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Dynamic, Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity

Dynamic, Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity
An introduction to dynamic, absolute and kinematic viscosity and how to convert between CentiStokes (cSt), CentiPoises (cP), Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU), degree Engler and more Custom Search
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The viscosity of a fluid is an important property in the analysis of liquid behavior and fluid motion near solid boundaries. The viscosity is the fluid resistance to shear or flow and is a measure of the adhesive/cohesive or frictional fluid property. The resistance is caused by intermolecular friction exerted when layers of fluids attempt to slide by one another. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow The knowledge of viscosity is needed for proper design of required temperatures for storage, pumping or injection of fluids. There are two related measures of fluid viscosity - known as dynamic (or absolute) and kinematic viscosity.

Dynamic (absolute) Viscosity
Absolute viscosity or the coefficient of absolute viscosity is a measure of the internal resistance. Dynamic (absolute) viscosity is the tangential force per unit area required to move one horizontal plane with respect to the other at unit velocity when maintained a unit distance apart by the fluid. The shearing stress between the layers of non turbulent fluid moving in straight parallel lines can be defined for a Newtonian fluid as:

The dynamic or absolute viscosity can be expressed like τ = µ dc/dy (1) where τ = shearing stress µ = dynamic viscosity Equation (1) is known as the Newtons Law of Friction. In the SI system the dynamic viscosity units are N s/m2, Pa.s or kg/m.s where 1 Pa.s = 1 N s/m 2 = 1 kg/m.s The dynamic viscosity is also often expressed in the metric CGS (centimeter-gram-second) system as g/cm.s, dyne.s/cm2

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a quantity in which no force is involved. Liquid Air Water Olive Oil Glycerol Liquid Honey Golden Syrup Glass Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity of some common Liquids Absolute Viscosity at Room Temperature (Pa.4oF (20. it is usual divided by 100 to give the unit called Centistokes (cSt) where 1 St = 100 cSt 1 cSt = 10-6 m 2/s Since the specific gravity of water at 68...Dynamic.s = 1/10 N. or poise (p) where 1 poise = dyne s/cm 2 = g/cm. In ISO 8217 the reference temperature for a residual fluid is apps for offline use on mobile devices.the kinematic viscosity will increase with higher temperature Related Mobile Apps from The Engineering ToolBox Kinematic Viscosity Converter App .com/dynamic-absolute-kinematic-viscosit.4oF is for all practical purposes 1.7197 10-4 µ / γ where (2a) ν = kinematic viscosity (ft2/s) µ = absolute or dynamic viscosity (cP) γ = specific weight (lb/ft3) Viscosity and Reference Temperatures The viscosity of a fluid is highly temperature dependent and for either dynamic or kinematic viscosity to be meaningful.01 poise = 0.s = 1/10 Pa. Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity http://www.001 N. Kinematic Viscosities of Some common Liquids and Fluids Conversion from absolute to kinematic viscosity can also be expressed as: ν = 6.s/m2 Water at 68. the kinematic viscosity of water at 68.1 .s) 1 x 10-5 1 x 10-3 1 x 10-1 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 102 1 x 1040 Kinematic Viscosity is the ratio of absolute or dynamic viscosity to density .centiPoise.4oF (20.01 gram per cm second = 0. For a distillate fluid the reference temperature is 40oC.2oC) has an absolute viscosity of one .2oC) is almost one (1). .0 cSt. For a liquid .s/m2 For practical use the Poise is to large and it's usual divided by 100 into the smaller unit called the centiPoise (cP) where 1 p = 100 cP 1 cP = 0.the kinematic viscosity will decrease with higher temperature For a gas . Other Commonly used Viscosity Units 2 de 6 01/04/2013 12:49 p.engineeringtoolbox.m. Kinematic viscosity can be obtained by dividing the absolute viscosity of a fluid with it's mass density ν=µ/ρ (2) where ν = kinematic viscosity µ = absolute or dynamic viscosity ρ = density In the SI-system the theoretical unit is m2/s or commonly used Stoke (St) where 1 St = 10-4 m2/s Since the Stoke is an unpractical large unit. the reference temperature must be quoted.001 Pascal second = 0.

Dynamic.m. Unlike the Saybolt and Redwood scales.113 (kg/m3) Absolute viscosity can be expressed as µ = 1. Newtonian Fluids Fluids for which the shearing stress is linearly related to the rate of shearing strain are designated as Newtonian Fluids. From that point the viscosity will decrease with increase of agitation. both liquids and gases. Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity http://www.Converting between Kinematic and Absolute Viscosity for Air Kinematic viscosity of air at 1 bar (105 Pa.s/m2. cream becomes butter and Candy compounds. Kinematic viscosity versus dynamic or absolute viscosity can be expressed as ν = 4.. Fortunately most common fluids. The density of air estimated with the Ideal Gas Law ρ =p/RT where ρ = density (kg/m 3) p = absolute pressure (Pa.113 (kg/m3) 16. Some of these liquids can become almost solid within a pump or pipe line. Viscosity in Engler degrees is the ratio of the time of a flow of 200 cubic centimetres of the fluid whose viscosity is being measured . Toothpaste. The efflux time is Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) required for 60 milliliters of a petroleum product to flow through the calibrated orifice of a Saybolt Universal µ / SG (3) where ν = kinematic vicosity (SSU) µ = dynamic or absolute viscosity (cP) SG = Specific Gravity Degree Engler Degree Engler is used in Great Britain as a scale to measure kinematic viscosity. the Engler scale is based on comparing a flow of the substance being tested to the flow of another substance . N. mayonnaise and tomato catsup are examples of such products. under carefully controlled temperature and as prescribed by test method ASTM D 88. The viscosity of a thixotropic liquid decreases with increasing time.97 10-6 m2/s). Shear-thinning or Pseudoplastic Liquids Shear-thinning or pseudoplastic liquids are those whose viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate.K) T = absolute temperature (K) ρ = 105 (N/m2) / (287 (J/kg/K) (273 (oC) + 33 (oC)) = 1. Their structure is time-independent.water. With agitation. They appear thick or viscous but are possible to pump quite easily. . SSU) Saybolt Universal Seconds (or SUS) is used to measure viscosity. Example . Bingham Plastic Fluids Bingham Plastic Fluids have a yield value which must be exceeded before it will start to flow like a fluid. are Newtonian. at a constant shear rate. Newtonian materials are referred to as true liquids since their viscosity or consistency is not affected by shear such as agitation or pumping at a constant temperature. N/m2) and 40oC is 16. Water and oils are examples of Newtonian liquids. N/m2) R = individual gas constant (J/kg. This method has largely been replaced by the kinematic viscosity method. Thixotropic Fluids Thixotropic liquids have a time-dependent structure.97 10-6 (m 2/s) = 1.88 10-5 (kg/m the time of flow of 200 cubic centimeters of water at the same temperature (usually 20oC but sometimes 50oC or 100oC) in a standardized Engler viscosity meter. P) 3 de 6 01/04/2013 12:49 p. clay slurries and similar heavily filled liquids do the same thing. Saybolt Universal Seconds is also called the SSU number (Seconds Saybolt Universal) or SSF number (Saybolt Seconds Furol). Dilatant Fluids Shear Thickening Fluids or Dilatant Fluids increase their viscosity with agitation.97 cSt (16. Ketchup and mayonnaise are examples of thixotropic materials. Saybolt Universal Seconds (or SUS..

000 Saybolt Second Universal ( 110 220 440 1100 2200 6250 19. oils SAE 10 and oil no. Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity http://www. Note that for liquids viscosity decreases with temperature for gases viscosity increases with temperature 4 de 6 01/04/2013 12:49 p. 3 .000 86. Viscosity of some Common Liquids centiStokes (cSt) 1 4. hydrogen and helium are indicated below. .195 / νSSU where νSSU < 100 νCentistokes = 0.and gases like air. mercury.220 νSSU ..Dynamic. SUS) 31 40 80 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10.3 15.engineeringtoolbox.226 νSSU .000 28.m.7 20.135 / νSSU where νSSU > 100 Viscosity and Temperature Kinematic viscosity of liquids like water. 4 fuel oil Cream Vegetable oil SAE 30 Crankcase Oil SAE 85 Gear Oil Tomato Juice SAE 50 Crankcase Oil SAE 90 Gear Oil SAE 140 Gear Oil Glycerine (20oC) SAE 250 Gear Oil Honey Mayonnaise Sour cream Kinematic viscosity can be converted from SSU to Centistokes like νCentistokes = 0.6 43.000 Typical liquid Water (20oC) Milk SAE 20 Crankcase Oil SAE 75 Gear Oil No.

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