You are on page 1of 69

A COMPARITVE STUDY BETWEEN VECTOR CONTROL AND DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING MATLAB SIMULINK

Submitted by Fathalla Eldali Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering For the Degree of Master of Science Colorado State University Fall 2012
1

WHEN HAVE I BEEN INTERESTED IN MOTOR DRIVE AND MATLAB?


BSC Senior Design LIM + PLC MATLAB/Simulink as A Modeling TOOL

THESIS OUTLINES
Introduction Induction Motor Principles Induction Motor Modeling Electric Motor Drives Vector Control of Induction Motor Direct Torque Control Theoretical Comparison Vector Control and Direct Torque Control Simulation Results Simulation Results in the normal operation case The effect of Voltage sags and short interruption on driven induction motors 3 The characteristics of the voltage sag and short interruption Conclusion & Future Work

INTRODUCTION
Motors are needed Un driven Motors and power consumption Power Electronics, DSP revolution help Rectifiers Inverters Sensors Control Systems Theories

OLD STUDIES & MOTIVATION


Many studies have been done about FOC & DTC individually Few studies were published as a comparison studies as [17-19] Voltage Sag & Short Interruption faults were not considered in the comparison

INDUCTION MOTOR PRINCIPLES


Nikola

Tesla first AC motors 1888 AC motors -Induction Motors -Permanent Magnet Motors Why are Induction Motors are mostly used ? Supplied through stator only Easy to manufacture and maintain Cheap
6

INDUCTION MOTOR CONSTRUCTION


Stator : laminated sheet steel (eddy current loses reduction) attached to an iron frame stator consists of mechanical slots insulated copper conductors are buried inside the slots and then Y or Delta connected to the source.

Two Types of Rotor A-wound rotor: -Three electrical phases just as the stator does and they (coils) are connected wye or delta. B-squirrel-cages rotor -contains bars of aluminum or copper imbedded in the rotor, which are short circuited at the end of each bar by an end disc

INDUCTION MOTOR ROTOR TYPES (A) WOUNDED ROTOR (B) SQUIRREL-CAGE ROTOR.

ELECTRIC AC MOTOR DRIVES

Practically, induction motor doesnt work at its rated speed

Switching the (motor) on/off is possible by mechanically stressful


decreasing the rotation speed is a better way to save energy and reduce mechanical stress

10

PURPOSES OF ELECTRIC AC MOTOR DRIVES

11

INDUCTION MOTOR MODELING

To model IM, We should know the electrical and mechanical equations that describe it in the transient and steady state The Electrical equations are for the Voltage, current, Flux The Mechanical equations for the speed, position and Torque

12

IDEALIZED CIRCUIT MODEL OF THREE PHASE


INDUCTION MACHINE

13

ELECTRICAL EQUATIONS

14

MECHANICAL EQUATIONS

15

MACHINE MODEL IN ARBITRARY REFERENCE FRAMES


Purpose of those Transformations: Eliminate the effect of inductance changing with time It is more convenient to be used in Unbalanced voltage cases. The other advantage is that we can observe any variable at any instance.

16

17

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ABC AND QD


ARBITRARY COORDINATE REFERENCE FRAMES.

18

INDUCTION MOTOR MODELING MATLAB/SIMULINK


Three phase to d-q stationary reference frame d-q stationary frame to d-q synchronous frame Electromagnetic Torque Equation modeling

19

THREE PHASE TO D-Q STATIONARY


REFERENCE FRAME

u[1] Vas Vqs-s

1 Vqs_s

Vbs f(u) Vcs Vds-s 2 Vds_s

20

D-Q STATIONARY FRAME TO D-Q

SYNCHRONOUS FRAME

1 Vds_s 2 Vqs_s f(u) Fcn 1 Vqs_e Mux

f(u) Fcn1 Repeati ng Sequence Mux

2 Vds_e

21

ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE AND SPEED EQUATION MODELING

22

1 Iqs-e 2 Idr-e Product1

Gain4 Add 3 Ids-e 4 Iqr-e


1 Te -K1/J 1 s
Wm

-K-

Te

1 Te

Product

1 Speed

Integrator

TL

B Gain2

23

Vqs-e

Vas u[1] Vbs Vqs-s


Vqs_s Vqs_e

d(Iqs-e)/dt d(Iqr-e)/dt Ids-e Iqs-e Idr-e Iqs-e Iqs-e

Te

Subsystem1 Vcs f(u) Vds-s d-q (S) To d-q (E) Transformation


Vds_s Vds_e Vds-e d(Ids-e)/dt Iqs-e Iqr-e Ids-e d(Idr-e)/dt Ids-e Ids-e Iqr-e Idr-e Te Ids-e Iqs-e

Wr -KGain1 1 s Integrator

Subsystem2
Vqr-e d(Iqr-e)/dt d(Iqs-e)/dt Ids-e

Electromagnetic Torque Calculation B

0 Constant

Wr Idr-e Iqr-e

Gain2

Subsystem3 Step
Vdr-e Iqs-e Wr Iqr-e d(Ids-e)/dt Idr-e d(Idr-e)/dt

Subsystem

24

Overall IM Model

1-VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR


Torque in separately excited dc motor Principles of vector control of Induction motor Torque equations for Vector Control Vector Control MATLAB/SIMULINK

25

TORQUE IN SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR

26

SIMPLE REPRESENTATION OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR.

27

PRINCIPLES OF VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR

28

PRINCIPLES OF VECTOR CONTROL (DECOUPLING BETWEEN ROTOR FLUX AND TORQUE)

29

DERIVATION OF THE ORIENTATION CONDITION

30

PROCEDURE IN THREE MAIN POINTS

31

THE PROCEDURE USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

32

33

The last step is to convert the gotten component of stator current in stationary reference frame to the desired three phase currents to be the base of control the inverter

34

THE SIMULINK MODEL OF THE FIELD ORIENTATION CONTROL (FOC) OF INDUCTION MOTOR.
Scope 0.8 Landa_r* -K. ids
ids iabc* Vabc iqs iabc* iabc Landa_s th Vabc Te iabc N

Time

iqs
ev iqs*

Reference Speed

PI Current decoupling controller

Determing the state of the PWM

th TL Landa_dr Landa_qr

Output Terminator To Workspace

IM1 Load

Stator currents Rotor flux angle Actual speed

35

Overall FOC Model

2-DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL


The basic concept of (DTC) method was proposed by Takahashi and Noguchi in 1986 It is more used in controlling the induction motor because it is considered a simple and robust method It has a very fast response and simple structure which makes it to be more popular used in industrial world It implies a comparative control of the torque and the stator fluxes which must fall into two separate certain bands (limits) to be applicable

36

SPACE VECTOR MODULATION OF THREE PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER WITH DTC
voltage vector is shifted (lag or lead) with respect to the stator flux vector by an angle which is not more than 90, this causes the flux to increase and vice versa The torque is then directly controlled by selecting the inverter situation in order to boost the stator flux up or buck it down.

37

SV-PWM

38

SV-PWM

39

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SWITCHING TABLE

40

THE HYSTERESIS BAND CONTROLS THE STATOR


FLUX VOLTAGE AND

Increase
Increase Decrease Decrease

Increase
Decrease Decrease Increase

41

THE SIMULINK MODEL OF DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL (DTC) OF INDUCTION MOTOR.


0.8 Landa_s* Output
ev Te*

Relay Relay1

Interpreted MATLAB Fcn MATLAB Fcn

iabc Vabc N Te TL Landa_s th

Repeating Sequence

PI

Step IM Scope3

42

Overall DTC Model

LOOK-UP TABLE (SWITCHING TABLE)


Sectors

I
FU FU FD FD FD FD TU TD TN TU TD TN V2 V6 V7 V3 V5 V0

II
V3 V1 V0 V4 V6 V7

III
V4 V2 V7 V5 V1 V0

IV
V5 V3 V0 V6 V2 V7

V
V6 V4 V7 V1 V3 V0

VI
V1 V5 V0 V2 V4 V7

43

THEORETICAL COMPARISON VECTOR CONTROL AND DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL

44

SIMULATION RESULTS
DTC Vs. FOC Speed Electromagnetic Torque Flux Three phase current

45

MOTOR SPEED RESPONSE.


FOC
400

DTC

350

300
Motor speed (r.p.m)

250

200

150

100

50

3 Time (sec)

46

TORQUE RESPONSE
FOC DTC

47

FLUX RESPONSE
FOC DTC

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6
Stator Flux (Wb)
Stator Flux (Wb)

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

3 Time (sec)

3 Time (sec)

48

THREE PHASE MOTOR CURRENT


FOC
4

DTC
20

15
2

Three phase motor currenr (Amp)

10

Three phase motor current (Amp)

-1

-5

-2

-10
-3

-4

-15
0 1 2 3 Time (sec) 4 5 6 7

3 Time (sec)

49

THE DISTORTION OF THREE PHASE CURRENT


FOC DTC

50

THE EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAGS AND SHORT


INTERRUPTION ON DRIVEN INDUCTION MOTORS
(ASD) is considered as one of the sensitive loads to the voltage sag and short interruption That might cause the motor protection relay to trip, because the undervoltage of the DC link The ac current, which is feeding the motor, increases. The speed usually deviates and the torque varies [29]

51

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VOLTAGE SAG


AND SHORT INTERRUPTION Two main types of Voltage Sag and interruptions Balanced and Unbalanced 7 types of sags could happen as shown

52

SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE CHOSEN PQ


ISSUES

The voltage sag types, which are used in this project thesis, are Type A (Balanced) and Type B (Unbalanced). The short interruption is applied on the two driving techniques too.

53

SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE CHOSEN PQ


ISSUES The affected DC Link Voltage For FOC Vs. DTC , I observe the following: Speed Variation Three Phase Current

54

THE AFFECTED DC LINK VOLTAGE

One phase short interruptions effect on DC link voltage (Type B)


55

DC VOLTAGE WAVE SHAPE UNDER THE


EFFECT OF TWO TYPES OF VOLTAGE SAG CONDITION

56

TABLE THE DC LINK VOLTAGE IN


DIFFERENT VOLTAGE SAG PERCENTAGES AND
DIFFERENT DURATIONS
Sag Duration (Cycles) 18 cycles

(TYPE A)
22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

Voltages Sag (%)

20 %

314.75

314.6

314.51

314.2

40 %

236.5

236.4

236.4

236.4

60 %

159.7

156.28

156.26

156.26

80 %

155.4

126.2

102.49

83.55

100 % (interruption)

155.3

126.15

102.4

83.15

57

THE DC LINK VOLTAGE IN DIFFERENT


VOLTAGE SAG PERCENTAGES AND DIFFERENT
DURATIONS
350

(TYPE A)
DC link in the normal operation is 400 Volt
18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

300

250

DC link Voltage (Volt)

200

150

100

50 20

30

40

50

60 70 Voltage Dip (Sag) %

80

90

100

58

SPEED VARIATION (DEVIATION) VOLTAGE SAG TYPE A


FOC
70

DTC
100 18 cycles

18 cycles 60 22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles 50


Speed Drop from the desired speed %

90 22 cycles 80 26cycles 30cycles


Speed Drop from the desired speed %

Motor Stall

70

60

40

50

30

40

30

20

20
10

10

0 20

30

40

50

60 70 Voltage Dip (Sag) %

80

90

100

0 20

30

40

50

60 70 Voltage Dip (Sag) %

80

90

100

59

SPEED VARIATION TYPE A


FOC
Sag Duration (Cycles) Voltages Sag (%) 18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

DTC
Sag Duration (Cycles) 18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

Voltages Sag (%)


20 % 0% 0% 0% 0%

20 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

40 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

40 %

(0,+0.5)%

(0,+0.5)%

(0,+0.5)%

60 %

60 %

(0,+0.5)%

(0,+0.5)%

80 %

(-15, +19) %

(-43,+54) %

(-66, +85) %

80 %

STALLS

100 % (interruption)

(-16, +19) %

(-43,68) %

(-67, +170) %

100 % (interruption)

STALLS

60

PEAK CURRENT DURING VOLTAGE SAG TYPE A


FOC
30 18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 25 30 cycles 3.67A "Normal current"
5
Three phase current (Amp)

DTC
7

20

Motor Current (Amp)

15

10

18 Cycles 22 Cycles 26 Cycles

30 Cycles Motor stalls 4.5A "normal current"

0 20

30

40

50 60 70 Voltage Dip (Sag) %

80

90

100

0 20

30

40

50 60 70 Voltage Dip (sag) %

80

90

100

61

PEAK CURRENT DURING VOLTAGE SAG TYPE A


FOC
Sag Duration (Cycles) Voltages Sag (%) 18 cycles 22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles Sag Duration (Cycles) Voltages Sag (%) 18 cycles

DTC
22 cycles 26 cycles 30 cycles

20 %

3.67

3.67

3.67

3.67

20 %

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

40%

3.67

3.67

3.67

3.67

40 %

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

60 %

3.95

3.98

4.1

4.06

60 %

4.6

4.84

4.5

4.5

80%

4.17

13.28

27.8

25.6

80 %

4.7

4.84

6.8

1.5-3

100 % (interruption)

4.19

13.34

27.84

26.45

100 % (interruption)

4.84

4.87

6.8

1.5-3

62

CONCLUSION
Comparison Aspects Speed Response Torque response flux response easiness of implementation V-sag/ Interruptions FOC Faster and more robust Faster but spiky Slower and it is affected by the load Complicated because of the transformation Speed deviates gradually Current increases gradually better torque response Faster and stable Easy DTC

Speed reaches 0 at certain point Current doesnt increase and it falls suddenly Good
63

General

Good

RECOMMENDED FUTURE WORK

Detailed analysis in comparing those two important methods

RT simulation should be done for full analysis of the other power quality issues
In addition simulation should consider the protection system for both under voltage and overvoltage

64

REFERENCES
[1] A. M. Trzynadlowski, Control of induction motors: Academic Pr, 2001. [2] C. M. Ong, Dynamic simulation of electric machinery: using MATLAB/SIMULINK vol. 5: Prentice Hall PTR Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998. [3] W. Theodore, Electrical Machines, Drives And Power Systems, 6/E: Pearson Education India, 2007. [4] P. Vas, Vector control of AC machines: Clarendon press Oxford, 1990. [5] N. Mohan and T. M. Undeland, Power electronics: converters, applications, and design : Wiley-India, 2007. [6] T. Gonen, Electrical Machines With Matlab: CRC Press, 2011. [7] K. S. Gaeid, H. W. Ping, and H. A. F. Mohamed, "Simulink representation of induction motor reference frames," 2009, pp. 1-4. [8] J. A. Santisteban and R. M. Stephan, "Vector control methods for induction machines: an overview," Education, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 44, pp. 170-175, 2001. [9] X. Wang, Y. Yang, and W. Liu, "Simulation of vector controlled adjustable speed System of induction motor based on Simulink," 2011, pp. 2563-2566. [10] R. Lee, P. Pillay, and R. Harley, "D, Q reference frames for the simulation of induction motors," Electric power systems research, vol. 8, pp. 15-26, 1984.

65

REFERENCES
[11] S. Masoudi, M. R. Feyzi, and M. Sharifian, "Speed control in vector controlled induction motors," 2009, pp. 1-5. [12] K. Shi, T. Chan, and Y. Wong, "Modelling of the three-phase induction motor using SIMULINK," 1997, pp. WB3/6.1-WB3/6.3 [13] A. Diaz, R. Saltares, C. Rodriguez, R. Nunez, E. Ortiz-Rivera, and J. Gonzalez-Llorente, "Induction motor equivalent circuit for dynamic simulation," 2009, pp. 858-863.

[14] A. Iqbal, A. Lamine, and I. Ashra, "Matlab/Simulink Model of Space Vector PWM for Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverter," 2006, pp. 1096-1100.
[15] F. M. Abdel-kader, A. El-Saadawi, A. Kalas, and O. M. EL-baksawi, "Study in direct torque control of induction motor by using space vector modulation," 2008, pp. 224-229. [16] S. Allirani and V. Jagannathan, "High Performance Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Drives Using Space Vector Modulation," International Journal of Computer Science, vol. 7. [17] Y. Tang and G. Lin, "Direct torque control of induction motor based on self-adaptive PI controller," 2010, pp. 1230-1234. [18] J. N. Nash, "Direct torque control, induction motor vector control without an encoder," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 33, pp. 333-341, 1997. [19] H. Le-Huy, "Comparison of field-oriented control and direct torque control for induction motor drives," 1999, pp. 1245-1252 vol. 2. [20] S. Vaez-Zadeh and E. Jalali, "Combined vector control and direct torque control method for high performance induction motor drives," Energy conversion and management, vol. 48, pp. 3095-3101, 2007. 66

REFERENCES
[21] N.Mohan, First Course on Electric Machines and Drives Videos, 2010: http://cusp.umn.edu/electric_drives.php [22] B. M. Wilamowski and J. D. Irwin, "The Industrial Electronics Handbook-Power Electronics and Motor Drives," ed: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2011 [23] P. Tiitinen and M. Surandra, "The next generation motor control method, DTC direct torque control," 1996, pp. 37-43 vol. 1. [24] S. K. Sul, Control of electric machine drive systems vol. 88: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2011. [25] A. Ansari and D. Deshpande, "Mathematical Model of Asynchronous Machine in MATLAB Simulink," 2010. [26] P. Wach, Dynamics and Control of Electrical Drives : Springer, 2011. [27] D. Telford, M. Dunnigan, and B. Williams, "A comparison of vector control and direct torque control of an induction machine," 2000, pp. 421-426 vol. 1. [28] J. C. Gomez, M. M. Morcos, C. A. Reineri, and G. N. Campetelli, "Behavior of induction motor due to voltage sags and short interruptions," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 17, pp. 434440, 2002. [29] J. Pedra, F. Crcoles, and F. Suelves, "Effects of balanced and unbalanced voltage sags on VSIfed adjustable-speed drives," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 20, pp. 224-233, 2005. [30] J. Gomez, M. Morcos, C. Reineri, and G. Campetelli, "Induction motor behavior under short interruptions and voltage sags," Power Engineering Review, IEEE, vol. 21, pp. 11-15, 2001. [31] M. H. Bollen and I. Gu, Signal processing of power quality disturbances vol. 30: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2006.

67

68

69