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PID Function Block

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The PID function block combines all of the necessary logic to perform analog input channel processing, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control with the option for nonlinear control (including error-squared and notched gain), and analog output channel processing. The PID function block supports mode control, signal scaling and limiting, feedforward control, override tracking, alarm limit detection, and signal status propagation. To support testing, you can enable simulation. This allows the measurement value and status to be supplied manually or from another block through the SIMULATE_IN input. In Cascade (Cas) mode, the setpoint (SP) is adjusted by a master controller. In Automatic (Auto) mode, the SP can be adjusted by the operator. In both Cas and Auto modes, the output is calculated with a standard or series PID equation form. In Manual (Man) mode, the block's output is set by the operator. The PID function block also has two remote modes, RCas and ROut. These modes are similar to Cas and Man modes except that SP and OUT are supplied by a remote supervisory program. The PID function block can be connected directly to process I/O (in DeltaV, but not in Fieldbus devices). It can also be connected to other function blocks through its IN and OUT parameters for cascade and other more complex control strategies. You connect BKCAL_OUT to an upstream block's BKCAL_IN to prevent reset windup and provide bumpless transfer to closed loop control. You can connect the tracking input (TRK_VAL) for externally controlled output tracking.

PID Function Block BKCAL_IN is the analog input value and status from a downstream block's BKCAL_OUT output that is used by a block for bumpless transfer. This connection is necessary if the PID is a master to another controller in a cascade. Without the connection the slave controller will not make the transition to CAS and the master PID will never be active. CAS_IN is the remote SP value from another block. FF_VAL is the feedforward control input value and status. IN is the connection for the process variable (PV) from another function block. SIMULATE_IN is the input value and status used by the block instead of the analog measurement when simulation is enabled. TRK_IN_D initiates the external tracking function. TRK_VAL is the value after scaling applied to OUT. BKCAL_OUT is the value and status sent to an upstream block to prevent reset windup and provide bumpless transfer to closed loop control. OUT is the block output value and status.

Schematic Diagram - PID Function Block
The following diagram shows the internal components of the PID function block. The parameters may vary slightly for extended blocks.

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PID Function Block Schematic Diagram

Block Execution - PID Function Block
The PID function block provides proportional (P) + integral (I) + derivative (D) control. Two PID equation forms are supported in the block, both forms supporting external reset and feedforward: The standard form is a discrete implementation of:

The series form is a discrete implementation of:

For L = OUT (which is the same as OUT being unconstrained) and P = D = E the equations reduce to: A conventional Standard PID with feedforward,

and Series PID with derivative filter applied only to derivative action, with feedforward

Where: E(s) is error (SP-PV)

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PID equation structures. The following diagram illustrates how the nonlinear tuning parameters are used in the calculation of KNL. signal conversion and filtering. D(s) is the variable to which derivative action is applied. You can configure anti-aliasing filtering. Input from Another Block – When you want the source to be an input from another function block. is derivative time (parameter RATE) in seconds GAINa is normalized gain after scaling the parameter GAIN from PV to OUT (DeltaV works in engineering units so it is necessary that the parameter GAIN be scaled to maintain the meaning of the normalized entry). Until absolute value of error exceeds NL_GAP + NL_HYST. you can enable simulation. For information on these capabilities. The mode of the block determines setpoint and output selection. is reset time (parameter RESET) in seconds. P(s) is the variable to which proportional action is applied. KNL Calculation where: NL_MINMOD is the gain applied when the absolute value of error is less than NL_GAP. During configuration. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. KNL = NL_MINMOD. and overrange/underrange detection for the channel parameters. setpoint and output limiting. refer to the I/O Configuration topics. D(s) is determined by parameters STRUCTURE and GAMMA (which sets the weighting factor derivative action on SP change). Nonlinear action is activated in FRSIPID_OPTS by selecting Use_Nonlinear_Gain_Modification. set NL_MINMOD to 0. L(s) is the external reset input which is either from BKCAL_IN or OUT. Once absolute value of error has exceeded NL_GAP + NL_HYST. You can select the specifics of block execution by configuring I/O selection. Simulation To support testing. Input from a Process Input Channel – When you want the source to be an input from a process input channel. the connection to IN must be from another function block.± is + for reverse acting and – for direct acting (Direct_Acting in CONTROL_OPTS) KNL is nonlinear gain applied to P + I terms but not to D term. the I/O input channel referenced by IO_IN takes precedence and IN is ignored. With a fieldbus extension. To get deadband behavior.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. absolute value of error must return to a value less than NL_GAP before KNL returns to a value of NL_MINMOD. decide whether you want the simulated value/status to be entered manually into the function block or whether it will be supplied by another block. There is no IO_IN parameter in the fieldbus extension. I/O Selection When you configure the PID function block. then the value of NL_HYST has no meaning (effectively assumed to be 0). NL_HYST is a hysteresis value. tracking variables. and block output action. NL_GAP is the control gap. F(s) is the feedforward contribution. you configure the Device Signal Tag (DST) of the desired channel in the IO_IN parameter. If NL_GAP is 0.htm 4/1/2013 . the input source (usually another block's output value) is connected to the IN connector on the PID function block. you select whether the source of the input value is a wired function block connection or a process input channel. When the absolute value of error is less than NL_GAP. NL_TBAND is the transition band over which KNL is linearly adjusted as a function of error. feedforward calculations. This allows the measurement value and status to be supplied manually or from another block. KNL = NL_MINMOD. P(s) is determined by parameters STRUCTURE and BETA (which sets the weighting factor for proportional action applied to SP change). Note When IO_IN is configured and IN is connected. NAMUR limit detection.

1*(OUT_SCALE_HI-OUT_SCALE_LO).1*(OUT_SCALE_HI-OUT_SCALE_LO).1*(PV_SCALE_HI-PV_SCALE_LO). the operator enables simulation by selecting the SIMULATE parameter and setting the Simulate Enabled box in the Simulate Enabled/Disabled field. When the value/status from another block is used: During configuration. the operator enters the value to be used in the SIMULATE parameter Simulate Value field. or indirect square root signal conversion with the linearization type (L_TYPE) parameter: Direct signal conditioning – simply passes through the value accessed from the I/O channel (or the simulated value when simulation is enabled). Note Do not enter a value for the SIMULATE_IN parameter.htm 4/1/2013 . When Track in Manual is False. refer to the I/O Options topic. A gain value (FF_GAIN) is applied to achieve the total feedforward contribution.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. The following constraints apply to download or direct entry: SP_HI_LIM is restricted to PV_SCALE_HI+. That is. You can view the accessed value (in percent) through the FIELD_VAL parameter. Signal Conversion Choose direct. When the converted input value is below the limit specified by the LOW_CUT parameter and the Low Cutoff I/O option (IO_OPTS) is enabled (True). Tracking You can specify output tracking with control options and parameters. Activating the track function causes the block's actual mode to go to Local Override (LO). Setpoint and Output Limit Constraints As part of download the output high and low limits are set to the configured values. There is no SIMULATE_IN in fieldbus. When SIMULATE_IN is not connected (status = Bad: NotConnected). OUT_HI_LIM is restricted to OUT_SCALE_HI+. This option can be useful with zero-based measurement devices such a flowmeters. the block uses the connected value automatically. Feedforward Calculation You can activate the feedforward function with the FF_ENABLE parameter. the value entered for SIMULATE_IN overrides any value you enter in SIMULATE. Do not enter a value in the Simulate Value field of the SIMULATE_IN input. When SIMULATE_IN is connected. the operator can enter a simulated status value in the Simulate Status field. The Track Enable control option (CONTROL_OPTS) must be True for the track function to operate. When IO_OUT is configured. Note You can set I/O options in Out of Service mode only. the feedforward value (FF_VAL) is scaled (FF_SCALE) to a common range for compatibility with the output scale (OUT_SCALE).When the value is entered manually: The operator first enables simulation by selecting the SIMULATE parameter and setting the Simulate Enabled box in the Simulate Enabled/Disabled field. SP_LO_LIM is restricted to PV_SCALE_LO-. If these limits have not been configured OUT_HI_LIM will be set to OUT_SCALE_HI and OUT_LO_LIM will be set to OUT_SCALE_LO. Indirect signal conditioning – converts the accessed channel input value (or the simulated value when simulation is enabled) to the range and units of the PV parameter (PV_SCALE). a value of 0. You can choose to reverse the range for conversion to account for fail-open actuators by selecting the following I/O option: Increase to Close – This option has an impact when a device signal tag is configured in IO_OUT. tracking is disabled in Manual mode. In online operation. the OUT value is the implied valve position and is not inverted when Increase to Close is True. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. OUT_LO_LIM is restricted to OUT_SCALE_LO-. For complete descriptions of the supported I/O options. tracking can be activated and maintained when the block is in Man mode. When the Track in Manual control option is True. During operation. When FF_ENABLE is True. indirect. When the track control parameter (TRK_IN_D) is True and the Track Enable control option is True. a full scale value on OUT will result in 4 mA on the channel. Increase to Close causes the milliamp signal on the analog output channel to be inverted in Man mode (and in Auto mode). the TRK_VAL input is converted to the appropriate value and output in units of OUT_SCALE. If you enter a value and the status of SIMULATE_IN is not Bad: NotConnected. The track scale parameter (TRK_SCALE) specifies the range of TRK_VAL. Note Make sure SIMULATE_IN is not connected if you want to enter the value or status manually. Indirect square root signal conditioning – converts the accessed channel input value (or the simulated value when simulation is enabled) by taking the square root of the value and scaling it to the range and units of the PV parameter (PV_SCALE).1*(PV_SCALE_HI-PV_SCALE_LO). the value entered in the SIMULATE_IN Simulate Value field is used as the simulated value. The tracking value parameter (TRK_VAL) specifies the value to be converted and tracked into the output when the track function is operating.0 is used for the converted value (PV). You can set control options in Out of Service mode only. connect SIMULATE_IN to the desired block output or parameter.

Select one of the following choices: PID Action on Error — Proportional. PI Action on Error. You can select the value that an upstream controller uses for bumpless transfer and reset limiting by configuring the following control option: Use PV for BKCAL_OUT When this option is not selected. PD Action on PV — Integral action is applied to error. DeltaV software forces the limit within the rules. the size of the offset will be determined by GAIN of the PID and the process gain. the setpoint is adjusted by the operator. This structure is typically used to get fastest possible setpoint response when derivative action is used (RATE>0) and RATE is not so large as to make the resultant kick too great. D Action on PV — Proportional action is applied to error. You can set control options in Out of Service mode only. the output can be entered manually.PV). If the master is another PID. the working setpoint (SP_WRK) is used for BKCAL_OUT.If the new scale causes a limit to be outside of these rules. PD Action Error — Proportional and derivative actions are applied to error. In Auto. the output is computed by the PID control equation.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. if OUT violates the new limits OUT will be forced within the limits on the next pass. Output Selection and Limiting Output selection is determined by mode. However. the SP value is set to the PV value while in the specified mode. Bumpless Transfer and Setpoint Tracking You can select setpoint tracking by configuring the following control options (CONTROL_OPTS): SP-PV Track in LO or IMan SP-PV Track in Man SP-PV Track in ROut When one of these options is set. I Action on Error. Offset is typically adjusted with BIAS of the PID. The following diagram shows the method for setpoint selection: PID Function Block Setpoint Selection You can limit the setpoint by configuring the SP_HI_LIM and SP_LO_LIM parameters. proportional and derivative action are applied to PV. derivative action is applied to PV. P Action on Error. the BKCAL_OUT value tracks the PV value.htm 4/1/2013 . You can limit the setpoint rate of change by configuring the SP_RATE_UP and SP_RATE_DN parameters. the size of the offset will be determined by GAIN of the PID and the process gain. a setpoint change will exhibit both a proportional and derivative kick. PID Equation Structures Parameter STRUCTURE in the PID is used to select which of the three PID actions (Proportional. then if the master PID has selected Dynamic Reset Limit in FRSIPID_OPTS the external reset portion of the master PID now uses the PV of the secondary as its input. integral and derivative action are applied to the error (SP . Integral and Derivative) are active and how the actions are applied. The SP or OUT parameters are not changed as a result of changing the scale or limits. Cas. With the Use PV for BKCAL_OUT control option. Setpoint Selection and Limiting Setpoint selection is determined by the mode. In Cas mode. You can select the PID equation structure to apply controller action by configuring the STRUCTURE parameter. If RATE is non-zero. the setpoint comes from the CAS_IN input. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. there is no integral action. use any connection to OUT for calculation purposes only (for example. This structure will result in a steady state offset of PV from SP. In Man and ROut modes. A setpoint change will exhibit a proportional kick. You can limit the output by configuring the OUT_HI_LIM and OUT_LO_LIM parameters. A setpoint change will exhibit a proportional kick. there is no integral action. In Auto mode. A master controller whose BKCAL_IN parameter receives the slave PID block's BKCAL_OUT in an open cascade strategy forces its OUT to match BKCAL_IN. Offset is typically adjusted with BIAS of the PID. Note If the IO_OUT parameter is defined for direct output. and RCas modes. D Action on PV — Proportional and integral action are applied to error. thus tracking the PV from the slave PID block. A setpoint change will exhibit a proportional and derivative (if RATE>0) kick. This provides an automatic adjustment of reset action in the master based on the performance of the slave. There is no proportional or derivative kick on a setpoint change. This structure will result in a steady state offset of PV from SP. A small SPFILTER value or SP RATE limiting can be used to reduce the worst case kick. derivative action is applied to PV. an input to a calculation block).

htm 4/1/2013 . GAMMA=0 means no derivative action applied to SP change. The adjustment parameters are BETA (for proportional) and GAMMA (for derivative). This structure then can be used to get any of the structures that include all three (actions) with adjustable action on SP changes for proportional and derivative action. It is also used in cases where the process exhibits the tendency to first move in the opposite direction from its final steady state value. This is particularly true when there is derivative action required and the derivative action is taken only on PV (to avoid large bumps in output as the result of modest setpoint changes). D action on PV I action on error. The following figure illustrates the setpoint response for a loop tuned for good disturbance rejection with little or no overshoot in the disturbance response. the block automatically uses values as follows for BETA and GAMMA. The range for BETA and GAMMA is 0-1. Two Degrees of Freedom Controller — Two parameters (BETA and GAMMA) can be adjusted to determine the degree of proportional (BETA) action and derivative (GAMMA) that will be applied to SP changes. Tuning range is from no action to full action (0 to 1). I Action on Error. there is no proportional action. GAMMA=1 means full derivative action is applied to SP change.ID Action on Error — Integral and derivative action are applied to error. If a structure other than Two Degrees of Freedom Controller are used. BETA=1 means full proportional action is applied to SP change. derivative action applied to PV. For values greater than 0 and less than 1. D Action on PV — Integral action applied to error. there is no proportional action. It is also used in cases where the process exhibits the tendency to first move in the opposite direction from its final steady state value. PD action on PV PD action on error P action on error. There is no derivative kick on an SP change. when tuning a control loop for disturbance rejection. proportional action (if called for by STRUCTURE) is applied to error and standard form equation is applied. Value of STRUCTURE PID action on error PI action on error. Two Degrees of Freedom is selected with the STRUCTURE parameter. D action on PV Two Degrees of freedom Value used by the block for BETA 1 1 0 1 1 na na (uses configured value) Value used by the block for GAMMA 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 (uses configured value) Often. the number represents the decimal fraction of the action applied to SP change. Adjustment of BETA and GAMMA can significantly reshape the setpoint response and drastically reduce the overshoot from that of a PID that has full proportional and no derivative action on setpoint. SP Response for Different Structures When Use Nonlinear Gain Modification is selected in FRSIPID_OPTS. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. BETA=0 means no proportional action is applied to SP change. There is a derivative kick on an SP change. The Two Degrees of Freedom structure provided by DeltaV software allows shaping of the setpoint response by adjusting the proportional and derivative action applied to setpoint.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. D action on PV ID action on error I action on error. This structure is typically selected for use in integral-only applications (RATE=0). This structure is typically selected for use in integral-only applications (RATE=0). the setpoint response exhibits considerable overshoot.

Reverse and Direct Action You can select the block output action by configuring the Direct Acting control option. Indicates a bad status on a linked IN parameter. Readback failed – The I/O readback failed. Local Override – The block is in Local Override (LO) mode. Thus. Block Errors The following conditions are reported in the BLOCK_ERR parameter: Out of Service – The block is in Out of Service (OOS) mode. Reset Limiting The PID function block provides a selection between clamped integral action or dynamic reset limiting (external reset) that prevents windup when a change in output cannot be acted on because of a downstream limit. a hardware failure (if the block directly references DSTs) a non-existent Device Signal Tag (DST). If this option is selected. By selecting Dynamic Reset Limit in FRSIPID_OPTS a master PID in a cascade uses the BKCAL_OUT of the slave block.htm 4/1/2013 . Modes . if the downstream block(s) cannot act on the PID block output. Output failure – Either the output hardware or the DST is bad. If the option is not selected (the default) the reset contribution is clamped if a limit condition is indicated by the BKCAL_IN status and the calculated change in output will drive the output further into the limit. Input failure/process variable has Bad status – The source of the block's process variable is bad. Reset Implementation The reset component of the PID block is implemented with a positive feedback network as shown in the following figure. and the block is using a simulated value in its execution. eliminating windup. or a Bad status on the SIMULATE parameter. the BKCAL_OUT value of a downstream block is input to the reset calculation. Note You can set control options in Out of Service mode only. If the slave block passes back PV then the reset action dynamically uses the PV of the slave. the reset contribution is automatically limited. The behavior of the reset component depends on the FRSIPID_OPTS option Dynamic Reset Limit. Simulate active – Simulation is enabled.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID.PID Function Block The PID function block supports eight modes: Out of Service (OOS) Initialization Manual (IMan) Local Override (LO) Manual (Man) Automatic (Auto) Cascade (Cas) Remote Cascade (RCas) mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks.

If the status of the PV changes back to Good. then the PV status is set to Good or Bad based on your selection of enabled or disabled for the Use Uncertain as Good option. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. Parameters . The options are: Bad if Limited Uncertain if Limited Target to Manual if Bad IN Use Uncertain as Good Note that the options available in a fieldbus block are different: Target to Manual if Bad IN Use Uncertain as Good IFS if Bad CAS_IN IFS if BAD IN Note You can set the status options in Out of Service mode only. For more information about conditional alarming and for a description of the additional parameters. then as long as the input status is limited. Status Handling . the PV status will be set to Uncertain (even when the input status is Bad). If you select the Target to Manual if Bad IN status option and the PV status evaluates to Bad during operation. If the input status is limited. This block supports conditional alarming. the IN parameter status is used as the block input status. you can determine what conditions will cause the PV status to be BAD. Alarm Detection . RCas and ROut modes as permitted modes for operator entry.PID Function Block Block alarm detection is based on the PV and SP values. the deviation alarm is enabled again. the PV status is set to Bad or Uncertain when you select the Bad if Limited or Uncertain if Limited options respectively.Remote Out (ROut) You can configure the OOS. Enabling conditional alarming makes additional parameters available for this block. Auto. For complete descriptions of the supported modes. For more information. When the PID is configured to directly access an input channel for its input. You can configure the following alarm limits to compare to the PV value for alarm detection: High (HI_LIM) High high (HI_HI_LIM) Low (LO_LIM) Low low (LO_LO_LIM) You can configure the following alarm limits to compare to the difference between the SP and PV values (process error) for deviation alarm detection: Deviation high (DV_HI_LIM) Deviation low (DV_LO_LIM) Note Deviation alarms are suppressed on SP changes.PID Function Block The actual block mode of the PID block goes to Man if the PV status is Bad. Through the use of STATUS_OPTS. Processing of the input status within the PID block to determine the PV status may be modified by your choice of the Status options (STATUS_OPTS). Man. refer to the Function Block Modes topic. refer to the Status Handling . Selecting this option and the Use Uncertain as Good disables the mode from changing to Man under these condition when the target mode is Auto.Analog Input Function Block topic.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. the target mode (and actual mode) remain in Man. refer to the topic Conditional Alarming.htm 4/1/2013 . Note When the option Uncertain if Limited is selected. Cas. the status of the channel input is determined as described for the Analog Input block. Otherwise. the target mode and the actual mode are set to Man.PID Function Block The following table lists the system parameters for the PID function block: PID Function Block System Parameters Parameter ABNORM_ACTIVE Units None Description The indication that a block error condition not selected in BAD_MASK (on the function block level) is True (Active). Similarly. if the status of the input is Uncertain. When the PV comes within the deviation limits or if the status of OUT or BKCAL_IN becomes limited.

The manual reset value applied when STRUCTURE is ‘PD action on error’ or ‘P action on error. The filter factor for derivative action. Set this parameter for each function block to indicate the physical unit the function block is associated with. When any of these conditions are True. Only has practical meaning when the STRUCTURE parameter is a P + D selection. Because of this ALPHA should typically NOT be changed. ABNORM_ACTIVE becomes True. Enter a value between OUT_HI_LIM and OUT_LO_LIM. When the output is beyond ARW_LO_LIM and the integral action is returning toward the limit. If the status of CAS_IN is Bad and the target mode is CAS. The indication that a block error condition selected in BAD_MASK (at the function block level) is True (Active). Fraction of proportional action applied to SP change. then the applied RESET time is reduced by a factor of 16. The value of BETA can be changed over a range of 0-1 if STRUCTURE is set to Two Degrees of Freedom Control. When the output is beyond ARW_HI_LIM and the integral action is returning toward the limit. For a value of 0. Low limit of Anti-Reset Windup. D action on PV’. When disabled. The user selects a subset of block error (BLOCK_ERR) conditions in the BAD_MASK parameter. CONTROL_OPTS None Control options allow you to specify control strategy options. Enter a value between OUT_HI_LIM and OUT_LO_LIM. The block errors that can appear for the PID function block are: Out of Service Readback Failed Output Failure Input Failure/Bad PV Local Override Simulate Active ALERT_KEY* None ALPHA** None ARW_HI_LIM** OUT ARW_LO_LIM** OUT BAD_ACTIVE BAD_MASK None None BAL_TIME** Seconds BETA** None BIAS** BKCAL_IN BKCAL_OUT None EU of OUT_SCALE EU of PV_SCALE BLOCK_ERR None BYPASS None When enabled and the block is in AUTO.htm 4/1/2013 . ALARM_HYS is limited to 50% of scale.6. and so on. When the block is assigned to a controller the valid control options are: No OUT limits in Manual Obey SP lim if Cas or RCas Act on IR Use PV for BKCAL_OUT Track in Manual Track Enable Direct Acting SP Track retained target SP-PV Track in LO or IMan SP-PV Track in ROut SP-PV Track in Man Bypass Enable mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. To turn BYPASS on or off. Otherwise. select the CONTROL_OPTS Bypass Enable option and set the block to MAN mode. The time over which an internal balancing bias will be dissipated. bypasses the normal control algorithm by transferring the SP value (in percent) to OUT. the block operates normally. The value and status required by the BKCAL_IN input of another block to prevent reset windup and provide bumpless transfer to closed loop control. it is automatically set to a value of 1 or 0 based on the Structure selection. The set of active error conditions that triggers a user-defined Bad condition. The valid range in run time is 0. This information can be used in the host for sorting alarms. CAS_IN EU of PV_SCALE The remote analog setpoint value from another block. The summary of active error conditions associated with the block. Adjusting ALPHA can impact the noise protection provided when RATE is utilized.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. 60% of the proportional action applied to SP change. then the applied RESET time is reduced by a factor of 16.05 to 1.0. the actual mode of the PID block sheds to the higher of MAN and the next permitted mode which is usually AUTO. the BAD_ACTIVE parameter becomes True. The default value is 0. The analog input value and status from another block's BKCAL_OUT output that is used by an upstream block for bumpless transfer. Increasing ALPHA increases damping of derivative action.125. High limit of Anti-Reset Windup. When any of the BLOCK_ERR conditions that are not included in BAD_MASK are True. CAS or RCAS mode.ALARM_HYS Percent The amount the alarm value must return within the alarm limit before the associated active alarm condition clears. A user-assigned identification number reported in alarm messages from the block that allows HMI applications to sort and filter alarms and events.

When the block is assigned to a fieldbus device the valid options are: No OUT limits in Manual Obey SP lim if Cas or RCas Use PV for BKCAL_OUT Track in Manual Track Enable Direct Acting SP Track retained target SP-PV Track in LO or IMan SP-PV Track in ROut SP-PV Track in Man Bypass Enable DV_HI_ACT DV_HI_LIM None EU of PV_SCALE The result of alarm detection associated with DV_HI_LIM. DV_LO_LIM has been exceeded. This parameter is set by Inspect and is set to 1 only if the following conditions are true: The Write to Inspect Alarm context menu item has been selected from Inspect for this block. Control. (Note that an abnormal condition exists for DV_LO_ACT DV_LO_LIM None EU of PV_SCALE ENABLE_LEARNING None ERROR** FF_ENABLE** FF_GAIN FF_SCALE EU of PV_SCALE None None None FF_VAL FIELD_VAL** FORM** EU of FF_SCALE Percent None FRSIPID_OPTS** GAIN GAMMA** None None None HI_ACT HI_HI_ACT HI_HI_LIM HI_LIM IDEADBAND** IN INSPECT_ACT None None EU of PV_SCALE EU of PV_SCALE EU of PV_SCALE EU of PV_SCALE None mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. The setting for the alarm limit used to detect the high alarm condition. Enables/disables feedforward control. the connection for the PV input from another block). The analog input value and status (for example. This parameter is writeable at runtime. The high and low scale values. Fraction of derivative action taken on SP. Supported options are Dynamic Reset Limiting. If DV_LO_ACT equals True. The result of alarm detection associated with HI_HI_LIM. and number of digits to the right of the decimal point associated with the feedforward value (FF_VAL). The value of GAMMA can be changed over a range of 0-1 if STRUCTURE is set to Two Degrees of Freedom Control. Use Nonlinear Gain Modification. Indicates if Inspect is enabled and one or more of the limits for the block have been exceeded. The amount by which PV can deviate above SP before the deviation high alarm is triggered. The magnitude of DV_LO_LIM cannot be greater than the range of PV_SCALE. If DV_HI_ACT equals True. and select the models that will be used to establish the recommended tuning. 60% of the derivative action is applied to SP. Selects equation form (series or standard). engineering units code. analyze. The feedforward gain value. The default value is FALSE. FRSI add-on control options. The result of alarm detection associated with DV_LO_LIM. When the error gets within IDEADBAND. HI_HI_LIM has been exceeded. Input. The magnitude of DV_HI_LIM cannot be greater than the range of PV_SCALE.htm 4/1/2013 . the form automatically becomes standard.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. With the Current Hour filter selected. The amount by which PV can deviate below SP before the deviation low alarm is triggered. The value and status from the I/O card or from the simulated input if simulation is enabled. The feedforward control input value and status. If HI_ACT equals True. FF_VAL is multiplied by FF_GAIN before it is added to the calculated control output. DV_HI_LIM has been exceeded. For a value of 0. DV_LO_ACT is set to True. or Variability. The normalized proportional (multiplier) gain value. Inspect indicates that an abnormal condition exists for Mode. The result of alarm detection associated with HI_LIM. The proportional and derivative action continue. The difference between SP (setpoint) and PV (process variable). The normal value is 0. DeltaV InSight can be used to view. The setting for the alarm limit used to detect the high high alarm condition. Enables or disables Process Learning on the PID block. When this limit is exceeded. HI_LIM has been exceeded. DV_HI_ACT is set to True. If HI_HI_ACT equals True. If Use Nonlinear Gain Modification is selected in FRSIPID_OPTS. The dead band value. When Process Learning is enabled. it is automatically set to a value of 1 or 0 based on the Structure selection.6. the DeltaV system automatically identifies process models and stores a recent history of the models. the integral action stops. Otherwise. regardless of the configured selection of FORM. Note that DV_LO_LIM is a negative number and is compared against PV – SP. When this limit is exceeded.

IO_OUT** IO_READBACK** None None Defines the output DST for the block. Remote output value and status. and number of digits to the right of the decimal point associated with OUT. Defines the Device Signal Tag (DST) for the input channel that provides readback for the value written to the channel defined by IO_OUT.0. Essentially the equivalent of BKCAL_OUT for RCAS_IN. The result of alarm detection associated with LO_LIM. Essentially the equivalent of BKCAL_OUT for ROUT_IN. The process variable used in block execution and alarm limit detection. PV_FTIME PV_SCALE RATE RCAS_IN RCAS_OUT Seconds None Seconds EU of SP_SCALE EU of PV_SCALE The time constant of the first-order PV filter. Gap action hysteresis value.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. Note A PID block will not integrate if the limit status of PV is CONSTANT. LO_LO_LIM has been exceeded. If LO_ACT equals True. engineering units code. The analog output value and status. Input provided by a device or the output of another block. The configured minimum gain modifier. The high and low scale values. If LO_LO_ACT equals True. the PV is set to 0. The range is 0->(PV_SCALEHIPV_SCALELO). where the gain modifier is at a minimum value. The maximum output value allowed. When the block is assigned to a controller the supported options are: Low cutoff Increase to close When the block is assigned to a fieldbus device. When the converted measurement is below the LOW_CUT value. engineering units code. positive or negative. positive or negative. The range is 0-> (PV_SCALEHI-PV_SCALELO). The derivative action time constant. The output provided for bumpless mode transfer and reset limiting by the source of RCAS_IN. permitted. The high and low scale values. Linearization type. L_TYPE** None LO_ACT LO_LIM LO_LO_ACT LO_LO_LIM LOW_CUT** None EU of PV_SCALE None EU of PV_SCALE EU of PV_SCALE MODE NL_GAP** None EU of PV Scale NL_HYST** NL_MINMOD** NL_TBAND** EU of PV Scale None EU of PV Scale OUT OUT_HI_LIM OUT_LO_LIM OUT_READBACK** OUT_SCALE PV EU of OUT_SCALE EU of OUT_SCALE EU of OUT_SCALE EU of OUT_SCALE None EU of PV_SCALE RESET ROUT_IN ROUT_OUT Seconds per repeat EU of OUT_SCALE EU of OUT_SCALE mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks.htm 4/1/2013 . The remote analog setpoint value and status. The result of alarm detection associated with LO_LO_LIM. or is converted with the square root (Indirect Square Root). and normal modes. The value and status of the output channel referenced by IO_READBACK. The configured range of ERROR. The configured range of ERROR.Variability only if both the Variability Index and the Standard Deviation have exceeded their defined limits. The range is 0->(PV_SCALEHIPV_SCALELO). target.) IO_IN** IO_OPTS** None None Defines the input DST for the I/O channel used for the PV. the IO_OPTS parameter is not available. Determines whether the field value is used directly (Direct).0. is converted linearly (Indirect). where the gain modifier transitions between NL_MINMOD and 1. Parameter used to show and set the block operating state. LO_LIM has been exceeded. The integral action time constant. and number of digits to the right of the decimal point associated with PV. The setting for the alarm limit used to detect the low low alarm condition. I/O options allow you to select how the I/O signals are processed. The setting for the alarm limit used to detect the low alarm condition. The minimum output value allowed. The range is 0->1. MODE contains the actual.0. Activated when the Low Cutoff I/O option is enabled. Input provided by a device to the control block for use as the output (ROut mode) The output provided for bumpless mode transfer and reset limiting by the source of ROUT_IN.

If the ramp rate is set to 0. This ensures that the STDEV and STDEV_CAP calculations accurately consider the actual time constant of the process.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. An estimate of the least standard deviation the process could achieve ideally. rate limiting applies only in Auto. mean is assumed to be the SP.htm 4/1/2013 . STDEV_TIME Seconds The timeframe over which STDEV and STDEV_CAP are performed. the associated block's static revision parameter is incremented each time a static parameter field value is changed. it always overrides a manually entered value in SIMULATE.SHED_OPT SHED_TIME** SIMULATE** None Seconds Percent Defines action to be taken on remote control device timeout. Note When SIMULATE_IN is wired from an input source on the function block diagram. Refer to Loop Performance Calculations for more details on how this parameter is calculated. Refer to Loop Performance Calculations for more details on how this parameter is calculated. SIMULATE_IN always overrides SIMULATE. mode shedding takes place. If exceeded. STDEV_CAP EU of OUT_SCALE or EU of PV_SCALE (reports in percent to Inspect) The estimated capability standard deviation (measurement of short term variation). If the block is assigned to a controller. Cas. rate limiting applies in Auto. the available options are: Bad if Limited Uncertain if Limited Target to Manual if Bad IN Use Uncertain as Good If the block is assigned to a fieldbus device. the available options are: Target to Manual if Bad IN Use Uncertain as Good IFS if Bad CAS_IN IFS if Bad IN SP_RATE_UP EU of PV_SCALE per second SP_WRK ST_REV* EU of PV_SCALE None STATUS_OPTS None STDEV EU of OUT_SCALE or EU of PV_SCALE (reports in percent to Inspect) The standard deviation of PV. For output blocks. The three tracking options are mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. Allows you to select the tracking behavior when the status of the TRK_IN_D is Bad. Enables simulation and allows you to enter an input value and status. SIMULATE_IN** Percent SP SP_FTIME SP_HI_LIM SP_LO_LIM SP_RATE_DN EU of PV_SCALE Seconds EU of PV_SCALE EU of PV_SCALE EU of PV_SCALE per second The block's setpoint value. in PV units per second. If the process is relatively much slower. then the setpoint is used immediately. Cas. Status options determine status handling and processing.0. STRATEGY* STRUCTURE** TRACK_OPT** None None None Used to identify groupings of blocks. The working setpoint of the block subjected to SP_RATE_DN and SP_RATE_UP. it is recommended that you enter the approximate time it takes for the process to return to steady state after a change. then the setpoint is used immediately. the associated block's static revision parameter is incremented if a static parameter field is written but the value is not changed. The lowest SP value allowed. Tracking Option. For output blocks. The default value of zero is good for most processes where the scan rate is no more than approximately 10 times faster than the time to steady state. The highest SP value allowed. If SIMULATE_IN is connected or has a manually entered value. rate limiting applies in Auto. For control blocks. The input connector value and status used by the block instead of the analog measurement when simulation is enabled. in PV units per second. For control blocks. and RCas modes. This data is not checked or processed by the block. and RCas modes. Time constant of the first order SP filter. The revision level of the static data associated with the function block. To support tracking changes in static parameter fields. Ramp rate at which downward setpoint changes are acted on in Auto mode.0. Also. rate limiting applies only in Auto. Ramp rate at which upward setpoint changes are acted on in Auto mode. The SIMULATE value is used by the block only when SIMULATE_IN is not connected. Defines PID equation structure to apply controller action. If the ramp rate is set to 0. The maximum allowable time between RCAS_IN or ROUT_IN updated. For analog control blocks in AUTO.

The following examples describe how to use the PID block for closed loop control: basic PID loop. and number of digits to the right of the decimal point associated with the external tracking value (TRK_VAL). as in the following example: Basic Setup for PID Steam Heater Control mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. This is the default value for TRACK_OPT. With only the proportional term (GAIN).The block uses the value of TRK_IN_D the last time its status was not Bad. The range is 0-100. which is typically temperature control. ** These parameters may not be visible in certain extended versions of the block. and PID control with tracking. The analog input used in the external tracking function. the block reacts as if the value if True. Use derivative control where large measurement lags exist. Track if Bad . The range is 0-100. Application Example: Basic PID Block for Steam Heater Control A process fluid is heated by steam in a heat exchanger. The proportional term (GAIN) applies a change in the loop output based on the current magnitude of the error. even if the value is False.The block reacts to the current value of TRK_IN_D regardless of the status. Note Default values and data type information for the parameters are available by expanding the Parameter View window. TRK_VAL VAR_IDX VAR_IDX_LIM EU of TRK_SCALE None None * These parameters are only visible in one or more of the extended versions of this block. Inspect marks the blocks as having Large Variability if the value of STDEV exceeds the value of STDEV_LIMIT. cascade control with master and slave. flexible control algorithm that is designed to work properly in a variety of control strategies. feedforward control. complex cascade control with override. Integral control eliminates steady state error. Application Information . The high and low scale values. The integral term (RESET) applies a correction based on the magnitude and duration of the error. The derivative term (RATE) applies a correction based on the rate of change of error.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. For complete descriptions of the supported modes. For Control blocks only.htm 4/1/2013 . Proportional control responds immediately and directly to a change in the PV or SP. Lowering RESET increases integral action. It integrates the error until it is negligible. engineering units code. The MODE parameter is a switch that indicates the target and actual mode of operation. The Variability Index that is calculated based on the values of STDEV and STDEV_CAP.PID Function Block The PID function block is a powerful. TRK_IN_D TRK_SCALE None None Discrete input that initiates external tracking. refer to the Function Block Modes topic. the control loop will likely have a steady state error. The PID block is configured differently for different applications.Always Use Value . Mode selection has a large impact on the operation of the PID block. Use Last Good Value .If the status of TRK_IN_D is Bad. Closed Loop Control Implement basic closed loop control by taking the error difference between the setpoint (SP) and the process variable (PV) and calculating a control output signal using a PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) function block.

Application Example: Feedforward Control In the above example. refer to the Advanced Topics . it can take some time for this disturbance to cause a drop in the heated fluid's temperature. the output from the master temperature loop is used as the setpoint for the slave steam flow loop. I/O channels are addressed with the parameters IO_IN and IO_OUT. for example. If. The BKCAL communication between the PID and AO blocks is a necessary part of this example.) In this steam heater system. Control can be improved by measuring this disturbance and reacting to it before it manifests itself at the temperature transmitter. adding feedforward control improves the process outlet temperature response.In this example. In the cascade loop in the following figure. The following figure shows the process and function block configuration for feedforward control: PID Function Block Feedforward Control Example Application Example: Cascade Control with Master and Slave Loops The feedforward scheme in the above example requires that some correlation be predetermined between steam flow changes and the steam valve opening adjustments they make. and apply a gain determined by tuning (FF_GAIN). The following diagram shows the process instrumentation for this example: mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. control problems can arise because of a time delay caused by thermal inertia between the two flow streams. steam flow declines.htm 4/1/2013 . Status information is communicated to the block when you define the card and channel parameters. which sends the control signal to the steam feed valve. Enable feedforward control (FF_ENABLE). Note You can configure the PID function block by referencing the I/O directly and not using AI and AO function blocks. scale the feedforward value (FF_SCALE). A feedforward signal is sent to the controller to augment the signal to the valve if flow drops or to lower this signal if steam flow rises. For more information on this BKCAL communication. the PID controller accepts the heated fluid temperatures as an input and provides a signal to the AO block. In this case. (This applies to a configuration where the higher the signal. the greater the valve opening.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID.BKCAL Communications topic. Another way to deal with the time delay problem is to use cascaded controllers. steam flow is measured (FT). This approach does not require finding a correlation between steam flow changes and their steam valve opening adjustments. The inlet steam flow is input to an AI function block and is connected to the FF_VAL connector on the PID block. In the following figure.

slave PID block. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. Application Example: Error-Squared Proportional Only Control Applied to Integrating Process A PID block. however. Another method of configuring function blocks for this example is to put the temperature AI block and the master loop PID block in one module. Application Example: Cascade Control with Override You might need override with cascaded PIDs. dynamic performance will suffer because a cascaded loop has effectively been replaced with a single PID. and the PID can initiate its normal control. Application Example: PID Control with Tracking An example where tracking is useful is a process operating outside of its normal operating range (for example. and AO block are in a second module. the output flow from the pump is low for a short period while the pump is coming up to speed.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. regulating the valve to adjust the output flow. Refer to Advanced Topics . In the following figure. For more information on the use of override control. The valve opens to the specified value for the duration of the timed pulse. BYPASS is used when the control function block is a slave block in a cascade. The flow. tracking is turned off. BYPASS can be activated so that the signal coming from the master controller passes through the slave to the field. In this manner. The tracking value is set at the needed valve opening. Choose this method when you want to reference faceplates and alarms separately.htm 4/1/2013 . is applied to a liquid level (for example. PID Control Using Tracking Tracking can be used in this situation to set the valve at a predetermined opening for a given amount of time. When the pump is started. a surge tank level control might be performed this way). a flow control valve is used to regulate the flow rate supplied by a pump. configured for proportional only control. At the end of the pulse. The flow control valve and controller do not operate effectively at this low flow.Control Selector Function Block. Note Cascaded blocks use BKCAL_IN and BKCAL_OUT to pass statuses during cascade initialization and in limited states.BKCAL Communications for more information. The signal to start the pump is also directed through a timed pulse block to turn tracking on for the time duration specified in the timed pulse block. tracking starts.PID Function Block Cascade Control Example The cascaded blocks shown can all be installed in a single module. When the pump starts. the loop still has some control. refer to Application Information . If a transmitter failure or some other problem occurs that causes the slave controller to see a Bad input signal. In the PID function block. during a process startup).

Transition Band. and Hysteresis mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. NL_MINMOD=0.htm 4/1/2013 . Rate=0. Starting balanced at 50% of scale (BIAS=50 %). Gain=2. Proportional Error Squared Applied to Integrating Process Application Example: PID with Deadband. a load disturbance equivalent to 25% of OUT_SCALE is introduced.Proportional Only Control Applied to a Liquid Level Use Nonlinear Gain Modification in FRSIPID_OPTS is selected. This set of tuning parameters provides an error-squared output with a maximum gain of 2. NL_TBAND=50. Reset=0. NL_HYST=0. NL_GAP=0.

The MASTER PID is tuned for load response to approximately the best IAE (Integrated Absolute Error).Control with Deadband. Until the error exceeds 5 (NL_GAP + NL_HYST). RESET=7. The block diagram of the loop is identical to that for the previous example. the output remains constant. without FRSI_PID_OPTS option Dynamic Reset Limit (DRL) selected.5. The MASTER PID is then tuned to give the identical IAE with option Dynamic Reset Limit selected.htm 4/1/2013 . The tendency to mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. Tuning parameters are: NL_MINMOD=0. NL_TBAND=3.6 the value applied in the case when option is not selected. The response for SP and load responses are compared: Note that in this example the MASTER is using identical RESET and RATE. and Hysteresis A self-regulating process is controlled with a PID configured for deadband.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. Once the controller begins adjusting its output it continues to adjust until the error is brought to a value less than NL_GAP. Application Example: Dynamic Reset Limiting In Primary of A Cascade Two PID blocks are configured in a cascade control configuration. NL_HYST=3. hysteresis and transition band. The response difference illustrated is typical. A disturbance equivalent to 25% of OUTSCALE is introduced at the process input. Transition Band. GAIN=2. RATE=0. NL_GAP=2. but in the case where the Dynamic Reset Limit option is selected the GAIN parameter is adjusted to about 1. at which point the output is held constant. Dynamic Reset Limiting in Primary of a Cascade From the above plots it is apparent that master response is altered significantly by the use of Dynamic Reset Limit.

overshoot is much reduced. In the first case. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. even though the GAIN in that case is higher. When the Dynamic Reset Limit option is selected the responses are maintained at an acceptable level of performance. it also reduces the sensitivity of the control loop to changes in slave performance and stability.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. Not only does Dynamic Reset Limit (or dynamic external reset) provide reset limiting in cases of limit violations. while providing much higher stability margins in the MASTER. a step change in the feedforward input forces the calculated PID output to exceed the PID output limit. Both the MASTER and SLAVE processes are then modified by doubling the dead time in both. when it is changed back to 0% the OUT value returns to a value less than 50%. Depending on the length of time FF_VAL's step change is held (30% in the figure). Reset Contribution Under Limited Conditions The following example illustrates the dynamic response of the PID block when it is limited by the output limits compared to the response when the output is limited by a downstream block.htm 4/1/2013 .

it takes into account the status of the downstream block. as shown in the following figure. resulting in the BKCAL_IN having limit status. In the second case.BKCAL Communications Interblock Communication The BKCAL parameters are used for interblock communication. the PID output limits are increased so that the change in the feedforward input causes the setpoint of the downstream block to be limited. it behaves as shown in the following figure. When cascaded. it sends the limited status to the upstream control block. This behavior can be achieved by setting the PID output limits outside the value needed to trigger a limit condition in the downstream block. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. Process Response Using Downstream AO Block Limiting Advanced Topics . When the upstream block executes its algorithm. However. specifically to let upstream blocks know the status of downstream blocks. The most common use of BKCAL is to prevent reset windup. the blocks act as a control unit that must coordinate its control activity. When a 30% FF_VAL is applied and removed to this module. The downstream block passes a value (usually its setpoint) as well as a status to the upstream block. If SP_HI_LIM is reached. Blocks that utilize the BKCAL parameters are referred to as cascaded blocks.Process Response Using PID Limiting In the second case. then the reset contribution should not change and the OUT value should return to its original value when FF_VAL changes back to its initial value. if a downstream block is in a limited state. the change in feedforward input causes a change that exceeds the setpoint limit in a downstream block. the AO block BKCAL_OUT status becomes Limited which prevents changes to the PID reset from forcing OUT further past the limit. which turns off its integral action in response. For example. The BKCAL parameters include a BKCAL_OUT parameter in a downstream block connected to a BKCAL_IN parameter in an upstream block.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. In other words. if only the portion of FF_VAL that forces the OUT value to saturation has an impact on the process.htm 4/1/2013 . the PID OUT_HI_LIM may be 100 and the AO block SP_HI_LIM is set to the 70% limit.

the slave block sends status information through its BKCAL_OUT parameter.Anti-Reset Windup Protection with Control Cascade Cascade Initialization Another use of the BKCAL parameters is to initialize cascaded blocks (refer to Cascade Basics for more information). it would not be able to initialize and the cascade could not be closed. not automated. This is shown in step 2. Set the downstream block's target mode to Cas. informing the upstream block that the downstream block is trying to go to Cascade mode. This occurs because the status entering the CAS_IN parameter is GoodCascade rather than GoodNoncascade. Start out both blocks with Man mode as the target modes. If the status of CAS_IN were GoodNoncascade. and AO1/BKCAL_OUT sends out an initialization request to the upstream block. If something were wrong with the upstream block (for example. Therefore. Not Invited conveys to the master block that the slave is not in Cascade mode. that is. the master block lets the slave block know that it has received the initialization request and successfully initialized.htm 4/1/2013 . Also. This occurs when the control cascade is automated (for example. The simplest case of a control cascade is a master PID block linked to a slave AO block. Both blocks have Manual as their target modes. and the master cannot operate as an automatic controller. Note that PID1 has IMan as its actual mode because the PID block senses that there is a slave block downstream. the cascade cannot be closed. performing its function using the internal setpoint of the block. The upstream block initializes and notifies the downstream block that initialization has occurred. it had tracking enabled or a bad input status). when the blocks go from Manual to Auto or Cas mode). This causes two things to happen: the actual mode of the AO block goes to Auto. the cascade is open. 2. Blocks with Man Modes as Targets In step 1. Upstream Block Initialization and Notification of Downstream Block In step 3. Close the cascade by first putting the slave block into Cascade mode. sets up SP for bumpless transfer. The process by which this occurs is an Initialization Acknowledged status sent through the master block's OUT parameter. and the slave block is sending a Not Invited status signal up to the master block through the BKCAL port. Set the target mode of AO1 to Cascade. 1. the slave would conclude that the upstream block is not one that initializes as part of a control cascade.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. that is. Downstream Block Target Mode Set to Cas 3. AO1 would be stuck in Cas/Auto mode. Then. The dialog that takes place between blocks during this process is illustrated in the following sequence of figures. the master block has received the initialization request and initializes. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks.

4. The downstream block changes to Cas mode and notifies the upstream block of this change. At this point. The upstream block sets and achieves Auto mode. Start all blocks in Man mode. the slave block's actual mode becomes Cas (step 4). Note that if the user had set the target mode of PID1 to Auto at step 1. a cascade with two levels of cascading). AO1 sets the target mode to Cas. Cascade automation starts from the most downstream block and proceeds step by step upstream. 5. Blocks Start in Man Mode 2. When these steps are completed. the cascade is closed but not automated. Since PID1/BKCAL_IN has a status other than Not Invited (because the slave block is in Cas mode). The slave block executes its algorithm using the SP supplied by the master block. This figure illustrates a control cascade with a downstream AO block. The target mode of the master controller is set to Auto. Multi-level Cascade Initialization The following figure shows the initialization process for a multi-level cascade (that is. Upstream Block Sets and Achieves Auto Mode Step 5 shows the fully automated cascade. the block would have remained with mode Auto/IMan because of the Not Invited status received by the PID through BKCAL_IN.chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. 1.htm 4/1/2013 . Downstream Block Changes to Cas Mode and Notifies Upstream Block Once the slave block receives the Initialization Acknowledged signal from the master block. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. This step closes the cascade. PID2 initializes and acknowledges. The master PID is still in Man mode. all blocks in the cascade are in Cas mode except the master block. which is in Auto mode when the cascade is fully automated. the PID block is authorized to go to Auto mode.

chm::/html/FBlk_spec_PID. in RCas mode. AO1 achieves Cas mode. substitute RCAS_IN for CAS_IN and RCAS_OUT for BKCAL_OUT. PID1 initializes and acknowledges. PID2 achieves Man mode. The same communication takes place between the master and slave blocks.htm 4/1/2013 . PID2 Achievement of Man Mode 4. However. PID1 Initialization and Acknowledgement The preceding examples regarding Cas mode also apply to RCas mode. mk:@MSITStore:C:\DELTAV\IFIX\NLS\functionblocks. PID2 Initialization and Acknowledgement 3. AO1 Achievement of Cas Mode.AO1 Setting of Target Mode to Cas. PID2 sets the target mode to Cas. PID2 Setting of Target Mode to Cas.