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TECHNIA

International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies, VOL. 3, NO. 1, July 2010. (ISSN 0974-3375)

ANALOG & DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES: AN OVERVIEW
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dilip_sharma1172@yahoo.com; 2drabhaymishra@yahoo.com; 3rajiv.saxena@jiet.ac.in,

Ujjain Engineering College, Ujjain, MP Madhav Institute of Technology & Science, Gwalior, MP 3 Jaypee Institute of Engineering & Technology, Guna, MP
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D.K.Sharma1, A. Mishra2 & Rajiv Saxena3
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Abstract: A tremendous technological transformation during the last two decades has provided a potential growth in the area of digital communication and lot of newer applications and technologies are coming up everyday due to these reasons. Restricting overself to the domain of modulation techniques a brief overview over different analog and digital modulation techniques has been provided in this article through extensive literature survey in a tabular manner enabling to analyze and establish the superiority at a glance of a specific modulation technique for a particular application.

to have multimedia transmission, hence the existing modulation techniques are not able to provide a complete solution keeping this in the view the authors of this article have tried to draw a sketch within the existing modulation techniques to derive out exactly what modifications or the alterations in the present techniques may sort out the problem or there is still a need for designing a new modulation technique for the purpose of the present communication system requirements [6, 7]. 2.0 Classification of Modulation Techniques. Modulation is the process of varying some parameter of a periodic waveform in order to use that signal to convey a message. Normally a high-frequency sinusoidal waveform is used as carrier signal. For this purpose ,if the variation in the parameter of the carrier is continuous in accordance to the input analog signal the modulation technique is termed as analog modulation scheme if the variation is discrete then it is termed as Digital Modulation Technique [8]. Sr. No . 01 Table-1: Type of Modulation Techniques Modulation Techniques Analog Modulation Techniques Type (i) Amplitude Modulation (ii) Frequency Modulation (iii) Phase Modulation (i) Amplitude Shift Keying (ii) Frequency Shift Keying (iii)Phase Shift Keying Notation A.M. F.M. P.M. A.S.K. F.S.K. P.S.K.

1.0 INTRODUCTION: Living in the era of communication every thing may be video, audio or any information in the form of electrical signal is termed as data and there is an enormous requirement of data transfer between two or more point through the world wide web, every moment of the clock, which is a big threaten to the existing communication systems because of the problems like spectral congestion, severe adjacent & co-channel interference problems and noise corrupted data reception etc. This has resulted in serious need for the research work all around the world for the development of the communication systems which can handle the above said problems, where each aspect of the communication systems is dealt with the development of new encoding techniques, modulation techniques, possibilities for newer transmission channels and off course the demodulation and decoding techniques [1, 2]. The design of a communication system is application oriented and is dependent on the type of the signal. The choice of digital communication technique over its analog counter part becomes more evident of the fact that it provide larger immunity to noise for even at the price of large bandwidth requirements, where as the requirement of video, Audio and data over the computer network or the mobile telephony network termed as the third generation (3G) mobile communication poses a serious problem for the bandwidth so The existing modulation techniques need to be modified for the purpose where it can handle both the situations of noise and bandwidth efficiency [3, 4]. The major advantage of using digital modulation technique is that the use of digital signals reduces hardware, noise and interference problems as compared to the analogue signal where large number of waveforms will be required resulting in a larger bandwidth for the symbol to be transmitted [5]. Over the past years various modulation techniques have been designed and extensively used for various applications but the modern communication system requires data transmission at a higher rate, larger bandwidth in order

02

Digital Modulation Techniques

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2.1 Analog Modulation Techniques:There are basically three type of analog modulation schemes the amplitude modulation , the Frequency modulation and the phase modulation schemes which have in turn lot of class, subclass or derivatives as listed in Table-2 [9, 10]. In case of the Amplitude Modulation there are several derivatives and it is evident from the comparative table -3 that the Single Side Band Suppressed Carrier (SSS-SC) has smaller bandwidth and power requirements in contrast with Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSB SC) and Double Side Band Full Carrier (DSB FC) and Single Side Band Full Carrier (SSB FC) but for detection of this signal, we require sharp cutoff Low Pass Filter (LPF) which is not practically viable. Using the Vestigial Side Band (VSB) technique in place of (SSB SC), we can

then it is carried out till the end. ASK. 3. FSK. NO. 3. (ISSN 0974-3375) achieve a low pass filter with a gradual cut off but it requires more BW and power than SSB-SC and less then the DSBSC and DSB-FC and hence ideally SSB-SC is proves to be better than other AM schemes but practically.4 Differential Phase Shift Keying [DPSK] For the perfect detection of a phase modulated signal. number of basis functions. The combination with PSK [20] yields derivatives like QAM and MAry ASK. The basic merit of this technique is its simple implementations but is highly prone to noise and the performance is well established only in the linear region which does not make it a viable digital modulation technique for wireless or mobile application in the present scenario. 3. 14]. However. VSB proves to be a much better candidate then the other amplitude modulation techniques [11. The great merit of FM over AM is that FM allows us to suppress the effects of noise at the expense of bandwidth. which have much important application with improved parameters. but other methods are also possible with hybridization of two or more basic digital modulation schemes with or without pulse shaping [21. bandwidth requirement and power requirement properties of various analog modulation techniques. These digital modulation techniques can be classified basically either on the basis of their detection characteristics or in terms of their bandwidth compaction characteristics [24]. 14]. 12]. 23]. 3. 3. the I and Q components and the symbol shaping are not applicable here.2 Digital Modulation Techniques:After the conversion of an Analog signal to digital by sampling different type of digital modulation schemes can be achieved by the variation of different parameter of the carrier signal for example the Amplitude variation gives BASK. It is a coherent modulation technique hence the concept of the co-relation between the signal.e. Frequency Modulation proves to be better in comparison to amplitude modulation and phase modulation. The Amplitude modulated signals require nonlinear amplifiers which generate spurious out-of-band spectral components which are filtered out with a great difficulty. and the derivative of frequency modulation. Also sometimes a combinational variation of this parameter is done to generate the hybrid modulation technique viz. The track of the phase change information which becomes essential in determining the relative phase change between the symbols transmitted. The modulation techniques provide a number of derivatives [20]. The digital modulation technique can be said to be the simplest form of phase modulation and is known as binary because the carrier phase represents only two phase states [13]. then the modulation technique is termed as BFSK.1 Binary Amplitude Shift Keying [BASK] The BASK is obtained by the alteration of the amplitude of the carrier wave [1. narrow band FM (NBFM) is usually employed to overcome above mentioned problems in the communication system [13. the phase of the signal is advanced by . Frequency variation gives BFSK and the phase variation gives BPSK. Many more digital modulation techniques are available and can also be designed depending upon the type of signal and the application [17]. 1. 19]. It has very poor bandwidth efficiency. VOL. 3.2 Binary Frequency Shift Keying [BFSK] When two different frequencies are used to represent two different symbols. Classification of Digital Modulation. a combinational variation of Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (APSK). The major limitation of the analog modulation systems for communicating over long channels is that once noise has been introduced at any place along the channel. the . though cost effective and provides simple implementations but is not a bandwidth efficient technique and is normally ruled out because of the receiver design complexities [1-3. FM and PM ) are extremely sensitive to the noise present at the receiver end in contrast to this if a digital signal is modulated and transmitted the received signal is far less sensitive to receiver . Thus a better digital modulation technique is to be thought over by the designer which has an ability of exploiting the available transmitted power and the bandwidth to its full extent [18. It provides small error rates than any other systems. the phase is unchanged whereas for transmission of symbol 0. Because the analog modulation system ( AM. and PSK with Nyquiste pulse shaping at the base band form the basic technique of digital modulation. It is normally used for high speed data transfer application. The whole process is based on the assumption that the change of phase is very slow to an extent that it can be considered to be almost constant over two bit intervals (7). i. Table-3 provides representation. In order to achieve a discrete signal it is essential to have the modulating signal of the form of a NRZ rectangular pulse thus yielding the modulated parameter as a discrete signal switching or keying between two discrete values [20].TECHNIA International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. provides a 3dB power advantage over the BASK modulation technique and is robust and simple in implementation but proves to be an inefficient user of the provided bandwidth and is normally termed as a non-linear modulation scheme.5 Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) Another extension of the PSK digital modulation technique is the division of the phase of the carrier signal designed by allotting four equally spaced values for the phase angle [1-3] as 552 BPSK by having the information capacity double to it.3 Binary Phase Shift Keying [BPSK] When the phase of the carrier wave is altered with reference of the modulating signal then the resultant modulation scheme is termed as Phase Shift Keying. 11]. 3. 2. For the transmission of a symbol 1. it become evident that the receiver needs a coherent reference signal but if differential encoding and phase shift keying are incorporated together at the transmitter then the digital modulation technique evolved is termed as Differential Phase Shift Keying [1. 12].BFSK can be a wideband or a narrow band digital modulation technique depending upon the separation between the two carrier frequencies. July 2010. Various types of digital modulation techniques are listed in Table-4 and few of them have been comprehensively emphasized here in details providing a comparative analysis.

the spacing between the two carrier frequencies is equal to half of the bit rate which is the minimum spacing that allows the two frequencies states to be orthogonal [1-3]. July 2010. It has lower out of band power and can be said to be more spectrally efficient than the QPSK modulation technique [19-25]. It requires matched filer detection and because of this. This factor increases the receiver design complexities. the large will be the bandwidth of the signal as compared with the coherence bandwidth of the propagation channel. 1. each signal component will now experience non. failing which can give rise to erroneous detection of the signal.10). An MSK signal can e said to be derived from either an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK) signal by replacing a square pulse by ½ cosinusoidal pulse or alternatively from an FSK signal. 30] as the narrow filter will result in provocation of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) which on the other hand will reduce the signal power enormously [30].8 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM):The OFDM is a modulation scheme having multicarrier transmission techniques here the available spectrum is divided into many carriers each one being modulated at a low rate data stream. 3. at this stage the different spectral components present in the signal will experience different fading characteristics. The BPSK modulation technique is still better than the above mentioned two modulation techniques. The generation of a GMSK signal can be done by any one of the two methods as in the case of MSK signals. The spacing between the carriers is closer and the carriers are orthogonal to one another preventing interferences between the closely spaced carriers hence OFDM can be thought of as a combination of modulation and multiplexing techniques. On the other hand. the receiver design complexities increase and so it is seldom used for wireless or mobile application. GMSK can be viewed as either a frequency or phase modulation scheme. he BFSK technique is still less prone to errors and the bandwidth requirement is the same as that of BASK ( Table-4) but is not a bandwidth efficient technique. 27] summarizes representation and different properties of this technique. the major advantage in this technique is the sufficiently lower side lobe levels and the narrower main lobe as compared to a QPSK and MSK pulse [18]. The modulation parameters dependent on the data rate used shall be set according to (Table-12) Rate Dependant Parameter. the Frequency Shift Keying modulation method. It achieved smooth phase transitions thus providing a constant envelope. Table-2 [26. 3. Moreover. Hence. The bandwidth of a GMSK system is defined by the relationship between the premodulation filter bandwidth B and the bit period T B. The spectrum is not enough compact to realize [27] data rate approximating RF channel bandwidth. this frequency selective fading has to be characterized using appropriate techniques in order to achieve acceptable error rate at the detection or output in order to achieve characterization in frequency selective fading the basic approach is to partition the signal into frequency bands. which does not make it an efficient technique for the wireless communication systems. It is a coherent 553 . But the exact phase retrieval becomes a very important factor for the receiver design considerations. Only difference which comes in here than the generation of MSK signal is that the pulse shaping by half root raised cosine pulse is replaced by a Gaussian pulse shape. NO. The error performance parameter is better to BASK (Table-9. (ISSN 0974-3375) QPSK has four message points in the constellation diagram and so it becomes a highly bandwidth efficient digital modulation technique. each carrier in a OFDM signal has very narrow bandwidth so the resulting symbol rate is low which means that the signal has high tolerance to multipath delay spread reducing the possibility of inter symbol interferences (ISI) which is the requirement for The higher is the transmission rate.0 Comparison The BASK technique is simpler and economic in implementation and is less prone to errors but provides less bandwidth efficiency and operates efficiency in the linear region only. each one of which is narrow as compared to the coherence bandwidth of the channel and subsequently each of this signal component is then modulated onto a different sub carrier and the signal components are sent parallel over the channel.6 Minimum Shift Keying [MSK] Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) is a modified form of continuous phase FSK. VOL. in this case.TECHNIA International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. 3. The major demerits which this digital modulation scheme suffer s is that it is in the class of linear modulation. 3. Thus the decision of value of BT and data rate is crucial in the sense that there has to be a trade of between the BER and out of band interference [29.frequency-selective fading because now the high rate serial data sequence is converted into a number of lower rate parallel sequences and then each of them is modulated onto a sub carrier. The severity in pulse shaping lies on the bandwidth time product (BT) because of the reason that the achieved phase change over a bit period may fall short by act on bit error rate [28] but it still provides improved bandwidth efficiency over MSK. To compensate for these problems. 4. If a Gaussian pulse shape is used instead then the resultant digital modulation technique is an improved version of the MSK digital modulation technique in the sense of bandwidth and spectral efficiency and is termed as GMSK digital modulation technique (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying). the effective method to achieve this is orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). normally the idea of pulse shaping the carrier modulated signal is employed with the Root Raised Cosine Pulse shaping for achieving better performances which in turn provides a demerits that the constant envelope property of the signal is lost but then there is a lost but there is a remarkable improvement in the ISI performance of this digital modulation technique [15-18].7 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying [GMSK] An MSK signal is generated by applying a half sinusoidal pulse in place of a square pulse. although the rate of change of phase is limited by the Gaussian response but he phase carrier can still advance or retard up to 90o over the course of the bit period. Here. The information capacity of an MSK signal is equal to that of QPSK signal but due to the ½ cosine pulse shaping the bandwidth requirement is lesser than that required by QPSK.

2 TB thus spectrally efficient and constant envelopes. The error performance is better and is optimized to achieve minimum possible error rate ( Table-6. MSK and GMSK. 7). so many modulation techniques like BPSK. 1. the detection of exact phase shit becomes an important criterion which on the other hand increases receiver design complexities as well. The major consideration with any modulation technique developed is that its detection performance should show a better bit error rate (BER) performance. On the other hand when the system designer has a sole consideration for the techniques like BASK. BFSK. Reference: 554 . The major disadvantage shown by this modulation technique is its high susceptibility to ISI at higher data rates due to the narrow symbol shape ( Table 7). increase the bandwidth and (ii) simultaneous transmission of several messages over a single physical channel. This process is known as multiplexing. In detection of a QPSK signal. in turn. The technique is highly used in GSM mobile communication. so the technique is not of interest for the wireless or mobile communication applications. as one application may require higher precision in data reception where as the other may compromise on this aspect but may be rigid on the aspect of the available bandwidth or power. the transmitted power. VOL. (Table10) summarizes the BER equations of digital modulation techniques. 5. The improvement further in this modulation technique can be achieved by pulse shaping the modulated carrier. with least probability of error. The pulse shaping by ½ co-sinusoidal pulse shaping provides a better performance modulation technique. July 2010. But the criterion for higher data rate communication is taking the lead in almost every area of communication and thus the ISI and BER realization become very important and crucial aspect for any future digital modulation technique. so it can be considered to be highly BW efficient. A BT = 0. several methods have been devised for the exact or improved BER performances of the modulation techniques. BPSK and designer has to think in terms of better modulation techniques like the QPSK. channel noise and the bit error rate become very important parameters in the designing of digital/wireless communication system.0 Conclusions: An analysis of the digital modulation technique carried out in this article reveals that the selection of a digital modulation technique is solely dependent on the type of application. error rate performances analysis but the ever increasing demand of the faster communication system with large bandwidth requirements has again generated a new hunger towards the development of newer techniques. The main objective of a communication system designer is to transmit message as speedily as possible. Thus it provides major advantages over BPSK and has also overcome the major drawbacks of the BPSK. This improves the envelope and the spectral efficiency ( Table 6. This marks a measure of performance in terms of distortion in a digital communication system. 3. where GMSK has proved its performance over the other two in the area of mobile communication because of the spectral efficiency. thus the parameters like the modulation bandwidth. characteristics of the transmission channel and the demodulation and decoder combination. So OFDM can be a good candidate over other digital modulation schemes. Taking the above facts into consideration. The average probability of bit error at the output of a demodulator and decoder is the performance measure of the demodulator decoder combination. 7). 5). The DPSK technique provides information capacity similar to BPSK and is considered to be more viable technique than BPSK and is a non coherent orthogonal modulation (Table-4. (ISSN 0974-3375) modulation technique and can be used for high speed data transfer application and has a basic advantage of double information capacity ( Table-7) over BASK and BFSK. This is because of the fact that some of the technique provide lesser complexities in the design of the modulation and demodulation system and prove economic like the BASK. BFSK. Since the modulation envelope is also constant hence it is said to be spectrally efficient modulation technique also. which can also be viewed as comprising of two CPFSK signals. The most widely used technique is the QPSK modulation technique which has an information capacity double to BPSK (Table-4) over the same bandwidth and requires coherent detection. This has a major advantage that the out of band power is significantly lower than QPSK (Table-7) and the 99% of total power of MSK is 1. Fast communication is possible by: (i) reducing the time of each massage. NO. M-ary QAM have been developed. But the basic demerit ( Table 7) of MSK modulation technique is that the spectrum is not enough compact for the realization of higher data rates. It has proved to be a better modulation technique than QPSK in the sense that the signal coherence and deviation ratio are largely unaffected by variation in input rates ( Table 11). Hence the reconstructed signal at the receiving end is an close approximation of the transmitted signal and the difference or some function of the difference in the original and the reconstructed signal. The GMSK modulation technique is a variation of MSK where the co-sinusoidal pulse shaping of the modulated carrier is replaced by the Gaussian pulse shaping. The detection of phase shift ( Table-8) makes the receiver design complex. But the receiver complexities are more than BPSK because memory is required in the system to keep the track of relative phase difference. DPSK. waveforms. the design of a digital communication system is very trivial and is very much applications oriented. but this.TECHNIA International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. coding techniques. To be more precise the probability of error is a function of code characteristics. GMSK. power. the Minimum Shift Keying (MSK). Simple implementation and robustness makes it a useful technique for satellite communication but on the other hand it has proved an inefficient use of the bandwidth and is categorized under a class of non-linear modulation techniques (Table-5). BPSK and DPSK techniques and can be visualized for the systems which really does not require high amount of precisions or when economy is the major aspect and the BER performances can be tolerated.3 GMSK has been more popular than its other variants as it is optimized for the better bandwidth and error performances at this value. MSK. The basic research work carried out in the field of communication lead to the development of new modulation techniques.

San Diego. vol. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5. vol.C. modulation classification for digitally transactions. vol.6. 1976. India. ower spectral density for full response Mon communications.67% 16. envelope signals with ef IEEE transactions on communications. K. NO. K. pp. India. 10. Continuous Phase Modulation Part I : Full Respons .44.1606-1609. A. Replika Press Pvt. vol. 9-10 May.) % POWER SAVING Standard 66. 1981. no.7. 1.B. Rutledge. New Delhi. communications. 1999. m 2 m m . Ltd. no. vol. 1976.1963-1700. pp. no.J. 1992. July 2010. 17. A. 1977. pp. N. Sr. B.47. vol. P. no.A. Gautam.36. pp. 13.916918.). CONFERENCE RECORD Fusing command control and intelligence : IEEE transactions (11-14th Oct.41. cosine serie Miltary communications conference. modulation technique vol. no. pp.1. Detected GMSK transactions on communications. 19. 1999. Oxford University Press.).196-209. 2002. transactions on communications. pp. vol. 30.4. 3. 6. no. VOL. no. vol. g Several transaction on communications. USA.P. 210-225. 23.1164-1172. pp. Frequency and Time Recovery for MSKvol. 2000.COM-29. vol. no. pre-1988).2.685-690 (Oct-7-10). McGraw-Hill.1. Series. No. J. (4 th Ed. No .11. (3 rd Ed. 1988. COM-25. 97-102.). 2000-2001.10. Delhi. 3.2. Vol. no.1362-1372. Com-29. 9. Ku : A Tool in Signal -226. 28. M. 18. 22.K. pp. 20. no.433-441. IEEE transactions on communications (Legacy. A.8.182186. Digital Communication.. modulatio n index in FM F = modulati on in PM IEEE transactions on communications. 11. COM-29. Communication Systems. 1981. Singapore. pp. pp. N. H. ertain digital Modulation -18. 1977.9. 24. 1995. 26. 1970. Inc.33% >SSB-SC Same as DSB-SC More than F NBFM P = POWER REQUIREM ENT 3/2 Pc 5/4 Pc 1/2 Pc 1/4 Pc Greater than SSB-SC Same as DSB-SC More than NBFM Pc = carrier power 2 2 m m m m pulse shaping for MSKcommunications. 7. pp. CA. A. elements of Digital Communication Systems. no. J. Mendlov vol.1.C. computers and signal processing.1132-1136. 2002. 8. 1976.TECHNIA 1. India. India.. Ltd. S.1. 4.845-856. -Likelihood Method 29. Ándr Symbol Timing Es IEEE transactions on communications vol. pp. pp.181-184. Digital & Analog Communication. 1996.47. no. Sarkar. 1981. International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. COM-24. Carlson. Replika Press Pvt. Continuous Phase Modulation Pa .. pp.38. vol. Letaief. N.32-40.S. 2.3. New Delhi. pp. pp. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Table-2: Classification of Analog Modulation Techniques MODULATION TECHNIQUES Amplitude Modulation Double-Sideband Suppressed Carrier Amplitude Modulation Double-Sideband With Full Carrier Amplitude Modulation Single-Sideband Suppressed Carrier Amplitude Modulation Single-Sideband With Full Carrier Amplitude Modulation Vestigial-Sideband Narrow-Band Frequency Modulation Wide-Band Frequency Modulation Phase Modulation REPRESENT ATION AM DSB-SC AM DSB-FC AM SSB-SC AM SSB-FC AM VSB NBFM WBFM PM TYPE Linear Linear Linear Linear Linear NonLinear NonLinear NonLinear optimization for nontransactions on communications.6. LATHI. communication. Oxford University Press. pp. -29. no. 1991. McGraw-Hill. Delhi. vol.).2.B. J. John Wiley & Sons. MILCOM-92. SAC-2. COM-25.-PSK and M21. Haykin. Table-3: Performance Analysis of Analog Modulation Schemes Sr. 203 (Ist Ed.B.P. 12. Inc. 1984.D. N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TYPE OF ANALOG MODULATION AM-DSB-FC AM-DSB-SC AM-SSB-FC AM-SSB-SC AM-VSB NBFM WBFM BANDWI DTH (B. J.8.712-716.67% 83.44. Modulation Representation Type BW 555 . Crilly. no. HSU. 1990. 29. pre-1988). International Edition. 1981.3..938-946. 809-819. 16. (ISSN 0974-3375) 27. Table 4: Classification & Performance Analysis of Digital Modulation Techniques [1-7] Sr. pp. no. 15. COM-47. vol. pp. 1993. Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems. pp. W.0395-0399. COM-29. 1996. IEEE transactions on communications (Legacy. vol. 1044-1050. no. Lu. 1999. CA. 1922. 1996.8. vol.769-771. Shanmugam. m = modulating frequency 25.487-497.1032-1036. 14.7. -type transactions on communications.

International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. Digital Symbol 556 .3125 Mhz ( 1/ 16. +1 to +26 } Table-11: Modulation Parameters of Digital Modulation Techniques in multicarrier Modulation Schemes Sr. 3. 0. NO.25 Mhz ( 64 ST ) Spacing Between the two outmost sub-carriers F ) 10 11 FFT Size. 0. Data Modulati Codin Coded Coded Data Table-6: Parametric Study of Digital Modulation Techniques [1.4 Sec. FFT Used Sub-carrier index { -26 to -1 .TECHNIA No. BASK BFSK BPSK DPSK Non coherent Non coherent Coherent Non coherent 2RB 2RB 2RB 2RB 2 3 4 9 12 18 24 36 48 BPSK QPSK QPSK 16-QAM 16-QAM 64-QAM ¾ ½ ¾ ½ ¾ 2/3 1 2 2 4 4 6 bits Per OFDM Symbo l CBPS bits Per OFDM Symbo l DBPS 1 6 BPSK ½ 1 48 48 96 96 192 192 288 24 36 48 72 96 144 192 QPSK MSK Coherent Coherent 2RB 5 Less than QPSK Where 6 7 M M-ary PSK Coherent 2 2 2N . 1 20Mhz Sampling Rate = 1/T 2 Useful Symbol Part Duration 64*T 3. N /N /N 01 02 03 01 02 03 04 M-ary Phase Shift Keying M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Shift Modulation M-ary Frequency Shift Keying Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Binary Phase Shift Keying OFDM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation OFDM 16Quadrature Amplitude Modulation OFDM 64Quadrature Amplitude Modulation OFDM M-ary QAM Coherent 8 54 64-QAM ¾ 6 288 216 M-ary FSK Coherent Coherent M2 /N Table-12: Numerical Values for the OFDM [Multicarrier Modulation Schemes] Parameters Sr. VOL. 72*T 5 6 7 8 9 Number of Data Sub-carriers SD OFDM BPSK-OFDM Coherent Coherent QAM-OFDM Less than Other techniques Less than Other techniques Less than Other techniques Less than Other techniques 3 4 Cyclic Prefix Duration Symbol Interval + + 48 4 16-QAMOFDM Coherent Number of Pilot Sub-carriers SP 64-QAMOFDM Total Number of Subcarriers ST F Coherent 52 ( SD + SP ) Sub-carrier Spacing 0. of Message Information BW BW Efficiency Sr.2 microsecond 16*T. 4 Sec. 8-30] No. of Type of No. 1.) 8*T. (Opti. July 2010. (ISSN 0974-3375) requirement Rate (Mbit s/s) on g Rate (R) bits Per Subcarrier BPSC 01 02 03 04 01 02 Technique Binary Modulation Scheme Binary Amplitude Shift Keying Binary Frequency Shift Keying Binary Phase Shift Keying Differential Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Modulation Scheme Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Minimum Phase Shift Keying M-ray Modulation Scheme N o. PARAMETERS VALUE No.) 80*T. (mand.8 Sec.

3.3 Robust to ICI & ISI. To frequency synchronization problem. more spectrally efficient than BPSK Constant envelope. Facilitates single frequency network i. lower side lobe level 07 GMSK OFDM 08 BPSK-OFDM QAM-OFDM 16-QAM 64-QAM __ Table 8: Detection Performance Analysis of Digital Modulation Techniques [1-7. narrow main lobe. 7-14.3. 2.13 db Fast roll of factor with BT = 0. spectrally efficient and easily generated. smooth phase transition as compared to QPSK Constant envelope. Complex equalization. 01 02 Digital Modulation Techniques BASK BFSK Demodulation Performance Simple demodulation Simple demodulation (Matched filter Combination with other techniques With PSK Derivatives QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (used extensively in digital microwave links M-ray ASK M-ray FSK 557 Special case of orthogonal . Rectangular Pulse Required Half CoSinusoidal pulse Required Gaussian Pulse Better than Above Schemes 05 QPSK 04 Constant 2RB 06 MSK 04 Constant Same as QPSK Less than QPSK 07 GMSK OFDM BPSKOFDM QAM-OFDM 16-QAM 64-QAM Type of Digital Mode Tech BASK BFSK BPSK DPSK QPSK 04 02 04 16 64 Constant 04 02 04 16 64 Same as MSK High Than above Narrow BT0.13 db .13 db Merits Simple implementation. 06 MSK . VOL. Tuned sub channel receiver filter are not required. (ISSN 0974-3375) No.13 db . 3. NO. spectrally efficient. pulse shaping is required but then it losses its constant envelope property Linear modulation..2TB Excellent Excellent Than above Not required Not required Not required Not required Required. Modulation Technique Type BASK BFSK BPSK DPSK Symbols Envelope Not Constant Constant Constant Constant points Capacity required Shaping 01 O2 03 04 01 01 02 02 01 01 02 01 04 Expressed in terms of Signal Energy/Symbol 04 Expressed in terms of Signal Energy/Bit Poor Better than BASK (NC) Double to BFSK (NC) Same as BPSK Double of BPSK 2RB 2RB 2RB 2RB Poor Not BW Efficient Used for High speed data transfer For Medium speed communication Highly BW efficient Out of Band Power Significantly lower than QPSK. minimum spacing allows two frequencies to be orthogonal. 1. more noise prone. Efficiently implementation by FFT.3 popular Less than Other techniques 08 Not Constant Sr. used mostly for satellite communication.13 db . No. the spectrum is not compact enough to realize data rates approximating rf CHANNEL bw Promotes ISI at higher bit rate transmission 1. low cost Simple implementation. Demerits Not an BW efficient technique. low cost Simple implementation. 3 dB Power advantage over BASK Reduces complexities of Receiver design for non coherent case Twice the data in same BW. 19-30] Sr. operates only in linear region Received design complex Inefficient use of BW. 19-30] Derived From ASK FSK PSK PSK PSK From OQPSK by replacing square pulse by ½ Cosinusoidal pulse From FSK by replacing ½ CoSinusoidal pulse by Gaussian pulse From multicarrier modulation scheme MSLL .TECHNIA International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. hence BW efficient. robust. No. 01 02 03 04 05 Table-7: Merits & Demerits of Digital Modulation Techniques [1. out of band power is lower. 99% of total Power of MSK is 1. Inefficient transmitter power consumption since linear power amplifier is required. Low sensitivity to time synchronization errors. Sensitive to Doppler Shift. widely used in GSM mobile communication with BT = 0. nonlinear modulation scheme Efficient less than coherent PSK Complex receiver design.13 db . July 2010. High Spectral Efficiency.

/4PSK. can be improved by shaping with root raised cosine improving ISI.It is optimum as it achieves minimum possible error rate. VOL. Performance better over BPSK & BFSK but major draw back is used of square pulse.3 GMSK BT = 0. Required is 3 Less Prone Two Two Amplitude. OQPSK.r.16-QAM.5 BPSK. (ISSN 0974-3375) detection) 03 04 BPSK DPSK Phase shift detection makes the Rx complex Receiver requires memory to measure relative phase difference between wave forms received in successive intervals Phase shift detection is important Direct injection of NRZ data to frequency modulator with Modulation Index 0.QAM. BT resulting in BER.85. 64-QAM 05 QPSK 06 07 08 MSK GMSK OFDM Table-9: Performance Characteristics of Digital Modulation Techniques (1-7. 3. BT 558 by 90 over bit period.68. for 2 o Efficient only in linear region Nil One Noisepower. 0 More Prone Than MSK Two Two .t. MPSK /4 DPSK OQPSK-Q channel shifted by ½ symbol QPSK to OQPSK to /4 QPSK when differentially decoded referred to as /4 DQPSK GMSK GMSK BT = 0. 02 BFSK 1 exp 2 o 2 b . July 2010. w. 16 PSK. 12-18) 1 Digital Modulation Technique Error Probability Error Performance ISI Status Dimens ions No.QAM. 1. . BT 0. The signal coherence and derivation ratio are largely unaffected by variations in input data rate. NO. Replacement of a square pulse by ½ sinusoidal pulse to give MSK Replacement of ½ co-sinusoidal pulse by Gaussian pulse to give GMSK Nil BPSK. The carrier is lag of lead Prone To ISI Two Two Less Prone Than QPSK Two Two 07 GMSK e Q 2 .TECHNIA International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. BW Performs Well at high Nil One One values as PSK & FSK for same signal energy and bit rate. incoherent detection. 64-QAM QAM. 0. of Basis Funct ions One 01 BASK 1 exp 2 o 2 8 .5 Bandwidth time product BT is an important factor performance is measured by SNR versus BER Bandwidth time product BT is an important factor performance is measured by SNR versus BER modulation With ASK-QAM Non coherent orthogonal modulation when considered over two bit interval Different phase variation.25. QPSK. & 03 BPSK 1 erfc 2 Less Prone Two Two 04 DPSK 1 exp 2 2 05 QPSK 2 06 MSK 2 dBless than that of BFSK for same error rate. Noise & Bit density.16-QAM. 0. Small error rate than any other system but restriction of AWGN on 1 bit decoding . BPSK.

3.W. 1.TECHNIA International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. m k m f cos f 1 1 2 OFDM -QPSK 4 b m 1 2 sin 0 c 0 cos 1 2 2 2 Q c0 d . Q ck m where 1 3 OFDM 16QA M 16 e 1 k m k 0 cos ck m cos Mini mum B. NO. W. VOL. is requir ed than other sche mes Mini mum B. (ISSN 0974-3375) 2 08 OFDM 1 erfc 2 2 W0W P WT 2 2 2 S Minimum than other schemes Nil d d d Table-10: BER Equations of Digital Modulation Techniques 2 in BPSK 4 in QPSK 16 in 16QAM 2 in BPS K 4 in QPS K 16 in 16QAM S r . is requir i1 0 Q 0 Q 0 0 0 559 .N 16. is requir ed than other sche mes Mini mum B.4 M. N o .2 2 / 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SQPSK MSK M-PSK 16QAM MQAM QPR LQPR 4.1 4. July 2010. 1 2 MOD.2 M.W.N L level s L level s M. BPSK QPSK 2.2 4.W.N 2 / / 2 / N / 4 / N / 4 2[1 1 / L2 ]erfc [ / 4(log 2 L) 1/ 2 (6 / / L M / L {L2 1}) 1 / 2 E b / N o ] 1 0 1 1 M-FSK OFDM -BPSK 2 Pb m where 1 2 c kI sin o I E c0 e 1 2 2 2 N 1 k m k 0 cos E c kI k m m d . M 2N B.

3.4 and for Bit 10 00 01 11 Phase /4 3 /4 5 /4 7 /4 6 MSK X1(t) = cos 2 f ct AB t TB Coherent 0 Correlation exist Xt(t) = + Where the value of = 0 for A = 1 and the value of = for A = -1.TECHNIA International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. NO. 1. 3. i = 1.135. (f2) and X1(t) = 4 DPSK X1(t) for Bit 1 & X2(t) for Bit 0 Over dual bit interval B c 2E B TB cos(2 fct) & X2(t) = 2EB TB Coherent cos(2 fct+ ) Non correlation Nil Nil Non coherent B Correlation exists Nil Nil X1(t) = B B B c B B X2(t) = EB cos(2 f c t ) for 0 t TB 2TB EB cos(2 f c t 2TB ) for TB t 2TB Coherent Correlation exist Xt(t) = B 5 QPSK (Phase division) Phase angles 45. (ISSN 0974-3375) i2 m 1 2 e 1 2 2 2 sin 2 d sin 2 dc0 sin dc0 0 2 Q Q cos 2 dc0 cos dc0 d .2 fc = c B Non Coherent Non correlation Nil Nil 3 BPSK X1 (t) = 1. Mathematical Representation Type Correlation between signals Component Q component 1 BASK X(t) = Am (t) cos2 fct for 0 < 1 < TB. ed than other sche mes Table 5: Mathematical Representation of Digital Modulation Techniques [1-8.2. (f1) & X2 (t) = 0. 18] Mod. 4 XQ(t) = + 2E B TB sin 2TB t for A = 1 & B = + 1 Tb < 1 < Tb Q < 1 < Tb 560 . Where n = 1`. July 2010. Thus the above expression can be of the form (1) X1(t) = cos c B 2E B TB cos 2T B t n = 1. 3. 1 k m k 0 cos 2 dck m cos dck m Q Q cos 2 dck m cos dck m . 2. VOL. 2.3. 4 for 0 < t < TB. m(t) = 1 for Bit 1 & 0 for Bit 0 Signal energy representation X(t) = Non Coherent Non correlation Nil Nil 2 BFSK Xi(t) = 2EB cos 2 f c t T B cos(2 fct) for 0 < t t < TB. 225 and 315degr ee It is a special case of Non coherent Orthogonal Modulation for TB = 2TB & EB = 2EB X1(t) for Bit 1 and X2(t) for Bit 0 Xo(t) = 2EB cos(2n 1) cos(2 f c t ) TB 4 2EB sin(2n 1) sin(2 f c t ) TB 4 XQ(t) = - EB sin (2n 1) 4 n = 1. 17.

. NO.0 t .. n . 1. QAM.TECHNIA International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies. Bban is the bandwidth of the filter Coherent Correlation exists I(t) = cos[C(t)] For C to be a constant such that T Q(t) = sin [C(t)] CG (t )dt T 2 Q(t) = t 8 OFDM t 1 1 0 exp j 2 t/ . shape . A = Amplitude..2. (ISSN 0974-3375) (2) X1(t) = cos 2 f ct t TB for A = -1 & B = + 1 7 GPSK G(t) = 1 2T Q 2 Bban Q 2 Bban 2 t 0. EB = Energy of the Bit. fc = Carrier Frequency. = Sub carrier frequency = Sub-carriers.. T = OFDM block duration.5TB log e 2 t 0. 1.5TB log e 2 . m(t) = Modulation Index. Signal samples 1 =Scale factor. VOL. = carrier frequency. Non Coherent Non correlation Nil Nil T = Signal Duration.1... TB = Time duration of the Bit. N = N-Point IDFT. nc = Noise 9 OFDM With (BPSK. gt = pulse 561 .n 0.. July 2010.. . 16QAM.. 3. 64QAM) j 2 f ct 1 k 0 k k Non Coherent Non correlation Nil Nil is complex data symbol.