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What is the ruling on Taswir (painting, drawing, sculpture, and photography), that is widely common among people?

Would you please give us a comprehensive answer about lawful and unlawful Taswir? May Allah reward you! Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed on the prohibition of making statues with the purpose of worshipping or revering them. If this is the case, the sin of making statues involves the sculptor, the buyer, the worshipper and deifiers. There is also an agreement among scholars that the statues made to be an object for training and children toys, i.e. dolls of animals and humans are not included in the prohibition. However, scholars have differed regarding some other points as follows: The majority of scholars are of the opinion that defaced or incomplete statues are not prohibited so long as they are not worshipped. However, some scholars prohibit the use of statues under any circumstances whatsoever. On the other hand, the full-figured statues are, according to the majority of scholars, prohibited, even if they are not worshipped or revered. By the passage of time, there is a possibility of people turning such statutes into objects of worship as did the people of Noah, peace be upon him, who made statues of their pious ancestors in order to remember them, and they ended up worshipping such statues. Some scholars, however, hold the view that making statues is permissible if they are not deemed to be worshipped. Therefore, the statues of leaders fall under this category, i.e. (permissible according to some scholars while prohibited by the majority of them.) Deep thinking will show that it is more Haram to erect statues commemorating tyrant rulers. Perpetuating the memories of leaders, thinkers, and scientists is best achieved through establishing organizations carrying their names or issuing books about their efforts and achievements. The prominent Muslim scholar Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi states: “Islam prohibits statues and three-dimensional figures of the living creatures. The prohibition is even more stressed in case the statue is for a being already dignified i.e. Angels, prophets, the Virgin, or idols like cows for Hindus. We need to understand the Islam’s stand on this issue as a means of safeguarding the concept of monotheism. Some people may argue that such ruling belongs to the old ages when paganism was rampant, not in these days that worshipping idols exist no more. Such argument is weak especially as we know idolatry and paganism still keep their traces in some people’s minds and are reflected in their conduct.

After this are statues which are erected in public places in order to commemorate great personalities such as kings. in which case the prohibition of amulets is added to that of the statues. If the artist claims that he originates and creates as Allah does. Likewise. 2. Next to this in sinfulness are figures which are not made to be worshipped but which are intended to imitate Allah's creation. were sent to prevent their peoples from worshipping idols or taking such as means to bring them near to Allah. we'd summarize the rulings pertaining to figures and figure-makers: 1. The Prophet warned against statues and the making thereof to avoid worshipping them or imitating Allah’s creatures. There is general agreement that they are Haram. the statues of ancient Egyptians are prohibited. The most strictly prohibited figures are those which are made to be worshipped in the place of or in addition to Allah. If the one who makes them does it intentionally for this purpose. Some people may use busts like the head of some ancient Egyptian queens as an amulet to protect against evil eye or evil souls. with the idolaters is oftrepeatedly mentioned in order to draw people’s attention to the Oneness of Allah. Allah Almighty says: “ We worship them only that they may bring us near unto Allah. when he was among a nation of pagans who used to set up idols around the Ka’ba. peace and blessings be upon him. This matter pertains solely to the intention of the artist. he is going in the direction of unbelief. adds: “The Qur’an was brought to the Prophet. may Allah bless his soul. Therefore. all the Prophets. . Anyone who has a share in propagating or glorifying them will bear the sin proportional to his part. Dolls or figures made of chocolate or sugar are clear exceptions. peace and blessings be upon them. Bellow. the dialogue between the Prophets.” (Az-Zumar: 3) In the Qur’an the story of Abraham. 3. peace be upon him. According to the scholars’ understanding. former Grand Imam of Al-Azhar. leaders and celebrities. The only type of statues that is permitted is children dolls. and their peoples concerning statues fluctuated between detest and prohibition. this applies equally to full-length statues and to busts. The most detestable among such figures are statues. except those which are not treated in a manner indicative of respect.” Late Sheikh Jadul-Haqq `Ali Jadul-Haqq. Next are statues of living beings which are neither worshipped nor reverenced. he is an unbeliever.People do still believe in myths and even the educated ones sometimes fall in such errors. 4.

peace and blessings be upon him. d) According to the Maliki scholar. Therefore. 3. but this was an exception for girls. i. metal. Masrooq.If there is no need to acquire them. According to Al-Bukhari and Muslim authentic books. along with Abdullah. Following is a summary of their opinions and views: Muslim scholars unanimously agree that the possession of statues deemed to be worshipped is Haram (prohibited).If they are full-figured statues. peace and blessings be upon him. but yet disliked. the possession of statues made of candy or pasta is permitted. wood. Pointing at one of them. former Head of Al-Azhar Fatwa Committee. we can say: a) The possession of busts or statues with a missing part without which a human being can not survive. as saying: “Among the people receiving the harshest punishment on the Day of Resurrection will be carvers or sculptors” ” Sheikh `Atiyya Saqr.” . even if they are not to be worshipped: 1. According to some scholars. allowed `Aisha to play with dolls. b) The possession of statues becomes permissible once there is a need to acquire them. the head or the stomach is permissible.e. the Prophet.However. Abdullah asked: “Whose statue is this?” They answered: “The Virgin”. a house where there were some statues.e.e.If they are formed of a substance that lasts for a long time. i. says: “There is a disagreement among scholars concerning the issue of statues. Thereupon he quoted the Prophet. or stone. Allah says: “ So shun the abomination (worshipping) of idols and shun lying speech” (Al-Hajj: 30) The possession of statues is also prohibited if the following conditions exist. i. erecting statues to commemorate great men is only detested. said: “ We entered. making full-figured statues of humans or animals is prohibited. 2. not prohibited. girl’s dolls or statues used in practical training. may Allah be pleased with him. Asbagh bin Al-Farag.

Vice Chairman of the European Council for Fatwa and Research. Reference : http://www. the moon … etc or of a lawful doll. this is out of blocking the ways leading to evil. buying or possessing statues falls under the well-known principle of jurisprudence which reads: “Everything is lawful unless there is an attribute turning it into an unlawful matter”. a rule unanimously agreed upon by scholars. some scholars said that the permissibility or otherwise of such statues depends on the intention of the one who makes them.e.html?Statues= A collection of Hadtihs from which this are based upon: It is related in the Two Sahih (authentic) Books of Hadith (i. selling or possessing such would be one of the grave sins. This wording reported by Muslim. Statues and drawings which are neither worshipped nor revered are permissible. Making such statues becomes commendable if there is a legitimate reason. i. If the statues are made to be worshipped.e.onislam. it is related on the authority of Ibn Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) stated: The people who will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection will be the Musawwirs.The renowned Muslim scholar Sheikh Faysal Mawlawi. Al-Bukhary and Muslim) on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) informed us that Allah (Exalted be He) stated: Who can be more unjust than one who tries to create a creation like Mine. then buying. even if there is no legitimate need for them. the sun. such statues could be of a spiritless object. Statues or flat drawings made to commemorate great men in a way that may lead to some kind of worship are prohibited.net/english/ask-the-scholar/arts-andentertainment/sculpture-and-statues/175685-islamic-views-on-erectingstatues. i. .e. Making statues to imitate Allah’s creatures is also a grave sin. children dolls are lawful according to the four schools of thought in Islam.” Allah Almighty knows best. In the Two Sahih. a grain of wheat. states: “The issue of statues should be addressed in light of the following points: Making. However. Hence. or a grain of barley. Let them create an atom.

The statement “If you have to do this…” was related by Al-Bukhari in the aforementioned Hadith related by Muslim.It is also related in the same books of Hadith on the authority of Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with both of them) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) stated: Those whomake siwar (pictures. then make suras of trees and everything that does not have a soul. he tore it up and the color of his face changed [due to anger] and he said. and I had screened my alcove with a curtain on which there were suras. He commented that it was a Hadith Hasan Sahih (a valid and authentic Hadith).” `Aishah added: So we tore it up and we stuffed a cushion or two with it. icon. etc. . Al-Bukhari related in the Sahih on the authority of Abu Juhayfah (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade taking payment for blood. a dog. Also. Ibn `Abbas asked him to come closer again and the man did and he put his hand on the man’s head and said: I will tell you what I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saying. The man did. (Agreed upon by Al-Bukhary and Muslim). He cursed those who accept or pay Riba (usury/interest). but they will not be able to breathe soul (into it). I heard him saying: Every Musawwir will enter the Fire and a soul will be given to every sura they made so that it would torment them in the Fire. it was related by Al-Tirmidhy in his Jami` Book of Hadith on the authority of Abu Al-Zubayr from Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him): The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forbade having suras in the home and forbade the making of them. “O `Aishah! The people who will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection will be those who imitate Allah‟s Creation. images. Ibn `Abbas said: Come closer to me. statues) will be punished on the Day of Resurrection and it will be said to them: Breathe soul into what you have created. When he saw it. He added: If you have to do this (go on in this profession). so tell me about (the ruling on) this. It is related by Muslim that Sa`id ibn Abu Al-Hasan said: A man came to Ibn `Abbas and said: I make suras. This wording is reported by Al-Bukhari. and the Musawwir. Furthermore. On the authority of Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with both of them) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saying: Whoever makes a sura (picture. a woman who tattoos others or gets herself tattooed. idol. On the authority of `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who narrated: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came to me.) in the world will be asked to breathe soul into it (on the Day of Resurrection). and the earnings of a prostitute. (Related by Muslim).

[It is also reported] in Sahih Al-Bukhari from Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with them) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said. so I said. (Please let me know) what sin I have done. “The makers of these suras will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. (Related by Al-Bukhari).” He (peace be upon him) said. No sooner did he see it than he tore it up and said: Those who will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection will be those who imitate Allah‟s Creation. .(Agreed upon by Al-Bukhary and Muslim). It is related by Muslim on the authority of Zayd ibn Khalid from Abu Talhah that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a statue. “Jibril said: We do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a sura. Muslim added from Ibn AlMajishun that `Aishah said: “I took it and turned it into two pillows on which he used to recline at home. She said: Thus. He ordered me to remove it and I did.” Allah‟s Messenger (peace be upon him) said. he kept standing at the door and did not enter the house. „Breathe life into what you have created. It will be said to them. “What about this cushion?” I replied.”) It is reported from Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with both of them) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a sura. I noticed the sign of disgust on his face. we turned it (i.”(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim). This wording is reported by Muslim). “Angels do not enter a house where there are suras. When Allah‟s Messenger (peace be upon him) saw it. It was authentically reported in the Two Sahih Books of Hadith: On the authority of `Aishah who narrated: I used to play with dolls in the presence of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and I had female friends who used to play along with me. “I bought it for you to sit and recline on. Imam Muslim also related it with the following wording: I had screened my door with a thick curtain having suras of winged horses.” The same Hadith was related by Muslim on the authority of `Aishah and Maymunah. Muslim added. (Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim).e.‟” He (peace be upon him) added. They would hide from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) whenever he entered. He ordered me to remove it and I did. The curtain) into one or two cushions. On the authority of Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from `Aishah who narrated: I bought a cushion with suras on it. but he would call them to join and play with me. “his face changed” after “he tore it up”) She also narrated: The Prophet (peace be upon him) returned from a journey and I had hung a thick curtain having suras.On the authority of `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who narrated: Allah‟s Messenger (peace be upon him) returned from a journey and I had covered my alcove with a curtain on which there were suras. “O Allah‟s Messenger! I repent to Allah and to His Messenger.