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Submitted by Fathalla Eldali Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering For the Degree of Master of Science Colorado State University Fall 2012

1

BSC Senior Design LIM + PLC MATLAB/Simulink as A Modeling TOOL

THESIS OUTLINES

Introduction Induction Motor Principles Induction Motor Modeling Electric Motor Drives Vector Control of Induction Motor Direct Torque Control Theoretical Comparison Vector Control and Direct Torque Control Simulation Results Simulation Results in the normal operation case The effect of Voltage sags and short interruption on driven induction motors 3 The characteristics of the voltage sag and short interruption Conclusion & Future Work

INTRODUCTION

Motors are needed Un driven Motors and power consumption Power Electronics, DSP revolution help Rectifiers Inverters Sensors Control Systems Theories

Many studies have been done about FOC & DTC individually Few studies were published as a comparison studies as [17-19] Voltage Sag & Short Interruption faults were not considered in the comparison

Nikola

Tesla first AC motors 1888 AC motors -Induction Motors -Permanent Magnet Motors Why are Induction Motors are mostly used ? Supplied through stator only Easy to manufacture and maintain Cheap

6

Stator : laminated sheet steel (eddy current loses reduction) attached to an iron frame stator consists of mechanical slots insulated copper conductors are buried inside the slots and then Y or Delta connected to the source.

Two Types of Rotor A-wound rotor: -Three electrical phases just as the stator does and they (coils) are connected wye or delta. B-squirrel-cages rotor -contains bars of aluminum or copper imbedded in the rotor, which are short circuited at the end of each bar by an end disc

INDUCTION MOTOR ROTOR TYPES (A) WOUNDED ROTOR (B) SQUIRREL-CAGE ROTOR.

decreasing the rotation speed is a better way to save energy and reduce mechanical stress

10

11

To model IM, We should know the electrical and mechanical equations that describe it in the transient and steady state The Electrical equations are for the Voltage, current, Flux The Mechanical equations for the speed, position and Torque

12

INDUCTION MACHINE

13

ELECTRICAL EQUATIONS

14

MECHANICAL EQUATIONS

15

Purpose of those Transformations: Eliminate the effect of inductance changing with time It is more convenient to be used in Unbalanced voltage cases. The other advantage is that we can observe any variable at any instance.

16

17

ARBITRARY COORDINATE REFERENCE FRAMES.

18

Three phase to d-q stationary reference frame d-q stationary frame to d-q synchronous frame Electromagnetic Torque Equation modeling

19

REFERENCE FRAME

1 Vqs_s

20

SYNCHRONOUS FRAME

2 Vds_e

21

22

1 Te -K1/J 1 s

Wm

-K-

Te

1 Te

Product

1 Speed

Integrator

TL

B Gain2

23

Vqs-e

Vqs_s Vqs_e

Te

Vds_s Vds_e Vds-e d(Ids-e)/dt Iqs-e Iqr-e Ids-e d(Idr-e)/dt Ids-e Ids-e Iqr-e Idr-e Te Ids-e Iqs-e

Wr -KGain1 1 s Integrator

Subsystem2

Vqr-e d(Iqr-e)/dt d(Iqs-e)/dt Ids-e

0 Constant

Wr Idr-e Iqr-e

Gain2

Subsystem3 Step

Vdr-e Iqs-e Wr Iqr-e d(Ids-e)/dt Idr-e d(Idr-e)/dt

Subsystem

24

Overall IM Model

Torque in separately excited dc motor Principles of vector control of Induction motor Torque equations for Vector Control Vector Control MATLAB/SIMULINK

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

The last step is to convert the gotten component of stator current in stationary reference frame to the desired three phase currents to be the base of control the inverter

34

THE SIMULINK MODEL OF THE FIELD ORIENTATION CONTROL (FOC) OF INDUCTION MOTOR.

Scope 0.8 Landa_r* -K. ids

ids iabc* Vabc iqs iabc* iabc Landa_s th Vabc Te iabc N

Time

iqs

ev iqs*

Reference Speed

th TL Landa_dr Landa_qr

IM1 Load

35

The basic concept of (DTC) method was proposed by Takahashi and Noguchi in 1986 It is more used in controlling the induction motor because it is considered a simple and robust method It has a very fast response and simple structure which makes it to be more popular used in industrial world It implies a comparative control of the torque and the stator fluxes which must fall into two separate certain bands (limits) to be applicable

36

SPACE VECTOR MODULATION OF THREE PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER WITH DTC

voltage vector is shifted (lag or lead) with respect to the stator flux vector by an angle which is not more than 90, this causes the flux to increase and vice versa The torque is then directly controlled by selecting the inverter situation in order to boost the stator flux up or buck it down.

37

SV-PWM

38

SV-PWM

39

40

FLUX VOLTAGE AND

Increase

Increase Decrease Decrease

Increase

Decrease Decrease Increase

41

0.8 Landa_s* Output

ev Te*

Relay Relay1

Repeating Sequence

PI

Step IM Scope3

42

Sectors

I

FU FU FD FD FD FD TU TD TN TU TD TN V2 V6 V7 V3 V5 V0

II

V3 V1 V0 V4 V6 V7

III

V4 V2 V7 V5 V1 V0

IV

V5 V3 V0 V6 V2 V7

V

V6 V4 V7 V1 V3 V0

VI

V1 V5 V0 V2 V4 V7

43

44

SIMULATION RESULTS

DTC Vs. FOC Speed Electromagnetic Torque Flux Three phase current

45

FOC

400

DTC

350

300

Motor speed (r.p.m)

250

200

150

100

50

3 Time (sec)

46

TORQUE RESPONSE

FOC DTC

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FLUX RESPONSE

FOC DTC

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

Stator Flux (Wb)

Stator Flux (Wb)

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

3 Time (sec)

3 Time (sec)

48

FOC

4

DTC

20

15

2

10

-1

-5

-2

-10

-3

-4

-15

0 1 2 3 Time (sec) 4 5 6 7

3 Time (sec)

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FOC DTC

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INTERRUPTION ON DRIVEN INDUCTION MOTORS

(ASD) is considered as one of the sensitive loads to the voltage sag and short interruption That might cause the motor protection relay to trip, because the undervoltage of the DC link The ac current, which is feeding the motor, increases. The speed usually deviates and the torque varies [29]

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AND SHORT INTERRUPTION Two main types of Voltage Sag and interruptions Balanced and Unbalanced 7 types of sags could happen as shown

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ISSUES

The voltage sag types, which are used in this project thesis, are Type A (Balanced) and Type B (Unbalanced). The short interruption is applied on the two driving techniques too.

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ISSUES The affected DC Link Voltage For FOC Vs. DTC , I observe the following: Speed Variation Three Phase Current

54

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EFFECT OF TWO TYPES OF VOLTAGE SAG CONDITION

56

DIFFERENT VOLTAGE SAG PERCENTAGES AND

DIFFERENT DURATIONS

Sag Duration (Cycles) 18 cycles

(TYPE A)

22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

20 %

314.75

314.6

314.51

314.2

40 %

236.5

236.4

236.4

236.4

60 %

159.7

156.28

156.26

156.26

80 %

155.4

126.2

102.49

83.55

100 % (interruption)

155.3

126.15

102.4

83.15

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VOLTAGE SAG PERCENTAGES AND DIFFERENT

DURATIONS

350

(TYPE A)

DC link in the normal operation is 400 Volt

18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

300

250

200

150

100

50 20

30

40

50

80

90

100

58

FOC

70

DTC

100 18 cycles

Speed Drop from the desired speed %

Speed Drop from the desired speed %

Motor Stall

70

60

40

50

30

40

30

20

20

10

10

0 20

30

40

50

80

90

100

0 20

30

40

50

80

90

100

59

FOC

Sag Duration (Cycles) Voltages Sag (%) 18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

DTC

Sag Duration (Cycles) 18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

20 % 0% 0% 0% 0%

20 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

40 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

40 %

(0,+0.5)%

(0,+0.5)%

(0,+0.5)%

60 %

60 %

(0,+0.5)%

(0,+0.5)%

80 %

(-15, +19) %

(-43,+54) %

(-66, +85) %

80 %

STALLS

100 % (interruption)

(-16, +19) %

(-43,68) %

(-67, +170) %

100 % (interruption)

STALLS

60

FOC

30 18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 25 30 cycles 3.67A "Normal current"

5

Three phase current (Amp)

DTC

7

20

15

10

0 20

30

40

80

90

100

0 20

30

40

80

90

100

61

FOC

Sag Duration (Cycles) Voltages Sag (%) 18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles Sag Duration (Cycles) Voltages Sag (%) 18 cycles

DTC

22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

20 %

3.67

3.67

3.67

3.67

20 %

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

40%

3.67

3.67

3.67

3.67

40 %

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

60 %

3.95

3.98

4.1

4.06

60 %

4.6

4.84

4.5

4.5

80%

4.17

13.28

27.8

25.6

80 %

4.7

4.84

6.8

1.5-3

100 % (interruption)

4.19

13.34

27.84

26.45

100 % (interruption)

4.84

4.87

6.8

1.5-3

62

CONCLUSION

Comparison Aspects Speed Response Torque response flux response easiness of implementation V-sag/ Interruptions FOC Faster and more robust Faster but spiky Slower and it is affected by the load Complicated because of the transformation Speed deviates gradually Current increases gradually better torque response Faster and stable Easy DTC

Speed reaches 0 at certain point Current doesnt increase and it falls suddenly Good

63

General

Good

RT simulation should be done for full analysis of the other power quality issues

In addition simulation should consider the protection system for both under voltage and overvoltage

64

REFERENCES

[1] A. M. Trzynadlowski, Control of induction motors: Academic Pr, 2001. [2] C. M. Ong, Dynamic simulation of electric machinery: using MATLAB/SIMULINK vol. 5: Prentice Hall PTR Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998. [3] W. Theodore, Electrical Machines, Drives And Power Systems, 6/E: Pearson Education India, 2007. [4] P. Vas, Vector control of AC machines: Clarendon press Oxford, 1990. [5] N. Mohan and T. M. Undeland, Power electronics: converters, applications, and design : Wiley-India, 2007. [6] T. Gonen, Electrical Machines With Matlab: CRC Press, 2011. [7] K. S. Gaeid, H. W. Ping, and H. A. F. Mohamed, "Simulink representation of induction motor reference frames," 2009, pp. 1-4. [8] J. A. Santisteban and R. M. Stephan, "Vector control methods for induction machines: an overview," Education, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 44, pp. 170-175, 2001. [9] X. Wang, Y. Yang, and W. Liu, "Simulation of vector controlled adjustable speed System of induction motor based on Simulink," 2011, pp. 2563-2566. [10] R. Lee, P. Pillay, and R. Harley, "D, Q reference frames for the simulation of induction motors," Electric power systems research, vol. 8, pp. 15-26, 1984.

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REFERENCES

[11] S. Masoudi, M. R. Feyzi, and M. Sharifian, "Speed control in vector controlled induction motors," 2009, pp. 1-5. [12] K. Shi, T. Chan, and Y. Wong, "Modelling of the three-phase induction motor using SIMULINK," 1997, pp. WB3/6.1-WB3/6.3 [13] A. Diaz, R. Saltares, C. Rodriguez, R. Nunez, E. Ortiz-Rivera, and J. Gonzalez-Llorente, "Induction motor equivalent circuit for dynamic simulation," 2009, pp. 858-863.

[14] A. Iqbal, A. Lamine, and I. Ashra, "Matlab/Simulink Model of Space Vector PWM for Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverter," 2006, pp. 1096-1100.

[15] F. M. Abdel-kader, A. El-Saadawi, A. Kalas, and O. M. EL-baksawi, "Study in direct torque control of induction motor by using space vector modulation," 2008, pp. 224-229. [16] S. Allirani and V. Jagannathan, "High Performance Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Drives Using Space Vector Modulation," International Journal of Computer Science, vol. 7. [17] Y. Tang and G. Lin, "Direct torque control of induction motor based on self-adaptive PI controller," 2010, pp. 1230-1234. [18] J. N. Nash, "Direct torque control, induction motor vector control without an encoder," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 33, pp. 333-341, 1997. [19] H. Le-Huy, "Comparison of field-oriented control and direct torque control for induction motor drives," 1999, pp. 1245-1252 vol. 2. [20] S. Vaez-Zadeh and E. Jalali, "Combined vector control and direct torque control method for high performance induction motor drives," Energy conversion and management, vol. 48, pp. 3095-3101, 2007. 66

REFERENCES

[21] N.Mohan, First Course on Electric Machines and Drives Videos, 2010: http://cusp.umn.edu/electric_drives.php [22] B. M. Wilamowski and J. D. Irwin, "The Industrial Electronics Handbook-Power Electronics and Motor Drives," ed: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2011 [23] P. Tiitinen and M. Surandra, "The next generation motor control method, DTC direct torque control," 1996, pp. 37-43 vol. 1. [24] S. K. Sul, Control of electric machine drive systems vol. 88: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2011. [25] A. Ansari and D. Deshpande, "Mathematical Model of Asynchronous Machine in MATLAB Simulink," 2010. [26] P. Wach, Dynamics and Control of Electrical Drives : Springer, 2011. [27] D. Telford, M. Dunnigan, and B. Williams, "A comparison of vector control and direct torque control of an induction machine," 2000, pp. 421-426 vol. 1. [28] J. C. Gomez, M. M. Morcos, C. A. Reineri, and G. N. Campetelli, "Behavior of induction motor due to voltage sags and short interruptions," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 17, pp. 434440, 2002. [29] J. Pedra, F. Crcoles, and F. Suelves, "Effects of balanced and unbalanced voltage sags on VSIfed adjustable-speed drives," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 20, pp. 224-233, 2005. [30] J. Gomez, M. Morcos, C. Reineri, and G. Campetelli, "Induction motor behavior under short interruptions and voltage sags," Power Engineering Review, IEEE, vol. 21, pp. 11-15, 2001. [31] M. H. Bollen and I. Gu, Signal processing of power quality disturbances vol. 30: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2006.

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