendsyssel: Martin Simonsen. Marcin Konrad Zoltowski* Aalborg Hospital: Zahida Salman Ali. Bo Dilling Hansen Bispebjerg Hospital: Kirsten Moller. Jan Peter Kühne.Denmark National Co-ordinator Palle Toft. Odense University Hospital Esbjerg Intensiv 241: Louise Blichfeldt*. Jeppe Sylvest Nielsen* Aarhus Universitets Hospital: Joachim Frederiksen* Hospital Soenderjylland: Johnny Dohn Andersen*.

Secher Regionshospitalet Viborg: Lisbeth Liboriussen* 19 . Christian Steen Hansen* Rigshospitalet: Arash Afshari*. Erik L. Anders Bastholm Bille. Michele Lefort.Hillerød Hospital: Morten Bestle.

Esta Mällo. Kadri Marvet. Jaak Talving* 20 . Liia Liibusk. Jaan Sütt*. Kerli Vijar. Artur Tikkerberi* West Tallinn Central Hospital: Ilme Falk.Estonia National Co-ordinator Veiko Herodes. Evelin Visk. North Estonian Medical Centre North Estonian Medical Centre: Eve Härma*. Kristiina Pool Tartu University Hospital: Pille Kallas. Mare Vinnal East Tallinn Central Hospital: Jaanus Ellermaa. Triinu-Kreete Mägi.

Hanna Seppänen. Mari Moilanen-Oikarinen. Sami Paananen* Oulu University Hospital: Juha Koskenkari*. Tadeusz Kaminski*. Juhani Toivonen Keski-Pohjanmaa Central Hospital: Sandra Dabnell. Jari Liimatainen. Inga Rääbis. Sinikka Sälkiö. Timo Kontula. Heikki Vääräniemi. Helsinki University Hospital South Karelia Central Hospital Lappeenranta: Seppo Hovilehto*. Kaisa Vainio Satakunta District Hospital: Vesa Lund. Kajaani. Anu Sysimetsa Helsinki University Central Hospital: Maija Kaukonen*. Kainuu Central Hospital. Anne Kirsi. Sari Sjövall* Seinäjoki Central Hospital: Kari Saarinen*. Anni Pulkkinen. Ari Alaspää*. Tapani Heikkilä. Raili Laru-Sompa*. Ursula Koorits. Markku Lehtimäki. Klaus Geier. Päivi Silvasti. Riku Palanne. Juha Nevantaus. Pekka Tiainen. Seppo Mustola. Esa Elomaa. Marika Pakarinen. Minna Saarelainen. Merja Vakkala Päijät-Häme Central Hospital: Talvikki Koskue. Bodo Wagner. Markki Palve. Jyväskylä : Aarne Saarinen. Mare Kubjas. Lauri Ottelin. Pekka Loisa* 21 . Jari Pynnönen.Finland National Co-ordinator Ville Pettilä. Leena Lavonen. Ritva Zittling Central Finland Central Hospital. Tomi Kavasmaa. Seppo Lauritsalo. Matti Viitanen Kanta-Häme Central Hospital Hämeenlinna: Tommi Ahonen. Annette Moisander.

Simo-Pekka Koivisto* 22 .Turku University Hospital: Ruut Laitio* Vaasa Central Hospital: Raku Hautamäki.

Herve Mentec University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand Estaing Hospital: Marie Bazin. Christel Schultz. Marine Rossi-Blancher* Groupe Hospitalo Universitaire Carémeau CHU Nimes: Jean Yves Lefrant* Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg. Romain Baumgarten. Antoine Petit CHU Michallon Grenoble: Pierre Albaladejo. University Hospital of Nimes Centre Hospitalier Universitaire De Reims: Alain Leon* Hôpital Tenon Ap-Hp Paris: Francis Bonnet. University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand Jean-Yves Lefrant. Anne-Sylvie Dumenil. Mathieu Gazon. Marion Jully. Amélie Bataillard. Pamela Khalifeh. Adrien Thibaud.France National Co-ordinators Emmanuel Futier. Virginie Laurent CHU Antoine Béclère Clamart: Guillaume Tachon*. Emmanuel Futier*. Michel Guiraud. Chryssa Papageorgiou. Hicham Sbai. Frederic Mercier Centre Hospitalier Argenteuil: Alain Landais*. Aurélie Bonnet. Nadège Demars. Vianney Kieffer 23 . Julie Lefebvre. Sophie Gonnu. Felix TounouAkue Hôpital De La Croix-Rousse CHU Lyon: Frederic Aubrun*. Annick Steib. Ecaterina Platon. Olga Szymkiewicz. Fayçal ElMiloudi. Adrien Sprunck. Vincent Thuet. Catherine Spielvogel. Nouvel Hôpital Civil: Florian Barthel. Luc Almeras. Lionel Lidzborski. Dan Hallel. Julien Pottecher*. Emmanuel Marret*. Karen Waton.

Constantin Halchini. Laurent Jacob* Hotel Dieu Aphp Paris: Xavier Becanne*. Emmanuel Robin Nice University Hospital: Carole Ichai. Philippe Burtin*. Magali Lacroix. Pierre Francois Perrigault* Hôpital D’instruction Des Armées Du Val-De-Grace: Nicolas Libert. Jean-Christophe Orban* 24 . Stéphane Merat Hôpital Rangueil CHU Toulouse: Benoit Bourdet. Salim Cherfaoui.Hôpital Saint-Louis Ap-Hp: Delphine Dubois-Vallaud. Mourad Lakhdari. Fabrice Ferré. Frederic Pinna Manchester Hospital Charleville-Mézières: Aurélie Barbes. Philippe Berger* Hôpital Gui De Chauliacc CHU de Montpellier: Nathalie Granier. Remy Gauzit. Anne Godier.Calmette Hospital: Jacques Desbordes*. Vincent Minville* University Hospital of Lyon CHU Lyon Sud: Vincent Piriou. Stephan De Rudnicki*. Huriez Hospital: Gilles Lebuffe* University Hospital of Lille . Charles Samma Clinique Du Millenaire. Philippe Rague. Bernard Just. Philippe Mateu* Hôpital Saint-Jean Perpignan: Laurent Benayoun. Florent Wallet* University Hospital of Lille. Montpellier: Jean-Yves Bigeon.

Oliver Wiese University Hospital Bonn: Eli Awlakpui. Stefan Schröder. André Piontek. Kristina Rudlof St. Axel Heller*. Marcelo Gama de Abreu. Beatrix Laetsch. Maria Wittmann* Evangelische Elisabeth Klinik Berlin: Axel Ramminger* University Hospital Carl Gustav: Carus Dresden. Joseph Krankenhaus Berlin Tempelhof: Friedrich Borchers*. Christian von Heymann*. Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin University Hospital Bochum Knappschaftskrankenhaus: André Gottschalk*. Lars Scholz Altmark-Klinikum GmbH Krankenhaus Salzwedel: Dirk Frenzel*. Carola Wiegand-Löhnert Krankenhaus Düren: Christiane Glöckner. Esther Maahs. Andreas Hoeft. Christine Marx. Elmar Rose. Julia Neidel Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin. Martin Kees. Christoph Buettner. Martin Schmutzler 25 . Campus Virchow Klinikum: Anton Goldmann. Kyros Massarat Schön Klinik München Harlaching: Franz-Peter Lenhart. Mona Scheidemann. Florian Reichle*. Matthias Unterberg Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin: Justus Hilpert. Andreas Hohn*.Germany National Co-ordinators Gernot Marx. Universitatsklinikum der RWTH Aachen Michael Sander. Andreas Triltsch*.

Sabine Savelsberg St. Anke Braune. Katrin Ludewig. Carla Nau. Jürgen Schüttler*. Reza Kaviani Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach: Patrick Auer*. Marit Habicher*. Thomas Nippraschk. Konrad Schwarzkopf Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin. Saskia Christ. Konrad Reinhart* Klinikum Saarbrücken: Nikolaus Graf*.Helios Klinikum Erfurt: Gerald Burgard*. Campus Charité Mitte: Katharina Berger. Alexander Lucht. Simone Wintzheimer Jena University Hospital: Frank Bloos. Gisela Untergehrer Fachkrankenhaus Coswig GmbH Coswig: Beata Bis. Michael Reindl. Markus Paxian. Axel Scholler. Matthias Weber* Municipal Hospital Munich: Wolfgang Bauer. Johannes-Hospital Duisburg: Henning Krep. Patrick Friederich*. Ruta Kasperiunaite. Jürgen Drescher Fürst-Stirum-Klinik Bruchsal: 26 . Jan Wagner University Hospital Witten/Herdecke. Gerhard Schneider*. Florian Bingold. Ulrich Wepler University Hospital Erlangen: Wolf-Christian Engelen. Jörg Haberkorn* SANA-Kliniken Sommerfeld: Jürgen Eberitsch*. Helios Klinikum Wuppertal: Stefanie Pilge. Daniela Fergen. Karola Eberitsch. Jens Krassler* Georgius-Agricola-Klinikum Zeitz: Jan Dittmann. Georg Bonnländer.

Nils Stegmann Hochwaldkrankenhaus Bad Nauheim: Uwe Erkens* HanseKlinikum Wismar: Jens Kopcke*. Ursula Perez-Platz DIAKO Flensburg: Bent Andresen*. Olga Sergejewa Krankenhaus Lübbecke: Brigitte Lehning* Klinikum St. Michaela Geyer. Carsten Raufhake Elblandklinikum Radebeul: Christine Haumann. Uwe Oehmichen. Ulf Linstedt. Horst Brünner. Christina Wasmund Ubbo-Emmius Klinik Aurich-Norden: Ralph-Dieter Bredtmann*. Andreas Weyland* University Hospital of Rostock: Gabriele Noeldge-Schomburg. John Kerner Klinikum Lippe-Detmold: Kathrin Bierbaum. Ines Erler. Andreas Meyer Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin: Hartmut Brestrich*. Rolf Rossaint. Sandra Ernst.Roland Braun*. Tim Eichenauer. Gernot Marx*. Marina Stier University Hospital UKAachen: Florian Feld. Angela Möllemann*. Armin Sablotzki*. Frank Luers. Stefan Grond*. Thomas Menckie*. Stella Merkel Klinikum Oldenburg: Lena Krieger. Georg: Elke Czeslick. Michael Malcharek. Verena Simon 27 .

Georgia Kostopanagiotou. Tilemachos Zafiridis Papanikolaou General Hospital Thessaloniki: Josef Franses. Constantine Katsanoulas*. Androula Papastylianou. Athena Lavrentieva*. Dimitrios Sfyras. Maria Flora Kasianidou. Apostolos Komnos*. Aikaterini Psevdi. Eleni Koraki Erythros Stavros (Red Cross) General Hospital of Athens: Chrysostomos Katsenos*. Alexandra Moustaka General Hospital of Larissa: Achilleas Chovas. Anastasia Koutsikou*. Paraskevi Matsota General Hospital of Pyrgos: Christos Christopoulos*. Despoina Koulenti. Efthymia Kanna. Mihail Lignos. Eleni Spyropoulou Gennimatas General Hospital Thessaloniki: Chrysoula Gousia.Greece National Co-ordinators Apostolos Armaganidis. University General Hospital Attikon Athens Evangelismos General Hospital Athens: Anastasia Kotanidou*. Dimitrios Lathyris General Hospital of Lamia: George Kyriazopoulos*. Athanasia Tsirogianni Attikon University Hospital Athens: Apostolos Armaganidis. Serafim Nanas. Despoina Koulenti*. Alexandra Mouratidou. Efstratia Vrettou Creta InterClinic Hospital Heraklion: Spyros Boufidis. Pantelia Nasopoulou. Anastasios Stathopoulos General Hospital of Athens: Asklepieion Voulas. Eleni Moka* 28 .

Monika Sartzi 29 . Georgios Papathanakos 251 General Air Forces Hospital Athens: Georgios Anthopoulos*. Papageorgiou: Kostoula Arvaniti*. Georgios Choutas. Nikos Nikitidis. Eva Mplougoura. Maria Giannakou-Peftoulidou*. Vaso Tzani Aretaieion University Hospital Athens: Georgios Gkiokas*. Ioanna Soultati Sismanogleio General Hospital Athens: Maria Kokinou. Konstantinos Tasopoulos* General Hospital of Thessaloniki G. Alexios Papazotos. Nikoleta Gritsi-Gerogianni*. Polixeni Petropoulou. Fotios Nikolakopoulos University Hospital of Alexandroupolis: Christos Dragoumanis. Ioannis Pneumatikos. Eleni Gkeka. Dimitrios Karapanos. Lambrini Papatheodorou. Maria Stafylaraki* Hippokration General Hospital Thessaloniki: Tatiana Giasnetsova. Christina Kydona General Hospital of Molaoi: Olga Kiskira*.University Hospital of Ioannina: Eleni Arnaoutoglou. Danai Zacharouli Iaso General Hospital of Thessalia Larisa: Stella Kandi. Vassiliki Theodorou*. Vasileios Koulouras*. Athina Kolotoura. Ioannis Soumpasis AHEPA Hospital Thesalloniki: Ekaterini Amaniti. George Nakos. Konstantinos Nastos. Ourania Soldatou* General Hospital of Arta: Christodoulos Nathanail. Dimitrios Matamis. Konstantinos Dimitropoulos. Pirros Tsakas* Thriassion General Hospital Athens: Phyllis-Maria Clouva-Molyvdas*. Ioannis Koulentis General Hospital of Athens ‘NIMITS’: Alexandros Apsokardos.

Elisavet Maragkou. Aikaterini Kyparissi. Anna Spring General Hospital of Korinthos: Stavros Evagelatos. Aikaterini Ioakeimidou*. Alexandra Papaioannou Naval Hospital of Athens: Vasileios Bekos*. Evangelia Mastora.Peiraiko Therapeftirio Pireus: Spiros Papanikolaou*. Nikos Noulas 30 . Pavlos Polakis Hippokratio General Hospital of Athens: Stylianos Karatzas*. Kyriaki Spyropoulou-Pagdatoglou University Hospital of Crete Herakleion: Vasileia Nyktari*. Theonymfi Papavasilopoulou General Hospital of Trikala: Triantafillia Koukoubani*. Polychronis Malliotakis.

Ervin Szabo Zala County Hospital: Katalin Kranitz. Geza Nagy* 31 . Gabor Szekeres. Budapest: Akos Csomos*. Angela Miko Semmelweis University. Alexandru Ille MISEK Non-profit Kft Semmelweis Hospital: Krisztina Bráz. University of Szeged University of Szeged: Zsolt Molnár*. Akos Szucs Balassa Janos Country Szekszard: Gyorgy Nyikos*. Zsuzsanna Galambos. Ildiko Kremer*. Attila Havas*. Emese Csüllög. Melinda Simon* Telki Kórház: Janos Szigeti* Pándy Kálmán County Hospital: Emánuel Gaál. Tamás Molnár Flor Ferenc County Hospital Kistarcsa: Zsuzsana Katona. Enikő Elekes.Hungary National Co-ordinator Zsolt Molnár.

Gisli H Sigurdsson* Landspitali University Hospital Fossvogur: Sigurbergur Kárason*. Elin Edda Sigurdardottir Sjúkrahúsið á Akureyri: Ásbjörn Blöndal* Sjúkrahúsið á Akranesi: Björn Gunnarsson* 32 . Landspitali University Hospital Reykjavik Landspitali University Hospital Hringbraut: Fridrik T Sigurbjörnsson.Iceland National Co-ordinator Gisli Sigurdsson.

Noelle Freir*. Donal Ryan Tallaght Hospital: Gerry Fitzpatrick* University College Hospital Galway: Leo Kevin*. Nuala McCauley. John Loughrey St. Midland Regional Hospital Mullingar Cork University Hospital: Alan Broderick*. Sabir Saeed* The Rotunda Maternity Hospital: Ivan Hayes*. Vincent's University Hospital: Stephen Frohlich*. Parvaiz Hafeez. Karthik Ramamoorthy Beaumont Hospital Dublin : Yvonne Doyle. Donal O’Chroinin Letterkenny General Hospital: Kevin Bailey*. Deepak Hanumanthaiah Mercy Hospital Cork: Janette Brohan*. Jubil Thomas Midland Regional Hospital Portlaoise: Barry Warde* 33 . James O'Rourke Mater Misericordiae University Hospital Dublin: Philip Jonson.Ireland National Co-ordinator Andrew Westbrook.

Soloman Lebese Midland Regional Hospital Mullingar: Anne Bergin. Andrew Westbrook* Cavan General Hospital: Rory Page* St James’s Hospital Dublin: Daniel Collins. Michael McKenny* 34 .Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital Drogheda: Alan Woolhead* Mayo General Hospital Castlebar: Michelle Duggan* Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore: Cara Egan* Sligo General Hospital: Seamus Crowley*.

Emanuele Mori*. Maria Nuova Firenze: Antonio Franco*. Laura Lorenzelli. Maria Rosa Stanzani. Sandro Dell’unto. Matteo Franchi. Monica Tosi Nuovo Santa Chiara Pisa: Michele Collareta. Francesco Forfori*. Agostino Roasio* Ospedale Ceccarini Riccione: Alessandro Gatta*. Carla Tinti Ospedale S. Daniele Boninsegna. Francesca Rapido. Roberta Coppini. Maria Teresa Novelli. Alessandro Bacci. Manlio Sanseverino. Chiara Pescarmona. Federica Marini University Of Milano Polo Universitario Ospedale San Paolo: Piero Di Mauro. Daniele Sances*. Stefano Tredici. Silvia Ghelfi. Valentino Montebelluna: Andrea Bianchin*. Dario Vezzoli Cesat Ospedale S. Pietro: Igneo Fucecchio. Gianluca Castellani. Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro” di Bari Azienda Sanitaria Ospedaliera Cardinal Massaia: Anna Bresciani.Italy National Co-ordinators Giorgio Della Rocca. Concezione Tommasino* European Institute of Oncology. Livio Carmino. Gianluca Spano. Mauro Nastasi. Giuseppe Mancino 35 . University of Udine Salvatore Grasso. Milan: Ferdinando Bellotti. Maria Tormena Ospedale S.

Marcella Brazzoni. Maurizio Marandola* Policlinico S. Anna Vilardi. Lorenzo Spagnesi. Sara Baraldi. Eugenio Recchia IRCCS S. Ilaria Toretti. Antonio Baroselli. Roberto Costagliola. Vincenzo Molene Azienda Ospedaliera Per L'emergenza Cannizzaro: Maria Concetta Monea. Valeria Italian National Research Centres on Aging: Gabriella Bettelli. Massimiliano Greco. Cinzia Loiacono. Michele De Simone. Marco Aversano. Paolo Massucco. Stefania Buttera. Felicino Debernardi. Mattia Buttazzoni. Elisa Nicelli. Nora Moselli. Marina Giampieri. Elena Sardo. Eugenia Cantarini. Antonio Iacobellis. Graziella Palomba. Gianmarco Giacoletto. Stefano Turi University of Udine AOU: Giorgio Della Rocca*. Antonio Mascia. Ester Zearo Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital-Milan: Ines Arpino*. Novara: Barbara Bucci.Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment: Massimo Battistella. Nicola Pasculli. Carlo Centonze.Orsola-Malpighi Bologna: Maurizio Fusari* Azienda Ospedaliera Desenzano: Nicola Petrucci* Catholic University Hospital A Gemelli: Amerigo Galla. Andrea Muratore. Raffaele Milano: Elena Bignami. Enrico Vaccarisi. Giacomo Monti*. Edoardo Zocca Maggiore Della Carità. Alessandra Tanfani*. Francesco Della Corte. Luisa Suita. Azzurra Gandolfi. Luigi Vicari* Azienda Policlinico Umbrto I Sapienza University: Alida Albante. Tiziana Piciucco. Chiara Guarnerio. Rosalba Lembo. Paolo Primieri* Viarengo* 36 . Francesco Bona*. Giovanni Serena. Giovanna Bruno. Elisa Baricocchi.

Renea Visentin S. Franco Ruberto* Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S. Roberto Nani*. Simonetta Marchiotto.Maria Di Ca' Fooncello Treviso: Antonio Farnia. Paolo Pelosi. Salvatore Grasso* Policlinico Umberto I Universita’ Di Roma La Sapienza: Sergio Gazzanelli*. Genova: Anna Di Noto. Eleonora Pedrazzoli. Giulia Perina. Stefano Fiorentino. Maria Gorgoglione.IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST. Tania Tassinati. Valeria Zompanti. Chiara Snaier. Maurizio Francesconi. Bruna Manetti. Emanuele Lacobone. Gerardo Monza: Roberto Fumagalli*. Rosalba Tufano* Azienda Sanitaria Firenze Ospedale Del Mugello: Roberto Oggioni*. Micaela Capone. Luigi Spagnolo*. Diego Gattari.O. Paola Verdenelli Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria San Giovanni Battista di Torino: Elisabetta Cerutti*. Daniele Elisei. Giuseppe Tappata*. Vieri Parrini Ospedale Civile Di Macerata: Emanuela Brunori.U. Luigi Carbone. Claudio Montironi. Vito Marco Ranieri 37 . Francesco Corradetti. Gianrenato Riccioni. Novello Pierantonio Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Consorziale Policlinico di Bari: Michele De Michele. Alessandro Molin. Andrea Garbagnati. Francesco Minnucci. Maurizio Marandola. Anna of Ferrara: Elena Bergamini. Marta Somaini Ospedale S. Maurizia Capuzzo* A. Francesco Pugliese. Angelo Gratarola. Alberto Merlini. Federico II: Vera Cirillo. Claudio Spena Orlandi Bussolengo: Plinio Calligaro*.

State Hospital of Traumatologu and Orthopaedics Riga Riga East University Hospital Gailezers Clinics: Sergejs Grigorjevs. Sigita Kazune. Maija Rikmane. Daina Rozkalne. Peteris Oss 38 . Jevgenijs Stepanovs*. Aleksej Miscuk Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital: Janis Nemme*.Latvia National Co-ordinator Iveta Golubovska. Olegs Suba State Hospital of Traumatologu and Orthopaedics Riga: Iveta Golubovska*.

Vytautas Ragaisis Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Clinics: Egle Kontrimaviciute*. Gabija Tomkute 39 .Lithuania National Co-ordinator Jurate Sipylaite. Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Clinics Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences: Andrius Macas*.

Gerardus Pelzer.The Netherlands National Co-ordinator Christiaan Boerma. Stefan Dieleman. Christaan Keijzer. Rob Spanjersberg* University Medical Center Utrecht: Wolfgang Buhre. Michiel Schoorl. Markus Hollmann. Paul Dennesen*. T Inan. Wilton van Klei* University Medical Center ST Radboud Nijmegen: Martijn Bouw. Bas Veld Albert Schweitzer Ziekenhuis: Agnes Kuijpers-Visser. Lex Winsser* University Medical Center Groningen: Maarten Nijsten. Peter Pickkers*. Huibert Ponssen 40 . A. Benedikt Preckel* Medical Centre Haaglanden: Gijs van Acker. Marieke van der A IJsselland Ziekenhuis Capelle aan den Ijssel: Frodo Schreiner. Koopman-van Gemert*. Martijn Poeze* Antonius Ziekenhuis Zuidwest-Friesland: John Maria. Medical Centre Leeuwarden Maastricht University Medical Center: Irene Fleur Kramer. Ria Zandvliet* Tweesteden Ziekenhuis Tilburg: Roy van den Berg* Academic Medical Center Amsterdam: Esther De Wit.

Patricia Ormskerk De Tjongerschans Heerenveen: Oliver Beck. Matty Koopmans Erasmus MC: Jasper van Bommel*. Tammo Brouwer. Auke Reidinga*.Medisch Centrum Leeuwarden: Christiaan Boerma*. Allart Venema Isala Zwolle: Marga Hoogendoorn. Ben van der Hoven. Kees Olthof* 41 . Ditty van Duijn. Sjouke Schiere.

Svein Ove Vingsnes Sykehuset Innlandet HF. Kristiansund Sjukehus: Ola Dagfinn Boksasp*. Ib Jammer* University Hospital of North Norway: Vegard Dokka.Norway National Co-ordinators Hans Flaatten. Thomas Risom Olsen* UNN Harstad: Sanjay Katre* Sykehuset Namsos: Kristin Aakeroey* 42 . Lars Marius Ytrebo* Haraldsplass Diakonale Sykehus: Mostafa Noursadeghi* Stavanger University Hospital: Ahmed Shahzad* Helse Møre og Romsdal HF.Elverum: Patric Axelsson. Christoph Roiss. Schie Berntsen* Førde Sentralsjukehus: Helge Haugland*. Haukeland University Hospital Haukeland University Hospital: Hans Flaatten. Hans Frank Strietzel Diakonhjemmet Sykehus Oslo: Anne Gina. Ib Jammer. Svein Arne Monsen.

Regional Hospital Poznan Regional Hospital Poznan: Barbara Tamowicz* 10-th Clinical Military Hospital: Dominika Bożiłow. Jacek Kupisiak.Poland National Co-ordinator Adam Mikstacki. Robert Goch*. Paweł Pietraszek*. Bartosz Szarowar 43 . Małgorzata Małłek. Robert Szyca District Hospital Ostrów Wielkopolski: Włodzimierz Kostyrka* District Hospital Śrem: Robert Choma* District Hospital Konin: Grzegorz Jankowski* Szpital Wojewódzki SP ZOZ Zielona Góra: Władysław Kościelniak. Piotr Grabowski.

Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central. Fernando Rua* Centro Hospitalar Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro: Nelson Barros. St António dos Capuchos. Francisco Esteves. Rosário Rosa. Paula Vitor Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Norte. Hosp. EPE Viseu: Vítor Miguel Oliveira*. António Pais Lacerda. Rachel Vicente Centro Hospitalar do Porto. Carlos Correia. Lisbon. Marques Carvalho. Maria Imelda Gonçalves. Maria Fátima Oliveira. Portugal Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Norte. Vila Real* Hospital de São Teotónio. Lucindo Ormonde*. Carlos Glória HPP Hospital de Cascais: José de Almeida. José Pedro Saraiva. José Pedro Assunção Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave: Anabela Bártolo*. Maria Raquel Lopes. Rui Mealha. Hospital de Santo António: Raquel Monte. Pereira de Freitas Hospital Garcia de Orta: Eduardo Almeida*. Manuela Faria. EPE. Hospital Pulido Valente: Henrique Completo Bento*. Salomé Martins.Portugal National Co-ordinator Ricardo Matos. Filipa Barros. Rosa Ribeiro* Centro Hospitalar do Barlavento Algarvio EPE: Joana Estilita*. Célia Maria Gouveia Pinheiro. Armindo Ramos* 44 . Inês Pereira. Isabel Martins. Ana Cláudia de Sousa. Hospital de Santa Maria: Carlos França. Anabela Carvalho. Ruth Milheiro Hospital de São Bernardo: Alejandro Diaz.

Margarida Resende Hospital de Faro EPE: Miguel Aleman. Cristina Ramos. Sofia Serra Hospital de Curry Cabral: Maria Manuela Botelho. Filomena Faria*. Vitor Lopes. Ricardo Matos* Hospital de Santa Marta: Maria de Lurdes Gonçalves Castro*. Dionísio Faria Maia* Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto FG EPE: Ofélia Afonso. Ana Vintém Oliveira*. EPE: Francisco Matos. Julio Nobrega Hospital do Divino Espirito Santo EPE: Anuscka Langner. Manuel de Sousa Hospital de São José: Luís Bento. Luis Pereira. Pedro Ferreira. Luís Mourão. António Pêgas. Rosa Mendes 45 . Helena de Meneses. St António dos Capuchos. Marta Isidoro. Ana Martins. Bárbara Ramos Hosp. Centro HoSpitalar de Lisboa Central. José Pereira. Conceição Botas*.Hospital Central do Funchal: Margarida Camara. Jorge Fonseca*. Edward Richard Maul*.

Coca Moraru. Calarasu Florenta. Catalin Ioan Denciu. Dorin Stanescu Stelian*. Alina Iacob. Manuela Baciu.Romania National Co-ordinator Ioana Grigoras. Irina Ristescu Dr. Simona Margarit. Stelian Adrian Dinescu Octavian Fodor Emergency Clinical Hospital Cluj-Napoca: Mitre Calin. Mihaela Damian. Andrei Emergency County Hospital Galati: Maria Berneanu. Daniela Ionescu*. Parhon Clinical Hospital Iasi: Monica Codreanu. Droc Gabriela. Spiridon Emergency Clinical County Hospital Iasi: Mihaela Blaj. Negoita Silvius Fundeni Clinical Institute Bucharest: Dana Tomescu*. Liviu Ungureanu Elias Emergency University Hospital Bucharest: Prodan Bogdan. Carleta Meran. C. Madalina Sandu. Manolescu Rely. Ion Moldovan. Ciresica Diaconescu* St. Roxana Turcanu Emergency County Hospital Roman: Florina Epure. Dutu Madalina. Melania Dinu. Iulian Mocanu. Cristina Hotaranu. Bacalbasa Nicolae. Horatiu Vasian 46 . Aurica Ciobanu*. Andreea Lupusoru*. Dan Corneci*. I. Ion Maftei. Nicoleta Popescu Emergency County Hospital Piatra Neamt: Oleg Baban. Livia Streanga St. Ioan cel Nou Emergency County Hospital Suceava: Alina Nistor. University of Medicine and Pharmacy St. Mary Nicoleta Lupu*. Monica Grigore*. Cristina Bordeianu. Vitalie Gurau.

Marius Papurica. Ioan Nediglea. Claudiu Macarie. Claudia Popa. Mihaela Sarandan Emergency City Hospital Moinesti: Ioana Belciu. Dorian Dragulescu. Eugen Tincu* Recovery Hospital Iasi: Irina Ursu* Emergency County Hospital Focsani: Mariana Aignatoaie*. Ciprian Hentia. Mihaela Ramneantu. Alina Cadrigati. Mihaela Manescu. Loredana Gavra.Timisoara County Emergency Hospital No 1: Corina Albu. Dana Ocica. Mariana Huzuneanu County Emergency Hospital Cluj-Napoca: Simona Cocu. Ianos Szederjesi City Hospital Dorohoi: Vanvu Genoveva. Simona Mosnegutu* 47 . Natalia Hagau* CFR Hospital Galati: Roxana Ciubotaru* Emergency Clinical County Hospital Tg Mures: Sanda-Maria Copotoiu*. Zoran Sandici. Cosmin Plavat. Ruxandra Copotoiu. Judit Kovacs. Carmen Balasa. Dorel Sandesc*. Azamfirei Leonard. Bedreag Ovidiu. Ghitescu Ioana.

Snjezana Zeba Clinical Center Kragujevac: Jasna Jevdjic*.Serbia National Co-ordinator Maja Surbatovic. Radisa Vojinovic 48 . Filip Zunic Clinical Center Sremska Mitrovica: Aleksandra Bulasevic. Dusko Jovanovic. Ivana Krstic-Lecic. Milos Miletic. Military Medical Academy Belgrade Military Medical Academy Belgrade: Dragan Djordjevic*. Biljana Djordjevic. Krasimirka Grujic. Mirjana Kendrisic*. Radoslava Brko. Narcisa Gazibegovic. Jovana Obradovic.

Martin Kvasnica. Jozef Firment*. Miroslav Sulaj*. Andrea Gebhardtova*. L.Slovakia National Co-ordinators Jozef Firment. Viliam Sobona* National Cancer Institute Bratislava: Marieta Ocenasova* 49 . Slávka Hanuljaková. Monika Grochova. Trnava: Alexandra Simkova* University Hospital Ruzinov Bratislava: Andrea Číková. Pastuer University Hospital Kosice: Judita Capková. Beata Saniova*. Andrea Zacharovska Faculty Hospital. Roman Zahorec University Hospital Martin: Erika Bakosova. St Elizabeth Cancer Institute Bratislava L. Veronika Žilinčárová Faculty Hospital Nitra: Katarína Galkova* Hospital Nove Zamky: Stefan Krbila. Stefan Trenkler St Elizabeth Cancer Institute Bratislava: Martin Griger*. Juraj Koutun. Andrea Martonová. Pasteur University Hospital Kosice Roman Zahorec.

Božena Gerjevič*. Silva Ostojič Kapš General Hospital Trbovlje: Dragoslav Aleksic. Dušan Mekiš. Andriy Grynyuk. Marko Malivojevic UMC Maribor: Zvonko Borovsak*. Mile Knezevic. Tomaz Ursic 50 . Adela Stecher.Slovenia National Co-ordinator Vesna Novak-Jankovic. Feri Stivan. Ivan Kostadinov. Marija Damjanovska. Katja Kalan. Irena Osojnik General Hospital Novo Mesto: Lučka Kosec*. University Medical Centre Ljubljana University Medical Centre Ljubljana: Vesna Novak-Jankovic*. Mirt Kamenik*.

Arantxa Mas Serra* Hospital Universitario de Mostoles: Norma Aracil. Raquel Fernández García.Spain National Co-ordinators Cesar Aldecoa. Maria Adoracion Elvira. Andres Garcia. Borja de la Quintana Gordon*. Marivi Álvarez García. Eva Turumbay Ramirez. Isabel Sepúlveda Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León: Esperanza Pascual Díez. Helena Barrasa. Alicia Gutiérrez Jodrá. Patricia Unzué Rico. Juan Tirapu León. Madrid Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí: Anna Artigas. Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega Valladolid Juan Montejo González. Ana Vallejo Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón: Patrícia Duque. Ana Belén Rodríguez Rodríguez. Gisela Perez. Beatriz Garcia-Bunger. Sergi Vaquer Hospital Santiago Apostol: Goiatz Balciscueta. Begoña Menendez Bodega. Martín Vizcaíno Hospital Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi: Maria José Bernat Álvarez. Ana María Lajara*. Nuria Poch. Luisa Fernández Fernández. Isabel Perez. Francisco Yoldi Murillo. Rafael Ramos Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra: Ana Saez Fernandez*. Alberto Lisi*. Rocío Ayala Soto. Jaione Iza López. Angela De Santos López. María Palencia. Amaia Quintano Rodero*. Antía Río Gómez. Lorena Mouriz Fernandez. Carlos Soria Gulina* Complexo Hospitalario de Ourense: Laura Pérez Arviza. Juan José Llavador Ros. Concepción Alonso Martínez. Carmen Lopez Soto* Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega: 51 . Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Yolanda Poveda. Javier Maynar. Sara Cabanes. Marta Patricia. Kenneth Planas Real.

Andres Pelavski. Gemma Rodriguez Argente*. Garcia Eduardo Esteva. Fernando Leira. Maria Jose Carretero. Juan Fajardo López-Cuervo. Ascensión García Campos. David Pestaña Emilio Maseda. Antonio Vela Rubio. José Luis Vicente Sánchez. Jaume Balust*. Ana Hermira Anchuelo. Eduard Terrer Galera. Miriam de Nadal Clanchet*. Mikel Celaya López. Maria Jose Colomina Sole. Inés Silla Aleixandre. Ernesto Pastor Martinez*. Matilde Gonzalez Serrano. Lorena Silva. Marta Ubre Hospital Universitario Vall d‘Hebron. Elena Pinilla. Pilar Tormos Perez. Albert Lacasta Fornells. Barcelona: Dolores Dorda Albalad. Irene Ruperez Hospital Universitario La Paz: Eduardo Alonso. Clara Garcia. Dolores Sintes* Clínica Asisa Santa Isabel: Donaldo Arteta Arteta*. Concepcion Royo*. Alfons Biarnes Suñé. Llum García Serrano. Concepción Muñoz Alcaide. Angels Camps Cervantes. Eloísa López López*. Isabel Gracia. Mario Lorenzo. José Manuel Naya Sieiro. Francisco Perez-Cerdá Silvestre. Purificacion Matute. Anna Sape Prat. Nadal Joan Fornaguera. Isabel Rochera Villach 52 . Raquel Mansilla Folgado. Isabel Real Navacerrada. Jordi Rello*. Jose Villagran Hospital Municipal de Badalona: Giralt Murillo Candi. Xavier Borrat.Cesar Aldecoa*. Mercè Ballvé Ferrer. Jesus Rico. Irene Enríquez Valcárcel Hospital Clinic Barcelona: Clara Balust. Olga Gonzalez Gonzalaez. Irene Garcia Martinez. Roger Pujol. Susana Manrique Muñoz. Alejandro Ramírez. Sara Arlanzón de Quevedo. Beatriz Tena. Francisco José Saldaña Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre: Pilar Aliste. Miguel Angel Gonzalez Posada. Jordi Mercadal. Horacio García Delgado. Mercedes Catalán. Nuria Montferrer Estruch. Marina Soro Hospital San Juan De Dios Aljarafe: Fernando Maroto* Hospital La Fe Valencia: Ruth Robledo Algarra. Ivette Chocron de Prat. Ana Broseta Lleó. Francisco Martinez Torrente Hospital Clinico Universitario Valencia: Blanca Arocas. Mónica García Gómez. Jesus Caballero. Pijoan Calonge Montse.

Carlos López Sánchez. Carlos Roman Hospital Montecelo Complejo Hospitalario de Pontevedra: Marina Varela Durán*. Uzuri Lancha Felipe. Estibaliz Zaldibar Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara: Lourdes Muñoz Corsini. Esperanza Mata. Rosa Peña. Mónica Rustarazo Pérez. Maria José Vargas 53 . Sabela del Río Fernandez. Irene Riquelme Osado. Vicente Pedroviejo Sáez. Mª del Rocío Míguez Crespo. Javier Hernández Salvan. Mercedes Ayuso Antolinos*. Maria de la Lastra. Yolanda Sanduende Otero. Monir Kabiri Sacramento. Begoña González Molina. Santiago de Frutos López. Jose Manuel Rabanal Llevot*. Icier Martinez Almeida. Francisco Javier López Saña Hospital Universitari Mutua Terrassa: Josep Trenado Ålvarez* Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena: Maria Luisa Cantón Bulnes*. Jonatan Pérez Toro. Ana Bardina Pastor. Fernando Safatle. Crsitina Lasa Unzúe. Diana Narváez Cubillos. Ana Collantes Casanova. Carlos Aranda Romero. Marta Liceras Fuster. Beatriz Martinez Rafael. Bonifacio Cimadevilla. Patricia Alfaro de la Torre. Juan Carlos Diaz de Terán Mira. Antonio Manuel González González. Bartolomé Fernández Torres Hospital Universitario De La Princesa: Marian Santos Ampuero*. Elena Rodríguez Rodríguez. Jose Javier Marco Martinez. Enrique Laza Laza. Carlos Lloreda de la Guía. Marta Chicot Llano. Antonio Jiménez Moreno. Monica Williams. Angel Garcia Mostaza. Ricardo Moreno Gonzalez. Manuel Ruiz Castro. Fernando Ramasco. José Ramón Rodríguez Fraile*. Cristina Barreiro Pardal Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias: Jesús Fernández Alcantud. Raquel Chaves López. María Aliaño Piña. Sara Pardo. Begoña Herrero Garrote. Antonio Planas. Violeta Gándara Carrasco. Angel Fernandez Collates Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla: Maria Jose Bartolomé. Máximo Sanz García. Maria José Montes Granero. Susana Lopez Pineiro. Beatriz Infantes Crespo. Rodrigo Poves. Ángel Arenzana Seisdedos. Manuel Munoz. Francisco Barrios. Mª del Pino Heredia Pérez. Mar Orts.Hospital Clínico Universitario Valladolid: José Ignacio Gómez Herreras*. Mar Galán Sampedro.

Sonia Rodríguez Fernández. Francisco López Timoneda* 54 . Carolina Marginet. Manuel Linero Noguera. Ricardo Bermejo Diaz de Rabago*. Ana Mª Gomez-Caro. Miriam González Núñez. Marisa Moreno Hospital Universitario Central De Asturias Oviedo: Cristina Iglesias Fernández. Ignacio Pujol Varela Hospital Clinico San Carlos Madrid: Miguel González Gallego. Rosa Castillo Omedas*. Esther Martínez García. Alejandro Ubeda Iglesias. Victoria Moral*. Laura Martinez Gimeno. Ana Loza. Carlos González Perrino. María Socorro Martínez Puente. Lorena Ramos López. Oscar Martínez García. Mercedes Echevarria*. Ana Rodriguez Velasco University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol: Yolanda Jiménez Capel. Ana Fernández Cortés. Paula Dieguez García. Aníbal Pérez García. Maria José Yepes Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña: Luzdivina Rellán Alvarez. Francisca Fernández Carballal. Jordi Klamburg. David Salvatierra Diaz. Enrique Moret Ruiz Hospital Sant Pau: Xavier Artigas. Pablo Rama Maceiras*. Fernando Caba Barrientos Sevilla Clínica Universidad de Navarra: Elena Cacho. Rafael Bello Puentes* Hospital Universitario Lucus Augusti: Domingo Nunez Aguado. Ricardo Calderón. Rafael Omaña García. Amadeo Toledo Presedo. Beatriz Martín-Huerta. Mercedes Dufur. Sebastian Castrillón. Clara Llubià Maristany.Hospital Universitario de Valme: David Garcia Bernal. Carlos Lopez Carballo. Susana Illa. Araceli Rodriguez Morillo. Pablo Monedero*. Inmaculada India. José Javier Ariño Irujo. Pedro Picatto Hernández Hospital MD Anderson Madrid: Angel Alberto Honrubia Checa*. Nieves Espinosa. Alberto Pensado Castiñeiras. Violeta Fernández García*. Julio Rey Picazo. Pedro Diaz Serrano. Maria Teresa Rey Rilo Hospital General de La Palma: Ana Esther Trujillo Alonso. Ricardo Fernandez Fernandez.

Paco Duran Insuga. Emilio Mora-Guevara*. Manuela Loren Monterde. Monica Zamora Elson. Iker García Sáez. Jose Angel Palomo Ruiz. Manuel Pérez Marquez. Miguel Angel Alcala Llorente. José Luis Franqueza García Isabel Garcia Vega. Fernando Domínguez Perez. Isabel Albalá Blanco. Julia Ferreras Zamora Clinica Girona: Alfons Bonet*. Mercedes Zabarte Sant Camil (Consorci Sanitari Del Garraf): Rosa-Maria Diaz-Boladeras. José María Milicua Muñoz. Diego Parise Rous. Juan Ramón Hita Roa. Juan Avellanosa Esteruelas. Guillermo Oeding Angulo. Elena Herrera. María Beltran Martín. Nuria Mané Ruiz. Angel Candela Toha. Javier García. Pablo Turrión Fernández. Elisabeth Claros Llamas. Alvaro Ruigomez Saiz. Federico Gordo Vidal Hospital San Jorge Huesca: Jorge Garcia-Egea. César Pérez Calvo.Hospital Ramón y Cajal: María Manzanero Arroyo. Trinidad Dorado Díaz. Sara Martín Burcio. Pilar Marco Garde*. Alvaro de la Vega Terol. Ana Serrano Romero. Belén Quesada Belvert. Ana Gamo de Maeyer. Juan Zaballos* Hospital del Henares: Ana Abella Alvarez*. Lidia Salo Policlínica Guipúzcoa: Unai Salinas. Cecilia Martin Rabes. Pascual Crespo. Estibaliz Salas. Julian Arevalo. Elena Elías Martín. Natividad Arias Martínez. Nilda Martinez Castro. Marcos Martínez Borja. Eva Velasco Olarte. Diego López Mendoza. Monserrat Aranzubia. Ana Cuarental. Rosa Gastaldo Simeón* Fundacion Jimenez Diaz-Capio: Luis Enrique Muñoz Alameda*. Maria Luisa Gonzalez Móstoles. Itxaso Elósegui. Escudero Itziar Mintegui. Carlos Seron-Arbeloa* Hospital Manacor: Miguel Angel Mendiola Asensio. Marta de la Torre Concostrina. Carlos Jimenez Garrido. Ildefonso Ingelmo Ingelmo. Marta Cremades. Medrano Viñas Cristina. Jose Juan Martín Lopez. Fernando Alvarez Utrera Hospital Donostia: Fermín Alberdi. Aránzazu Puente Cerdeiriña*. Eva Ureta Mesa. Paloma Alonso Montoiro. Mercedes Del Olmo. Adolfo Martínez Pérez. Arnoldo Santos Oviedo 55 . Jose Juan Arcas.

Matilde Lafuente Sánchez. Alberto Garcia Fernandez Pilar Martinez Garcia*. Ricardo Salas de Zayas. Maria-Lidon Mateu-Campos Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria Tenerife: David Domínguez. Javier Garcia Cortes*. Raquel Bustamante Rodriguez*. Jose Luis Anton Pascual* Infanta Cristina Parla: Fernando Tejera Gude. Juan José Díaz Díaz* 56 .Hospital Universitario La Ribera Alzira: Pau Benavent Garrigues. Teresa León Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín: Nazario Ojeda Betancor. José Alonso Íñigo. Silvia Sanchez-Morcillo. Manuel Cervera-Montes*. Amparo Ferrándiz-Selles*. Elena Espinosa*. Beatriz Bornay Barrachima. Francisco Jose Romero Bermejo. Sergi Tormo Ferrandiz. Vicente García. Sonia Gomar Vidal Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa Zaragoza: Raquel Montoiro Allué. Eva Manteiga Riestra* Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria Malaga: Francisco Cota Delgado. Maria Victoria de la Torre Prados* Arnau de Vilanova: Javier Barrios. Asunción Marqués Parra*. Guillermo Sanmiguel Hospital Puerto Real-Cadiz: Julian López Álvaro. Begoña Zalba Etayo. Carolina Navarro Ramírez. Jorge Gómez Ramos Clinica Asunción Tolosa: Luis Angel Samaniego* Hospital General de Castellón: Alberto Belenguer-Muncharaz. Cristina Dolera Moreno. Luis Martin Villen Hospital Universitari De Sant Joan D´Alacant Alicante: Cristina Molla Jimenez. Mercedes García-Sanz. Fernando SanJose Pacheco.

Hospital Universitario de Basurto: Ana Manzano Canalechevarria, Beatriz Fores Novales, Jose Manuel Garcia Peña, Tomas Rodriguez Delgado, Beatriz Santamaria Roquerio, Juan Jose Gomez Sainz*, Teresa Tebar Soto

57

Sweden
National Co-ordinators Michelle Chew, Skåne University Hospital Malmö Heléne Seeman-Lodding, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset Göteborg

Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset Göteborg: Peter Dahm, Helena Odenstedt Hergès, Christoffer Lundborg, Heléne Seeman-Lodding*, Sören Söndergaard, Christian Rylander Linkoping University Hospital: Ferenc Sari, Anna Oscarsson Tibblin* Lund University Hospital: Anne Adolfsson, Bengt Klarin*, Susann Schrey Skåne University Hospital Malmö: Michelle Chew, Edyta Merisson*, Jörgen Rydén South Stockholm General Hospital Södersjukhuset: Mona Britt Divander, Annika Hedin*, Daniel Hedlund, Mikael Axelsson Lindkvist Central Hospital Kristianstad: Monir Jawad* Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge: Lona Layous, Jan Wernerman* Karolinska University Hospital Solna: Håkan Björne*, Olof Brattström, Staffan Olheden, Anders Oldner, Eva Sellden

58

Switzerland
National Co-ordinators Bernhard Walder, Nadine Wickboldt, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Geneve

Hôpitaux Universitaires de Geneve : Nadine Wickboldt* Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois : Ariane Rossi, Luzius Steiner* Kantonsspital St.Gallen: Mirjana Djurdjevic, Roger Lussmann* Stadtspital Triemli Zürich: Martin Geisen, Christoph Hofer*, Matthias Turina

59

Kate Wong Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital: David Goldhill*. Gary Minto*. Nicola Waife. Neil MacDonald. Paul Moor. Melissa Rosbergen Queen Elizabeth Hospital: Mark Blunt*. Wendy Parnell. Nidhita Singh. Ming-Li Kong. Lorraine Alderson. Andrew Hutton. Andrew Porter. Richard Muswell. Alaa Belhaj. Matthew Hill. Maggie Wright* Derriford Hospital: David Adams. Liz Prince. Amanda Smith. Smriti Jhingan. Michael Husband.United Kingdom National Co-ordinators Mike Grocott. Yoyo Poon. Julie Baker. Richard Struthers Barts and The London NHS Trust: Niven Akotia. Sarah Stilwell 60 . Tamas Szakmany* Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital: Simon Fletcher*. Tahmina Weda Royal Glamorgan Hospital: Adrian Clarke. Eleanor Jane McAlees. Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital London James Paget University Hospital: Lynn Everett. Southampton University Hospital David Goldhill. Ram Kumar. Kate Holmes. Edyta Niebrzegowska. Katrin Eigener. Serene Chang*. Katy Harris. Rupert Pearse University College London: Ally Chhatwal. Colin Ferguson. Robin Vasan. Robert Stephens*. Ahsun Khan. Enrique Collantes. Iain Christie.

Juan Moreno Royal Derby Hospital: Ruth Ballington. Hannah Stewart 61 . Geoff Lockwood*. Jayne Craig. Vas Moosajee. Paul Hayden*. Sheena Hubble. Lauren Brotherston. Tamsin Rope Central Middlesex Hospital: Lliam Edger* Kings College Hospital: Julie Dawson. Daniel Hadfield. Lisa McDonald. Paul Margetts. Joyce Yeung Northwick Park Hospital: Bernadette Loughnan*. Catherine Snaith. Matthew Grayling.Heart of England NHS Trust: Keith Couper. Christopher Day*. Sibongilele Hamandishe. William Key. Louise Finch. Helena Walsh Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust: Famila Alagarsamy. Nuno Pinto. Sylvia Karcheva. Teresa Melody. Vishal Patil* Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital: Nicholas Batchelor. Serena Goon. David Rogerson* Medway Maritime Hospital: Sarah Cowman. Dhruv Parekh. Thomas Knight. Alexander Loosley. Chris Willars Royal Lancaster Infirmary: Gillian Campbell. Fang Gao-Smith*. Brian McKinney. Christine Mitchell-Inwang. Neil Crooks. Charlie Gibson. Taj Sandhar Broomfield Hospital: Dilshan Arawwawala*. Amy Krepska. Jaimin Patel. Phil Hopkins*. Andrew Smith* Hammersmith Hospital: Karleen Ladipo.

Katy Tucker. Irwin Foo*. Sonia Poulose. Kate Wessels. Catherine Philpott. Matthew Thomas. Kathryn Pollock. Tim Wigmore 62 . Niall MacCallum*. Andrew Padkin Manor Hospital: Siamak Pesian*. Ruth Murphy. Katie Sweet. Justin Kirk-Bayley*. Emma Pedley.Bristol Royal Infirmary: Jeremy Bewley*. Konnur Ramkumar Scunthorpe General Hospital: Jerry Thomas* Maidstone Hospital: Alison Crayford. Som Sarkar Royal United Hospital Bath: Jerry Nolan*. David Windsor Manchester Royal Infirmary: Daniel Conway*. Damien Mantle Royal Surrey County Hospital: Peter Carvalho. Katrina Hurley. Sally Baddeley Western General Hospital Edinburgh: John David Brown. Stephen Webb* Royal Marsden Hospital: Shaman Jhanji. Sam Huddart. Satish Rajamanickam. Angus Turner* Papworth Hospital Cambridge: Fiona Bottrill. Steve Gold. Rebecca Smith Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Trust: Lisa Milligan*. Tanviha Quraishi Blackpool Victoria Hospital: Jason Cupitt*.

Harnita Chohan. Suresh Venkatesh* Colchester University Hospital NHS Trust: Thomas Hughes. Laura Jones. Avinash Kapoor. Chris Dickson. Louise Roberts. Steve Rose Royal Victoria Infirmary: Patrick Chiam. Stephen Ward Princess Alexandra Hospital: Lucy Brown. London: Glenn Arnold*. Oliver Zuzan* South Devon Healthcare NHS Trust: Andrew Hall. Chandra Janarthanan. Johanna Mouland. Mhairi Jhurgursing. Manju Joy. Caroline Harvey. Jeremy Nightingale*. Sarah Gibb. Christine Mitchell-Inwang. Mark Moll. Frances Pritchard 63 . Richard Read. Andrew Rushton. Jane Montgomery. Mary Stocker* Wexham Park Hospital: Tiina Tamm* Royal Free Hospital: Banwari Agarwal*. Stephen Wilson* Royal Sussex County Hospital: Stuart White* Royal Liverpool University Hospital: Andrew Bonnett. Colin Williams. Claire Gibbs. Lajos Zsisku* Sunderland Royal Hospital: Alistair Roy* Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust: Victoria Hooper. Charley Higham. David Saunders* St Mary's Hospital. Ailie Piggot.Glasgow Royal infirmary: Alistair Meikle. Dena Pierro.

Max Jonas*. Lesley Hawkins. Alex Beckingsale. Mark Callaghan. Heather Payne. Marcela Vizcaychipi* Frimley Park Hospital: William Jewsbury* York Teaching Hospitals: Simon Davies* Hull and East Yorkshire NHS Trust: Packianathaswamy Balaji*. Jo Dawson. Manju Patel. Karen Linford. Mark Pulletz* Freeman Hospital: Helen Anderson*. Neil Smith 64 . Tania Seale Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust: Clare Bolger. Peter O'Brian Glan Clwyd Hospital: Elspeth Horner. Chris Izod. Raj Singh. Jackit Gollogly. Karen Stuart-Smith*. Rachael Worton St Johns Hospital: Jean Bruce. Gemma Timms Ninewells Hospital: Shaun McLeod*. Kim Golder. Muthuraj Kangaraj. Robert Wilson. Beverley Wadams Chelsea and Westminister Hospital: Madeleine Beach. Nagesh Pissay. James Featherstone. Vivekananda Joshi. Kate McGuigan. Hannah Collins. Grant Price* Dorset County Hospital: Sarah Moreton. Caroline MacFie. Emma Ekins. Ian Baxter. Maie Templeton. Ansu Datta.Charing Cross Hospital: Patrick Doyle*. Steve Lobaz. Kim Zantua Harrogate District NHS Trust: Thomas Collyer.

Jonathan Hatton. Meenu Netke Diana Princess of Wales Hospital: Esam Akouds. Greg Earnshaw. Malcolm Watters* Scarborough Hospital: Tim Adams*. Tom Parker. Miriam Kamel. Ahmed Javaid. Yussof Salib. Simon Dyer. Dori-Ann Mculloch. Sherly Bhaskaran. May Un Sam Mok* 65 . Anne Taylor Perth Royal Infirmary: Pauline Austine. Dora Paal. Adrian Jennings. David Riddington*. Judith Wilde Great Western Hospital: Beth Lavender. Sarah Leese. Clare Jackson. Suman Chaudhry. Siva Sockalingam. Cliona Magee. Moni Grewal. William Holroyd. Jane Pilsbury. Rajneesh Sachdeva. Vrushali Kanade. Garud Chandan. Chris Secker. Lucy Tindall New Cross Hospital Wolverhampton: Andrew Claxton*. Catherine Snelson. Heather Gallagher. John Hawkins. Moses Chikungwa*. Shamimul Haque. Debrah Bates. Rachel Lyons. Matthew Keating. Atideb Mitra*. Sajith Kumar. Sophie Childs* Kingston Hospital: Britta O'Carroll-Kuehn*. James Ralph. Suman Amatya. Suresh Vasanth. John MacKinnon*. Ramesh Saravanmuthu. Trudy Nurse. Deborah Reed East Surrey Hospital: Somi Desikan* Croydon University Hospital: Russell Barber. Ruchira Marla.Kent and Canterbury Hospital: Senthilkumar Gopalakrishnan. Mark Wyldbore Mid Staffordshire Hospitals NHS Trust: Ayad Al-Abdaly. Gustav Strandvik University Hospitals Birmingham: Ruth Francis.

Robert Parker*. Steve Mathieu*. David Freeman. Jonathan Hulme*. Lizzie Greenberg. Katharine Barr. Richard Pierson. Rachael Ford. Liz Griffiths. Jasmeet Soar 66 . Richard Thomas*. Carl Wright Royal Bournemouth Hospital: Andy Baker. Stuart McKechnie. Nigel White Royal Oldham Hospital: Santosh Patel* Royal Hampshire County Hospital: Victoria Corner.Worcestershire Royal Hospital: Andrew Burtenshaw*. Sam Bonnington. Lynne Bullock. Edward Scarth. Rachel Walker Royal Blackburn Hospital: Martin Bland. Laura Flutter. Anne-Marie Bougeard. Laura Davis. Claire Hammell. Julie Wollaston Fairfield General Hospital: Amara Karmarkar* Rotherham NHS Trust: Clare Ball. Jay Susarla. Neil Richardson. Donna Harrison-Briggs. Jane Snell. Dawn Trodd. Emily Calton. Laura Tompsett . Alex Belcher. Anton Krige* University Hospital Aintree: Ged Dempsey. Parvez Ellahee. Jonathan Huber. Sean McAfee* Oxford Radcliffe Hospital: Jonathan Chantler*. Emma Fitzgerald. Louise Maxwell*. Paul Hodge. Jennifer Wilson Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust: Ed Copley. Julia Neely Southmead Hospital: Ronelle Mouton*. Alison Thwaites Royal Albert Edward Infirmary: Suraj Jayasundera. Robert Loveridge. Chantal Gillard.

Taj Saran*. Dinesh Das. Maggie Gregory* University Hospital of North Staffordshire: Rebecca Ahern. Peter Alexander*. Christopher Thompson* Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust: Heena Bidd. Guy Shinner* Hairmyres Hospital: Euan Black. Alison Royle Dudley Group Hospitals NHS Trust: Farid Nahla* Frenchay Hospital: Tim Bowles. Amanda Manser Princess of Wales Hospital: Gareth Parry* Southend University Hospital: Peter Chan. Mansoor Sange* Ashford and St Peters Hospitals NHS Trust: Anja Kuttler*. Geraldine Ward University Hospital of South Manchester: Fiona Jefferies. Grant Haldane* University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire: Jennie Kerr. Nisreen Fahmy. Fiona Power Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust: David Alexander. Julian Giles*. Ahmed Khader*. David Cartlidge. Vicki Currie. David Higgins. Lloyd Craker. Alex Stone 67 .Darent Valley Hospital: Joanne Buss. Kevin Dunne.

Mark Hamilton. Freya Velzeboer. Fuhazia Arif. Mark Edsell. Khaled Razouk.Lewisham University Hospital: Silvia Leonardi*. Jeremy Cashman. Chris Mowatt* 68 . Bengeri Sheshgiri West Hertfordshire Hospitals NHS Trust: Colin Merrill. Mustafa Ayman St Georges Hospital NHS Trust: Nawaf Al-Subaie. Elaine Walker Musgrove Park Hospital: Stephen Harris*. Valerie Page*. Radhika Ramasamy. Sarah Jane Hammond. Patrick Wong Alexandra Hospital: Alicia Jakeman. Sarah Hughes Wishaw General Hospital: Alan Morrison*. Oliver Rose West Suffolk Hospital: Elizabeth Bright*. Nicoletta Fossati. Dagan Lonsdale. Maurizio Cecconi*. Claas Siegmueller. Ari Ercole Darlington Memorial Hospital: Muhammed Amir Rafi*. Andrew Rhodes. Carl Moran.