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WEDIG 2.0c User Manual

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&217(176 
 ,1752'8&7,21  *(77,1* 67$57('   2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7  REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................................................................... 5 INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................................................ 5 STARTING THE PROGRAM ........................................................................................................................................ 5 USER SET-UP .......................................................................................................................................................... 6 ENTERING DATA ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 CLOSING APPLICATION ............................................................................................................................................ 6 WHAT’S NEW.......................................................................................................................................................... 6

:25.63$&(   3.1 WORKBOOK CONTENTS .......................................................................................................................................... 7  3DWKV VKHHW    6\VWHPV VKHHW   ,QIR VKHHW   5DLQ VKHHW   )XQFWLRQV VKHHW    6LQJOH VKHHW    (TXLSPHQW VKHHW   :RUNERRN SDVVZRUG  

7+( 0(186  4.1 PROJECT ................................................................................................................................................................. 9  1HZ    2SHQ   6DYH   6DYH $V   ([SRUW WR ILOH    ,QIR   3URMHFW REMHFWLYHV   3URMHFW SUHIHUHQFHV    9LHZ  
4.1.9.1 4.1.9.2 Customize Paths .............................................................................................................................................. 14 Customize Systems ......................................................................................................................................... 14 

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View pro-rata chart.............................................................................................................................................. 16 View absolute chart............................................................................................................................................. 16 View variation charts .......................................................................................................................................... 17 View paths........................................................................................................................................................... 17 View selected path .............................................................................................................................................. 17 View systems....................................................................................................................................................... 17 View info............................................................................................................................................................. 18 View equipment .................................................................................................................................................. 18 View radio database ............................................................................................................................................ 18 View antenna database ................................................................................................................................... 18 View feeder database...................................................................................................................................... 18 Enable menus ................................................................................................................................................. 18 Print project......................................................................................................................................................... 19 Print paths ........................................................................................................................................................... 19 Print selected path ............................................................................................................................................... 19 Print all paths separately ..................................................................................................................................... 19 Print systems ....................................................................................................................................................... 19 Print info ............................................................................................................................................................. 19 Print equipment ................................................................................................................................................... 20

4.1.10.1 4.1.10.2 4.1.10.3 4.1.10.4 4.1.10.5 4.1.10.6 4.1.10.7 4.1.10.8 4.1.10.9 4.1.10.10 4.1.10.11 4.1.10.12 

4.1.11.1 4.1.11.2 4.1.11.3 4.1.11.4 4.1.11.5 4.1.11.6 4.1.11.7

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4.1.11.8

Reset page set-ups................................................................................................................................................20

4.2 PATHS ...................................................................................................................................................................20  $GG 1HZ SDWK 
4.2.1.1 4.2.1.2 Site parameters.....................................................................................................................................................24 Path parameters....................................................................................................................................................25 

    

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4.2.7.1 Tune antennas ......................................................................................................................................................29 4.2.7.2 Tune radio............................................................................................................................................................32 4.2.7.3 Tune Threshold degradation ................................................................................................................................34 4.2.7.4 Tune diversity ......................................................................................................................................................34 4.2.7.4.1 Frequency diversity.........................................................................................................................................34 4.2.7.4.2 Space Diversity ...............................................................................................................................................34 4.2.7.5 Tune feeder length ...............................................................................................................................................35 4.2.7.6 Tune feeder type ..................................................................................................................................................36 4.2.7.7 Tune path length ..................................................................................................................................................36 

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Update this path only ...........................................................................................................................................37 Update all parameters ..........................................................................................................................................38 Update radio only ................................................................................................................................................38 Update feeder only...............................................................................................................................................38

4.2.8.1 4.2.8.2 4.2.8.3 4.2.8.4

4.3 SYSTEMS ...............................................................................................................................................................38  &OHDU DOO V\VWHPV  $GG V\VWHP   ,QVHUW V\VWHP   'HOHWH V\VWHP   35(',&7,21 02'(/ 5.1 POWER BUDGET ....................................................................................................................................................40 5.2 FREE SPACE LOSS ..................................................................................................................................................40 5.3 ATTENUATION DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC GASES .........................................................................................................40 5.4 LINK BUDGET ........................................................................................................................................................41  3DVVLYH UHSHDWHUV
5.4.1.1 Plane reflectors ....................................................................................................................................................43 5.4.1.1.1 Gain of plane reflector ....................................................................................................................................44 5.4.1.2 Back-to-back antennas .........................................................................................................................................45

5.5 MULTIPATH FADING ..............................................................................................................................................45  )ODW )DGLQJ
5.5.1.1 5.5.1.2 5.5.1.3 5.5.1.4 5.5.1.5 Inland links ..........................................................................................................................................................47 Coastal linksover/near large bodies of water .......................................................................................................48 Coastal links over/near medium-sized bodies of water ........................................................................................49 Inland links in regions with many lakes...............................................................................................................49 Coastal links over/near uncertain size of body of water.......................................................................................49 

)UHTXHQF\ 6HOHFWLYH )DGLQJ  5.6 DIVERSITY.............................................................................................................................................................50  6LQJOH GLYHUVLW\ 
5.6.1.1 Space diversity.....................................................................................................................................................51 5.6.1.2 Frequency diversity..............................................................................................................................................53 5.6.1.2.1 Redundant 1+1 system ....................................................................................................................................53 5.6.1.3 Redundant N+1 System .......................................................................................................................................55 5.6.1.4 Hot standby configuration....................................................................................................................................55 5.6.1.5 Hybrid diversity ...................................................................................................................................................56 

&RPELQHG GLYHUVLW\  5.7 CROSS-POLAR INTERFERENCE.....................................................................................................................58  2XWDJH GXH WR FOHDUDLU HIIHFWV IRU FRFKDQQHO V\VWHPV  2XWDJH GXH WR SUHFLSLWDWLRQ HIIHFWV IRU FRFKDQQHO V\VWHPV 

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5.8 UNAVAILABILITY DUE TO RAIN ............................................................................................................................. 60  6SHFLILF $WWHQXDWLRQ    (IIHFWLYH SDWK OHQJWK    8QDYDLODELOLW\ GXH WR UDLQ DWWHQXDWLRQ  5.9 OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................................................................................... 63  *  
5.9.1.1 5.9.1.2 5.9.1.3 High grade objectives.......................................................................................................................................... 63 Medium grade objectives .................................................................................................................................... 63 Local grade objectives......................................................................................................................................... 65 International portion using radio-relay systems................................................................................................... 65 National portion using radio-relay systems ......................................................................................................... 67 

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5.9.2.1 5.9.2.2 



5()(5(1&(6  $33(1',;  7.1 WORKBOOK STRUCTURE ...................................................................................................................................... 71 7.2 NERA RADIO DATABASE ....................................................................................................................................... 72 7.3 NERA ANTENNA DATA BASE ................................................................................................................................. 72 7.4 FEEDER DATABASE ............................................................................................................................... ................ 73 7.5 ITU-R WORLD MAPS ............................................................................................................................................ 74  3/FRQWRXU PDSV ,785 UHF  []

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   .1'(.  Page 4(85) NERA Networks AS .

ANT-DATA. Rain_ITU. In addition the antenna database.Date Rev.  *HWWLQJ VWDUWHG  5HTXLUHPHQWV The program and associated files occupy about 3. feeder database. The following files are installed: WEDIG20.0 or double-click the WEDIG20.XLS file is opened in Excel.XLS.XLS. NERA Networks AS Page 5(85) . Make sure that the decimal separator is . The Excel version can be either Office 95 Excel 7. NL-DATA.XLS. A program group containing program icons will be created. 99.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. The main program is WEDIG20.  .XLS. It is not a self-standing program. the help-file and the rain fall intensity data may be accessed directly from program manager. WEDIG20. but it must be run as a workbook in Excel. databases and help-files. (period) and not . Knowledge of Excel worksheet is a benefit. The help about window will be displayed during workbook configuration. The program should be opened as a “read-only” file unless you want to make changes to the program itself.31 C WEDIG 2.08. WG-DATA.2 Mb on your c:\ drive. radio database. Document no. You may use the WEDIG20. The program is also automatically started when the WEDIG20. but not a necessity.ICO.  6WDUWLQJ WKH SURJUDP Double-click the program icon for WEDIG 2.QVWDOODWLRQ Run the VHWXSH[H program to install the main program.0 or Excel 97.dat. (comma) in the Windows number format. The program is designed to be a useful design tool for system planning engineers.ICO file as a program icon in the program manager.QWURGXFWLRQ This program carries out prediction of system performance and outage due to rain on digital line-of-sight radio relay systems.HLP.XLS in file manager or as a short-cut in Windows ’95 / ‘98. WED-HELP.0c  .XLS. The prediction model is based on ITU-R recommendation 530-7 [17]. The program is basically a customised Microsoft Excel workbook.

XLS). Save the program when the modifications are completed. the radio database or the feeder database should not be saved unless you deliberately have made changes to the parameters stored in these databases. n new tune antenna dialog box n both RFS and Andrew feeder data in the WG-database n new performance objectives (national and custom) n export function n rain rate database n results both presented in percent of time and in time (hour:min.821 and G.) Page 6(85) NERA Networks AS .08. The main changes are: n attenuation due to atmospheric gases n cross-polar interference n different receiver threshold for objectives based on G.  :KDW¶V QHZ There are several changes both to the program it self .3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.0c  8VHU VHWXS Default user information may be set using the following procedure (please make a back-up copy of the original program first): Open the program by entering the program password (WEDIG20) so the program can be saved when the setup is completed.6.8). See also 4. In order to enter data for a new path. but also to the database files. Document no. This command is repeated until the system is totally defined. use the 1HZ command in the 3URMHFW menu to clear all data and then save the program.826. Project information must be entered in order to identify your project before it is saved. simply select the $GG 1HZ command in the 3DWKV menu. Make the desired changes. The program however. The data may be save using the 6DYH $V command in the 3URMHFW menu. Select the Project-View-Enable menus command to enable access to all commands. like changing the default text in the General comments text box or changing the formulas. The Input dialog box in Figure 12 will be displayed and path parameters may be entered.8. so don’t save the changes made in your application when you close the file or exit Excel. 3. Changes made in the antenna database (ANTDATA.1.  (QWHULQJ GDWD The program will always activate the Paths window when started (when configuration is completed).31 C WEDIG 2. The save command in the file menu is blocked in order to prevent changes in the program itself (see 2.XLS file) should normally not be changed. If however changes are saved accidentally.  &ORVLQJ DSSOLFDWLRQ The project information should be saved before exiting the program.:sec. (WEDIG20. 99.1.Date Rev.

NERA Networks AS Page 7(85) .31 C WEDIG 2. The first row has a colour-code for each group of parameters. These commands are supported by macros written in Microsoft Visual Basic Programming System.QIR :LQGRZ EXWWRQ (or the 9LHZ .0c  :RUNVSDFH The workspace is a customised Microsoft Excel workbook.08.QIR :LQGRZ check box in 2SWLRQV menu). Only the three information sheets (Paths. Workbook structure. but they may be hidden in order to get a display of the wanted parameters. The statusbar at the bottom of the screen will give the status of the current operation. 99.1.XLS must be saved (please make a back-up of the original program first).  :RUNERRN FRQWHQWV The program itself is one Excel workbook. Document no. The path parameters are arranged in a spreadsheet rows and columns manner. 3. and an overview is given in chapter 7. The second row is the column headings. You will find additional commands in the menu list as described in Chapter 4. A typical info-box is shown in Figure 1b. Equipment and Single sheets). Additional information is available by selecting the 6KRZ . WEDIG20. These databases are automatically opened at program start-up. You may use all standard Excel commands and functions. 1HUD DQWHQQD GDWDEDVH 1HUD UDGLR GDWDEDVH )HHGHU GDWDEDVH The WEDIG20. These colours help identifying the different groups more rapidly. but equipment parameters used in the program are located in separate workbooks defined as equipment databases.Date Rev. It is also possible to modify the other types of sheets. One path is defined in one row with totally 130 columns. Sheets where information is displayed only (Systems.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. In Excel the information is displayed automatically when the cursor is placed in the column heading cell if the Note Indicator is checked in 7RROVÂ2SWLRQV dialog box. Visual basic macro modules Dialog box definitions The user will normally only enter data in the first category of sheets. It is recommended to use the customised commands as far as possible in order to reduce the risk of malfunction.XLS workbook contains several sheets.1. but this freedom may cause unpredictable effects on the program’s behaviour. If changes are made in other sheets in the workbook (for example modification of the prediction model functions).1 Paths sheet The 3DWKV sheet contains all path parameters for your radio relay system. A short description like Figure 1a is displayed for each column heading. There are four types of sheets: • • • • Sheets where information is entered and displayed (Paths and Info sheets). Systems and Info) are saved using the 3URMHFW 6DYH command. None of the columns should ever be deleted.

1. but only columns relevant to the system performance are included. Any changes made in the paths sheet is thus reflected in the systems sheet.5 Functions sheet The functions described in the prediction model (chapter 5) are defined in the functions sheet.QIR sheet).2 Systems sheet The 6\VWHPV sheet contains the predicted performance for radio relay systems of one or more paths.6 Info. 3.1. All data in this sheet is linked to the paths sheet. It is possible to make changes to these functions in order to adapt the program to different prediction models. Document no.QIR :LQGRZ b → 3.08.0c ↑ a )LJXUH  . The second page contains an overview of ITU-R high grade objectives. 3.1.31 C WEDIG 2.4 Rain sheet The rain sheet contains regression coefficients for calculation of rain attenuation.6 Single sheet Page 8(85) NERA Networks AS .Date Rev. 3. 3.1.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.QIR sheet contains relevant project information as defined in Figure 3. using an interpolation technique to achieve coefficients in 100 MHz steps for the frequency range from 1 to 40 GHz. The coefficients are based on Table 4. This sheet has a similar set-up as the paths sheet. See also 4.1.3 Info sheet The . The 6\VWHPV sheet is a read-only sheet where no changes should be made manually. Comments may also be entered in the text box (main body of the .1. Parameters are entered in this sheet using the Project Info command. 99.

including outputs to screen (View). Save Save As. Info.10..1... the workbook password “WEDIG20” must be entered when the program is opened. This will make the file save command available. The data in the sheet is updated when the sheet is activated. Objectives… Preferences… View Print View Customize Paths Customize Systems Customize Single Pro-rata Chart Absolute Chart Variation Charts Paths Selected Path Systems Info Equipment Radio database Antenna database Feeder database Enable menus )LJXUH  3URMHFW PHQXV Print Project Paths. There are three application specific menus: Project..3). 99..11.  7KH PHQXV The commands in the different menus are described in the order they appear in the pull-down menus.. Equipment.1.7 Equipment sheet Specifications for applied radio equipment and a summary of antenna types and feeder lengths used in the project is available... Project New Open. Context sensitive help is also included in all application specific dialog boxes.. Reset page set-ups NERA Networks AS Page 9(85) . Paths and Systems.. Export to file Info. Document no. 3.31 C WEDIG 2..1..0c A single page set-up is available for displaying or printing all parameters for individual paths (see 4.Date Rev. All Paths Separately Systems.. In addition you will find WEDIG20 Help as a sub-entry in the bottom of the Excel Help menu. 3.1.. Selected Path. It is strongly recommended to make a backup copy of the original program first.08.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.5 and 4...  3URMHFW This menu contains all commands relevant to input/output operations.8 Workbook password If permanent changes should be made to the program.

4. Any existing project in the program should be saved before New is executed. The standard Excel 2SHQ )LOH dialog box is displayed in order to select the wanted file. as well as project information. 4.0c 4. system and info data is saved using the same filename and project information as defined in the Info sheet.Date Rev. will be loaded. The functions and formulas are not exported. the file is converted to the current model. this directory will be created when the project is saved.QIR sheet.1. Both path and system data. and the custom view is updated according to set-up in the loaded file. 6\VWHPV and . showing the current project reference data.4 Save As Path.1.08. performance data is QRW updated if data is changed.6 Info The 3URMHFW LQIRUPDWLRQ dialog box is displayed (Figure 3). not as formulas. A warning dialog box is displayed. the program file (WEDIG20. Use the Tab-key to move to the next input field. system and info data is saved using filename and file location defined by the user in the project information dialog box (Figure 3). and both Find File and Network functions are available. The formulas are maintained. 99. Click the 7RGD\ check box to update the date field.5 Export to file This function exports the data to a new Excel file such the prediction calculations can be view for users without the WEDIG program. Warning for replacement of existing files with the same name is not displayed.XLS) must be saved as well (see 7. The cells content is saved by values.1. only the values.2 Open Projects that are saved previously may be opened using this command.1. Pressing enter will activate the selected button (usually equivalent Page 10(85) NERA Networks AS .) Warning for replacement of existing files with the same name is displayed. The data will be inserted in the .3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.1. If the selected file has an incorrect file format the loading command is aborted. It is likely that the radio in the old file is not found in the new radio database since the radio names has changed.1 Workbook structure). Document no. If a file reference includes a non-existing directory. 4. If changes are made in other sheets.6 Info. If the saved project is opened as a stand-alone workbook. Only the 3DWKV.1) of the prediction model.3 Save Path. The performance of systems defined in your project will be updated automatically when the project is opened again. 4. Project information is updated in all page set-ups during save operation. The radio should be chosen manually. 4.1. Systems and Info is also the data for each path in the Single sheet exported to the sheet Details in the new file.1 New Starts a new project by clearing all paths and systems in the worksheet.QIR sheets are saved by this command.31 C WEDIG 2. In additions to the sheets Paths. If the selected file is calculated using a previous version (only version 1.1. and the command must be confirmed by the user before the worksheet is cleared. (See also 4. All data in the worksheet will be substituted by the loaded data. and a warning dialog box is displayed before the data is actually loaded.

Date Rev. Automatic log reference and file reference is activated by checking the $XWR check-box. Select the main text-box to enter general comments added to your project information.31 C WEDIG 2.02.0c to pressing the OK button). Document no.Date Rev. the project will be saved in the default directory used by Excel.xls WEDIG11.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. 99. The header looks like indicated in Figure 4. 6\VWHP SHUIRUPDQFH FDOFXODWLRQV Rev.XLS )LJXUH  'RFXPHQW KHDGHU DQG IRRWHU NERA Networks AS Page 11(85) .03 Prepared by A NN 99/P045 Approved by Subject Responsible Ingvar Henne Test of program h:\felles\software\exdig\test. 99. Document no. If no directory is specified in the File reference box. The program will identify the first vacant project number in your project directory and suggest a new log reference and file location )LJXUH  3URMHFW LQIRUPDWLRQ GLDORJ ER[ The information entered in the project information dialog box (Figure 3) is entered in the Info sheet in a standard Nera document set-up.08.

F. 1053 [9] Custom objectives where the availability is entered. G. The objective may be changed by using the Project-Objectives command. 634 [12] and 695 [13] Medium grade objectives based on ITU-R Rec. 697 [8] and Rep.826 [3] International portion (terminating and intermediate country) based on ITU-R Rec.9. )LJXUH  3URMHFW REMHFWLYHV GLDORJ ER[ Page 12(85) NERA Networks AS . The objectives are selected using option buttons in the dialog box shown in Figure 5.1.1092 [19] National portion (long. 696 [6] and Rep.Date Rev. 100% represents a performance exactly at the limit of the objective. 10% represents a system ten times better than the objective. See also 5. 1052 [7] Local grade objectives based on ITU-R Rec. The following objectives may be selected: Objectives based on ITU-T Rec. short and access) based on ITU-R Rec.31 C WEDIG 2. Objectives based on ITU-T Rec. Document no.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. F. G.821 [2] High grade objectives based on ITU-R Rec. 99. The heading of the respective columns will change automatically.08.7 Project objectives The predicted performance is compared to the performance objectives in columns showing the path or system performance as a percentage of the objective.0c 4.1189 [20] Custom objectives where the availability is entered.

the radio database file has the same database structure as the standard NL-data.8 Project preferences The project preferences command is used to change the references to file names and locations for the databases and external files used by WEDIG.08.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Initially these files are installed in the same directory as the WEDIG program. Make sure that the new files have the correct data format according to selected application (e.0c 4. In the “Single view” area can a customized selection of the data on the single-sheet be enabled. Please observe that the location of the Userdata. The wanted parameters may be selected by clicking the check-boxes.Date Rev. Press the default button to return to the standard file names and locations.1.xls file should not be changed. See also chapter 7 for more details on configuration and database structures. 99. but the program may interact with other files located on servers. The currently used files and databases will be closed.g. The selections are stored in the Userdata. The name of the user. Document no.31 C WEDIG 2. The dialog box shown in Figure 6 is displayed.xls file). organization and project responsible may also be changed. and the new files will be opened when OK is pressed. etc. )LJXUH  8VHU SUHIHUHQFHV GLDORJ ER[ NERA Networks AS Page 13(85) .xls file.

and many of the columns are normally of no interest to the user. To enable a customized selection of the columns. )LJXUH  &XVWRPLVH SDWK YLHZ GLDORJ ER[ 4. When you click on the 9LHZ field. 99.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. View Customize Paths Customize Systems Customize Single Pro-rata Chart Absolute Chart Variation Charts Paths Selected Path Systems Info Equipment Radio database Antenna database Feeder database Enable menus  Customize Paths This command works on the paths-sheet only.08. Document no.9 View This menu has several sub-menus that are used to view the wanted part of the workbook.2 Customize Systems This command works on the systems-sheet only.1.31 C WEDIG 2.9. the wanted parameters may be selected by clicking the check-boxes in Figure 7. It is not always convenient to display all these columns simultaneously on the screen. Page 14(85) NERA Networks AS .1.0c 4. The entire 3DWKV sheet consists 130 columns.Date Rev. All these columns cannot be displayed simultaneously on the screen. the submenu is displayed. the wanted parameters may be selected by clicking the check-boxes in Figure 8. The entire 6\VWHPV sheet consists 23 columns. To enable a customized selection of the columns.

31 C WEDIG 2.Date Rev.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.08. Document no.0c )LJXUH  &XVWRPLVH V\VWHP YLHZ GLDORJ ER[ NERA Networks AS Page 15(85) . 99.

3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.3 View variation charts) Page 16(85) NERA Networks AS . The $EVROXWH &KDUW and the 3URUDWD &KDUW may not be visible at the same time. 99.2 View absolute chart. Document no. The chart shows the predicted performance as the percentage of time that the BER (Bit-Error-Ratio) exceeds the SES threshold. The 3URUDWD &KDUW shows graphically using bars how the different paths in the system get out of it compared to the ITU-R objective.10. To enable a customized selection of the data on the single-sheet. )LJXUH  &XVWRPLVH VLQJOH YLHZ GLDORJ ER[  9LHZ SURUDWD FKDUW The predicted system performance is related to the down-scaled ITU-R objectives as defined in the 3URMHFW⋅REMHFWLYHV menu.1. The chart is automatically updated if changes are made in the worksheet while the chart is displayed.1.31 C WEDIG 2. If the predicted performance exactly matches the objective. Both outage due to multipath fading and outage due to precipitation is shown. It is not always convenient to display the objectives and the present of objective data. The 3URUDWD &KDUW and the $EVROXWH &KDUW may not be visible at the same time.10.08. (See also 4. (See also 4.Date Rev.10 Customize Single This command works on the single-sheet only.0c 4. the wanted parameters may be selected by clicking the check-boxes in Figure 9. The chart is automatically updated if changes are made in the worksheet while the chart is displayed.1. the performance is defined as 100% of the objective. The 3URUDWD &KDUW is toggled on and off by checking/unchecking the menufield. The absolute chart is toggled on and off by checking/unchecking the menu-field. Both outage due to multipath fading and outage due to precipitation is shown.)  9LHZ DEVROXWH FKDUW The $EVROXWH &KDUW shows graphically how much each path contributes to the overall system performance.

but also when the Single tab is pressed to activate the sheet.31 C WEDIG 2.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Document no. This command may be used to check the paths’ sensitivity to net path loss variations. The path performance and unavailability due to rain are shown with original path data as well as with 1. 300 r ‰ v ‡ p r w Ah qvtÅr yh ‡r qˆ‡h trÃT@T These charts are NOT automatically updated! + 3 dB additional loss + 2 dB additional loss 250 200 150 100 50 0 a-b b-c c-e ShvÃ…ryh ‡r qˆ‡h tr Ér …‡vphyÂy i ‚ à s ‚ à + 1 dB additional loss Without additional loss È Ã  v à r t h ‡ ˆ ‚ e-f + 3 dB additional loss + 2 dB additional loss + 1 dB additional loss Without additional loss 120 100 r ‰ v ‡ p r w 80 60 40 20 0 a-b b-c c-e e-f i ‚ à s ‚ Ã È Ã  v à r t h ‡ ˆ ‚ )LJXUH  9DULDWLRQ FKDUWV  9LHZ SDWKV Activates the 3DWKV worksheet. 99. Equivalent to pressing the Paths tab.  9LHZ VHOHFWHG SDWK Shows all relevant data for the selected path in a single page set-up.0c  9LHZ YDULDWLRQ FKDUWV The 9DULDWLRQ &KDUWV show graphically the effect of net path loss variations. NERA Networks AS Page 17(85) . These charts are not automatically updated if changes are made in the worksheet while the chart is displayed. 2 and 3 dB additional loss. The parameters are automatically updated when the menu command is used. Activates the 6LQJOH worksheet.  9LHZ V\VWHPV Activates the 6\VWHPV worksheet.08. Equivalent to pressing the Systems tab.Date Rev.

 (QDEOH PHQXV Only the relevant menus are enable at program start-up in order to limit the possibilities of user errors.Print command or press the printer button in the toolbar.  9LHZ UDGLR GDWDEDVH Activates the Nera radio database workbook (NL-data.  9LHZ DQWHQQD GDWDEDVH Activates the Nera antenna database workbook. All Paths Separately Systems.Date Rev. The feeder type used for the selected path is selected by default. Print Project Paths.1...1.. The (QDEOH PHQXV command allows the user to manually enable all menus if required.31 C WEDIG 2. 4. the sub-menu is displayed as shown.  9LHZ IHHGHU GDWDEDVH Activates the feeder database workbook (WG-data..08. Reset page set-ups Page 18(85) NERA Networks AS . Use the filter selection tools to display antennas in different frequency bands or for selection of only specific antenna types. Equipment. Equivalent to pressing the Info tab.0c  9LHZ LQIR Activates the . All available antennas in the frequency band for the selected path is displayed by default...xls).. The charts may be printed by double-clicking them and then select the File .3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. The sheet is automatically updated when the menu command is used. Info. The radio in the selected path is selected by default.11 Print This menu has several sub-menus that are used to print the wanted part of the workbook. Selected Path.. Make sure the project information is set properly before you print in order to get the correct references on your hard-copy.QIR worksheet. When you click on the 3ULQW field. Document no.xls).. but not if the sheet tab is used to activate the Equipment sheet.. (See also 4.6.)  9LHZ HTXLSPHQW Displays a summary sheet of radio specifications for applied radio types as well as antenna types and antenna feeders used in the project. 99.

antennas and feeders All paths in project  3ULQW SDWKV Prints all paths defined in the 3DWKV worksheet. 99. The path name and the column headings will be printed on every page to identify the parameters.5 View selected path and 4.11.0c  3ULQW SURMHFW In order to print all sheets for the project this command is available.2 Print paths.1. 4.1.Date Rev.1.)  3ULQW V\VWHPV Prints all defined systems in the 6\VWHPV worksheet.)  3ULQW LQIR Print the project info as given in the Info sheet.6.  3ULQW VHOHFWHG SDWK Prints the selected path in a single page set-up. to get a paper copy.08.1. (See also 4.1. the standard Excel print dialog box is displayed. The following sheets will be printed in order without prompts: Info Systems Equipment Paths The project information sheet Defined systems in project (if any) Summary of radios. or use any of the options available in the dialog box (like Print Preview.11. This may be a useful print mode for small systems of only a few radio relay paths. Press 2. When the print set-up has been arranged. Document no.1. Only the visible columns will be printed. (See also 4.2 Print paths and 4.) NERA Networks AS Page 19(85) .1.11.5 View selected path.31 C WEDIG 2.3 Print selected path. etc.11.10.2 Print paths.)  3ULQW DOO SDWKV VHSDUDWHO\ Prints all paths defined in the 3DWKV worksheet in a single page set-up (one page per path).3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Printer Set-up.10. (See also 4.). (See also 4.

.. Delete Move Tune Update Tune Antennas. Radio… Threshold degradation Diversity. This will reduce the typing work in most situations.0c  3ULQW HTXLSPHQW Prints a summary sheet of radio specifications for applied radio types as well as antenna types and antenna feeders used in the project.. 99. The sheet is automatically updated when the Project/Print/Equipment command is used.. A short description of the path parameters is given in Table 1.Date Rev. Add selected ... A more detailed description of the prediction model is given in chapter 5..08. Insert. Edit.2.1 Add New path Use this command to enter data for a new path in your system.. Page 20(85) NERA Networks AS . but not if the File/Print command is used to print the Equipment sheet.31 C WEDIG 2. Document no... Data for site B in the last existing path will be default data for both site A and site B in the new path. The path data will be added after the last existing path in your system (bottom row).. Paths Add new.. Path length.. Feeder type.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.  3DWKV This menu contains all commands relevant to path parameters.. Update This path only All parameters Radio only Feeder only Rain only )LJXUH  7KH SDWKV PHQXV 4. Feeder length.. The dialog box shown in Figure 12 will show up.  5HVHW SDJH VHWXSV This command resets all page set-ups to the default values (as they are configured at program start)....

Links passing over a river or a small lake should normally be classed as passing over land. The terrain is not known.QODQG . See Figure 13 The size of a body of water can be chosen on the basis of several known examples: Large bodies of water include the English Channel. 06.QODQG PDQ\ ODNHV &RDVWDO PHGLXP VL]H RI ZDWHU &RDVWDO ODUJH VL]H RI ZDWHU &RDVWDO XQFHUWDLQ VL]H RI ZDWHU 7HUUDLQ W\SH 3ODLQV +LOOV 0RXQWDLQV 8QNQRZQ 3DWK OHQJWK $XWR 3/IDFWRU 5DLQ UDWH :DWHU YDSRXU 7HPSHUDWXUH NERA Networks AS 'HVFULSWLRQ Name of site Site geographical co-ordinates Site latitude (leading zeros must be included. or in which part or all of the path profile is below 100 m altitude for a link entirely within 50 km of the coastline. The path is in a largely mountainous area with lower-antenna altitude more than 700m above the mean sea level. The path is in a largely plain area. Hudson Strait. See Figure 13 Classification of the terrain type. The path is in a largely hilly area. the larger reaches of the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas. Document no. but there is an intervening height of land higher than 100 m between this part of the link and the coastline.04.08. the Gulf of Finland. and other bodies of water of similar size. The region of lakes in southern Finland provides the best known example. the North Sea. See Figure 13 Regions (not otherwise in coastal areas) in which there are many lakes over a fairly large area are believed to behave somewhat like coastal areas.31 C WEDIG 2.Date Rev. Distance between sites (optionally automatic) Check this to activate automatic calculation of path length from site positions (if site positions are given) Percentage of time gradient ≤ -100 N/km Rain intensity exceeded for 0.09) Site longitude (leading zeros must be included) Site level above mean sea level Antenna feeder length Antenna height above ground level Description of antenna type Antenna gain for selected antenna Classification of the path type (see Path type) Inland links are those in which either the entire path profile is above 100 m altitude (with respect to mean sea level) or beyond 50 km from the nearest coastline. and other bodies of water of similar size or larger. 8QLW none degrees degrees degrees meters meters meters none dB km % mm/h g/m3 °C Page 21(85) . See Figure 13 In cases of uncertainty as to whether the size of body of water should be classed as medium or large. 99.0c 3DUDPHWHU 1DPH 3RVLWLRQ /DWLWXGH /RQJLWXGH 6LWH OHYHO )HHGHU OHQJWK $QWHQQD KHLJKW $QWHQQD W\SH $QWHQQD JDLQ 3DWK W\SH .01% of the time Water vapour density Temperature in the surroundings.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. The size of a body of water can be chosen on the basis of several known examples: Medium-sized bodies of water include the Bay of Fundy (east coast of Canada) and the Strait of Georgia (west coast of Canada).

) Selected if a plane reflector is used at passive repeater Selected if back-to-back antennas are used at passive repeater Distance from site A to passive repeater Geometrical area of plane reflector Reflection angle at plane reflector Net gain of back-to-back antennas repeater A short description of the repeater site. For information only Select geographical area (optionally automatic) Approximate latitude for selected path (optionally automatic) Check auto to activate automatic calculation of path position from site positions (if site positions are given) 7DEOH  3DWK SDUDPHWHUV km m2 degree s dB 5DWLR LQ FRDVWDO DUHD 5DGLR W\SH 2WKHU ORVV 3ODQH SDVVLYH UHSHDWHU %DFN SDVVLYH UHSHDWHU 'LVWDQFH ! $ $UHD SODQH $QJOH *DLQ EDFN 7H[W 3DWK SRVLWLRQ /DWLWXGH $XWR % dB degree s Page 22(85) NERA Networks AS . etc. but without an intervening height of land above 100 m altitude.08. See Figure 14 Code referring to radio in radio sheet Addition loss (radome loss.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.0c Check this to activate automatic lookup of the rain rate in the rainfall intensity database file. The rain rate for both sites is calculated. the largest rain rate is returned. The fraction of the path profile below 100 m altitude above the mean level of the body of water in question and within 50 km of the coastline. The co-ordinates are input data for this lookup (if site positions are given).31 $XWR C WEDIG 2. diffraction loss.Date Rev. Document no. 99.

Date Rev. NERA Networks AS Page 23(85) . 99.0c )LJXUH  3DWK SDUDPHWHUV GLDORJ ER[ Pressing the Help-button will open a help-file containing the information given in this user manual. Use the move buttons to move between the paths. The relevant help topic will be selected automatically (context sensitive help).08.31 C WEDIG 2. This applies to all application defined dialog boxes in the program. Document no.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.

Position: Site level: Feeder length: Antenna height: Antenna type: Antenna gain: Diversity help: Feeder help: Page 24(85) NERA Networks AS . Use the Tune antenna menu to pick antenna type from Nera data base (see 4. The Apply button is disabled when this dialog box is called from the path parameters dialog box. The feeder lengths are not dynamically adjusted if the antenna heights are changed. seconds (dd. The parameter is also vital information to the installation team. Leading zeros should be included (06. Used to identify the antenna type.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Used to calculate the fading margin of the path.2. Press the Diversity help button to quickly add space diversity antennas to the given path.31 C WEDIG 2. Check none to remove existing space diversity antenna. Site level in meters above mean sea level is used to calculate the path inclination.1). Press the appropriate option button to select North/South and East/West. Hybrid space diversity (three antennas only) may be selected by checking the hybrid diversity field. The dialog box in Figure 20 will appear. The site positions may be given as geographical co-ordinates (latitude and longitude) in the format degrees. Net antenna gain for specified antenna type in dB. The antenna type will be entered as Nera antenna code. This value is used to calculate the feeder loss from radio to antenna. Select above existing to move main antenna up and place space diversity antenna at the original height of the main antenna.2. Press the Feeder help button to automatically set the feeder length equal to the antenna height plus a horizontal feeder length as specified in the dialog box in Figure 21. Select below existing to place diversity antenna below original height of main antenna.mmss). This inclination is an input parameter to the prediction model (larger inclination ⇒ less fading activity). Document no. Dynamic updating is achieved by using the Feeder length command in the Paths Tune menu (See also 4. The vertical antenna separation is given in meters.08.5).0409 is 6 degrees. 99. 4 minutes and 6 seconds. Antenna height in meters above ground level.7. Antenna feeder length in meters.0c  6LWH SDUDPHWHUV Name: Enter the name of the site using any combination of characters.Date Rev.7. This parameter is also used to create a summary of used antennas in the total system. This parameter is used to calculate the antenna height above sea level which in turn gives the path inclination. Check site A or site B to place the diversity antenna at the site you want. minutes. numbers and symbols. The specific feeder loss (dB/100m) is automatically retrieved from the Feeder loss database sheet when the radio type is selected. The site name is used to identify the paths and systems.

uncertain In cases of uncertainty as to whether the size of body of water should be classed as size of water medium or large. and other bodies of water of similar size or larger. The rain coefficients given in the 5DLQ sheet are automatically updated according to the radio frequency. See Figure 14 The label on the macro button is the code of the selected radio.5. but without an intervening height of land above 100 m altitude. Links passing over a river or a small lake should normally be classed as passing over land. but there is an intervening height of land higher than 100 m between this part of the link and the coastline. and other bodies of water of similar size.08.5. Distance between site A and site B given in km. the larger reaches of the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas. many lakes: Coastal. The path is in a largely mountainous area with lower-antenna altitude more than 700m above the mean sea level. The region of lakes in southern Finland provides the best known example. or in which part or all of the path profile is below 100 m altitude for a link entirely within 50 km of the coastline. See Figure 13 Terrain type Plains Mountains Unknown Path length: PL-factor: Classification of the terrain type The path is in a largely plain area.Date Rev. See Figure 13 Coastal.01% of the time (1 minute integration time) (see maps in 7. the North Sea. The percentage of time PL that the average refractivity gradient in the lowest 100m of the atmosphere is less than -100 N units/km (see maps in 7. Hudson Strait.1).0c  3DWK SDUDPHWHUV Path type : Inland: Select correct path type according to the classification below. medium. See Figure 13 Inland. Document no. Pressing the Radio Page 25(85) Rain rate: Water vapour Temperature: Ratio in coastal area Radio type: NERA Networks AS .The size of a body of water can be chosen on the basis of several known examples: size of water Medium-sized bodies of water include the Bay of Fundy (east coast of Canada) and the Strait of Georgia (west coast of Canada).3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. See Figure 13 Regions (not otherwise in coastal areas) in which there are many lakes over a fairly large area are believed to behave somewhat like coastal areas. the Gulf of Finland. Rain intensity exceeded for 0. Used to determine the geoclimatic factor. See Figure 13 Coastal.3 ) Temperature in the surroundings. The terrain is not known. ( see map in 7.5. Water vapour density. large size The size of a body of water can be chosen on the basis of several known examples: of water Large bodies of water include the English Channel. Inland links are those in which either the entire path profile is above 100 m altitude (with respect to mean sea level) or beyond 50 km from the nearest coastline. 99.2). Use to determine the outage probability due to rain.31 C WEDIG 2. The fraction of the path profile below 100 m altitude above the mean level of the body of water in question and within 50 km of the coastline.

but the calculated gain of the plane reflector will be shown (not editable) in this field. The distance from Site A to the passive repeater in km. Used to calculate the gain of the plane reflector. Passive repeater: None: Plane: Back: Distance -> A: Used to remove definition of passive repeater (default). Geometrical area of the plane reflector in square meters. diffraction loss. Placing the passive repeater halfway between Site A and B results in minimum fading margin. This loss may be radome losses. Selected if a plane reflector is used at the passive repeater. A short description of the repeater site. This distance should be kept as small as possible or as close to the total path length as possible in order to make one of the legs as short as possible. This field is only enabled if a plane reflector type is selected.0c type button gives access to the radio type dialog box in Figure 15. This field is disabled if a plane reflector is selected. This information is used to determine the CLon coefficient used in calculation of the geoclimatic factor. Reflection angle at the plane reflector as indicated in figure 27. This field is only enabled if a plane reflector type is selected.31 C WEDIG 2. For information only Geographical area of the path.08. Area plane: Angle: Gain back: Text: Path position: Latitude: Page 26(85) NERA Networks AS . reduced output power. Approximate latitude of the path location. Select the wanted radio and press OK.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.Date Rev. 99. Other loss: Additional loss may be entered in dB. Net gain of the back-to-back antennas repeater in dB. Document no. etc. Selected if back-to-back antennas are used at the passive repeater. This parameter is used to calculate the gain of the plane reflector as given in equation. This information is used to determine the CLat coefficient used in calculation of the geoclimatic factor.

Hudson Strait.QODQG Terrain height less than 100m above mean sea level &RVWDO PHGLXP RU ODUJH VL]H RI ZDWHU Gh…trÆv“rÃÂsÃÐh‡r…) Distance > 50 km English Channel.QODQG Entire path profile above 100m altitude Distance > 0 km )LJXUH  &ODVVLILFDWLRQ RI WKH SDWK W\SHV 3DUWV RI WKH SDWK SURILOH LV ORFDWHG LQ WKH FRDVWDO UHJLRQ /DUJH RU PHGLXP VL]H RI ZDWHU 100 m a. 0 km 7 km 10 km Ratio of path in coastal region = 70% )LJXUH  5DWLR RI SDWK LQ FRDVWDO UHJLRQ NERA Networks AS Page 27(85) . and other bodies of similar size or larger. the larger reaches of the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Distance > 0 km .08. Document no. 99.l. 0 m a.31 C WEDIG 2.s. and other bodies of similar size.Date Rev.s. the Gulf of Finland.QODQG Hrqvˆ€Ã†v“rÃÂsÃÐh‡r…) The Bay of Fundy (east coast of Canada) and the Strait of Georgia (west coast of Canada).l. the North Sea.0c . Distance < 50 km Terrain height less than 100m above mean sea level Terrain height 100m above mean sea level .

2. Default parameters for site A will equal site B for the path above the selected path. The new path will be inserted above the selected path.3 Insert This command may be used if you want to insert a path somewhere in your list of existing paths. but in this case the default site and path parameters will be identical to the parameters of the selected path. 99. Page 28(85) NERA Networks AS . If the radio type is changed without using this command (editing directly in cells). and parameters for site B will equal site A for the selected path. This command is useful if the new path is a spur-link. 4. 4.08.2.Date Rev.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.2 Add Selected path This command is similar to the Add New command. The new path will be added at the bottom of the list. remember to run the Update command in the Paths menu.0c )LJXUH  5DGLR W\SH GLDORJ ER[ 4.2. Document no.31 C WEDIG 2.4 Edit path This command is used if you want to edit some path parameters in your list of existing paths.

2..Date Rev. Tune Antennas.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. NERA Networks AS Page 29(85) . This command enables easy tuning of the antennas in order to meet the objectives. Confirmation is required. tuning of the antennas is essential. Document no.2..7 Tune This menu has several sub-menus that are used to tune path parameters.2.  7XQH DQWHQQDV In order to match the performance objectives..5 Delete path The selected path will be permanently removed from the list. 99. Radio… Threshold degradation Diversity. 4.31 C WEDIG 2.. See Figure 16... Feeder length....6 Move path The selected path will be moved to the row before the selected path in the dialog box.08.. Feeder type. Path length. )LJXUH  0RYH SDWK 4.0c 4. When you click on the tune-field. the sub-menu is displayed.

If the required antenna gain is less than 20 dB. The antenna gain is tuned to match the path pro-rata objective with a margin as given in the optimize criteria performance limit. A limitation in the fading margin may be added to the optimisation criteria. Keep the Esc-button pressed a few seconds to stop the optimisation. Page 30(85) NERA Networks AS . Document no.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Press $SSO\ VHOHFWHG !1H[W SDWK to tune antennas for the next path in your system without closing the dialog box. the antenna type is set to “failed” and the antenna gain equal to 50 dB. The Cancel button will only cancel changes in the last selected path when the Next path button is used. use the auto couple function to reduce typing. the antenna type is set to “limited” and the antenna gain is set to 20 dB.0c )LJXUH  7XQH DQWHQQDV GLDORJ ER[ Press the &DOFXODWH button to see the effect of changes in the antenna gain. The path being optimised is shown in the statusbar at the bottom of the screen. Press 2SWLPLVH DOO to repeat the optimisation for all paths in your system.31 C WEDIG 2. If you want to change both antennas simultaneously. 99.Date Rev. If the required antenna gain exceeds 50 dB. If the frequency is above ∼ 10 GHz the wanted polarization should be selected in order to determine antenna gain based on outage due to rain. Press the 2SWLPLVH VHOHFWHG button to find the minimum needed antenna gain to match the ITU-R objectives. Press 2.08. Press &DQFHO to close the dialog box without affecting the antenna parameters for the selected path. to use the selected antenna parameters and close the dialog box.

Document no. the Nera antenna specifications group will be enabled and all the available antennas in the band will be shown in the list box. The standard Excel copy and paste commands may also be used to apply the same parameters to several paths in your system. The 'LYHUVLW\ button is equivalent to selecting the Tune Diversity command.31 C WEDIG 2. 99. This command increases the tuning speed in systems where the same antenna types can be used for most of the paths.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. and a short-cut to change diversity parameters if tuning of antennas is insufficient to make the path match the performance objectives.Date Rev. If the 8VH 1HUD DQWHQQDV box is checked. The antennas may be selected manually from the Nera antenna data base by first selecting antenna in the available antennas list box and then pressing the <.0c The 6DPH DV SUHYLRXV command button may be used to apply the same antenna type to the selected path as was used for the previous path in your system. Use the 6ZDS DQWHQQDV button to exchange the antennas from site A to site B and vice versa. NERA Networks AS Page 31(85) .08.button beside the antenna data for the wanted site. The Replace function is also convenient to make global changes to your system without using the edit path command. The available antennas in the list box can be limited by selecting the type of performance.

31 C WEDIG 2. A short description of the radio parameters is given in Table 2. You are asked to confirm saving of changes in the radio database NL-DATA.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Press the 6WRUH FKDQJHV LQ GDWDEDVH button to make permanent changes to the radio database.Date Rev. frequency and configuration. )LJXUH  7XQH UDGLR GLDORJ ER[ Press the 6HOHFW UDGLR button in order to pick any radio type defined in the radio database by typing the radio code or by selecting the capacity. The dialog box shown in Figure 15 will be displayed. Press the $SSO\ WR VHOHFWHG SDWK button to update radio parameters for the selected path according to the contents of the dialog box. All radio parameters are stored in a separate workbook as a Nera radio database. Document no. Page 32(85) NERA Networks AS . Press the $SSO\ WR VHOHFWHG UDGLR button to change radio parameters for all paths using the selected radio type.0c  7XQH UDGLR The radio type or radio parameters may be changed using this command.08. 99.XLS when you close the program.

1+0. Receiver threshold level 3 in point B given in dBm. 7DEOH  5DGLR SDUDPHWHUV NERA Networks AS Page 33(85) .CityLink) Nera radio-relay code. Minimum frequency separation regular to protection channel. Only for radios with co-channel. Cross-polarized improvement factor in dB. CelLink. Only for radios with co-channel. Carrier-to-Interference 1 in dB. Only for radios with co-channel. Receiver signature factor for threshold 1 given in /GHz.: Modulation: XPIC.Date Rev. Carrier-to-Interference 2 in dB. Transmission capacity in Mb/s.: Radio family. NL290. Radio channel arrangement. Receiver signature factor for threshold 3 given in /GHz. Transmitter output power referred to point B’ given in dBm. Modulation method.0c Radio family: Radio type: Lower frequency: Centre frequency: Upper frequency: Data rate: Configuration: BER 1 BER 2 BER 3 Threshold level 1: Threshold level 2: Threshold level 3: C0/I 1: C0/I 2: C0/I 3: Signature 1: Signature 2: Signature 3: Calculate Tx power: High power: Branching loss: Freq. Document no. Centre frequency of radio frequency band in GHz. Check this to calculate the signature factor from the data in the “Data for calculating signature factor” area. Additional transmitter power when high power is optional in dB Total branching loss point B to B’ in dB (excluding RF-filters). 1E-3) Block error ratio (Eg.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Used to calculate frequency diversity improvement. 1+1 and so on.08. Receiver threshold level 2 in point B given in dBm. Bit error ratio (Eg. (eg. Only for radios with cochannel. Receiver signature factor for threshold 2 given in /GHz. (example: NL290-1) Lower frequency of radio frequency band in GHz. Upper frequency of radio frequency band in GHz. HSB: Hot standby.31 C WEDIG 2. Div. Carrier-to-Interference 3 in dB. 99. 1E-6) Receiver threshold level 1 in point B given in dBm. 5E-5) Bit error ratio (Eg.

3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ
Rev.Date Rev. Document no.

99.08.31

C WEDIG 2.0c 

7XQH 7KUHVKROG GHJUDGDWLRQ
The receiver threshold can be degraded due to interference. The given threshold degradation will reduce the nominal threshold and therefore also the fading margin of the hop.

)LJXUH  7XQH UHFHLYHU WKUHVKROG GHJUDGDWLRQ 

7XQH GLYHUVLW\
The diversity parameters are altered by selecting this command. You may include or remove frequency diversity or space diversity, or you could change the diversity parameters like system configuration, frequency separation and antenna separation. 

)UHTXHQF\ GLYHUVLW\
The system configuration may be changed by choosing 1+0 system or Hot Standby configuration (no frequency diversity) or by selecting a redundant n+1 system. In the latter case the frequency separation may be set manually to override the default value defined in the radio database. This can be done by changing the “Freq.div.” parameter in the radio parameters dialog box, see Figure 18. 

6SDFH 'LYHUVLW\
Space diversity antennas may be added easily using this command. The dialog box in Figure 20 will appear. None: Space diversity antennas are removed (if existing). Select the Above existing field if you want the main antenna to be lowered by the distance defined as vertical antenna separation. Above existing: The existing main antennas will be moved upwards and the diversity antennas will be placed at the original height of the main antennas on both sites. Below existing: The diversity antennas will be placed below the existing main antennas. Vertical antenna separation gives the distance between main and space diversity antennas. Press Apply to see the effect of space diversity to the path performance. Page 34(85) NERA Networks AS

3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ
Rev.Date Rev. Document no.

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C WEDIG 2.0c

Hybrid diversity: Check this field to add diversity antenna on one site only. Select site A or site B in order to place the diversity antenna on the wanted site.

)LJXUH  6SDFH GLYHUVLW\ GLDORJ ER[ 

7XQH IHHGHU OHQJWK
The exact feeder lengths are often unknown during initial planning. If the antenna heights are known, the feeder lengths may be automatically set equal to the antenna height + a given horizontal feeder length. The dialog box in Figure 21 shows the principle.

)LJXUH  )HHGHU OHQJWK GLDORJ ER[

NERA Networks AS

Page 35(85)

3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ
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Press the $OO SDWKV button to apply the given horizontal feeder length to all paths in your system. 

7XQH IHHGHU W\SH
WEDIG automatically selects the optimum feeder type based on the selected radio type and the selected WG producer. If however the user wants to override this selection, the feeder type may be selected manually by this command. A list of all feeder types available for the selected frequency band in the Feeder sheet is listed in the dialog box. Select the wanted feeder type and press OK to change feeder type for selected path or press $OO SDWKV to apply the selected feeder type for all paths operating in the same frequency band as the selected path. The wave guide producers that WEDIG are selecting data from can be set in the list box “WG producer”.

)LJXUH  )HHGHU W\SH GLDORJ ER[ 

7XQH SDWK OHQJWK
The maximum usable path length that matches the tuning criteria given in Figure 23 may be found using this Tune Path length command. This function is useful in the initial planning stage where the maximum usable path lengths with various antennas and system configurations is evaluated. Start by adding one typical path in the area of interest. Make a number of copies of the corresponding row and vary any parameters (antenna diameter, diversity type, radio type (radio frequency), etc.). Run the Update all command before the path length tuning is started. Press the Tune all button in Figure 23 and create a chart showing the maximum path length as a function of the varying parameters. Two examples are shown in Figure 24.

Page 36(85)

NERA Networks AS

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Rev.Date Rev. Document no.

99.08.31

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30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
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70 65 60 55 50 45 40 20HXP59A-2-P 30HXP59A-2-P
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4.2.8 Update
Radio data, feeder data (see 7.1 Workbook structure) and rain coefficients (see 5.8 Unavailability due to rain) are given in data base sheets in the workbook. This structure makes updating of data more convenient in most cases. If changes are made manually (without using menu commands), the parameters given in these data base sheets must be updated using one of the update commands described here. Update This path only All parameters Radio only Feeder only

This menu has several sub-menus. When you click on the update-field, the sub-menu is displayed as shown. 

8SGDWH WKLV SDWK RQO\
Only the selected path’s parameters will be updated. The radio code, radio family, capacity, modulation, configuration, high power option, lower and upper frequencies and the XPIC parameters are used to identify the radio and feeder data as well as rain coefficients. These data are copied from the data sheets Radio, Feeder Loss and Rain. If the radio type or frequency has been changed manually (without using menu commands) this update command should be executed in order to get correct parameters for the calculation. NERA Networks AS Page 37(85)

The data for the systems are automatically updated according to changes in the corresponding path parameters. Document no. Systems Clear all Add. Page 38(85) NERA Networks AS .. The feeder data and rain coefficients are not updated. Observe that changes made manually to feeder data may cause inconsistency with the updated radio parameters. alternative sites are given in nodal point. The system is defined by selecting first and last site using the dialog box in Figure 25.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.3. The system sheet may also be used to compare the performance of alternative routes from one site to another.2 Add system A new system is added at the bottom of the system list. Delete..  6\VWHPV This menu contains all commands relevant to definition of systems. If alternative routes are possible.. These changes will be replaced by the data given in the sheets Radio. and the user must select the wanted routing. Feeder Loss and Rain when this command is executed.0c  8SGDWH DOO SDUDPHWHUV All parameters for all path in your system will be updated by this command. Feeder types selected in the 7XQH )HHGHU 7\SH menu will be discarded..3. Define your systems using the $GG V\VWHP command in order to verify the total system performance. A system is one or several radio relay paths for which the total performance is calculated.1 Clear all systems This command clears all defined systems in the Systems sheet. The performance objectives are defined for systems rather than individual paths... This command is useful in order to update all parameters after global changes of radio codes using standard Excel commands (like Replace).08. Insert. 99. 4. Do not use this command if any of the radio or feeder data has been changed intentionally for any of the paths.Date Rev.  8SGDWH IHHGHU RQO\ The feeder data (type and specific loss) will be updated according to the given frequency for all paths in the system. 4.31 C WEDIG 2.  8SGDWH UDGLR RQO\ This command updates radio parameters for all paths in the system.

3 Insert system Similar to Add New System.31 C WEDIG 2. Confirmation is required.4 Delete system The selected system will be permanently removed.QSXW VLWHV GLDORJ ER[ 4.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.3. 4. but the new system will be inserted above the selected system.Date Rev. The corresponding paths in the “Paths”-sheet are not deleted by this command. NERA Networks AS Page 39(85) . Document no. 99.3.0c )LJXUH  .08.

0 is based on ITU-R recommendation 530 [17].08. Document no. a link power budget has to be prepared. 2. 99. the fading margin.  3RZHU EXGJHW In order to estimate the performance of a radio link system.Date Rev. is the main input parameter in the performance prediction model. The difference between nominal input level and the radio threshold level.  )UHH VSDFH ORVV The receiver power at the receiver is proportional to .0c  3UHGLFWLRQ PRGHO The prediction model used in WEDIG ver.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.31 C WEDIG 2.

P∝ 1 f ⋅ d2 2 This relation gives the free space formula (expressed in dB) .

/ IV (G%) = 92. above about 15GHz. the attenuation due to atmospheric gases will add to the total propagation loss of a radio relay path. The attenuation on a path is given by: .45 + 20 ⋅ log10 (G ⋅ I ) [dB]  $WWHQXDWLRQ GXH WR DWPRVSKHULF JDVHV At higher frequencies.

3 are valid for frequencies below 57GHz. . where $D = (γ 2 + γ : ) ⋅ G G .specific attenuation [dB/km] for water vapour The attenuation due to dry air and water vapour can be estimated using the simplified algorithms given in ITU-R Rec.path length in km γR . P.specific attenuation [dB/km] for dry air γW .676 [21] Section 5.

44 U S UW   NERA Networks AS Page 40(85) .5 2 2 +  I 2 U S UW ⋅ 10 − 3 2 2 2 2 5 + 0.  γ2 =  I 2  7 .351U S U W ( I − 57 ) + 2 .27 UW 7 .

99.31 C WEDIG 2. Document no.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.0c .08.Date Rev.

this loss should be subtracted in the calculations.81U S 2 UW S γ: =  11. 7  3. P. The difference between nominal input level and the receiver threshold level is known as the fading margin. The figure in 7. The branching loss is defined as total branching loss for the hop.5.7 ⋅ 10 − 4 + 3 .01UW + +  2 2 ( I − 183.85U S UW ( I − 325. The net path loss (13/) level for a normal path is given by: . If the transmitter output power is defined excluding the channel filter loss. 27 10 U 1 . 67 10  W U ( I − 22 .79 −2 − 3 ρ UW ⋅ + ⋅ + 7 .153)2 + 10. This is a key parameter to the prediction model described in chapter 5.235)2 + 9. The same applies at the receiver.  /LQN EXGJHW Figure 26 shows a transmit/receive system that may be used as a simplified model of a radio link system.44 U S 2 UW      I 2 ρ U U ⋅ 10 − 4 S W     where Ifrequency in GHz US = p/1013 UW = 288/(273+t) SWρpressure is set to 1013 hPa temperature in C° water vapour density in g/m3 . 836 [22] gives the annual surface water vapour density.31) + 11.3 from ITU-R Rec.5.73UW 4 .

13/(G% ) = / IV + $D + / I 1 + / I 2 + /E − *1 − *2 + /R and the received signal level is .

filters) Page 41(85) 3U (G%P) = 3W − 13/ .received power in dBm .feeder loss in dB . where 3U 13/ 3W * * /I /I /E NERA Networks AS .branching loss in dB (circulators.net path loss in dB .gain of antennas in dB over isotropic .transmitted power in dBm .

0c $D /R /IV .31 C WEDIG 2.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.08.other loss in dB (e.attenuation due to atmospheric gases .Date Rev.free space loss in dB The difference between normal received signal level and the receiver threshold level is called the fading margin: . attenuators . Document no. degradation of threshold) .g. 99.

receiver threshold degradation due in interference in dB ) (G% ) = 3U − 37KU − /7KU _ 'HJ This fading margin is a critical parameter in prediction of system performance.receiver threshold level in dBm . feeder feeder Rx 60 30 0 -30 -60 -90 Fading margin Receiver threshold )LJXUH  7UDQVPLWUHFHLYH V\VWHP Page 42(85) NERA Networks AS . where 3U 37KU /7KUB'HJ .normal received signal level in dBm .

0c CALCULATION EXAMPLE 3DUDPHWHU Transmitter output power Feeder loss transmitter Branching loss (Tx/Rx) Transmitter antenna gain Free space loss and attenuation due to gases Receiver antenna gain Feeder loss receiver Nominal input level Receiver threshold Receiver threshold degradation Fading margin 9DOXH + 26.5 42.1 8QLW dBm dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dBm dB dB 5.2 42.2 .4. The same laws apply.6 1.82.1 Passive repeaters Two types of passive repeaters will be introduced: š plane reflectors š back-to-back antennas The plane reflector reflects microwave signals in the same way as a mirror reflects light.0 1. Back-to-back antennas work just like an ordinary repeater station.0 0 44.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.08.31 C WEDIG 2.8 145. 99.9 .Date Rev. Document no.37. but without radio frequency transposition or amplification of the signal.8 1. The receiver level at the active sites is thus given by: .

Plane reflectors may also be produced with much larger dimensions than parabolic antennas. 3U (G%P) = 3W − / IV1 − / IV 2 − $D1 − $D 2 + 2 ⋅ * S − / I 1 − / I 2 − /E + *1 + *2 − /R  3ODQH UHIOHFWRUV Plane reflectors are more popular than back-to-back antennas due to an efficiency close to 100% (50-60% for antennas). NERA Networks AS Page 43(85) .

99.Date Rev.0c  *DLQ RI SODQH UHIOHFWRU The far field gain of a plane reflector is given by: . Document no.08.31 C WEDIG 2.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.

the angle between the incident and the reflected ray at the reflector   Ψ  * S (G%) = 2145 . where $ .area (in square meters) of the reflector . Page 44(85) NERA Networks AS . + 20 log 10 ( I ) + 10 log 10  $ ⋅ cos   [dB]  2   ψ $ dA dB θ % 5 )LJXUH  3ODQH SDVVLYH UHIOHFWRU JHRPHWU\ 11)   2  (K5 − K $ ) + G $ ⋅ G % ⋅ 10 6 ⋅ cosθ − (K5 − K $ )(K% − K $ ) ψ = cos   2 2 2 2 6 6  ⋅ + − ⋅ + − G 10 K K G 10 K K ( 5 $) % ( 5 %)  $   −1 ( )( ) where hA is the antenna height above sea level at site A in m hB is the antenna height above sea level at site B in m hR is the height above sea level at the centre of the reflector in m d A is the distance from site A to the reflector point in km dB is the distance from site B to the reflector point in km θ is the angle at the reflection point in plane projection in degrees Unless the legs in figure 27 are extremely steep. θ may be used in place of ψ in equation 10) with good accuracy.

08.Date Rev.31 C WEDIG 2. Document no.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.0c It should be checked whether the passive repeater is in the far-field of the nearest antenna using the formula: . 99.

( )  %DFNWREDFN DQWHQQDV Use of back-to-back antennas are practical when the reflection angle is large. and formula 10) is valid. 5 the passive repeater is in the far-field of the nearest antenna. The gain of a repeater with back-to-back antennas is given by: . δV = 75π ⋅ G V ψ  I ⋅ $5 ⋅ cos   2 where ds is the shortest of the two legs G $ and G % in figure 27. If δ s > 2.

may sometimes cause detrimental effects to the received signal. This is called non-selective or "flat" fading.and amplitude relationship between signals thus received determines the resulting output from the receiver. This outage due to clear-air cross-polarization will only contribute to the total outage when the radio-relay system is utilising both polarizations on the same RF-channel to transmit two traffic channels. This affects the transmission of digital signals in two ways. The cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) can deteriorate sufficiently to cause co-channel interference. all components of the useful signal spectrum will be equally reduced.coupling loss between antennas in dB  0XOWLSDWK IDGLQJ Fading due to layering of the atmosphere is the dominating factor of degradation of radio-relays. where *U *U / p * S (G%) = *U1 + *U 2 − /F . Rays that normally would have been lost in the troposphere may be refracted into the receiving antenna where they are added to the wanted signal. This is called frequency selective fading. These three effects will be treated separately.gain of back-to-back antennas in dB . The outage is negligible for other radio-relay system. In some occasions. Other times only some of the spectral components will be reduced. The phase. NERA Networks AS Page 45(85) . causing the spectrum to be distorted. Meteorological conditions in the space separating the transmitter and the receiver.

0c The total outage due to multipath fading is calculated from: . Document no.Date Rev.08. 99.31 C WEDIG 2.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.

non-selective outage with diversity .selective outage .3 LI GLYHUVLW\ LV XVHG † .outage due to clear-air cross-polarization for co-channel systems 3 3 3 3 q† † q† YQ 5.non-selective (flat) outage . where 3 3 WRW  3 + 3 + 3 =    3 + 3 ( QV V   GQV GV ) .3  + 3 .selective outage with diversity .1 Flat Fading The percentage of time that fade depth ) is exceeded in the average worst month can be calculated from: .5.

−) 3QV = 30 ⋅ 10 10 % †Ã When using ) equal to the fading margin found using .

has been related to well-defined path parameters. The methods are based on statistical analysis of paths in different parts of the world. that the method is valid for larger ranges of path length and frequency The fading occurrence factor for the average worst month: . and grazing angles in the range 1-12 mrad. The parameter 30. 3 gives the percentage of time when the receiver signal is fading below threshold. the fading occurrence factor. path inclinations for the range 0-24 mrad. The paths used have path lengths ranging from 7 to 95 km. however. frequencies ranging from 2 to 37 GHz. Checks using several other sets of data for paths up to 237 km in length and frequencies as low as 500 MHz suggest.

⋅ G 3.Frequency (GHz) 30 = .Geoclimatic factor .Path inclination (millirad) .89 ⋅ (1 + ε S ) −1.6 ⋅ I 0. where .4 εS = K1 − K2 G .antenna heights (m) K K Page 46(85) NERA Networks AS .Path length (km) . G I .

or in which part or all of the path profile is below 100 m altitude for a link entirely within 50 km of the coastline. but there is an intervening height of land higher than 100 m between this part of the link and the coastline. 99. .Date Rev.QODQG OLQNV Inland links are those in which either the entire path profile is above 100 m altitude (with respect to mean sea level) or beyond 50 km from the nearest coastline. Document no.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. In absence of such data the following empirical relations must be used  .0c The geoclimatic factor may be estimated for the average worst month from fading data.31 C WEDIG 2. Links passing over a river or a small lake should normally be classed as passing over land.08.

.5 ⋅ 10 −0. = 5.0 ⋅ 10 −7 ⋅ 3/1.1⋅(&0 − &/DW − &/RQ ) The coefficient CLat of latitude ξ is given by .

.

.

&/DW = 0 [dB] &/DW = −53 + ξ [dB] &/DW = 7 [dB] 53 oS ≥ ξ ≤ 53 oN 53 oN or oS < ξ < 60 oN or oS ξ ≥ 60 oN or oS The longitude coefficient CLon is given by .

.

.

or mountains). for lower-altitude antenna more than 700 m above mean sea level. For planning purposes where the type of terrain is not known. &/RQ = 3 [dB] &/RQ = −3 [dB] &/RQ = 0 [dB] Longitudes of Europe and Africa Longitudes of North and South America All other longitudes The value of the coefficient &0 is given in Table 1 for three ranges of altitude of the lower of the transmitting and receiving antennas and three types of terrain (plains. the mean value of the coefficients &0 for these two types of area should be employed. or mountainous area.2 &0 = 8 for lower-altitude antenna in the range 0-400 m above mean sea level. for lower-altitude antenna in the range 400-700 m above mean sea level. NERA Networks AS Page 47(85) .7 &0 = 4. in cases of uncertainty as to whether a link should be classified as being in a hilly or mountainous area. hills. the water surface should be considered as a plain. Similarly. hilly. In cases of uncertainty as to whether a link should be classified as being in a plain or hilly area. For the purposes of deciding whether a partially overwater path is in a largely plain. the following values of the coefficient &0 should be employed: &0 = 1. the mean value of the coefficients &0 for these two types of area should be employed. Links traversing plains at one end and mountains at the other should be classified as being in hilly areas.

Document no. 99.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.Date Rev.0c Altitude of lower antenna and type of link terrain /RZ DOWLWXGH DQWHQQD  P.08.31 C WEDIG 2.

located in largely plains areas /RZ DOWLWXGH DQWHQQD  P. ± 3ODLQV Overland or partially overland links. with lower-antenna altitude less than 400 m above mean sea level.

located in largely hilly areas 0HGLXP DOWLWXGH DQWHQQD  P. ± +LOOV Overland or partially overland links. with lower-antenna altitude less than 400 m above mean sea level.

located in largely plains areas 0HGLXP DOWLWXGH DQWHQQD  P. with lower-antenna altitude in the range 400-700 m above mean sea level. ± 3ODLQV Overland or partially overland links.

± +LOOV Overland or partially overland links. with lower-antenna altitude in the range 400-700 m above mean sea level. located in largely hilly areas +LJK DOWLWXGH DQWHQQD > P.

± 3ODLQV Overland or partially overland links. with lower-antenna altitude more than 700 m above mean sea level. located in largely plains areas +LJK DOWLWXGH DQWHQQD > P.

± +LOOV Overland or partially overland links. with lower-antenna altitude more than 700 m above mean sea level. located in largely hilly areas +LJK DOWLWXGH DQWHQQD > P.

P.  &RDVWDO OLQNVRYHUQHDU ODUJH ERGLHV RI ZDWHU The size of a body of water can be chosen on the basis of several known examples: Large bodies of water include the English Channel. .5.5. with lower-antenna altitude more than 700 m above mean sea level. the North Sea. ± 0RXQWDLQV Overland or partially overland links. the larger reaches of the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas.5 8 5.5 3. Hudson Strait.453 [14] give 3/ for four different months. The month that has the highest value should be chosen. These figures are given in 7.1 from ITU-R Rec. located in largely mountainous areas 10. An exception to this is that only the maps for May and August should be used for latitudes greater than 60 oN or 60 oS.1. The figures in 7. and other bodies of water of similar size or larger.5 6 2.5 0 &0 (dB) Table 3 Values of C0 for various types of inland links 3/ is the percentage of time that the average refractivity gradient in the lowest 100 metre of the atmosphere is less than -100 Nunits/km.

for inland links in equation .L where UF is the fraction of the path profile below 100 m altitude above the mean level of the body of water in question and within 50 km of the coastline. .O (UF ) = 10 .L is given by the expression for .L for .FO < .FO   .L + UF log . =    .FO ≥ . (1 – UF ) log .L for . but without an intervening height of land above 100 m altitude.

. and: .

1⋅&0 − 0. FO = 2. .011⋅ ξ Page 48(85) NERA Networks AS .3 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ 10 −0.

and other bodies of water of similar size.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.08.Date Rev. Document no.  &RDVWDO OLQNV RYHUQHDU PHGLXPVL]HG ERGLHV RI ZDWHU The size of a body of water can be chosen on the basis of several known examples: Medium-sized bodies of water include the Bay of Fundy (east coast of Canada) and the Strait of Georgia (west coast of Canada). the Gulf of Finland.0c where ξ is the latitude in degrees. 99.31 C WEDIG 2. .

(U ) = 10 (1 . FP ≥ . FP < . =  O F  .  .L where UF is the fraction of the path profile below 100 m altitude above the mean level of the body of water in question and within 50 km of the coastline.L is given by the expression for .L – UF ) log . but without an intervening height of land above 100 m altitude. for inland links in equation .L + UF log .L for .FP for . .

and: ..

+ log . . L FO ) with .FO given by equation .5⋅(log . FP = 10 0.

Until such regions can be better defined. . The region of lakes in southern Finland provides the best known example.FP < . should be calculated from: .  .L occurs in a few regions at low and mid latitudes. Note that the condition .QODQG OLQNV LQ UHJLRQV ZLWK PDQ\ ODNHV Regions (not otherwise in coastal areas) in which there are many lakes over a fairly large area are believed to behave somewhat like coastal areas.

L + UF log .FP ] with .FP given by equation . . = 10 0.5[( 2 − UF ) log .

.L given by equation ..

.  &RDVWDO OLQNV RYHUQHDU XQFHUWDLQ VL]H RI ERG\ RI ZDWHU In cases of uncertainty as to whether the size of body of water should be classed as medium or large. but without an intervening height of land above 100 m altitude. and where UF is the fraction of the path profile below 100 m altitude above the mean level of the body of water in question and within 50 km of the coastline. should be calculated from: .

FP + log . .FP given by equation .FO ) with . = 10 (1 − UF ) log .5UF (log .L + 0.

L given by equation . .

 Kcl given by equation .

5. NERA Networks AS Page 49(85) .This method agrees reasonably well with measured results and clearly shows the radio’s ability to withstand the selective fading. but without an intervening height of land above 100 m altitude. 5. The method using the signature curve is described in ITU-R recommendation 530 [17].2 Frequency Selective Fading There are a number of different methods for predicting outages due to frequency selective fading. and where UF is the fraction of the path profile below 100 m altitude above the mean level of the body of water in question and within 50 km of the coastline.

31 C WEDIG 2. Document no.08.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.Date Rev.0c . 99.

η is often called the fading activity factor: 0 .2⋅ 0   100  in % where η is related to the fading occurrence factor 30. τ P2 3V = 430 ⋅ η ⋅ VI ⋅ τ0  3  −0. 75 .

η = 1− H where P0 is the multipath occurrence factor corresponding in %. given in equation .

. τP is the typical path echo delay given by : .

G τ P = 0.7 ⋅    50  1. τ is the echo delay time used during measurement of the signature curves. A much used value (also used by Nera) is: τ0 = 6. using the formula: .3 ns The signature factor VI is derived from the signature curve of the equipment.3 G is the path length in km and VI is called the equipment signature factor.

or induced by atmospheric anomalies such as strong ducting gradients. The common forms of diversity in LOS links are IUHTXHQF\ and VSDFH. it is possible to attain an improvement relative to a single channel given by the factor: 34) I= PSingle channel PDiversity Page 50(85) NERA Networks AS . where: :0 : %0 : :10 : %10 : minimum phase signature width (GHz) minimum phase signature depth (dB) non-minimum phase signature width (GHz) non-minimum phase signature depth (dB) VI = 1 ⋅ :0 × 10 − %0 / 20 + :10 × 10 − %10 / 20 2 ( )  'LYHUVLW\ The performance of line-of-sight (LOS) digital radio links can be seriously impaired by frequency selective fading. This multipath (or selective) fading can be a result of surface reflections. One principal method of overcoming the effects of multipath fading is to use a form of diversity transmission and reception. or combinations of both. due to in-band amplitude and phase distortions. By switching or combining the different channels carrying the same signal.

For wideband digital systems. Document no. For narrow-band analogue systems.Date Rev.87 ⋅ I    − 0.0c 5. )LJXUH  6SDFH GLYHUVLW\ SULQFLSOH The vertical space diversity improvement factor on overland paths can be estimated from 35) .12 ⋅G 0. the diversity improvement also depends on the statistics of in-band distortion.fade depth (dB) for the unprotected path .48  3  ⋅ 0   100  −1.34 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ 6 0.31 C WEDIG 2.  6SDFH GLYHUVLW\ The system performance may be significantly improved by use of space diversity.08.frequency (GHz) *V *V . it is sufficient to determine the improvement in the statistics of fade depth at a single frequency.path length (km) . 99.gains of the two space diversity antennas (dB) 30 6  fading occurrence factor in %  vertical separation (centre-to-centre) of receiving antennas (m) 9 = *V1 − *V2 The relation for . Identical information is transmitted over separate paths as indicated in Figure 28.04    ⋅ 10() −9 ) 10   where G ) I .1 Single diversity The degree of improvement afforded by all of the diversity techniques depends on the extent to which the signals in the diversity branches of the system are uncorrected.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.6.VG applies only when the following conditions are met: NERA Networks AS Page 51(85) . VG   = 1 − exp − 3.

0c 2 GHz < I < 11 GHz 43 km < G < 240 km 3 m < 6 < 23 m ITU-R recommendation 530 [17] indicates that .08.Date Rev. from: 36. for 13 or 15 GHz links. E. Document no.g.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. The following procedure is used to calculate the selective and non-selective outages: Calculate the square of the non-selective correlation coefficient. NQV.VG can be used with reasonable accuracy for path lengths down to 25 km. 99. the improvement factor for 11 GHz will be calculated. In cases where any of these boundaries have been exceeded (within reasonable limits).31 C WEDIG 2. the parameters have been set equal to the boundary value in the program.

2 N QV = 1 − . VG ⋅ 3QV 100 η where 3QV in % is the outage due to the non-selective component of the fading that is given by equation .

 and η is the fading activity factor that is given by equation .

log ( − ) U  2 Z 37.5 0. − .8238 for  0 109 0 13 1 . from: UZ ≤ 0.. NV. Calculate the square of the selective correlation coefficient.

9628 for  1 − 0.5 < UZ ≤ 0.5136 UZ > 0. UZ. of the relative amplitudes is given by: 38. for 0.9628 (1 − UZ )  0.3957 (1 − UZ ) where the correlation coefficient. NV = 1 − 0195 .

3GQV.034 2 1 − 0.6921 1 − N QV  ( ( ) ) 2 for N QV ≤ 0.170  2 1 0 9746 1 . − − N QV  UZ =  1.26 Calculate the non-selective outage. from: . 2.26 2 for N QV > 0.

VG in % where 3QV in % is the outage due to the non-selective component of the fading given by equation . 3GQV = 3QV .

3GV. Calculate the selective outage. from: .

3GV = 3V2 100 ⋅ η 1 − N V2 ( ) in % where 3V in % is the non-protected selective outage given by equation .

 Page 52(85) NERA Networks AS .

Document no.Date Rev.08.0c  )UHTXHQF\ GLYHUVLW\  5HGXQGDQW  V\VWHP 1 1 2 )LJXUH  )UHTXHQF\ GLYHUVLW\ SULQFLSOH 2 The following procedure is used to calculate the selective and non-selective outages: Calculate the improvement factor for frequency diversity from: .31 C WEDIG 2. 99.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.

7 GHz < I < 13 GHz 20 km < G < 75 km ∆I / < 0. if the distance is 15 km.IG boundary values. IG 80 ∆I = ⋅ ⋅ 1010 I ⋅G I ) {. The relation for .IG ≥ 5. E.fading margin in dB The equation is considered valid only for values of . from: NERA Networks AS Page 53(85) .frequency spacing between rf-channels in GHz . NQV.05 I In cases where these boundaries are exceeded (within reasonable limits).distance in km . then . is calculated with Calculate the square of the non-selective correlation coefficient.carrier frequency in GHz . . the .IG applies only when the following conditions are met : 1.IG is calculated with G = 30 km.g. IG ≥ 5} ∆I I G ) .

31 C WEDIG 2.Date Rev.08. Document no.0c .3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. 99.

2 N QV = 1 − . IG ⋅ 3QV 100 η where 3QV in % is the outage due to the non-selective component of the fading that is given in formula .

 and η is the fading activity factor that is given in formula .

 Calculate the square of the selective correlation coefficient. NV. from: UZ ≤ 0.5 0.8238 for   2 .

UZ.9628 (1 − UZ )0.5136 UZ > 0.3957 (1 − UZ ) where the correlation coefficient.5 < UZ ≤ 0.109 − 0. NV = 1 − 0195 . of the relative amplitudes is given by: .9628 for  1 − 0.13 log (1 − UZ )  0. for 0.

3GV. 2.26 Calculate the selective outage.9746 1 − N QV UZ =  1.170  2 1 − 0. from: .26 2 for N QV > 0.6921 1 − N QV  ( ( ) ) 2 for N QV ≤ 0.034 2 1 − 0.

IG in % where 3QV in % is the outage due to the non-selective component of the fading given by equation . 3GQV = 3QV .

from: . Calculate the selective outage. 3GV.

3GV = 3V2 100 ⋅ η 1 − N V2 ( ) in % where 3V in % is the non-protected selective outage given by equation .

 Page 54(85) NERA Networks AS .

Date Rev.31 C WEDIG 2. the diversity improvement factor will be reduced since there are more than one channel sharing the same diversity channel. If it is assumed that no more than two of the rf-channels are simultaneously afflicted by equal fading. n>1. and both have the same priority. 99.08. Document no.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. the reduced diversity improvement factors are given by: .0c  5HGXQGDQW 1 6\VWHP If frequency diversity is used in n+1 operation.

but reduces the system outage due to equipment failures. This configuration gives no improvement of system performance. IG ∆I . Consequently no frequency diversity improvement could be expected. IG . IG . IG {3+1} = 0. IG {4 +1} = 052 . The transmitters and receivers in Figure 30 operate at the same frequency.frequency spacing between rf-channels in GHz  +RW VWDQGE\ FRQILJXUDWLRQ The hot standby configuration is often used to give equipment diversity (protection) on paths where propagation conditions are non-critical to system performance.49 ⋅ . ⋅ .45 ⋅ . IG {7 +1} = 0. IG {6 +1} = 0.47 ⋅ . 1 1 1 )LJXUH  +RW VWDQGE\ SULQFLSOH 1 NERA Networks AS Page 55(85) .57 ⋅ . IG {5+1} = 0.67 ⋅ . IG {2 +1} = 0. IG . IG . . IG .

3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Document no. 99.0c  +\EULG GLYHUVLW\ Hybrid diversity is an arrangement where a 1+1 system has two antennas at one of the radio sites only.Date Rev. is found from: .08. NQV.31 C WEDIG 2. The following procedure is used to calculate the selective and non-selective outages: 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 )LJXUH  +\EULG GLYHUVLW\ SULQFLSOH The non-selective correlation coefficient.

where NQV.V and NQV. I are the non-selective correlation coefficients computed for space diversity equation . ⋅N QV I . N QV = N QV V .

and frequency diversity equation .

Calculate the square of the selective correlation coefficient.8238 for   2 .. from: UZ ≤ 0. NV.5 0. respectively.

5136 UZ > 0.5 < UZ ≤ 0. NV = 1 − 0195 . of the relative amplitudes is given by: .13 log (1 − UZ )  0. UZ.9628 (1 − UZ )0. for 0.3957 (1 − UZ ) where the correlation coefficient.109 − 0.9628 for  1 − 0.

170  2 1 0 9746 1 .26 2 for N QV > 0. − − N QV  UZ =  1. 3GQV.26 Calculate the non-selective outage.6921 1 − N QV  ( ( ) ) 2 for N QV ≤ 0.034 2 1 − 0. from: . 2.

3GQV = 3QV . VG in % where 3QV in % is the outage due to the non-selective component of the fading given by equation .

Page 56(85) NERA Networks AS .

3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. 99.Date Rev. 3GV. Document no.31 C WEDIG 2.0c Calculate the selective outage.08. from: .

3GV = 3V2 100 ⋅ η 1 − N V2 ( ) in % where 3V in % is the non-protected selective outage given by equation .

)LJXUH  &RPELQHG IUHTXHQF\ DQG VSDFH GLYHUVLW\ Calculate the non-selective outage. 5. common practice is to use the product of the improvement factors.6. from: . 3GQV.2 Combined diversity When using frequency and space diversity at the same time.

IG in % where 3QV in % is the outage due to the non-selective component of the fading given by equation . VG + . 3GQV = 3QV .

 .IG is the improvement factor for frequency diversity given by equation .

VG is the vertical space diversity improvement factor given by equation ). and . 3GV. from: . Calculate the selective outage.

VG + . IG in % where 3V in % is the non-protected selective outage given by equation . 3GV = 3V .

 127( 7KLV PHWKRG GLIIHUV IURP WKH PHWKRG GHVFULEHG LQ .785 UHF  [] Page 57(85) NERA Networks AS .

and rainfading can result in severe degradation of the XPD level. In co-channel systems transmission of two separate traffic channels is performed on the same radio frequency but on orthogonal polarisation. 99. Both multipath.31 C WEDIG 2. the interference level in the channel will rise and may cause threshold degradation and errors in the data traffic.1 Outage due to clear-air effects for co-channel systems The following procedure is used to calculate the outage due reduction of XPD in clear-air: . is sufficient to ensure interference-free operation. The nominal value of XPD is termed XPD0 and is governed by the cross-polarisation patterns of the antennas. Procedures for predicting both the outage due to clear-air effects and due to precipitation conditions is given ITU-R rec.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. 530 [17] 5. This works well as long as the discrimination between the two polarisations called Cross Polar Discrimination (XPD).17(5)(5(1&( Co-channel operation of radio relay systems will double the capacity compared to conventional radio relay systems. Document no.08.0c  &526632/$5 .7.Date Rev. As the XPD decreases.

the minimum of the transmitting and receiving antenna boresight XPDs.3'J > 35 .3'J is the manufacturer’s guaranteed minimum XPD at boresight for both the transmitting and receiving antennas. i.3'J ≤ 35 for .   .3'0 =   40 for .3' J + 5 . .e..

 100 ⋅ N [S η  4 = −10 log   30   where η is the fading activity factor given by equation .

and P0 in % is the fading occurrence factor given by equation .

3 exp  − 4 × 10 − 6  W     λ      one transmit antenna two transmit antennas . and: 0.7  2  N [S =  V   1 − 0.

the vertical separation is VW (m) and the carrier wavelength is λ (m). In the case where two orthogonally polarized transmissions are from different antennas. Derive the parameter & from: .

& = .3'0 + 4 Calculate the outage 3[S due to clear-air cross-polarization from: .

3' 10 in % where P0 in % is the fading occurrence factor given by equation . 3[S = 30 × 10 − 0 .

 and 0.3' (dB) is the equivalent XPD margin for a reference BER given by: Page 58(85) NERA Networks AS .

3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.31 C WEDIG 2. 99. Document no.08.Date Rev.0c .

C0 /. The following procedure is used to calculate the outage: Calculate the coefficients U and V. &0  & − . 0. is the carrier-to-interference ratio for a reference BER. 5. there will also be a depolarisation effect.) .  without XPIC with XPIC Here. This depolarisation may be substantial even at frequencies where the attenuation is insignificant (below 10 GHz).3.7.2 Outage due to precipitation effects for co-channel systems In addition to the usual attenuation of microwave signals due to rain. which is measurements. XPIF is a laboratory-measured cross-polarization improvement factor that gives the difference in cross-polar isolation XPI at sufficiently large carrier-to-noise ratio and at a specific BER for systems with and without cross polar interference canceller (XPIC). .3' =  & & − 0 + .

8 = 80 + 30 log I where 80 is set to equal 15 dB and I is the frequency in GHz. .

19  22 .002  9 ( I ) = 12 .8 I 0 . 19 .6  IRU I < 8 *+] IRU 8 ≤ I ≤ 20 *+] IRU 20 < I ≤ 35 *+] 127( 7KH IRUPXOD IRU 9 I.

KDV LQ .785 UHF  [] D ORZHU OLPLW RI  *+]  7KH YDOXH 9 I.

exceeded for 0.  LV XVHG IRU IUHTXHQFLHV EHORZ  *+] Determine the path attenuation.01 (dB). $0.01% of the time from : .

$0.01 = ψ ⋅ γ U where ψ is the effective path length given by equation .

and γr is the specific attenuation given by equation .

 Determine the equivalent path attenuation. $S (dB): .

If an XPIC device is not used.3. Ã NERA Networks AS Page 59(85) . set XPIF = 0. $ S = 10 ((8 − &0 / . + . (dB) is the carrier-to-interference ratio defined for the reference BER without XPIC. and XPIF (dB) is the cross-polarized improvement factor for the reference BER.) ) / 9 ) in dB where &0 .

Date Rev.08.31 C WEDIG 2.0c Determine the following parameters: .3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. 99. Document no.

and: .

− 4P / 2 ) Determine the outage due to precipitation effects for co-channel systems from: . $0.26 log $ S 012 P =   40 [ ] if P ≤ 40 otherwise ( 16123 . Q = − 12.01 23.7 +  .

in particular above 10 GHz. At higher frequencies. 530 [17] is used to calculate the unavailability due to rain. Page 60(85) NERA Networks AS . it can be quite significant. The model described in ITU-R rec. The rainfall contour maps in appendix 3 may be used if specific rainfall data for the region of interest is not available.35 = 100 ⋅ 10 ( Q − 2 ) in % The total outage probability due to rain is calculated from taking the largest value of 3UDLQ and 3. 3.35.  8QDYDLODELOLW\ GXH WR UDLQ On any path there is a possibility of additional attenuation of the radio signal due to absorption and scattering by rain and sleet. This can be ignored at frequencies below 5 GHz.

Document no.1 Specific Attenuation The specific attenuation γU (dB/km) for the frequency.Date Rev. 99.0c 5.31 C WEDIG 2.08.8. polarization and rain rate is given by .3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.

See 7.128 1.0006500 0.0005910 0.880 0.0001380 0.075 1.310 αh 0.0030100 0.030 1.099 1.785 5HF  [].121 1. 5 - γ U = N ⋅ 5α the rain intensity in mm/h not exceeded for more than 0.979 0.0691 0.113 0.963 0.308 1.265 1.929 7DEOH  5HJUHVVLRQ FRHIILFLHQWV IRU HVWLPDWLQJ VSHFLILF DWWHQXDWLRQ .167 0.923 1.000 0. It should be noted that the specific attenuation is lowest for the vertical polarization.0088700 0.939 αv 0. These regression coefficients are given in ITU-R Rec.0335000 0.0000387 0.276 1.312 1.5.0015500 0.200 1.233 0.332 1.0367000 0.0101000 0.263 0.061 1. These parameters are appropriate to the polarization.264 1.124 0.0001540 0.065 1.2 N and α are regression coefficients that have been calculated for oblate spheroid raindrops for a range of frequencies.187 0. 838 [23].0039500 0.154 1.217 1.963 1.0188000 0.327 1.0168000 0.0000352 0.0026500 0.0045400 0. Frequency [GHz] 1 2 4 6 7 8 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 kh 0.310 1.912 0.0751 0.01% of the worst month.0017500 0.350 kv 0.021 0.

 Y YHUWLFDO SRODUL]DWLRQ K KRUL]RQWDO SRODUL]DWLRQ.

XLS. 5. The effective path length containing rain cells is given by . The coefficients given in Table 4 are given for every 100 MHz from (1 GHz to 40 GHz) in the Rain sheet in WEDIG20.2 Effective path length Since rain has a tendency to cluster (especially at high rain rates). only parts of a typical radio link path will be affected by rain.8.

ψ= G G   1+  − 0.015⋅ 5   35 ⋅ H  for R > 100 mm / h: R = 100 mm / h where G is the path length in km 5 is the rain intensity in mm/h (integration time 1 minute). NERA Networks AS Page 61(85) .

31 C WEDIG 2. Document no.08.3 Unavailability due to rain attenuation The unavailability (in percent) due to rain is given by: .Date Rev.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. 99.0c 5.8.

⋅ (Ψ ⋅ γ U ) ⋅ 3UDLQ .fading margin in dB …hv ) The unavailability may be found by solving equation .unavailability in percent .043⋅log10 3UDLQ ) ) = 012 . 3 …hvÃ − ( 0.546 + 0.

with respect to 3 .

546+ 0. use ψ ⋅ γ  ) …Ã  in case where ψ ⋅ γ  )   The prediction procedure outlined above is considered to be valid in all parts of the world at least for frequencies up to 40 GHz and path lengths up to 60 km.172⋅log (0.35.29812 + 0.  3UDLQ = 10 11.628⋅ −0. The total outage probability due to rain is calculated from taking the largest value of 3UDLQ and 3. .12⋅ψ ⋅γ U / ) ) ( ) …Ã in % To avoid imaginary values.

Page 62(85) NERA Networks AS .WRW =   3.35 if 3UDLQ > 3. 3. for radio relay systems without a co-channel arrangement.3' if 3UDLQ < 3.35 = 0.3' in % The outage due to precipitation effects for co-channel systems is set to zero.  3UDLQ 35DLQ .

(0.821 is measuring bit errors. See ITU-R Rec.BER should not exceed 10-6  +LJK JUDGH REMHFWLYHV The ITU-R objectives for real circuits describe system lengths between 280 km and 2500 km. integration time 1 min. When each hop complies with these pro rata objectives.reference point extending into the network.7).1 G. BER>10-6 for no more than (L/2500). However. normally between the local exchange and the international switching centre. Since the length of the local grade portion is usually negligible. They are referred to the HRDP and the objectives are scaled down to a minimum of 280 km. Document no.821 G. A = 100 .821 [2] the local grade and medium grade portions are permitted to cover up to the first 1250 km of the circuit from the T . NERA Networks AS Page 63(85) . 7KH REMHFWLYHV DUH BER>10-3 for no more than (L/2500).0.L/2500) % SES DM Availability Availability due to rain AR = 100 . According to ITU-T Rec. 634 [12].0.4% of any month.3. 594 [5] and ITU-R Rec. can such hops later be incorporated in a larger system without any negative influence on the total system performance. integration time 1 s.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.1. The objectives for each hop are pro rata objectives that should be treated as information only since the hop length is less than 280km. the maximum length of the medium grade portion is approximately 1250 km.08. 99.054% of any month.  0HGLXP JUDGH REMHFWLYHV Medium grade objectives are supposed to be used for national networks.31 C WEDIG 2.Date Rev.0c  2EMHFWLYHV Several objectives may be used as design goals in the program (see 4. Performance objectives for shorter distance than 280 km are still under study. 695 [13]. G. See ITU-R Rec. 5.9.BER should not exceed 10-3 DM . this depends very much on the size of the country and the size of the networks in the country.(0. Hops with higher outage than the pro rata objectives can be accepted. SES .L/2500) % The objectives are valid for systems only.1.

BER not to exceed 10-6 for more than 1.04% For DM and ES there are no additional allowances.1 7DEOH  0HGLXP JUDGH REMHFWLYHV If a system is a mixture of different classifications it must be ensured that the overall objective for the medium grade portion is not exceeded.31 C WEDIG 2.0075 0.05%.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.005 0.2*L/280 0. For an HRDS the ITU-R Rec.5% of any month with an integration time of 1 min. The other three apply to medium grade only. That is 0.2 0. Class 1 corresponds to high grade classification but can also be used for medium grade classification.*: Percentage of any month Performance parameter &ODVV  0<L<280 km pro rata [%] BER>10-3 [%] BER>10-6 Unavailability for SES due to rain (1/3 of total allowance) [%] &ODVV  0<L<280 km pro rata 0.05 Class 3 50 km 0. These figures shall be used for lengths less than these distances.Date Rev.033 Page 64(85) NERA Networks AS . The total is 0.006*L/280 0.015% with an additional allowance of 0. 696 [6] has made a table for the different classifications and objectives. The medium grade objectives for a total medium grade portion at each end of an HRX can be found in ITU-R Rec.017 &ODVV  0<L<50 km block allowance 0.011*L/280 &ODVV  0<L<50 km block allowance 0.08.5 0. The objectives are: BER not to exceed 10-3 for more than 0. Comments are found in ITU-R Report 1052 [7].5 0. 2EMHFWLYHV XVHG LQ :('.033 Class 2 280 km 0.04% of any month with integration time of 1 s. For SES the objective was 0.045 0.0c The medium grade portion has 4 quality classifications.017*L/280 0. Document no.005 0.045*L/280 0. 99.002 0.05 Class 4 50 km 0. 696 [6].025% for each side.006 0.002 0.0075*L/280 0.2 0. Percentage of any month Performance parameter BER>10-3 BER>10-6 Unavailability Class 1 280 km 0.2 0.

015% of any month with an integration time of 1 s. often of simple and cost-effective design.033% 5.826 The main difference between ITU-T Rec. The objectives for performance are as follows: n BER should not exceed 10-3 for more than 0. G. 99.826 [3] and ITU-T Rec.1397 [25] have the objectives in F.QWHUQDWLRQDO SRUWLRQ XVLQJ UDGLRUHOD\ V\VWHPV The G. n Unavailability for SES due to rain: less than 0. NERA has chosen to relate 1/3 of the total unavailability to unavailability due to rain. The error performance objectives for the local grade portion can be found in ITU-R Rec.1 % for L<50 km.08. The objectives for "Medium grade class 4" ITU-R Rec.821. The objectives in F. The corresponding ITU-R Recommendation F.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.0c  /RFDO JUDGH REMHFWLYHV The local grade portion of the HRX represents the part between the subscriber and the local exchange. NERA Networks AS Page 65(85) . n BER should not exceed 10-6 for more than 1.2 G.5% of any month with an integration time of 1 min.826 defines the Error Performance Parameters and Objectives for International. Unavailability objectives for local grade circuits have not yet been established by the ITU-T or the ITU-R. In ITU-R Recommendation F.1092 [19] defines the error performance objectives for constant bit rate digital path at or above the primary rate carried by digital radio-relay systems which may form part of the international portion of a 27500 km hypothetical reference path. 696 [6] is therefore used. G.1397 is given in Table 6.  . Constant Bit Rate Digital Paths at or above the Primary Rate.826 uses EORFNV instead of ELWV as in G.31 C WEDIG 2.Date Rev. Total unavailability for SES should not exceed 0. 697 [8] and comments in ITU-R Report 1053 [9].9. This may be a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint system.821 [2] is that G. Document no.1092 been scaled down (pro-rata) to give engineers proper performance objectives for planing real digital radio links.

Document no.Date Rev. 99.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.0c 5DWH 0ELWV.31 C WEDIG 2.08.

002 × (FL + BL ) × Llink /LR 7DEOH  .785 5HF ) LQWHUQDWLRQDO SRUWLRQ. 6HYHUHO\ HUURUHG VHFRQGV UDWLR  WR  0.

002*(L/500+L/LR) . Provisionally L is 50 km.01 × L /( L /2) × 0.* Page 66(85) NERA Networks AS .002*2*(L/500) 0. REMHFWLYHV where: distance allocation factor: FL = 0. The lower limit of L .002*2*(L/500) 0.02 × (L / L ) × 0. 7HUPLQDWLRQ FRXQWU\ pro rata L < 500km L > 500km Performance for SES [%] Unavailability due to rain for SES [%] 0.002*(L/500+2*L/LR) 0. used to scale the objectives to the real case.*: Unavailability objectives for international portion have not yet been established by the ITU-T or the ITU-R.1 * L / 2500 0. B : – for intermediate countries: L B =B B =B – for terminating countries: B =B B =B block allowance ratio. is L . R link min min 2EMHFWLYHV XVHG LQ :('. B : (0 < B ≤ 1) L L L L R R ref ref R R R R × 0.QWHUPHGLDWH FRXQWU\ pro rata L < 1000km L > 1000km 0.1 * L / 2500 7DEOH  2EMHFWLYHV IRU WKH LQWHUQDWLRQDO SRUWLRQ XVHG LQ :('. L is the rounded value of L rounded up to the nearest multiple of 500 km.02 for L > L × 0. 695 [13] is therefore used. The objectives for "High grade" ITU-R Rec.01 for L > L /2 R ref R ref R ref R ref for L < L ≤ L min R min R ref for L < L ≤ L /2 ref reference length.01 × L /500 R block allowance factor. L : L = 1 000 km (provisionally).

3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Document no. this centre may coincide with a primary centre (PC).1189 [20] defines the error performance objectives for constant bit rate digital path at or above the primary rate carried by digital radio-relay systems which may form part or all of the national portion of a 27500 km hypothetical reference path.0c  1DWLRQDO SRUWLRQ XVLQJ UDGLRUHOD\ V\VWHPV The ITU-R Recommendation F.Date Rev.801).08.31 C WEDIG 2. 7DEOH  %DVLF VHFWLRQV RI QDWLRQDO SRUWLRQ RI WKH +53 5DWH 0ELWV. a secondary centre (SC) or a tertiary centre (TC) (see ITU-T Recommendation G. Path end-point Local exchange Note 1 International gateway Access Short haul Long haul 1RWH  – In dependence of the country network architecture. 99.

16xZ ! WR  Under study 0.5%.8. L is the rounded value of L rounded up to the nearest multiple of 500 km.2 % 6KRUW KDXO VHFWLRQ $FFHVV VHFWLRQ Z=A fixed block allocation only B = 7.04xZ ! WR  0.075xZ ! WR  0.5 % Z=A fixed block allocation only C = 7. where / is the actual system length R 7DEOH  .5% and % % + & % are in the range 15.5 % $1% + % % + & % shall not exceed 17.5 .5% to 16.8. (UURUHG VHFRQG UDWLR 6HYHUHO\ HUURUHG VHFRQGV UDWLR %DFNJURXQG EORFN HUURU UDWLR  WR  0.002xZ 2x10 x Z -4 2x10 x Z -4 1x10 x Z -4 /RQJ KDXO VHFWLRQ Z=A A = A1 + (LR/500) A1 = 1 .05xZ ! WR  0.5 .785 5HF ) [] QDWLRQDO SRUWLRQ.

REMHFWLYHV NERA Networks AS Page 67(85) .

where / is the actual system length.0c Unavailability objectives for the national portion have not yet been established by the ITU-T or the ITU-R. 99. Document no.033 L is the rounded value of L rounded up to the nearest multiple of 500 km.08. The objectives for "High grade" ITU-R Rec.033 0.* Page 68(85) NERA Networks AS .*: C WEDIG 2. 695 [13] is therefore used for the long haul section and the objectives for "Medium grade class 4" ITU-R Rec. 696 [6] is therefore used for the short haul and access sections.1*L/2500 0.002*(L/LR + L/500) 0.017 0.31 2EMHFWLYHV XVHG LQ :('.Date Rev. 7DEOH  2EMHFWLYHV IRU WKH QDWLRQDO SRUWLRQ XVHG LQ :('. /RQJ KDXO L < 500km pro rata Performance for SES [%] Unavailability due to rain for SES [%] R 6KRUW KDXO block allowance $FFHVV block allowance 0.015 0.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.

Error Performance of an International Digital connection forming part of an Integrated Services Digital Network.O.. Geneva 1990. Volume IX-Part 1.I. Recommendations of the C. 1990.. Digital Transmission models.R.C. Volume IX-Part 1.C.C.C. Rec.R. Recommendations of the C.I. 99. Volume IX-Part 1. Availability Objective for a Hypothetical Reference Circuit and a Hypothetical Reference Digital Path. Recommendations of the C..R. Propagation data and prediction methods required for terrestrial line-of-sight systems. Reports of the C. September 9.I. Report 1052-1. Geneva ISBN 92-61-04251-1. C.Date Rev. Propagation in non-ionised media. Recommendation 634-1.0c  5HIHUHQFHV [1] CCITT Rec. C.R. Report 1053-1.part 1. Annex to Volume IX-Part 1. Geneva 1990. "Error Performance Parameters and Objectives for International.I. Geneva 1990.R. Volume IX-Part 1. 1990. Report 338-6. 594-2. Error Performance Objectives for the Local Grade Portion at each end of an ISDN Connection utilizing Digital Radio-Relay Systems. 557-2. Reports of the C. ABB Nera. Allowable Bit Error Ratios at the output of the Hypothetical Reference Digital Path for Radio-Relay Systems which may form part of an Integrated Services Digital Network.I.C. C.Fascicle III.I. G.C.821. 696. Volume IX .R.826.C. Radio Relays".I.. Annex to volume V.I.C.5.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. G. Error Performance and Availability Objectives for Digital RadioRelay Systems used in the Local-Grade Portion of an ISDN Connection. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] NERA Networks AS Page 69(85) . Fixed service using radio-relay systems.I. C.C.C. CCITT Volume III . 1992. Rec. Error performance objectives for real digital radio-relay links forming part of a high-grade circuit within an integrated services digital network.08. Geneva 1989.I. Document no.S. Geneva ISBN 92-61-04211-2. Geneva 1989..C. G.R. Geneva 1990. Error Performance and Availability Objectives for Digital RadioRelay Systems used in the Medium Grade Portion of an ISDN Connection. Rec. C. CCITT draft Rec. Annex to Volume IX-Part 1.R.31 C WEDIG 2. Geneva 1990. 697. "Prediction of Transmission Quality on Digital L. Rec.R. C.I.R.I. Geneva 1990. Error Performance and Availability Objectives for Hypothetical Reference Digital Sections utilizing Digital Radio-Relay Systems forming part of all of the Medium Grade Portion of an ISDN Connection..R. Reports of the C. CCITT Volume III .R.C. CCITT Rec.R.Fascicle III.I.. Recommendations of the C.R.I.C. Recommendations of the C.5.C.801. January 1993. Constant Bit Rate Digital Paths at or above the Primary Rate".

ITU-R Recommendation P. Recommendation 695.530-7.C. Per Thorvaldsen “Planning of line-of-sight radio relay systems”. ITU-R Recommendations F. ITU-R Recommendation P. ABB Nera 1994.. ITU-R Recommendations F. Report 784-3. Annex to volume V.R. Volume IX . Geneva ISBN 92-61-04211-2. Error performance objectives for constant bit rate digital path at or above the primary rate carried by digital radio-relay systems which may form part or all of he national portion of a 27500 km hypothetical reference path. Fixed service using radio-relay systems.I.1092-1 (1997 ).C. 1990. Propagation in nonionised media.part 1. The radio refraction index: Its formula and refractivity data.08. Reports of the C. Document no.part 1.31 C WEDIG 2. Attenuation by hydrometeors. ITU-R Recommendations P.Date Rev. Attenuation by atmospheric gases. Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial line-of-sight systems.1397 (1999 ) [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] Page 70(85) NERA Networks AS . ITU-R Recommendation 838 1992 Characteristics of precipitation for propagation modelling.I. 99.1189-1 (1997).I..836-1 1997 Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods. ITU-R Recommendation PN. ITU-R. Geneva ISBN 92-61-04251-1. and other atmospheric particles.Recommendations of the C.R.. in particular precipitation.C. Geneva ISBN 92-61-04251-1. 1990. Recommendation P. Recommendations (1997) Ingvar Henne.0c [13] Availability objectives for real digital radio-relay links forming part of a high-grade circuit within an integrated services digital network. Reports of the C.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Error performance objectives for constant bit rate digital path at or above the primary rate carried by digital radio-relay systems which may form part of the international portion of a 27500 km hypothetical reference path. Annex to volume IX . 1990.837-1 1994 Error performance objectives for real digital links used in the international portion of a 27500 km hypothetical reference path at or above the primary rate. Fixed service using radio-relay systems. Report 721-3.453-6 1997 Effects of propagation on the design and operation of line-of-sight radio-relay systems.676-3 1997 Water vapour: Surface density and total columnar content.R. ITU-R Recommendations F.

8) Worksheet database Macro sheet containing all user defined functions for the prediction Macro module model.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.08. Information about the program Main input dialog box definition (Figure 12) Tune antennas dialog box (Figure 17) Selection of frequency or space diversity Dialog box for frequency diversity parameters Dialog box for calculation of maximum path lengths (Figure 23) Custom view dialog box for Paths (Figure 7) Dialog box for space diversity antenna arrangement (Figure 20) Dialog box for selection of feeder type (Figure 22) Dialog box for selection of feeder type.31 C WEDIG 2. General commands macro sheet. 99. Macro module Macro module for commands in the Paths menu.Date Rev. Document no. Coax Dialog box definition for selection of coaxial cable type in the 2 GHz band.0c  $SSHQGL[  :RUNERRN VWUXFWXUH The workbook has been arranged in the following way: 6KHHW QDPH Paths Systems Info Rain Functions General_c Project_c Project_c_2 Paths_c Antenna_Fe eder_Radio_ c Systems_c About Path_data Tune Diversity Freq_div Max_D View Space Feeder type Select_feede r Hor feeder Sites )XQFWLRQ 7\SH Main sheet for all path parameters Worksheet Summary of system performance Worksheet Project information and comments Worksheet Data base sheet containing rain coefficients (chapter 5. Macro module Macro module for commands in the Project menu. Macro module Macro module for commands in the Project menu. Macro module Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Macro dialog Page 71(85) Dialog box definition for feeder length calculation (Figure 21) Dialog box definition for site selection in system calculations (Figure 25) Next Dialog box definition for route selection. Macro module Macro module for commands in the Paths menu. Log Dialog box definition for project information Tune_degrad Dialog box definition for adjusting the receiver threshold degradation ation View_Single Custom view dialog box for Single View_Syste Custom view dialog box for Systems ms Move_path Dialog box definition for moving path up and down Select radio Dialog box for selection of radio type (Figure 15) NERA Networks AS . Macro module Macro module for commands in the Systems menu.

New radios may be added to the list.Date Rev. Changes in antenna data should be done by opening the ANT-DATA. Document no.31 C WEDIG 2. Do not change the order of the columns in the data base as this will affect the selection of antenna parameters entered automatically by WEDIG20.XLS is automatically closed without saving any changes to it when the WEDIG20 program is terminated. These sheets are hidden in the standard set-up to prevent undesirable changes. An update of the radio database may be supplied more often than updates of the program itself.  1HUD UDGLR GDWDEDVH The Nera radio database contains the main radio parameters for all available Nera radio-relay systems at the date of issue. and changes can be made if required. perform the changes and then save the file.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Macro dialog Worksheet Worksheet Worksheet Worksheet used for temporary data during system performance Worksheet calculations.1. a data base sheet containing the key parameters for all Nera antennas are integrated in the program structure. ANT-DATA. The radio database contains radio types with capacities from 2 Mb/s to 155 Mb/s in frequency ranges from 1.8). Page 72(85) NERA Networks AS .0c Edit radio Dialog box for editing radio parameters (Figure 18) Macro dialog User dialog Single Equipment Objective_in fo Temp Dialog box definition for user preference data.  1HUD DQWHQQD GDWD EDVH In order to make the selection of antennas more efficient.8). 7DEOH  :RUNERRN FRQWHQWV The user should normally not make any changes in sheets described in the shaded cells in Table 11. 99.7 to 40 GHz with configurations up to 7+1 for 155 Mb/s equipment. Page set-up for single page print-out of path parameters Summary page for equipment used in your system Objective information and definitions.08.1. The program will open the antenna data base file correctly at program start-up if the antenna data base is found at the specified location (see 4.XLS file manually. The file can be located at another drive (local or network) and the reference to the antenna database may be changed using the Project-Preferences command (see 4.

Feeder loss for other frequencies may be added. In order to have an effective organising of the antenna feeder parameters. 99.31 C WEDIG 2. The feeder loss database is a separate workbook WG-DATA.XLS.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. Document no. specifications for Andrew and Radio Frequency Systems products have been included as a feeder database supplied with WEDIG20. NERA Networks AS Page 73(85) .0c  )HHGHU GDWDEDVH Nera do not produce wave guides or coaxial cables. Antenna feeder loss (in dB/100m).Date Rev.08. New wave guide or coaxial types may be added by the user.

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40. 45 data base. 6 Equipment. 58 Custom objectives. medium-size of water. 36 file locations. 57 frequency. 99. 24 Antennas. 18 Equipment sheet. 25 Costal. 40 loss. 59 co-channel systems. 53 hybrid. 45 budget. 29 Atmospheric gases. 53 improvement factor. 18 Feeder help. 42 fading occurrence factor. 24 Feeder length. 57 Configuration. 18 Antenna gain. 34 dry air.08. 40 Auto-filter. 72 Antenna database. 16 Pro-rata. 12 Access. 34 help. 33 Costal. 24 Antenna height.QGH[ $ Absolute chart. 41 & &0. 48 Coastal links medium-sized water. 24 Antenna type. 10 Flat Fading. 67 Add New path. 16 Clat. 38 antenna back-to-back. 35 Feeder loss. 16 Customize Systems. 33 Upper. 14 ) fading margin. 33 Frequency diversity. 50 combined. 10 % back-to-back antennas. 56 Diversity. 47 Close program. 47 Clear all systems. 21 Costal. Document no. 9 Export to file. 50 Frequency. 20 Add Selected Path.Date Rev. uncertain size of water. 18 Enter data. 55 Frequency Center. 6 Coastal links. 38 Clon. 49 co-channel clear air effects. 24 Space. 46 far-field. 34 Frequency Selective Fading. 24.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. 72 Delete Path. 35 horizontal. 12 Customize Paths. 47 Chart Absolute.0c  . 48 Coastal links large water. 49 Functions sheet. 61 Enable menus. 34. 33 Lower. 58 combined diversity.31 C WEDIG 2. 45 Feeder database. 28 Add system. 16 access. 8 Page 82(85) NERA Networks AS . 39 diversity. 25 Cross Polar Discrimination. 13 file reference. 28 effective path length. 29 Delete systems. 14 Customize Single. 18 Feeder type. 72 ' Database Radio. 59 Cross-polar interference. 21. 21. 40 ( Edit path. 40 frequency diversity. 58 cross polar interference canceller. 46 free space formula. 58 precipitation effects. large size of water.

20 menus. 51 Info.08. 26 position. 41 New. 18 All paths separately. 33 Mountains. 20 Paths sheet. 8 Inland. 26 output. 41 + High grade objectives. 67 0 macros. 26 password. 12. 26 gain. 19 Project. 26 gain.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev.0c * G. 12. 28 Insert system. 63 Open. 12 Long haul. 12. 26 Path echo delay. 74 maximum path length. 25 Paths. Document no. 55 space. 66 International portion. 33 Hills. 50 combined. 72 net path loss. 40 preferences. 9 . 17. 36 Path length. 41 Local grade objectives. 12.31 C WEDIG 2. 65 3 passive repeater. 25. 44 Geoclimatic factor. 48 Move path. 47 1 Name. 25. 25 input. 74 Position. 55 2 objectives. 21 Inland links. 48 Plane passive repeater. 36 Path parameters. 10 Other loss. 9 Path latitude. 41 Print. many lakes. 36 Medium grade objectives. 47 Inland. 26 Planning method. 48 hot standby. 39 Installation. 63 High power. 21. 57 frequency. 21. 67 Nera antennas. 21. 44 Reflection angle. 12. 13 pressure. 62 Prediction model. 65 long haul. 50 path length. 12. 29 Multipath fading. 19 / Link budget. 25 PL-factor. 10 13/. 12. 40 precipitation effects for co-channel systems.826. 7 Performance objectives. 63 G. 25 PL-maps. 8. 9 Insert Path. 25. 43 Plane reflector Area. 21. 19 Selected Path. 24 National portion. 5 intermediate. 12 Intermediate country. 99. 63 menus. 26 plane reflector. 12. 8 Objectives. 53 redundant N+1. 45 NERA Networks AS Page 83(85) . 25 Inland. 10 Open File. 19 Equipment. 9 Modulation. 24 Power budget. Improvement. 43 Passive repeater. 20 Info. 19 Paths.Date Rev. 18 Info sheet. 7 maps. 63 Plains. 10 Info Window.821. 65 gain of plane reflector.

32 Radio database. 38 Delete. 78 UF. 24 space diversity improvement factor. 33 Today. 66 Threshold level. 61 Rain sheet. 67 signature factor. 61 Reset page set-ups. 16 Radio database. 39 Insert. 11 Project. 29 Antennas. 9 Project information. 17 selective correlation coefficient. 99. 10 Project menus. 72 Radio family. 12 Termination country.Date Rev. 24 Site parameters. 25 rain rate. 69 regions with many lakes. 17 Systems. 38 Feeder only. 17. 52 setup. 28. 14 Customize Single. 20 8 unavailability objectives. 8 9 Variation Charts. 5 set-up. 10 total outage due to multipath. 33 rain cell. 25. 6 6 Save. 7 Page 84(85) NERA Networks AS . 50 Single sheet. 17 Pro-rata chart. 34 Tune Threshold degradation. 39 Systems sheet. 49 regression coefficients. 13 User set-up. 34 Feeder length.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. 38 Add. 33 Radio type. 12 Pro-rata chart. 25 rate. 34 Path length. 51 Space Diversity. 38 Clear all. 38 Radio only. 10 Selected path. 32 Space diversity. 9 Project objectives. 17 Visual Basic. 18 Customize Paths. 8 Rainfall maps. 61 coefficients. 17 Variation charts. 37 User preferences. 49 Update. 60 Unavailability due to rain attenuation.31 C WEDIG 2. 34 Threshold degradation. 66. 18 Paths. 5 Systems. 34 type of link terrain. 18 Selected path. 12 6KRUW KDXO. 34 specific attenuation. 37 All parameters. 16 Equipment. 29 Diversity. 38 This path only. 68 Unavailability due to rain. 16 7 terminating. 62 Unavailability objectives. 18. Document no. 61 Start program. 17 View. 19 project information. 36 Radio. 48 5 Radio. 16 Absolute Chart. 46 Tune. 9 Site level. 16 Pro-rata Chart. 25 Rain intensity.0c Systems. 63 uncertain size of body of water. 65. 35 Frequency diversity. 18 Info.08. 14 Absolute chart. 6 short haul. 10 Save As. 49 References. 16 Antenna database.

Date Rev. 72 sheets. 33.31 C WEDIG 2.3URGXFW 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ Rev. XPD. 7 . 59 XPIF.08. 5 What’s new. 7 structure.0c : water vapour. 7. 71 workspace. 59 NERA Networks AS Page 85(85) . 99. Document no. 58 XPIC. 7 Workbook contents. 40 WEDIG. 6 workbook.