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# Nazarbayev University

School of Engineering

Heat and Mass Transfer Operations

Laboratory report: Impact of the Airstream Velocity on the Convection Drying Rate

Azat Suleimenov

1. Raw data Original experiment data: #
Speed, % 30 30 30 60 60 60 90 90 90

Δt, min
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Ptot, mm H2 O
11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5

Pstat, mm Mbefore, g H2 O
12.2 12.2 12.2 13 13 13 15.5 15.5 15.5 67 66 67 83 85 82 83 84 84

Mafter, g

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

56 56 57 64 63 65 54 50 48

Table 1. Raw data

Ambient air temperature in the lab = 25 °C Outdoor air humidity = 62 % Outdoor temperature = -2.3 °C Sample dry mass = 20 g

2. Data processing It is required to calculate water loss from the sample material in terms of m/s. The following formula was used:

In addition, air velocity inside the tunnel should be known: √ Where, - difference in manometer readings, – acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2), - water density (1000 kg/m3), – air density (1.2 kg/m3)

3. Results, error analysis and conclusions First of all, the temperature on the sample material was found by psychometric chart. The outdoor air temperature and outdoor relative humidity give the moisture content in the air. Namely, it was equal to . Then this value and indoor air temperature were used with RH = 10%. to find the temperature on the sample surface = 11

In order to relate water loss from the sample with air velocity, the averaged values from each speed setting were taken. Additionally, standard deviations were calculated.
# 1-3 4-6 7-9 Speed, % 30 60 90 Δh, mm 0.7 1.5 2.0 v, m/s 3.4 5.0 8.1 Δm, g 10.3 ± 0.6 19.3 ± 2.5 33.0 ± 3.6 Δm/Δt , g/min 1.03 ± 0.06 1.93 ± 0.25 3.30 ± 0.36 v0.8 2.66 3.62 5.33

Table 2. Averaged values

From the data above the relationship between 0.8 power of air velocity and drying rate can be displayed in a graphical form.

Drying Rate vs Air Velocity to 0.8 Power
3.50 Drying Rate, g/min 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Air Velocity to 0.8 Power, (m/s)^0.8 y = 0.845x - 1.1853

Graph 1. Drying rate vs velocity

The graph 1 shows that the sample drying rate is proportionally dependent on the air velocity to power 0.8, what is stated by theory. So, it can be said that the experiment was successfully performed.

However, there were many errors that contribute to experiment results:  The mass loss is not caused by only drying. Nevertheless water dripping was avoided during sponge transportation; there was some water draining inside the wind turbine. So, the actual mass loss due to drying was always lower than calculated value. Not all sponge’s surface area was in contact with moving air. That is why more drying will be observed if a side with more moisture is in contact with moving air. The scale gives only rounded values of mass sample. More precise mass data will give more real results. The pressure drop is only approximate value. Air velocity, hence pressure drop was calculated by the height difference between two pipes on the inclined manometer. It was very difficult to see the real height difference between the pipes. Thus, human factor plays a huge role in the laboratory performing.

  

To conclude, the experiment was performed successfully. The linear dependence between drying rate and air velocity to 0.8 power was observed which is agreed with theory. However, there are difficulties with experiment performing, such as water dripping, contact surface area, and others. These facts cause errors in the experiment, which in turn effects on final results.

4. Recommendation Generally, there are many errors which were described before, that acts in incorrect results. For example, our group performed two additional measurements with speed settings of 30% and 60% to take away unreal results. In addition, performing more runs for each air velocity and considering more speed settings will allow writing more information about experiment discussion.

5. References Lab 6: Impact of the Airstream Velocity on the Convection Drying Rate (Instruction Manual), n. d. Nazarbayev University, Astana. Accessed 01 April 2013. Available at: http://moodle.nu.edu.kz