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Cornell University Library

MT 40.W84

1887

Guide to musical composition,for tliose

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1891

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V«POSIlfG THE EASIER KINDS OF MUSICAL PIECBi BY HEINRICH WOHT. Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1850. EOSTOIT: C H. NBWTOKK: OHICAGO: Lyon PHIIiA: J. . Biison & Co. BOSTON: OLIVER DITSON COMPANY. ( THEM WITH SniTABLE ACCOMPANIMBNTB ^BPECIALLT OP .FAHllT. lolm C.GUIDE KUSIGAL COMPOSITION. S. by John S. Haynes & Co. DT A SHORT TIME. in the Clerk's OflBce of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. WITHOUT THE AID OF A TEACHEa. by Olitbb Ditsok & Co. FOE THOSE WHO WISH. 1SS7. & Healy. Owight. E. Copyright. TRAi^SLATED BY J. Ditson & Co. TO AUIJDIKE THE POWIR OP |nte% Um Of PROVIDING pCtkMts. BWIGHT.

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I often who me in this predicament." These words are taken from the tur. but as were in a new dress. without the special guidance of a teacher. and fit how one can them all think out such innumerable together into one consistent whole. comes up again. or most for good friends.'isd to letter of a friend. For the study of a School of Thorough Bass I have no time moreover. have the same- fnquiry made asked of me. would probably remain a book with seven it is seals for me. and information to infer the quite erron&oua many dilettanti. as to enable trifles at times to write musical at the for my own satisfaction. where T my fancy leaves me in the lurch. not at . all my me purpose to form myself into a composer proper I only wish to have just so much light in this matter. It is Then I wonder at the composers of larger works. notion of me by word which leads me of of mouth. first commonly am add new stopped short after the four measures. it once there. that in such works many a thought. thoughts. in order to compose a little piece try of music to write I Pretty thoughts often float little before me . in the most obvious and striking 1* man . such a work. I remark. they will not fit If to the first thoughts together rightly.PIIEFA. ones.CE. that a piece of music coa sists for the most part of a string of wholly new thoughts To prove the contrary. to be sure. " How ? does one begin. Besides. incompre- hensible to me. namely. but if I them down and make a musical whole of them.

ment . we must not drink too hastily. Thus did this " Guide May many it find friendly reception in wider circles.'polkas.. from which the greatest masters fructifies had drawn. is Where friends I this fountain ? it. waltzes. is But a knowledge of the theory of Harmony presupposed. how whole periods are developed out of a few notes. or only couple of tones. and partly writing them down withThis excited great astonish- out the aid of the instrument. H. which so the inventive fancy of those find who drink from Quick. that they one musical thought continually crowding out another. in larger cofnpo-Bitions. and quite as much so when I pointed out.fV PREFACE ) aer. for that is The name of the magic fountain it is I can give be- forehand . and then dangerous. out of which I have forthwith dev sloped various little pieces. a real magic fountain. " originate. or further development. it Whoever wants this knowledge can easily obtain through thia my * " Introduction to the ' Theory of Harmony. Of course I could not make the matter wholly clear and com'^ prehensible to such inquirers all at once but I promised them to lead them to a in the art spring. partly playing them over first on the piano. and lead to the fountain. W . Before we reach we must first go over a small mountain." of which Guide is a sort of second part. it 1 Gently. &c. let us go to it. called Thematic Treatment. I have made them give me a single measure.

L IL Pattern Melodies for Imitation Structure of Musical Pieces . 6. 7.. Combining Fragments of different Motives 11.CON"TJE:NrTS. Inversion IV. 10 • • Contraction 10 11 11 II 4. Augmentation Diminution Repetition • Omission 12 • 8. Combinatian of several Modes of Transformation Consideration of some Periods with regard to their Thematic Treat- V. 9. Theme 9 Transposition 9 • F.- 15 18 Periods of the Scholar's own formation • 22 23 27 VL Harmonic Accompaniment of Melodies Figural Voices Harmonic Accompaniment of the Scholar's own ! 44 4S Melodies as Exercises for Harmonic Accompaniment . i € 7 Periods^and their Members r III The Theme 8 Principal ways of Transforming a 1 . 6. Changing the Order of Tones Reversing the Order of Tones • • • 12 13 13 13 14 10. ment Exercises ..xpansion 3.

n VII Shortening of Periods CONTENTS. Periods of different length • 51 62 6S Short Introductory Phrases mi. 3. M. * The FuJ Cadence The Half Cadence The Plagal Cadence The Deceptive Cadence •• • 66 67 2. Fugue Dances Variations • 89 90 9C Marches Song Composition Bondo Sonatiaa • ' 91 • M . Cadences 1. Imitation 69 • Inverted Imitation 83 85 88 88 Mixed Imitations Canon. 67 67 4.

Pattern Melodies for Imitation. The melodic steps or intervals must be easily comprehended. The fol- lowing melodic patterns should be imitated in a similar manner. A mere wanis dering about of tones. Taking the Rhythm of one melody it. no melody. and such as appeal to the feeling.GUIDE TO MUSICAL COMPOSITION. to be sure. to form melodies each melodic pattern. . power the most important a pattern. many othen may be formed in imitation of For example %^^^^^^^^t3^^^ ^^ig^lg^i^^g Tt:«__^ |gd^-Nf{^|giSgpf}ggp^3g ^i^^i^^gi^i^ ^^pi^i^niiSlip Such rhythmical in imitations. I. without harmonic connection or natural flow. the commencing measures but be must also try. To make to the matter easier to the some imitations are here given aflei without a given beginning. has in composer. beginner. always taking care that the melodies be as sing-able as possible. but they are a very good preparatory means. Music is The chief thing in Melody. his He who for can invent beautiful art of a and expressive melodies. are no real melodic formations a proper sense.

&c. iE£gpgr ^p^iJgp>s}jgp! =*=*: n Moderaio. ^E^BE i i =-F=^ :^ ^ &c. &U. ^^gg^^^^^l^ i4-. &c.P GUIDE TO Allegretto. &c. &c &c. &c. &c. — :t=^ -• 11 &c. ac. occ.-^ :J: p^i^i^i^E^ ^^t &c. M otu. jEfet=^^'riS^f3 :E=S^ Ifc:t ^^ ^E^^£EJEEp^E^£EEJE^3Egpg^sI . -^—^-T-PS-i =t===H=t: P-I -R^F=T-t= e=-'?= ==££& SEIfr -&c. &c. •-T-^- ^i^Eppsa » TTTVi 1^^ ?^=PS ! I s F ^e-^ I -&c. ^ i - £E :|=?=p: -p—(»—(*. otu. Allegro.

s^e ' &e. I BHt^S£ |=§i -P= -#If I I ^=?J=E EeEe Andante. ii | L J— -^ •- .- &c. Allegretto.MUSICAL OOMPOSITION. i . &e. i :EEE^i^^S fit 5-*"iir ^e. 9 I iis^ -•^i=)i^ T={ "SEE ME^ii^ .i^I=^53e ^ &c.-3IE P—»- &E -*—-• — *- S=3i^ &c '^^^S^pep^'^i^ zfz±2B. &3. S^t^FP^fe :^? i^SSlf s^^^ fe^prf^iE iaizzzc gr^^^ggj:§^ 3r3=? itizaint t=t IE ll^S^j^g^lg:}^ .

^-g ^ . -^-f-!*- :?r. Allegretto._.10 GUIDE TO &o fe^ Moderato. P^S^ I isl^te ^H rtzt rp=P=P= -^^-^ipit _^_'-. A :i=t ^tt rE ^_-r^ ^ gg^^gj^j &cA :| f^il^gf^^l^i^ &c._ igE^lgj ip£=S. !EtE^ '-i ^^ wm-* —^-^m^ ( >-- ^-'- I * J ^^m^^^^^. »—' —»-.51^ •—• f rf- SE: =F==r>- ^_^-*— J- s &c. patterns should be imitated fovir times without ^^m^^^^^ Allegretto. A Ef^EEtHEi:?^: &c _ 1^ A_ ^^^ii i i . -^-m-^—0- ^ A 3=t I? I —— ^t « _ The following melodic a given beginning.

Allegretto.I fr-f =P # ?- -f-!-*-• -^—»-+-» • 0- it^igBli I IhsS £ „ -•-^- 3=41 :!=^ i 0—^-0- Allegro. . ::&=j2i ^-#-? 3§ii F=r^F PI ^^^^m^^^^fei . •— p-# r F F-»- ^^^l^^ip^i^^ ^^^m^^^m^m Moderato ir^=t=F -0-f-0^ ^^^^m^^^m r-riAllegretto.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. ^^F=F^ -^-0 A HP Allegretto. HSliSsSi^iiiil^ ^^t^ -Jz::. n r^rfiif:&':fri:fi Allegretto. m $ *-f-f- g^si^li^^^ . Allegro scherzando.

?=t _^.(tone-groups. are the eight-bar melodies which have so far occupied us. The period may be .L!: GUIDE TU Allegre ^ri=r piB^^i^pipfe^ pg Moderaio. and finally the is 2 measures into twice 1 measure. . -m-0- lz:z^3ES^. Usually such a member it is consists of eight in the technical lan- guage of music called a Period. ^m i AU^agretto. . we find consists of smaller or larger mew Jer«. The half-period of 4 is measures called a Phase .«^ aigi^s -^!^ -^-•-. but always into equal halves thus the 8 measures into twice 4 measures. for example.) strung measures . again divided into smaller parts. the 4 measures into twice 2 measures. the half-phrase of is 2 measures called ( Section .j3gse^ s^eIMe^s.^^ i^i II. t Allegro scherzando. together. Such periods. and the half-section of 1 measure called a Motive. the structure of a piece of music we examine it more closely. If that structure of Musical Pieces.

1 s^gss closing Motive. as meaning a whole Melody. t^^E^ir'f^n =1=^ ^^^Sl . is clearly heard upon a repetition of the period. 1 -^-•-#F:^ t- -P=i= :*iti m m a ^igig^iggijiiii^Slt Motives.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. Phrases ^Ji^g^li^lg --T-:U^. PERIODS AND THEIR MEMBERS. Thus there are upoL opera motives music «ense that is. 11 lo used in a wdei variations mil it be remarked that the word Motive is also often lense. :» 1*1* f -^5-»-»E=E^: I -I F-#- i^Jji:'^' In periods commencing with upward as an incomplete Motive.5s:fc»: ^ t^=x 3^1 p^iii ?3 Sections. -^-0-m~ j. the themes of the Variations are taken from opera the But here we use word Motive throughout in the first-named as indicating the smallest division of a Period. the up-beat is considered belongs with the equally incomplete That two such incomplete motives make up together whole. . which beats.

zri : gEl-^^|Eg±£ggE|5E:g=fc--^gE|:(.^i^SEg^tL'J -0W i Many ralue. but always so that its it may be recog- In this way appearance every time excites a new interest this . The theme Hume of its contains such work we have already remarked motives are precisely alike.Ea- -^-T=^1 -« y it-^-i-V g^fe^^3| — ^- III. first form still But . neariy all pieces contain several periods but the _first period contains the principal thought.tif:zlzc-rtir.. which in is repeated in different parts of the other periods. the repeated thought should not be employed always in it should be nized. alte'^ed. so that every motive may also be divided otherwise. . I ::Cr. :t=tt ^f=f . either whole or in part. =?—^• -#— P—•it=t: £ EES: iHnf of these periods with up-beats \hat is to say. for is called thematic treatment.zy--z=-zt. but of equal For example 1 : Motives.. m it5= E:j^fegEgEgEgE. The art of working up a theme in itself way.=piiic:ztt: :t=S^: m^ Motives. tha.iEgEE^5^:^ ig:-fe. Such a principal thought is called the its Theme. The Theme. transformed. may have an up-beat. and that others are verysimUar . t=ijiz:3t=l\ti i-E^E ^^t^E^ 3:^ ^ It is z±z :. seldom that a piece of music has but a single Period .

are the following Transposition. Motive.»_ Transpositions. ^=P ^^ ^- i Motive. —g— . when stands upon different degrees or stepi of the scale. Transpositions. Transpositions. iipS t— 1= . Transpositions. ^1 .MUSICAL COMPOSITION. ^^sm^^^^M^si\ -fl Motive Motive. it A Motive is transposed. but with the same intervals oreserved. would be impossible them all. -0=*Transpositions. The PEiNciPAi WATS OP TRANSFORMING A Theme 1. e^:E ^-cri- i E :*=t: Motive. Such different forms are inexhaustible. a:=t:=|:3f: t^tr^u=£ Transposition. P Motive.»=p: E#-5?= — Sip &c. as to represent 16 therefore il we shall soon see .

Expanded. m-Js 4w ^^^^^m^mi 2. Expanded.16 GUIDE TO 2 Motives. zW=i- m [lE^EES ^ -P*^ J=Pfp: giiigi^ig Transposition. Expanded. i Half Period. Transposition.. Motive. intervals of a Contraction. Motive is expanded. Motive are made smaller. or contracted . Motive. intervals of a i. Motive. Expanded Expand • l»bi^— i Here the a= 3. b. Transposition plays a principal part in the thematic working of both smaller and larger pieces. g^^=Efei^^siigfe^ Half Period. but here the the notes are spread farther apart. In transposition the Motive are not altered. Half Period. ESf 1^-*' '^m^^m^^i^i Expanded. Transposition. ?^fcp Transposition. Espvinsion.- ^^^&feg:^ifjg|ffe(EE-j!:fJ^£^ Motive. o. Motive.

Contracted. while the remain unchanged. Diminished. i Motive. 2 Motives. Augmented. ZflZZIi^Zft SHI =t I -' i^ J^ =Et £ i intervals 5. ^J-^EE 5^. Here the intervals of the Motive are not changed. but the length oi is time-value of the notes Motive. . Diminution. Augmentation. Contractions. augmented. Motire. Motive. Augmented. by the motives may be [2*1 variously remodelled or members of the Motive . n Motive. —r=ff=?= ^ repetition of fraj- Bepetition. Contracted Motive. Diminished. Contracted. i^iPj^i^^gi^^ 4.MUSICAL COMPOSITIOA. This is is the opposite of the preceding for the value of the notes of th« Motive diminished instead of being augmented. |S ^ Many inents -t rt 6. S5531 ^^i=P3^l^ 2 Motives.

Repetitiona.] ¥ s This g=E Changing the Order of Tones.Id GUIDE TO si=S^ I Motive. Omissions. especially such as form a chord together The members of a Motive.. . 2 Motives. i -M—f—T-W •=?- i^^^lgi^P^^S^H^E ±^ |i 8. i^#iiip^g^ii^i^E fe^^^^^^^ Motive. rtt ^?=^ PI :T . One or more members may be omitted from a Motive. Omissions. may occur within a narrower or a wider Section.-^-^j— "--^-^-^j- E!Et 1 7. Change of tones. introduced in a different order. maybe tniercAang'edji. Motive. ^^fegEfefeSS tij—Si5"'s3". but without altering the rhythm. Change of tones. Omission.e. Motive. Change of tones.

isi t=: -tt C ^^ ^^ 2 Motives. I J-L r n M.i: . 1 and 3. without altering the rhythm. and not at the last. but here we commence inverting the intervals at the first note of the Motive. i 3^S"^A 1= -*. «_. that their intervals shall make inverted move in the opposite direction. Inverted. Inverted. bo taken backwards. Motives may also be so changed. Motive.-^1 -*. Zizzzw:. *—• —d-^ —^— — —^— -i^ • * Inversion. i Section. 9. ^ Bteps. i. as in No. 3 and 1. t-t. Combinations from measures. tz=Mz \ I±=^ -*—*- E3^5=i= and '^m 3 and 2. A Bnd Motive. or * —*—•——*— 11. Section.-*- -^ -^-- f^ s 3 and 3. or several Motives may e. and 2. from tlM to the begiuniug.- Reversed- i By :«i|ii -^:a10.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. This is not reversing the ordec of tones. Reversing tlie Order of Tones. 2 and 3. means of transformation many new Motives may be formed Half Period. for there the series of tones went back from the end to the beginning . Reversed. 3 1. d. this st ^^ ' —^— *i *• Combining Members of different Motives.

i i :p:>i^^rp: Mai. I^SHseg-l^pipSfS Inverted. transposed Motive. S '^m in sixteenths inverted. Half Period. Combination of several Modes of Transformation. but there are also three-fold. & inverted. GUIDE TO Inverted. ZJfZlfi- ^^ EE^ ntm -0-0- ^E^' IV. or even more means of formation are applied to a Motive at the same time.-jtz=± -J^ m Motive.20 2 Motives. transposed and reve rsed. but two. ^^^^m^^^^^m Transposed. by repetition. transposed and repeated. . trans- Frequently not only one. IE =#-^= -0—0'^^ transposed and reversed.:£i|:: Inverted. it. as the following example shows. &c. and lengthened Lengthened by transposed repetition. -W-0. transposed and diminished. inveried. In the same Thus we can trans- pose a Motive and at the same time contract at the same time expand it. &c. | transposed & reversed. three. four-fold and even five-fold transformations. -0-n- Motive. | reversed. 2 Motives. ::t: S££ ^^iEjand the figares re. or we may transpose and way Motives may be at once transposed and inverted. It is better to begin with combining only two modes .

& expanded. with allusion also to their transformations. I 1^=^Ir— l?E j^ • f- Original motive. have already remarked that not a single Period consists of purely motives. || 21 transposed transposed & reversed. COMPOSITION. . in order to ^ connect it more agreeably with the following fourth motive. which will call original motives. contracted. Transposed. which are mostly taken from well tives known works of Mozart and Haydn. diminished with repetition. and the second transposed in the fourth meas- In the sixth measure we have the third original motive repeated. the first we find trans- posed in the third measure. i^^dm^^m^m^ The whole Period has ure. out. Motive. Consideration of some Periods with regard to their Thematic Treatment. five original motives .rfUSICAI. In the following Periods. the original mo- must be pointed Allegro. rjf) but enlarged by two new members (a and at the close. -W=lt- 2 V. but We new we some motives are only transformations of of others. |i=p: 0-—f-0- t=i: ^^^mi Oriii'-ial motive. contracted and inverted. |[ Transposed. contracted and incomplete. inverted. gg^Eisga Transposed.

measure 4 liter- has been transposed. 1 ."=F=^P- I ure This whole Period is is developed out of two motives. crotchet and quaver. 7 and 8. strictly taken. the e in the second original Motive only a participant note. m^mM Here only tne first E&'£ original motive has been transformed . ^ -f— FT Sii ipi! Original Itotive. and we ed in the and sixth measures. namely the .itt*=i=^. 10. in and the two semi-quavers may be resolved this into the harmonic note d.» 22 GUIDE TO . . Andante. two last Measures the first 3. 7 and 8 contain transpo- sitions of the members of Properly original Motive. ^i^i Original Motive. S^33^S nal motive. m =t ES^ it -0—fi- =tit= Original Motive. contracted and inverted »lly. like measures 3. first The second measfind i)oth repeat- a transposition of the fifth original motive. Vivace assai. No. which case motive would be only a transformation. this period has only one original motive is for. measure 5 repeated and measure 6 transposed. Presto. nt EE ^^ :t=p:: 0a single i origi- What may be made out of so simple a melody with only may be seen in Haydn's Symphony.

Original Motive. because the only a transposition of the first. partlj transposed. it.. Measures 3 and 5 are transformations of the first in the fourth original motive. e.4--^gL-j3^M^i Such periods :^ ^M^^^^^^3=^^ divided into sections than inld as the last are better . first original motive.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. eontraxsted and inverted and measure 6 motive. Tt A^^^=rr^: p. • „^— • I •te Section. This motive is transformed and sixth measures. . _i- p i i -i. is. a transformation of the . and the other half a transformation of the three eighths in the first original Allegro. 1 The second second half is original motive only half deserves this name. Allegro con spirito. where the two eighths make inverted and expanded steps. half of an ex- pansion of the second ori^nal motive. 23 g^ggg^^g^^^^EE= Measures 3 and 4 are transformations of the measure 5 is first t two original motives 1.

which are easily found out Only in the fourth section (measure 7) is a new thought introduced. it. GUIDE makes a little Tt whole.24 motives. The first is the origin^ the second and third are transpositions of the same. Exercises. expansions and inversions. We might make into I measure. and also note the transposed motives as above. Vivace. since each section section . In the following Periods the scholar must seek out and indicate the original motives himself. I i^^=i 3 i: -•: '- fci=-±rt E m Allegro molto. a period of sixteen measures of it so. by ohap^ng the * and the feeling actually divides w^sm LT 13 14 15 __ 16 We shall soon become better acquainted with such periods of more than 8 measures. with occa nonal contractions. Motives. ^EE|Eg^Jg^ai^EgE^^^:j|E|^^ 7> -^—^KUgzirW .

ite3^= i« ::1=:t=:t -^ ==!=: *-• — zM—izzi: :1==i L^: II I Allegretto.-•-. * M- s^ ^ES^ ^^ iE^iiigi -p ISe Vivace.-f^^^ I — _!_• . . — ^ 1«- ^^ :t:^L^-r.m r fe^Efe -h^'^4 !s££t:3igc:^=g-^^--F-fr-tiFr-r3 ggiili^^ip^li [3J i . Ji — ~~ l2_-»3q=£^^^£^t^n-'-. ---- 5:f- ^^ m~0-' -.. — —— — ^~0 — -0—P-0 — ^'^^ —T.•-•-^-•- Allegro. •y-p~r-y— M. . -^ '^^m I t^^=^^ Allegro.^ -r Allegro <— —— f- ^.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. 23 6= ^^ m olto.

i^eiSlij^ =§^=1 TyroUenne. E&: -«-•- P Allegretto. t Presto. ^.6 GUIDE TO Moderato. N-=5z ^r=r3 sssiei .-^.P. ^m 1-3=* Largo.^. ^f^Egp^j^.i^^^j|P^}j^ *=^ ^^^^i^^§m^ gHEESse^ES^iSSi: -^. ^^iiiiE i ^3: S^ 4 E*=-E3E3 •— ^Adagio.0 — 0^0 -.=fi=t: -P-?rfo/.=r-.' fea^i^^i^i^i^iiii^si .

zf i^^i ^-f-f -f-. A^ji^Jl. ^ ^-. |te^^5i^e ^!SE S£. ^'f -f-f.f-. iif^g^^i^iSE i ^^^E^: Allegro.. 21 0I E=b^3EfEEiEEe3=P. -•-— ••—p- i —— I gs i Allegretto^ ^ f.J ^'^^igg!^^^^ p^t^f^jE^mi^-fe ^isi^giteiif^ .MUSICATi COMPOSITION.^ g=^^ [See measure 7. II ^B^gzj^gjteg^E :fi2=?ib( P H igrp5?j5? Allegro.."-1* -" i^^^i^^^^ Allegretto.

# 5 i- — Allegretto. without means of transforming the melody. tei^: p=?=±»zrp= ^^^^^ r^--7y #-»-. Several periods should be formed &om one and the san e beginning. knowing the to Hitherto the scholar has worked after certain melodic patterns. measure for measure. Commencement - ptii^ :| .28 AUegr GUIDE TO ±±3:. such models. l^^igg^gssgg^jBfeESi^ga ^=^" =t^: Allegro . n -p^=»- tf^ t=Xr Some Periods of the Scholar's own Formation. be given . For example.^^zrd=r ff^ ^ k- i ^-^ 3=SS t=3t=jt:^^jL ^E^ -0- t P=i=Pt lirt- E2e:^: '^^^mmm. will Here he to is no longer work after In the following exercises only the commencing motives hira.m^^^^^. and out of these he is form periods of eight measif ures left the invention. Allegretto. transformation and succession of the other motives wholly free to him. simply imitating the pattern melody.

m^i^^^^^^^m ^^m t^ ^s^Period 4.-n_k.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. Allegretto. A A w^^^m^^^^^ A . ^^^^^mi^^ Period 3. 29 ii^ii^^^fi^^ Period 2. tssaf - [3«] ^ 2. FJVoea ^ . A— _i. Period 1. A A.i_ Period 5. A Period 6 E^ ^^ ^^=i5= E^feg^zL^E^Ei^^ Commencement 1.

18. i S3 7. Allegretto. 16. GUIDE TC Allegretto^ ^ ^ 4 Allegretto. and Melodies will flow more and more easily from your will gain you more and more dexterity in the thematii tnatment. ± 11. 14. rg^g^gg^pEggiigl 20. ilforscA. EE l=[ -4-=*- ^s^ Galoppade. 12 Moderato. Allegretto. 15. 17. and then compare your work with the necessary improvemec's. FiVace. Allegretto. 10. Allegretto. to avail yourself of the This done. Moderato. then invenc the beginning also. 5. 2=t l?3E 5: S— 1 Moderate.30 3. 13. EEE -s — —jp^t •- ::jzi^ =£ i ~^-zl- fc -0—0-0- :E^ 9. Andantino. . :t::--t -P-1-! 19. Allegretto. Andante. imagination. JToZier. but choose them from pieces with which you are not familiar.^3 8. Allegro. in order Choose now out of various musical pieces several more such beginnings {(IT the formation of periods . 0^0- . I-- *— »»- m # 6. Allegretto. P=#: fe±:i? $^ :ee3e =t: s^i original.

even unmusical persons and childien find for simple melodies a second part as a harmonious accompaniment. I -a- f All these combinations sound not disagreeably . vated has in his thought at the same time the Harmony at least itj Nay. and then to two and four measures. Such empty consonances we must avoid much as possible. 2 . both in and a false tone-series.r-J-4-l-Tr-J-^-! i. and a? more the fourth g — c. of tones a correcl would be as follows : Correct. we will suppose.^-J_J-)-^-j-4-4-Tr-^U-J-. but first to one measure. J-4-l-t . J ^-.. at all events not use them in unfit successions The accompaniment of the above three melodic notes. ment to a melody . a person at all musically calti to it. first place first we must know (c to what chord each of these tonfi to the Trichord of < I The and third note and c) belong major. . must be chosen for the accont panying voice let but which ? We will try them all one after another.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. and the middle note (rf) to the Dominant chord of this Trichord Hence an interval out of these two chords . c-c. evnn Bbould it consist only of the ground-tone (Tonic) and the Fifth (Dominant) So too will we begin with setting a second part as an accompanifundamental chords. The following paniment. VI. namely the Octaves e-e. am ihe sense of hearing judge which intervals will serve our purpose. 31 The Harmonic Accompaniment of MelodJos who is In the invention of a Melody. three notes. still d-d. not all at once to a whole Period. require a Oiie-voice accom i EfefE?^ In the belongs. g — d. but some of them the fifth Bound empty..

for to the and c belong also to the Trichord of A minor. nor does sound badly. parts is called Contrary motion Of this more We and d may also accompany the three melodic notes e e. Such a progression of the hereafter. Dominant chord of this Trichord. to e . pl ^r'^r *=i ^-^- m. -^ accompanying harmony is i so obvious 1 need no explanation. 10 the two octaves d and c .-r -r- ff15 in ? 171 in What this is there false.following examples. because the seventh must always move g-c . not faulty. but one step downward. with the fourth in 11 the progression from fto c. For instance : PS In to the. then. ri>-r- ^ ^ :J-Jd rr'^rffrr'-^T- m . 9 10 11 12 13 U 15 r-^I Tr.52 GUIDB TO False. from 8 to In 8 the octave d . 13 and 14 the same octave. from J because h occurs . d and c with tones from other harmonies. besides the progressiop c. is here the hadincf-note to — In be sure. in 12 the octave 3. and to e. the- J. 9 same octave. also in 15. an octave (_d) but in this progression of the it is two voices. where it one moves downward and the other upward. and here in f should go to e .

and also the harmonic pri» ripal notes from the harmonic accessory notes. for example. illustrate meant by this example. to But it must not be understood that the eighths and sixteenths are upon the place of their principal notes. — ^if. f^= ii=t: Now Here both 2 eighths or voices proceed in simple tones. syncopated and suspensions.-3- -r ~w sixteenths. one must first fig- think of the principal notes. Accordingly the composer must bd able corrcatly to distinguish passing and participant notes from the harmonic notos.=frtt ip:p.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. . 33 ^ To ri=Jz 3-:r=i^3^3E " rrr^T Ft" what is E^EEJ T n^we will take the last Pigural Voices. to find must be able out the principal notes in the various figurations.p:pi enriching or embellishment of a voice is effected by participant harmonic notes (in broken harmony). A^d not less must he . passing notes. we have jigurated way : the voices. E=E 1^=:^: £ l=E^li=E=E=^ il^i :^ :3: ^ ^P }$ -• -m -0 1^=14 -*—^- I w^--t-r — fi- 7:i—i=z± -•. if these voices are is dissolved into richer note-forms. a fourth turned into 4 &c. in this come always EEfegg^^EE^: The notes notes. . if one would set a proper accompaniment to a figural melody.. and In composing a figural melody. which should stand in the place of the ares he.

The following 15 examples show. r-»-f^-r a^^^pg^^feEi^gEEj . and hence FiguraHo« to an excellent means of transformation.k ^^^^^^^^^m^ m $ r^ it=* ^^^^^^3S=^s^^m Ie: :5^3 H^-•— ^ — •-»+•• -d.-*- ^ SEtE£. j«l notes of the in what a variety of ways the princi- upper voice may be figurated.34 nave a is GUIDE TO suflSciont knowledge of syncopations and suspensions.. |ri^3|=^p|pi^^S=3= ^ ^ -i ^ .i=P— •-a-L.Ei:E^[ -fC0=?=Z =P. ^Sgggggggg^^^^Sg=g^ ¥^ -I zjizizpsr. it is of great importance to a composer. which contributes remarkably the animation and coloring of a piece of music .

&c. ¥ .MUSICAL COMPOSITION. i ^Mi f i 3^^S &e. &c ^^3 ip^Pi^f &c. Szg^:^ fillip 12 &o. lipMpgiE^^^i gpSJ^Batl^Egf^iagggpg &c.-^ &c. 6 33 &c. i 13 ili^iig^i^Pif 14 i^^ii^ji^pSE3^^ .

Quarters 2 and 4 begin with a hai> nionic accessory note. which note . the second and fourth quarters are not 4.g^_E^^=pgjggE^: ^ Bemarks on these Ex. Quarters 1 and 3 begin with an eighth pause. In the second and fourth quarter the harmonic principal note ia . the harmonic principal note strikes in every quarter as the second eighth. is a passing note . is The first eighth of every quarter a participant note . 1. strike in after. 5. quarters 2 and 4 begin with an eighth pause. . answered by the harmonic principal note. 2. 9.iory note.S6 15 GUIDE TO |B3. 6. because they aie The harmonic principal notes pushed out of place by syncopation. which strikes in again after the passing note. So too with quarters 3 and 4. In the is first quarter the first eighth is a harmonic principal note. principal note. The first and third quarters are not figurated . followed . and then followed by a passing so too with the third quarter. the first eighth in quarters 2 and 4 is a participant note. Each triplet begins with a harmonic principal note. 1 15 Examples. which the harmonic principal note follows as an after-stroke. as in Ex. the second on the contrary begins with a harmonic acces. 7. repeated again as a sixteenth. by the har monio note 10. 3. the first and third quarters aro The first quarter has a passing note . the second and fourth have participant notes. The first eighth in quarters 1 and 3 is a participant note . 1. answered by a harmonic accessory note not figurated. which is followed by the harmonic 8. In the first and third quarter the second eighth figurated.

-S^-#- ifeig^^^^^ i=jS^ ^:? zizSiL: -^^^^^^^^&^ — m [4] HE —^_ ^ . strikes quarter . is followed by a passing 14. between which the prinii- fiist pal note is again struck. So also with the figure of the fourth quarter. note. So it is also with the figure of the third quartur. In the first again struck. as second and 13. adorned by a short after. quarters 2 and 4 have participation notes. the figuri quarter has then two passing notes. To the following figurated examples the scholar in composition should mite down similar remarks himself. is In the figure of the second quarter the passing note followed by a harmonic accessory note. as also in the third appoggiatura. harmonic principal notes strike after. The harmonic principal note is is followed by two passing notes. of the 31 E ery quarter begins with a harmonic principal ncte. Here § time is used instead of t. In the upper voice the eighths. to which the principal note succeeds as a fourth sixteenth. striking after. 12. The harmonic principal note. The second and fifth fourth tones of the lower voice are shortened into eighths. quarter the harmonic principal note. 11. between which the principal note 15.MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

38 GUIDE TO ipf^i^^gg Eapi^p mi^^=£^^^ p ^^=1 *=!^3ESEE:^=^*Ei =C--qi iil :^=t: J±tH^3£ ^^g|£JgEflgj^3E8g±^M gg{ ^3 sO S ^ ^ 3 _ ^ 3 3 §11-1 / §1 e:^ t=t ^=p: l^ii ir^z -i»=p: i it=f: ii-jsSE $^^ -^rL^gg^igg^i :e=i5ii::.gz ^ ^#^ :^" .

=i eS iEEEt^t^E fefEL=^^^3^]gl3=3 iS IEe ±3E^EE =C-?- ^1 -^ if= =p= =1= =t=: — ^m « .MUSICAL COMPOSITION. 39 ^^ iiEE -p-#- 7^::z^m Mz^- <-!•-»- ptc=r-h=i-p- p.#- :3^:: =E^^^. -p -'- ^- i ^^^^^^Ip^a si |g| .

parts of No. -*—_-•-# ?^E -p—t-gd- -f—•- 1 i^i jipMlgpgis^Bi^^i The lunder.^i^^^Jg£^|^ii . 4 exchanged.q: 5z=5z Ejzt e i 5. lagg^jsapajgig^^^g^pfpti SbeE ^^ ) il.t k f 40 GUID E Examples with the lower part 1 TO figurated.— mmm *--f* i^i 1 i S^ES -S-yW V—»( ^3 fCEZ^ZiZWZ HrftP^ 3^ iit =F—f— •- q. i ^— g*f^-fe?fe -4. so that the upper hecomes the and vice versa.

Harmonic ^mm^^^^^^^ --•|»-fe»n-a^ ' 12. Harmonic principal notes. "h* pa. 41 m^i^^i!^^M^^Mw^i e-3H3£EJEEE^53^g^=P=?rB ^m^mmmm^^^ 9. 8 both figurated. The voices exchanged. fffejifefig-fgi^jSj CONTRARY MOVEMENT. :fi=f=i—fi- r-:i=\: t- :t=t::t i -0- The parts fvoices) of No. principal notes 13. -0- ^ 11. 8. is exchanged. The voices of No. E^i^m^^fsmm^^i tE^m 10. The parts exchanged.MUSxCAL C0MPOSiri'»N. 9 both figurated. —^ t=h ^--'-•- s^^^^^^^S^^ £4*] .

^^m[^E^m —— » • 16. ^E3ES p=:i- i 4=ir figurated. 13 figurated. U .. 12 figurated.(2 14. ^p^^ EEE =P=?fnc: ^—?— y:tE±=5z i The lower voice of No. =?=^ I The lower voice of No. 12 figurated. 12 figurated.i^^m^^^^^ The upper voice of No. GUIDE TO The upper voice of No.SEfafejipja--.^ 19. Mm^^^^^sBs^ 9i= f?^^ Oreo: = i E^E -I" ?— ?-?— y- i 17. -?—?•- .^=^. jg^l^HEgggl s:-=»-P-i»-| 18. P ^E -•-— ^ 1« r— T—a~' ^-T f ^ !«-• ^^ r—m-r-'i — — - »- ^. ~m * 1 — -I •- » ig^Efei:EpiB^}P^^^ii^^i [ . 13 iig3^=}r>=pg=i^E^ ..t£E R=Pt=l^^| ifczi 1 IS The lower voice of No.

so. 20. which appears in the other measures as transposed. m The same melody founded on the following passage ::1=*: in thirds. The following passage in thirds shows the principal notes of No. iS Both voices only pEirtially in contrary movement. 20. ^^SeSI^^ Now completely flgurated. gfe^^^pggpg^^rg^ - 7^»- p^^^m^^m^m^ 2i .rr 9ie£ 23. ^s^igigps^ijg^i^^gg^ zpi. 22.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. iEH: ::i^ 3:&5i^£^j. and indeed . s?SiEi iiE^SIglg^^Sgi^p^ig^i Observe : The first rieosure in Nos.^Si 3£± EE 24. 23 and 24 contains the rriginaJ motive. The following harmony also may be placed under the upper voice of No.

being longer heard.44 in GUIDE TO both voices Also tbe cross-lines show that the first foui -eighths ft one voice are repeated. i which we shall speak more fully in due time. would sound For example. in the last four-eighths of th« Such repetition in the other voice is called imitation. liy transposition. progressing st«p by step. In contrary movement there often occur tones. their dissonances. they to If tones of a hrohen harmony occur form must be so placed as not Cmnsecutive fifths false fifth and octave progression! and octaves. I I I i_ feiS^&J^i —--0-^-0- =P*=tlt iPgS:! . ri=p=p=irp: i£?BS Faulty. which form several consecutive dissonances. other voice. in a Such progressions too must be used but seldom. and quick tempo.y _J L I ^^^gj. m^ m -tfH»: i^ g^^ lir-* in the figurated voice. -till I . since in a slower movement harsh.) Cantabile.

after. 4S i ^ittrf-r.^^^^ fei E:E v^rxz ^lls ^m^^m^^^^MM If in the figurated voice two tones of broken harmony come always upon one tone of the other voice. .MUSICAL COMPOSITION. then the after-tone. first We to all the four notes of the measure.- Pf^^ m ^_i I #:p-*?f|£. because the harmony is full. do not progress to another and are not struck simultaneously with tones of the upper voice faults. as indicated the close of this period . A good musical ear soon detects such Both voices flgurated by broken harmony. which to is taken from the omitted tones of the chord. and by a prolong this c through it the first two-eighths of the second measure. and then both voices move on in an octave to c. — If a third is struck after an octave. and the upper voice has holding tones. must be so chosen as the indicate harmony distinctly. Similar faulty progressions are found in the other measures. octaves occur also. but the octaves strike octave. to be sure. as after the octaves c and / in the first and fourth measures of the following might give c as the lower voice tie example.^ SB gg|3E=E giiS^ffi pT_zpizzp: iteji^ :Et In the faulty first measure. it is not faulty. In the figurated voice which stands above the faulty one. the fourth eighth e forms an octave with the upper voice.

&c. where not seldom the Dominant) plays the principal part in the after-strokes. S»^=»=P- l« 1^1 -»— =t7 =f:=4 g^ ?=^ (^3^ 3E* IS =3^ Id: ^ . Andante. § :=E U k fzM: * fc-^ -"-^=i 1* — m^^ ^^^ ^-* A Scherzo. i a^=Ei^EtE«E'3=57l^S S l=^^g-^g^=E A :^^E^E^ g^i^^^^=-. It facilitates the seeking out of harmonic principal notes. particularly notes. as figures of accomphniment. to imagine the broken harmony as struck together.^ i\S GUID E TO E^mm^^^Mi ^^ii £iF r-tt ^^^^ — p^-» f-^! •- — I- ^ # m (or - J^EE ^-1 fifth Passages with broken harmony frequently occur in Piano-Forte works.

^=^ 1 1 : ii The figures of ?^ accompaniment only partly broken. iS-. Allegro moderato.^ . -"«-.-•- :*-• i „ M^^m -^. Allegro sckerzando.: :E i 11 -r f^i^^^g^l^ ±=S=i=3=?: ::rt — 5ii^ t^l.-«- h.MOSICAL COMPOSITION. 41 •— -^wr» ^e^Se^ rE2 -•--•- -•--• m i ffi^g^-'ge^i^'^^ zjnw -•— -#-^- -« =t=t=t -•. :±.0- -0.-»- ^^m s^ ^ Moderato. -%'^ =B. #-_ ±=^-.Wt:zt--tzK — ^m^^. =?=?^ For example Staccato.-n ^-»'-f^ ^v-f.i#.

-••-^•^•- I EEEEf^S ifcnf: ::pi^^ -r-F-P-a-*- ^ffi: ii B^^S zt Allegretto.-•. —— GUIDE TO : s^^^^^i^^^pE^ gg^^b^^ Accompaniment with chords not broken.zsz ziTiiz {'t-^ -^ — - ^— »! J ^ Ji- a! l-a ^—r-±--l -• i ^PJg^EB^^ -5— 5-^-i-iS^ -•. -f-f ^ For example J^^ X 3EE ^^tgj^ fe»-'a ^^^izs-i-^s3izs-t=i3:zi=s—l—i-_s—-i=^ -•.-•-•- ^l ^ig j iiHiiiiiiSsi^ ^< ^^Ifl^g^^l^ '^^^i^p^g^pi .— 18 Allegro. ii=fcz:^iirM A 9. Walzer.

Allegretto. Allegro. m *-^_i^^ E=^iE^^:E^feEE^ ^^ ^iOil ^^^ -rIrhole periods . Pastorale. 49 With the bass immoveable. from the beginning through two consecutive periods.MUSICAL COMPOSITION.#— and third measure has the Organ-point. in the Finale of way through Haydn's well-known the D major It is Bymphoily. or Organ-point. all more fre- IB S^ '^=s^S^ in the second A-^ — ^-^-S-T-J: -t a^^^ps^ The bass ^[ivsn in eighths. ^ #-!. but |uently therefore in a few measures. although . ^^^^^^^mn-J^j-jt. this In larger compositions the Organ-point often occurs in for instance. m^^ ^^ -^--^-J. leldom found of such length in piano compositions.

«: P. and not if in be led astray by accessory notes (participant notes. &c. character of the melody which is to be accompanied. interesting by an apt accompaniment. Harmonic Accompaniment of the Scholar's Own. tempo. GUIDE TO Si ^ i The first rp-i -W-0 I ift^i^gSi ^ ^gg^^^g?^gf^#^. Measures 2 and 3 have an Organ-point in the first note. if he eye distinctly on the principal notes of the melody. to tne measure. To set a right accompaniment to a melody. Allegro eon brio. These chords he will find. Somi examples will confirm .so Allegretto. The most melody may be ruined by a poor and inappropriate accompaniment B poor and melody can be made this. But then too he must have regard rhythm and beautiful . one must it reflect through what fundamental chords will fasten his can be done..) especially figurated passages he knows how to find out the ground-notes quickly.-#- i -*^-M-0- ZESI^ ^^i^Sl^^il^i note of the bass in measures 5 and 7 is an Organ-point.

MUSICAL COMPOSITION.-(•- .h-y-M^ it is ^- i -^EB =t=t ^^glgiiiili The accompaniment «o =i::|=]z at a does not please ns. because is more waltz-like . The accompaniment at c. ascribed .^^E . The reason it is the best of the three.^^A_. is That at h is better. an Andante. on the contrary.^ 3^::rt jgglpgggjSlgg^g^^^ sgi^ipiMr^^r^lif iS^ telE -i r rE =!«=F= ip=t:: ii =l=t te -?— §BP -^ — &^ x=x. yet there something in this that goes against the feeling the melody moves purely in quarter notes. Beethoven there it has the following accompaniment . .j_ .j_ zw=zr- i^ m:^ ^3Eh. 51 mm^m^ Wah.E^ . 4 fe ^ -#- i. and now too comes the accompaniment in the same movement. consists of eighth notes. for which But there is still a better one. because it better suited . icelody to is taken from the so-called Sehnsiuiht {Le Desir) waltz. by which the whole becomes very monotonous.

at a. melody and accompaniment many piano for instance. -» -^ 4=f:=t: :J:zzJz=iq!Li isi^iii — »1«- :f^-Sp^ -r^i^. 1 ^F ::?=ii= >. i aud c the . *- :»=i«r -• — »- \ sal £ a • a -S: % -t-S-SS-STil* % -<•- 'T'T H« • -5. -• -^ !§^te We lompositions 33^EE — — •(«- ^i i^Ei in find something similar in . GU1DE TO i^S^^^S y—^- i |gi^ U^-. of the right kind . it=±if — 4=it= -^« *. II ' ' ' -0- ^^m^' ^^^gg :J: Tempo di polacca.-5^-B*^ • •-«-•'! The accompaniment at d alone is Wonaise charaotor is entirely lost. in the weU-knowh "Fairy Danees"of Eeissiger.^ 62 With deep feeling. f5 I 5 • I i I »i I tal*B ^1 Ilk '^ * —M^ I I -rr-rr-y\-r''y~r' I I III I P &c. b±: r-» »—t: •—T-^ -t i. DoLce. Moderaio.

i _ _.» i. Allegretto. But when . a mslody consists of broken harmony. Allegretto g. ft ^ Or: -. if 53 e._x Ground cliords. Z^ .^4— " V -r > -»- . m . the ground chords are easily determined.^Ztf-l £^ m ^p^-^i 1r Figurated accompaniment. principal notes sometimes occasions some the melody is figurated in scales or runs. -^ -3t-i il^^^ip^^ X . J3: 3E -ESS • ^ [5*1 —14—i-"--^ -i1 I I I . the ground chords are ob nous.the principal notes are once singled out.MtrsiCAL COMPOSITION. i ^l^JEl fc - —f-* ^i— T-— 5=5^ -g-y-f ^-?—?- ^±E{^^^Ei when 1^ i On the other hand the seeking out of the difficulty to beginners. Ete^ ":+rE^ Ground chords. ~W^5=P . principal notes are In the following examples the marked by x.

because the melody also introduces in the sewnd •ighth. e. Dolce. tliat it is not a matter of indifference whether .bdj has first a participant note. 1^^ ^ m (J>\>—f. fundamental chord be used in it this or that position or inversion much nore must be carefully considered whether the original chord or one else there will »f its inversions best suits the place to be accompanie'' be faulty reduplications and progressions. especially the two measures. only (Jl?) In the first measure the second quarter b'? not a faulty octave. is Against the succession of tones at b there the whole sounds too thin. But one who has any notion of modulation proceed from one chord another in so awkward a manner. &o. . g. and moreover the two outermost tones of the accompaniment move in c — fifths. t==^=?3 ± at t 'zgr- s first The accompaniment' a sounds very disagreeably. instead of falling. is nothing to be said. The chords spring up and down without and a true ear. g). and the mi.It is understood of the itself. where ground-tone and melody progress in octaves. and sort of to the sevenths rise. Allegretto. for the bass voice has already given the third to it. -I h- EH a -^^M^M i P^ -^Z. will not connection.

MUSICAL COMPOSITION. . Allegretto. -—^ . then with Eighths. »^-*- ki^— &c. I I - ^i^ Andante. The bass note in the second and third measure makes an Organ-point. i »^Eii3: &c. -P- i *- « fc=qr=._^ ^ Doles. for •Bi^iEEfE^iE? example- aE* m ii^ &e. one might be satisfied.^B^^E^^r^'i^ Accompanied first with Fourths merely. ^ . but the following still certainly more to the purpose. With Fourths and Eighths.tit: S^?^3^^^ iz*:'zFi JtJt. &c. Allegro moderato. i=p=r=P.&::^ -^-^- -^ ' H^l SE Melodies as Exercises for Harmonic Accompaniment. With fi 55 the accompaniment at c. &C. t^ •-# With Eighths merely. i ^=» #=2 ££ te^Sii^ f^i^. &C. &c. Moderato. then with Sixteenths.

56 Moderato.i- £9^^: *-rL ~ ijj^ig^iaj^^issg^ a Two-part accompaniment. /VV With fonrths merely. g. Beginning of the accompaniment. %r^ &c. Beginning: . 3i7^z-3z: g^S: Beginning asg^gspis^G^gi Allegro molto. EE?firi: s^^^^m .» W=¥T^'- /VV t-W^i^ ggf-r^ e. fe#i^jp|i«p-ipg raZi. pEga^a^f rt ^pp^ggg o tempo. -3^»-i£ £:^!^ .gii—"Jt^: Two-part accompaniment throughout . -f-»- mm Adagio espressivo.?. -a-f. I &c. :^--:. GUIDE TO m SEglBSSSEglE /VV > .

and instructive to own work with anotherV but not necessaay that the two should agree note for note. to which the fiindamental harmony has floated before his mind at the same time. he must write off from them an eight-bar melody. Neither beautiful melody nor accompaniment CO fly into one's hands so instantaneously as many seem ima^ne. as to what kind of accotapaniment is is best suited to this or that melody.MUSICAL COMPOSITION Scke'i zo. the in right mode of accompaniment also will suggest itself But most cases. It will then be very . ill: give rules for all cases. he must use them for written exorcises . since these cases are An attentive perusal of good compositions for the piano helps one to a sure judgment in the matter. but they have made they afterwards elaborated in various ways. with periods consisting of eight measures OT but there are period? of mort fewer measures. For example : . But one must not only look set at and play such pieces. in the begin- ning the accompaniment will cost him some pains. several. their Our all first greatest masters have not at made works without some pains. VII. The smaller have only one period. the largei Heretofore we have had to do onlj . Periods of all diflferent Length. and lie once so pure and perfect as plans and sketches. We have already said that pieces of music. consist of Periods. If the scholar invents melodies of his own. and to the nscosssry skill in composing. from the smallest to the largest. courage ! Let him not lose By constant reflection and endeavor he will at last succeed in finding the right accompaniment. 57 One-part accompaniment. Beginning: §»E^ To infinitely various. a pure impossibility. interesting it is and a fit accompaniment compare his to it. which they before us . which are strung together.

E^ 53^33^3- SS^:!!E!^3^ '-iS^£-'-^ifPeriods with sixteen measures. L^i_ -i«-»- 3-. and makes of them an eight-hat i nere too again the feeling \- \ ^-»-f- ^^i^S -Ff ^^^^^^1 ^.58 GUID B TO Periods with four measures. Andante. I fc.^ -*- makes eight measures. the case is the reverse . Allegro. '^-^J~ iSi F-i-*- The period. feeling halves these measures. i^^g^Sl^^igil Here bara. the feeling divides this melody into eighl S> by changing the | time into | or ^^ fe :t:=t!=U: 3E5 i 52^-=F=F=P= 3= ^ .

2HEf35 m^' ^^M^ . less. but also in the length of periods. not merely in rhythm and succession of as has been already shown. and so on. is shortened by taking «way one or more measures. or phrase or. and the other regarded only as transformations of that one. irpziW Solo. period is Moreover. ^. section. which otherwise would easily become tame and monotonous. the theme. as a first example. 10. feeling craves variety. or of In this way arise periods of 9. of a composition divisions of musical thoughts are to be are presented. a shortened . one as well as another It of eight bars ? — would be simpler. An eight-bar period . 11. especially in larger pieces of music. but too simple. The tones. eight bars. is lengthened by the addition of 2.~ Allegro. juiegro. We take. the beginning of ths last Allegro in Mozart's Concerto in B flat major. _^_ ^ —^ — m^^^^m^0^m\ m ^ ii :pzi|2«—i. 59 Besides such periods of four and sixteen measures there are two other kinds. to be sure. 12 measures. it mother motive. you have again the period of eight measures.MUSICAL COMPOSITIOX. it 7 measures and vf One may ask we formed all : What is the use of this ? Would not be simpler periods of an equal compass. easily converted into the full eight-bar form and by dropping out certain measures from a lengthened period. since in But it the principal period remains always that of the leading thoughts. 1.

g^S a^gigjBJESEEa ^^^ This second of which the Sob first consists of a lengthened period oiffteen measures. and . Jj. 8 measures form the natural principal period. . ^ ~ •> 1 a 1 A ^M^^g^^ »J =t: R fi " s iisialli^-^l^ '1*=^ .-'^Jm. there follows again a second Solo : Solo.. ^g^^i^j^i^l 10 11 13 i£i^3^= i2=5:=t ?zi?rS: ''^ 13 14 15 Here follows agata the first Solo. iiia=J:.0 OU IDB orchestra TO After the preceding eight-bar period has been fspeated by dii .

at any than the first attempt. stopping with the of the eighth measure. or the working of the theme. repetitions of to its thematia Measures of 9 and 11 are is measure 7. Leave out 8. let the 14th and 15tb 2) After the 7th measure. 14th. Repeat the 13 th measure. then. : Strike out the 12th measure. and 15th 3) Of 11 measures. 1) follow. Could we not remodel the eighth measure lengthening of the period would it. This would be better. out. by forming periods of from 9 to 16 measures. We will therefore make some further trials. — With truth. Measures 12 and 14 are transformations of the second motive of the first it Solo. 9. directly from 7 to 12. : After the 7th measure. and are is be regarded as transformations of the same.i Mozart's lengthened period fifteen measures is still the best. At least i( m for the most part. 10. {. as first it were . was said above to The prolongations flow out of the principal period.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. and 11. Of 9 measures: Of 10 measures follow. and not a new period of 7 measures. let the 13th. through If we play merely the principal period. and pasi 4) Of 12 measures Skip from 9 to 13. Let us now consider the prolongation with regard treatment. The means here employed for lengtheninji the period are easily detected. first eighth immediately follow. which desires a longer mediation. and measure 10 varied after measure 8. but yet the entrance of the Solo comes too soon for our feeling. That it really is only a prolongsnon. . as 13 and 15 : are of the fifth motive. 'nto such a transition. is obvious to hearing. and then let the first Sola a mediating transition between tha two periods is wanting. the last 7 61 the prolongation. where we into the house with the door. so that the become unnecessary? We will try and remodel this bar thus: i fall -?— rate. : Of 13 6) Of 14 7) Of 16 5) measures measures measures Strike out measures 9 and 10. — we — pause 5 feel that eighths.

Bass quarter (y and measure must be Period of fourteen measures Allegro assai. ^ =p^p= i ssfiflgiliiie^lifi^gi p^ i=^ 8 9 10 11 " — 18 ^E g We shall Leave ^ ^: the eight-bar period. and we have a period a). and it we have fifth But would be a pity to sacrifice these four measures.in the of 8 measures. for the reason that they contain an imitation. i^^ . Strike out measures 6 to 9. measure makes the begmimitations in a following also make acquaintance with such off the first four measures. chapter.: : S2 GUIDE TO Period of twelve measures AUegro. fifth But in this case the left out. IS ft3E §:*S= Ca-CSSS kataaaiuS ^SSS -^—•—^. of which the ning. Ii^ v.

^g=^^ we leave out measures I 6 to The eight-bar period appears. Let the student seek out this period. : mf 1 2 J> I 'J^ '0-¥- |?=C * 6^-3^1 ^^^^^^^] .MUSICAL COMPOSITION. E£ 3eE 0—0—^ t-^E^ fei mp^!^^^^^^^^^^ » JO 12 "Ts 14 ^l^!3_^_gj__^ r^_y ^ ^. for himself the means used for lengthening Period of ten measures Allegro. • . if 11. —01 I . .I —0^0 — .— . 1 > — —fj — — —•—• —•— I ' •j. —|-i|-— U-i-fA—0-i-^f-l-l~\-^ H 10 ' t 1 . 63 .

girn ** i —^^— 1I I r — ' I $ -?— =£k tiz^i^fiCs . M m • • • 9 10 -^ • s— « — _-4. that the second b flat. •-'-ri. means of prolongation here employed ? Period of ten measures.m — — a •- -^ 1^ ' * . Presto.— I 64 GtJlUE TO — ii .—I -4^-m.b . if measures 9 and 10 away with and we end with the third quarter of the eighth measure. is left. ^?^ :t =?^10 m M :t=t =t ^ms • eight measures 9 ^ It A period of ^e£ fall is. or if measures 5 and 6 are left out. — — What are the IfRtt =?=?= «= ^^^ i-^-0 -f.0-0.^ ^ ' .

MUSICAL COMPOSITION.
To make an
8,

65

eigbt-bar period out of tbis,
tbis

we must drop measures 3 and

whicb would give

form to tbe melody

I^ %^^^|g

A^
.-»,-»-

-^^m

£E»isa=
-ne

Or we migbt
and
8,

condense measures 2 and 3 into one, and also measures 7
tbe following melody

wben we sbould bave

^^m^^^^^^
In botb
cases, bowever, tbe
in

accompaniment would bave

to

be cbanged.
repetitions,
it

Measures 2 and 7 appear

measures 3 and 8 as transposed

and

it

was

tbis tbat

caused tbe lengtbening of tbe period.

But

must

be borne in mind, tbat we bave bere been merely showing

bow

a lengtbis

ened period can be transformed

into

one of eight bars, which
;

by no

means saying that
grave, if

it

should be so transformed
is

and Father Hatdn, out

of whose symphonies the above period

taken, would turn round in bis

we should

lay bands on his masterworks in tbis way.

Prom

this

old master the scholar can learn tbe best use of all tbe

means of

transfor-

mation, and
ti^n

bow one may thereby develop a

greiat

and beautiful eomposi

out of a simple melody.

Jjengthened period-formations veiy frequently occur in musical piecM

w concluding pas$ages.

For example

66
Alhgro non moUo.

GUIDE TO

•^

/

1

^

2

3

ffegg^^^aggi^^itg^l ^ ;S sas
i^=i=3:
-^--tuj:

^:«r
-K--

^'''-Jt'

«

6

fcJ3i3::d^d:ii

iz-fqz'-.^^Mqz

/ivLengthened. \"°"S"' °"°"^_/;

—0-

-0-

—0

0^

m^^^^^.
8

'^J)-'^

-'.z^- ~»^^.-

-rj-

P^i.

The connecting passages between
follows

periods do not properly beloJig to the

lengthening of the periods ; but lest the two should be confounded, here

an example.

^mm^^^^^^tcherz.

Allegro.

-^- -0-

-^-

mt

i4-i

-0.^.0 gJTf.
f-f-t

,-f:?=r-^.

Pif

=f^^'

iiE

^

^

g

WU8ICAL COMPOSITION.
0.0

Gl

m $mm^^^^^m ^^^^m S:S
8
Connecting passage.

-•-p.

iiiit

•i-"--^-

^^-0—»il

^ '»^

—T
JL
-

-f-0

•=f=rfE

3^^3E:
-ii

.«_

_»- _^

-^-

^^^l^^isg^l^l
ij^^jipili^^!^^
It

must be remarked, however, that the connecting passages should not

be too foreign to the motives of the periods, but should be developed
naturally and appropriately out of them.

•Periods of 12 measures are also formed
»r half of the eight-bar period,

by repeating the second phrast commonly with slight alterations ; thus
_,_

Waher.

^^_^_

-,

-»-•--•-•-»-• »-T-»-»-»-

-»-•--•-•-•-

-•-m-

-'-»~

-'-0-0-f'

a::Ei5I

G8 GUIDE TO If the entire eighfrbar period be repeated in this way. -i—l«-T-i isEgii f 1 iprir^TC '^^m -wn: m^^^EE^ ^-? 4 V=^—i-^- ^m^^^^gggis 'P 5 f\\\ :p=i: :p=ri=*r Ie^^I^^ -^. but •nly 15 measures. ia^E^E Pf^-. -ft. which That is- the beginning of a well known Sonata many certainly have played. -^ #-^ fegiS?3F 'yf"-r=j^= ^p§^ ice i: i !SE of Clementi.-m. We give at the outset an example of this.— . The Shortening of Periods. without remarking that there are not 16.- -^- -# «j. and append the necessary obseirations. AUegro. vre have a doubli period of 16 measures.

MUSICaL COMPOgiTION.
May
ft

69
wa»

it

not be a period lengthened out to

15

bars, like that whicii

udduced as an example from the Mozart Concerto, and^ therefore not
shortened one?

at all

And why

is

the eighth measure doubly numbered,
in brackets?^

l?here the figures 8

and 1 are placed
lies

In the eighth bar
iu
DO

the knot, or rather the solution of the knot.

As
in

Mozart we heard

at onoe the prolongation,

by which

the transition

another period was to be mediated, so we here see and hear
is

now

Clementi, very clearly, that with the 15th bar the period
closed,

formally

inasmuch as a sign of repetition

follows,

and upon

closer consider-

ation the feeling tells us, that with the eighth bar

a new period

begins.

The end
period
is

of the

first

period coincides with the beginning of the second
first

period in one and the same measure, so that the conclusion of the
as
it

were swallowed up by the beginning of the one that follows.

The forte in the eighth bar does not come in without reason ; it serves to make the beginning of a new period felt. Also the first measure of this
period
is

repeated with transposition in the third
is

;

and so too the second

measure in the fourth, which likewise

a sign of the entrance of a period.
full

These 15 measures, then, consist of a seven-bar period followed by a
period of eight bars.

If
the

now we

consider the conclusion of this Allegro,

we remark

precisely

same thing.

.

1

"^ •
=1:

a

^^
-.

s

4

^

§gg=J3=^

5-1

i^£=i=fi

pg^ Q!

6
cresc.

^

^EZE

^11

e| ^^

-

:

10

GUIDE TO

I i^^s
-*-•

^^^^mmm^
j

— —-y
'

2—?'

mt

i
1 to

P=i= ?L,ifiZn*

^
SF
first

This conclusion

is
;

a transformation of the

two periods
;

:

Measures

4 transposed

5 and 6 transposed and inverted

7 also transposed,
first

but containing only the principal of the figured notes in the

period

;

^d
the

so on.

Would we
first

see the

ground

of such abbreviation,

we have only

to bring

period into

its

complete eighfebar form, somewhat as follows

^^^^^^0^
^i
periods

&c.

This conclusion in the eighth measure breaks the connection of the two

by a

full stop,

which

is

quite

unwelcome

to the feeling.

the

sontrary,
flow.

by

the omission of the eighth bar, the whole acquires a liveliei
abbreviations occur very frequently, and therefore

— Such
M

we have
:

spoken of them at such length.
Abbreviations by the introduction of General Pauses.
Allegro,

Example

k leEi3^3=,.^ai^3:i:^3^^S !•¥.

m^m^^^^^^^^

p

MUSICAL. COMPOSITION.

71

m
III

^^:33=5 -^-^Here enters a new Period.

gl^jg^j^
passages so incomplete and interrupted by a general pause, the
it

feeling as

were

silently supplies

the wanting measures.

There

is

a

peculiar charm in such abbreviations, only they must not be used too
often.

The

listener is surprised, all the

more,

if after the

pause the piece
in dance

takes an unexpected turn.

Such pauses sometimes occur even

music.

Many
first

pieces, small

and

great, are introduced
little

by

short,

phrases.

These

are not shortened periods, but merely

introductions, after which the
similar to the lengthened

period commences.

They have something

conclusions, for they are a sort of lengthening of the beginning.

The

following examples need no explanation.

Allegro moderato.

i feiS^ESES!
/-.:tt-E
.0.

E^=

-f-

l»5Sa3
Moderato.

r_^tLT ^:=
1=

-M^-

.!:mm^ :E^E^E
.0

^S-^^ — g— g+s^^=lt-*-4-F^3=H=-FF=t

r

— —

00-

-e-, -S-:

&c.

r^ 3P^ ^

both of the outsidi . of which the is the Dominant.) a. §»|£a^Ei^p^pigfffi|i r^-'i'^ett YIII. the make other progressions. 0. It consists of The Full Cadence. one step into the Tonic of the second chord. at b. where the upper and lower voice. Cadences. From cadences oi are to be distinguished. or remains standing fifth on the of the same . the Bass steps are imperfect. 0. Dominant e.) In C major. This kind of concluding sequence these the imperfect called a perfetit taH cadence. (Dominant 9.72 Galopp GUIDE TO illtegi:? mf 1 2 _ &c. e. Tonic c. which has seat upon the Tonic or key-note of a piece of music. the i=* first upper voice' of the first chord Vises b. at on the contrary.Seventh Chord. at e. and at the same time the beginning of another period They are of four kinds. two chords. In A minor. In the following example at a. Dominant. Cadences are the most decisive marks by which we can recognize tne end of a period. they do Dot give the ground-tone of the roiccs aie imperfect. the upper voice of the chord descends a step into the Tonic of the second. the Trichord.. a. its e. i. first i. ^^1 At a. either alone both at once. throughout in is The Bass moves fiill its fundamental tones. and the second the Tonic Trichord. 1. upper voice proceeds to the third of the Tonic. Tonic a.

is is a deceptive cadence. e. '^ vv^ ii &c. one in which our expectation deceived or betrayed. or they will lose their charm and cease be agreeable. ing to the scale. when the Dominant-Trichord Example : upon any choid belong ^m 3. Here follow some examples of the most common way of are placed in bracketE. ising them. m The Deceptive Cadenoe. 73 pfplS^^lil^lpf ^i[ sgiimii^g^sg mi 2. EbE3 1 r =p=f The Flagal Cadenoe. Used in the right place such cadences have a good but the composci tc must dfial sparingly with them. The expected chords [7] . of this expected chord another follows. follows This arises. is This the is one in which the Tonic Trichord preceded by the fnebtrd of Suhdominant.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. Example mm^. The Half Cadenoe. effect . 4. it After the Dominant chord the ear commonly expects the Tonic Trichord now if instead i.

: 74 GUIDE TO ^^mMi^m^am ' ^E^mm^E^m^^m)-:^ ^^m0m(imm^m ^m^^^)^^mm But infallible sign for the distinguishing of periods \ the Cadences must not be regarded as an absolutely decisive and one from another . Thus Allegro. and not unfrequently caden- middle of a period. but flow into the next following. as many we have already seen in the abbreviations of periods ces occur in the . although thre« eadences occur in more three perfect cadences . a-F -f-n -^- P 9fcA 4- y£ i^i a=i ^mm^^^^^ t it. but only one. I t~^ dolce. £ and what is S =P ml The second Wo feel that here are not three periods. for periods have no cadences.

distinguish it called the Counter-phrase (Antithesis call the To from this we will passage to be imitated th« . pes. the lengthened and shortened periods abeady given as examples. but only a one-voiced phrase. third. the musical thought expressed in periods . either was shown. only in a few tones occasionally. does not become absolutely if silent. if a section were to he left out. predominant motives.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. It is one of the most interesting means of thematic is and every one who beginning to compose is advised to make himself as much at home in it as possible. which have come under our notice. which indicate the fundaIf the first mental harmony. consist of If a piece of music two parts or to the other. but continues be heard. expansion. At to the entrance of the imitation the voice which has to first uttered the thought be imitated. or a second above or below. when the imitation enters is no longer a two-voiced. and imitation. and there are as many different entrances of imitations possible. as there are different intervals. a third above or below. in spite of cadences and pauses. shows unity of design it would have no complete meaning. a musical thought can be transferred from one voice Such a repetition is called an Imitation. from this point of view. The very first example out of Mozart's the Concerto will appear now in another light. then it voice is silent. treatment. therefore is no but only a transposition. IX. it would be disturbed. which ) heard during the imitation. the fourth becomes an iin«ltered repetition of the The whole period. will strike the eye more clearly. 75 so also is the (hird. section is a transposed repetition of the frith fii-st . that literally. &c. with their transformations. and can neither be led astray by caden- nor by prolongations and abbreviations. Thus the imitation can enter in unison. So we find it in all whoever takes sufficient note of that. and feel the we shall unity of the whole period of 15 measures. or trans- formed by transposition. onlj a little addition of three notes section If we do not reckon this additii n. contraction. There must be as many kinds of imitations as there are kinds of transformations. it In speaking of the ways of transforming a melody. then. voices. is The second voice. has the most infallible sign for the distinguishing of periods. — It will be well now to re-examiue. motives or parts of motive^ can be repeated. &c. Imitation.

may a voice. f^^^ . e.76 trineipal phrase (Thesis.") be of various lengths motive. iu/itate a section. is a phrase. since the counter-phrase wanting. The is following example therefore no imitation. or even a whole period. GUIDE To The principal phr<ige we may repeat in another with its jUiitatidL i. .

voices. I \ 1 ! E ^ W=i' i ^ i^¥ -T=?= ^^^ [7»] giitrgEJilfe/ ^fl^r^^^^^t^ . a. Such interchanges of ihe lower the upper. nor are they essen- necessary. while the is first motive of the lower one imitated in the (ine. ana Jiffu- have already occurred among the examples of give here a few more examples of them. second motive of the upper as the cross-lines indicate. which Mmn that of b. iipi a:tt33E b. both voices com. and/. At e. where the upper becomes the lower. EEg- 77 j^EEfEg^ 3? is Here too the lower voice fui nishes the principal phrase. I found below or above. We The imitations are 2. in the octave rated voices.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. ^^p§=pi mence together the is first motive of the upper voice imitated in the second motive of the lower one . tially They still are not possible in all imitations.

—TT-T r ?t-i-T- irt- :fe tf: =t: • t S5>^ ii^ Ji *-#:p iipff-irrip^i-i-KKjq: P 3EE cji-2 ^E^S^y I -— yf-»—I-»-g=»-T-» 1[ . ^^ tef ^ Also in the following l^isfe^ g^jEa^ii&ggf examples the imitations occur in the octave.78 GUIDE TO Ja^gP^ggjEp -*--»- P ^ i^^fi^^ §Sli^ ^ipi^^^g^ gsfel^isl! il4. o.

MUSICAL. 79 ^mm^^^ m 8. and no is imitations but this not the case. is by which the fundamental harmony indicated. for the entrance of the imitation simultaneous with the close of the principal phrase. S helow. It is TH^t g^: all *-^-» rtr- =*=m m ^^^^m In the two following examples might seem as if mii i^i^ the imitations enter in the seventh these were transpositions. sounds as if a third voico made the imitation. if only by a single quarter note.COMPOSITION. The second imitation. pgi?EJ^~^' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ -#-•- fc*z =F=Et: u W^ ^^i^ P:« 'I^' §fe i^^ggji^H^^^^^Si . two octaves lower.

'-^^^'^:td:it A passage of sixths used for different fignral imitations in the (Seventh below. W^El F^=rF- ji=lzt -ii—»-* P-JJ — L t^^ *r-^ :p=»: t=^ ^^ _ '^m^ . 11 Imitations also in tbe seventh below. s$ &^^ #-?=> -p- m 1= n -JF=^ ^^ m & *. i 12.80 GUIDE TO ^EgJigaEgE^^Sl^^lgggf^^^P p^g^^^gggzg^^^ !^^ .

MUSICAL COMPOSITION.:i^ p^? S :^^^3ig£g|^fe=itf^ Pz*-^^i ^= m^ i . ii^i^igi^ &=F^L%Eejs ^^^^^^ig^^^ ^l i^lg^p :f=S^ ^:-^gJ i^i5=^^Eigs=^^ipll SEgg^g^-^ ^^ 'i^ i::pi=p-^. ^piiSI 1=^:^^=._^!q:^ — r I T i i:|=^i=^=3=t i^^r*-M: —— i==l3^ ^=S -•-*-^|# ^ I ^- P^ ?*-gpi ii^E ^g:^^^ ._^ -i«i».^ . 3-Hi-# i*-f7|t 81 ift=Li fflj t.

25zfzri^l-q^ -*-•-# -•-.— GUIDE TO 13 Imitation in the seventh above^ --&-^- t==::..L_^> ?£^fE^i^^^ i^-i= ^. -•zz:i= *--^_ -•—.=BE=E fc' '^ 1? j -> ggggjEgTeEa -«•g: ' gstjE^i The TTnison. ilgilS. 'zE=^ -»-'-f-0- ^=^--5 -^--•-i^- 5^ 53EE -?-?^ . ^l^i^^^gn^ Third below. Third above. :t^ -F--^- ^^ P=? -2- ±^2E ^ ?— y- following are examples of imitations in the other intervals. 7C=:zp t:= It I g^s:^ ..-J-x_^_.E ig^ll^^. ^m^m^ *— Second below.=^ .• -»-. Second above. .^it -•- tiSizSz f^-!l EJ. Fourth above.

UUSICAL COMPOSITION.i -f T=?- — ?- ^ m m m Foarth below. Fifth above. iscS . fa: 1—^—^— :—r-p::^- .

-^- -#-1 ! -•---It -#-1 :-2—-I i gZgS^t^EEJlg . that the imitations can be transformed. Imitation expanded ii-.: — — 81 GUIDE TO ^^^^^^^^^ i^^^^^^^igi^ ^ P=Mim Sixth above. |ifgggg^g^S^^{^Q -•. 1 r "1 — Imitation diminished. as well as the motives. ^^^^t I 1=^: m^B Sixth below. -^-?- -137:33:3: -^ w :*^ s IZE -0=f^ i^i^i^ig it mi ^^ ^gi^ ±zS=J:.2gi^i^={lg^^^i Imitation aaicmented. I --^^=t _._^- I F m — a a It has been already said. Example Imitation contracted.

as in motives. and at the same time angmented. double periods can be formed. Imitation varied. ^^S4^m i^t^ -?—><- 913 4z 9=T- EE Since in imitations. but several means of transformation imitations may be used may be formed. :^^ 53E Et-li ^M . not only one.MUSICAL COMPOSITION.fj£^E^^^^E^gE^ i Imitation in the octave below. rrmcjpai ^^^ ^—. Imitation interrupted. and at the same time contracted. at once. Principal pnrase. it follows that very variously mixed By imitations of larger principal phrases.^^ ^ • ^ -#-' i^^i^^i^iiilgi^i Eg ggj:^^. phrase. Allegretto I I nan troppo.

hero the accompaniment of the pnncipal phrase ts CDunter-phrase to the imitation. i^i cEifE'+p=i|tip X t: ^^|3i^i3l^^^. i^i^ ffiiss iJ—5: I 3:=^ Prime.-» ^ggrg^^^ legato. again used Imitations for may be employed Example : to great advantage also in piano-forte piecea four hands.a 6* -o—*- m ^-e- fsafeiig^ ^ i-^^^i3i^^=^f i 3=?- gEgEig^gij g^^l^i|g|^ -t^tT r^i^irprsr iSEE?:2 Andante.itat. j g^ Brfc :t=5: ^17—o— -z^:—-'-^— -i^- 1^ 4=. Ml 5. ^!^ @ m . g^i{^=j^|g£ia^^fegi:J3g Secondo.86 GUIDE TO is Observe. i^sf^pgrg^feigs^g Secondo. Moderato :t=p Prime.

. to -^- Counter-phrases should be written to the imitations in the following Also the other empty measures are which the beginning is to be filled out with given.-*— If ilp s=^ ^m^^s^^ i^m^ij^ lps£^ ^ ^v. 87 WM -(«-•-f--t=t: Hzzt m 1 mm^m^ 33i'.iig. „2 I ^ 4-- is^Pig.-±ZM.§p .. ^=^=^ i ^^^ V-- ipiiril^g^l^i -2- -f«— ^.q- JSi^iEip It-^i i .E?Ef> -0-^ =trc -•-±± 1^^ ^j^ m s^p^ ^--^^g^ Me sentences.-^. Kcompaniment..-Ji?^-.zzr.MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

let him not last.-== f^^^^PUg li^i i i them. all at once as he would wish. -l«-#- i^ i*—:* 2-i--r-!- «=^ g S igg^^S [3:i?= :iiS nil. ^3l|=f| T(-» Jttjt±M fit •-"-••^-» H and imitate Let the scholar now invent If he does not succeed . ^i^il^lf! -•^L If p^^^^ |^3gig!|H ^^^^^g^gi =1::=.88 GUIDE TO P^^^^S^^ 8. be deterred further trials lead to the goal at . principal phrases himself. I §3eE? m 13 fc^ M ^^3^ 10.

had the same . where the ascending notes of the principal phrase become descending ones in the imitation. as in the inversion imita- of motives. «i9 had tlie same ir a similar move ment with the principal phrase the imitation BO if if the principal phrase had rising notes. and sj'ce versa.MUSICAL COMPOSITIOy. Inverted Imitation Thus far the imitation every time has . Second below. Second above. may also enter in all possible intervals. But an inverted or contrary movement may take place in the imitation. ztz. Fonrth below. -^ =i=P £^ ^^ P » Third below. had the imitation.^ Third above. and the principal phrade had falling notes. -» P- -^ T-. m^^ [8»] .— i^rf:Jit*::=i ^^5*33^'=^=^^^ Fourth above. The inverted Example Unison. 3 !^S L^- I ??E^^ -#-!-•- ^rg^i^^i!. where the intervals tion make opposite steps.

^ ^-''-''k ^ »-*- -^ ^^ Fifth below.90 GUIDE TO —^-^ : :t=iz g^il^E^sil ^ Fifth above. •—^•=i3=^=^^=jd=?-5 i ^^S^M^ _^---^. Z-.Q. .. E^ tt -W=i^=f:: ll =iT5 :3=Ji±=:=*= ^39^ Sixth below..^^ Sixth above. i *i:n: -i^-. li * §^=^Efef£g. -3^ P The same.

^fc?*-=^ 9iit-^xz ^=iP^igE^ himself. 2. Imitations. . fourth lelow and 4 in the sixth below. Examples with mixed Mbderato. |i==^|^^s=|iJi^ii35^: pzipz-i^ Pi SHEEESS: £:=2=^ Octave above' 2Eg31g^ i"— pi» V-. fluventh aboTo. 5.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. and 6. . 3 and 7 in tha of them in the lowei 3. imitations 1. :A^^-E=p:Lp--_r:::*=•I±:f=•:i=3:. -g-0-' -0- — FPC=:t^ u^=^ *rt ?^ m zT-rii: ?Ef^E: ml i Octave below. enter in the fifth below. and 7.I: :3H3 =1=4 l. Etjfp=^^^=|^|^^EJ^ii|^^^3 §S^^3^^^Si^SS^^^ '^^^^^^^^^^^^ ± • — *-?f a^^:^gJI^^E^^}^E3£g * —y— ^i 1 The octave. 91 Seventh below. for inverted Let the scbolar here invent some principal phrases pnitation. although also the expansions all Bemark and contractions at 4.

instead At 4 too only one measure is imitated.. for the part. measure. •*-a-^-F-»- Im/ Slip} l&c.J?r.^3rtEE ^\ |Slii^J^:i^ . and the figure i( Bizteenths only at 5.D2 Allegro. transposed and contracted and then the upper voice brings of the lower.i=i fe i 3^3E The Alleg retto.. -i. are inverted and expanded. in the figure in sixteenths again. but inverted. t GUIDE TO :d=:^-: 'mi i :f=P=e= m *^ijiz ^.i'r.:^ . ^E^^3^p^ J). =^=5^= most zA- ^^m imitations here.. .^. L fefe. ..^. :iggpi^i tn=^ ±=1: =5^= m^ e Imitations 1 and oieiely imitates the first ^i=gi^fe At 3 the lower voice j 2 require no explanation.

g^^:|g^5j^^j #-^-«-^ EfcfcS53S ^rt=n.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. Allegro ciri spirito.^. I I --1= Sl^il^5|l ^r"f— . #-!« ~»ft^ 93 »-0- .t£^r ^F?— gJBam i V IS 33= II ^.

(Waltzes. but that in both cases the number of measures is alwajs an even number (8. canonical imitation. in composition first is strongly advised to prepare dances of variona and flowing melodies. because and ear first will easily distinguish is them. Canon or a Fugue. artistic Canon of a is the Fugue. Tyrolienne. (as the Ecossaise.). and even more parts. and the jffirsf measures of the part that follows with regard to Modulation. &c. note for note. Especial attention is required by the last measures of t part. from which there must be no variation. measures. The peculiar rhythm of the National Dancei (Pclka. Every beginner mical variety. while others on the contrary may have more or fewer kinds. the most thing in music. If the voice imitated in short. is not a matter for a dilettante he will choose pieces which have easier forms. &c ) is also learned best from gO(d models . since he will thereby acquire singable The thing is to choose good models. it is called a A richly and broadly executed a Canon. or by the other. the imitations in this Allegro are not marked. 12. that some kinds of dances Lave a determinate number of measures. &c ). three. Such are the following Banoes. IB). ona must see into what keys he can pass. as well as rhythwhich consist of two. Francaise. In these he will remark. therefore. the Cotillon. Polouaise.— 94 : GUIDE TO Si^^ :fciS^=±=d=|=* The entrances of the eye • * * I p- m The composition .

complaining. Marches. let him figurate his theme to his own heart's content. for if such pieces are to be judged by this measure. soft. which he ma« espe<'lally by opera music.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. &c. rage. terror. A rich harvest of such examples is afforded ui In the examination of any example. but all this may be done in a tones. the composer most first enter into the sense and spirit of the poem. that immediately follows. As the scholar writes merely foJ himself or for good friends. But the March requires more variety of harmony than the Dance.—joy. delivers the theme. spirited character. The only do not let him hold those variations to be the best. speaking tone.e witli a view to acquiring facility in Pigf uration tlien>e to be varied must bavea simple and pleasing me(orf. &c. or it may consist merely of such short phrases. as through the composition of Songs. — the middle voices take different figures. sorrow. &c. The process of varying might be.-. while the upper voice —But not only the tones. there comes usually an Adagio or Andante. but which always expresa manly sorrow. The composer must of a piece of music. The melody flgurated. No change must suppress the leading features of the principal melody. on the contrary these must be clearly heard in every variation. and also interpolated parcnt7i€ticpArases. to be sure. and yet the former are often nothing but a senseless humming. as well as harmonic by -notes. &c. In these there commonly prevails a warlike. which is as it were a higher degree of the Hence it will not do to make a melody to a text without any regard to its contents." is tlje 95 best opportunity for praeti'. a quicker tempo. would stand far above those of Mozart and Haydn. so that every variation may have another character^ Before the final variation. the bass takes the theme. while the latter are to be commended as models to every composer. for example. Even in the speaking tone one may by his delivery mark the character and the intensity of feelings. in which the figuration is the richest. by adding to it passing and participant notes. cannot be taught. as we have already made acquaintance with when the subject of Periods was under consideration.. it is felt even Id funeral marches. before ho tin express by melody and harmony the feeling described by the words What tones. either Major or Minor. let the scholar first observe in what way the Melody alone expresses the text. and call forth the inward sympathy of those addressed by declamation. tenderness. Heri. in which there are allusions to the theme. which have a slower tempo. genial. the upper voice another melody — — as accompaniment. else it will QOt admit of a sufflciently many-sided treatment. but also the tempo. the measure — and key must undergo changes. Variations. then the variations of Gelinek. which has cheerful. what chords will express the different emotions. il can only be seen by examples. the following. for instance. •elect. far livelier sense by the singing tone. The variations also may h« prefaced by an Introduction. . possess the faculty of expressing every emotion of the heart by That is what we call the character Through nothing can one acquire this faculty so soon and so well. fiery. the bass voice varied and with another harmony. Song Uomposition. like a Hondo.

in precisely same way that he did when he commenced on After he has written several Sonatinas in this way. according to the compass of the melody. . is frequently repeated. pattern melodies. according to ite lowest and its highest tone. Then if he supposes various changes in the accompaniment. e. as we have already seen. adhering to their rhythm. these bars are so placed upon th e note-lines. Would he afterwards attempt to write pieces of this kind. pleasing theme. i. The beginner may best Sonatinas. then the accompaniment is prepared.96 GUIDE TO may see afterwards let him include the accompaniment.— One who is so practised a singer. harmony. Such fundamental chords give. and therefore they require a further elaboration. &c. Skill in this is acquired with most certainty by imitation of the various modes of accompaniment. and work after them. as in rhythm.. as seem to be most fit. When the melody stands complete upon the paper. ^as the same farm. after various interludes or parenthetic passages. that he utes to the what this contrib- enhanced effect of the melody. be will succeed tbe better in hif •wn original attempt!. This is distinguished from other musical pieces by having a pn'ncijjaZ sentence. a stiff and helpless accompaniment. as if the melody were to be at once written down there. suited to the kind of . e. and in the learn this in small and less developed Rondino and Bondoletto. will find the writing down of a melody from hearing. And now The Kondo. according measure chosen. he will be more strikingly convinced.) For his own work then let him choose a simple. accent. then the the contents of the text have been thoroughly thought over in the first thing is to consider. For the plan or design of a Song composition. When way suggested. the following counsels may be given. so much the easier. and divided off. by writing down upon note-lines under the text such fundamental chords. let him take the the easiest for models. which. to what kind of measure it is best the text is written under music lines. by bars i. Then the Key is to be determined. that he can hit the note well. that it has a great influence on the expression of the melody. or from his own imagination.

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