The hand Tools Manual

Thomas Dutton
Texas State Technical College Waco

© 2007 TSTC Publishing ISBN 978-1-934302-27-9 All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or any portion thereof in any form. Requests for such permissions should be addressed to: TSTC Publishing Texas State Technical College Waco 3801 Campus Drive Waco, Texas 76705 http://publishing.tstc.edu/ Publisher: Mark Long Editor: Todd Glasscock Graphics specialist: Grace Arsiaga Printing production: Bill Evridge Illustrations: Sheri McGee, Kelly Spencer, Grant Jurries, Ashley Stovall, & Leticia Ybarra Cover design: Stephanie Melendez Index: Michelle Gray indexing@yahoo.com

Manufactured in the United States of America First edition

The Hand Tools Manual

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 – Introduction to Hand Tools ................................................................................... 1 Terms ............................................................................................................................... 4 . Buying Tools ...................................................................................................................... 7 Types of Steel ................................................................................................................... 8 . General Hand Tool Safety Rules ....................................................................................... 9 Tool Storage .................................................................................................................... 10 Chapter 2 – Screwdrivers ........................................................................................................ 11 History of Screwdrivers ................................................................................................... 11 Basic Rules for Using Screwdrivers ................................................................................ 12 Standard, Common, Slotted or Flat-Tip Screwdrivers ..................................................... 12 Special Purpose Screwdrivers ........................................................................................ 26 Safety Rules for Screwdrivers and Their Basic Use ....................................................... 38 . Glossary of Terms ........................................................................................................... 40 Review Questions ........................................................................................................... 41 History of Pliers ............................................................................................................... 43 How Pliers Work .................... ......................................................................................... 44 Classes ........................................................................................................................... 56 . Cutting Pliers ................................................................................................................... 56 Types of Cutting Pliers .................................................................................................... 58 Grasping or Gripping Pliers ............................................................................................. 65 Crimping or Bending Pliers ............................................................................................. 74 . Care of Pliers .................................................................................................................. 79 . Glossary of Terms ........................................................................................................... 81 Review Questions ........................................................................................................... 82 History of Wrenches ........................................................................................................ 85 Wrenches Overview ........................................................................................................ 85 Open-End Wrenches ....................................................................................................... 86

Chapter 3 – Pliers ..................................................................................................................... 43

Chapter 4 – Wrenches .............................................................................................................. 85

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The Hand Tools Manual
Box-End Wrenches ......................................................................................................... 91 Combination Wrenches ................................................................................................... 94 Adjustable Wrenches ...................................................................................................... 95 Ratcheting Wrenches ...................................................................................................... 98 Glossary of Terms ......................................................................................................... 104

Review Questions ......................................................................................................... 105 History of Socket Wrenches .......................................................................................... 108 The Fixed Handle Socket Wrench ................................................................................ 110 . Types of Hand-Powered Socket Wrenches .................................................................. 115 . Flex Head ...................................................................................................................... 118 Sliding T-handle ............................................................................................................ 119 . Speeder Handle ............................................................................................................ 119 Socket Handle ............................................................................................................... 120 Extensions .................................................................................................................... 120 . Universal Joint/Socket .................................................................................................. 122 . Adapters ........................................................................................................................ 122 Other Accessories ......................................................................................................... 123 Socket Holders .............................................................................................................. 125 Torque Wrenches .......................................................................................................... 126 Pick the Correct Range ................................................................................................. 126 How Torque Wrenches Work ........................................................................................ 126 . Mechanical Method of Torque Measurement ................................................................ 127 Electronic Method of Torque Measurement .................................................................. 127 . Types of Torque Wrenches ........................................................................................... 128 . Glossary of Terms ......................................................................................................... 133 Review Questions ......................................................................................................... 134 History of Hammers ...................................................................................................... 137 . Parts of a Hammer ........................................................................................................ 137 The Handle ................................................................................................................... 138 . Parts of the Head .......................................................................................................... 141

Chapter 5 – Socket Wrenches ............................................................................................... 107

Chapter 6 – Hammers............................................................................................................. 137

The Hand Tools Manual
Types of Hammers ........................................................................................................ 144 Glossary of Terms ......................................................................................................... 152 Review Questions ......................................................................................................... 153 Chapter 7 – Punches & Chisels............................................................................................ 155 History of Chisels and Punches .................................................................................... 155 Punches ........................................................................................................................ 155 Awls ............................................................................................................................... 171 Machinist Chisels .......................................................................................................... 172 Glossary of Terms ......................................................................................................... 179 Review Questions ......................................................................................................... 180 History of Files .............................................................................................................. 181 . What is a File? .............................................................................................................. 182 . Parts of a File ................................................................................................................ 182 File Handles .................................................................................................................. 183 American Pattern Files .................................................................................................. 184 Swiss Pattern Files ....................................................................................................... 185 . How Teeth are Cut Into Files ......................................................................................... 185 Different Shapes and Styles of Files ............................................................................. 187 Safety ............................................................................................................................ 193 Six Rules for Selecting a File ........................................................................................ 194 Three Rules for Using a New File ................................................................................. 194 Three Rules for Using a File ......................................................................................... 195 . How to File .................................................................................................................... 195 Keeping the File Clean .................................................................................................. 196 Storage of Files ............................................................................................................. 197 Replacing the Handle .................................................................................................... 198 Glossary of Terms ......................................................................................................... 201 Review Questions ......................................................................................................... 202

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Chapter 8 – Files ..................................................................................................................... 181

Index ........................................................................................................................................205 About the Author .................................................................................................................... 211 About TSTC Publishing ......................................................................................................... 213

The Hand Tools Manual 

Chapter 1: Introduction to Hand Tools
Tools are the ultimate symbol of humanity. They separate humans from all other animals on earth. Other animals use tools to gather food, but once they are done with the tools they throw them away. Humans, on the other hand, not only use tools, they also try to improve them by making them more usable or able to do a job better. In other words, there is thought behind humans’ tools, not just instinct. One of the best ways to see the thought humans put into tools is to look at the U.S. Patent Office record of tools. Almost as soon as this country had a patent office there were people applying for tool patents. Because of a fire in December 1836, there is little information on many of the earlier patents, but we do know patents were filed in 1790, if not earlier. This tool was actually produced and examples are known to exist. A great Web site for finding out about these patents is the Directory of American Tool and Machinery Patents at www. datamp.org. In each chapter of this book, not only will the tools be shown and explained, but some of the tools’ history will be examined. The author hopes by doing this that readers will gain a greater respect for the many people behind the advancement of tool design. Even today the shapes of hand tools are changing as people gain a better understanding of how the body works. Tool designers are working on building tools that fit the hand better, which then makes the tool more comfortable for the user. They are also building tools that work in different ways than before. New open-ended wrenches, for example, will grasp the corners of a nut or bolt when moved in one direction, but slip around the fastener when moved in the opposite direction. This makes the time needed to remove the fastener shorter and the amount of work expended by the technician less. An example is found in the chapter on wrenches.

Figure 1.01

One common thing that seems to flow from studying the history of hand tools is that each tool was developed as need arose. An example of this need could be seen in the development of fire tongs. When people needed to get something from a hot fire — for instance, a rock needed to heat water — they probably used a couple of sticks. Then one day someone 

Chapter : Introduction

figured out that if the sticks were bound with a vine at a center point, grasping the rock was easier. So what this person did was invent pliers, and humans have been improving them ever since. When hand tools were first produced they were not one-size fit all, but each tool was in fact made to fit the fastener produced by a particular manufacturer. The manufacturer may have been the local blacksmith and his screwdrivers would fit the screws he made or his wrenches would fit the nuts or bolts he made. The big problem: The blacksmith in one town made his fasteners one size and the blacksmith in the next made his a different size. So the tools used by traveling handymen might fit the fasteners in one town but not the next, which led to the design of adjustable open-ended wrenches and for centuries kept the slotted screwdriver the only screwdriver being made. In the days that hand tools were rare and expensive, each tool was prized by the owner and passed on to his sons. There are hand tools the author owns that were owned by his father, and the author still uses them. He hopes his son will use and cherish them some day. The Industrial Revolution drove manufacturers to standardize the way tools were made. During that time, manufacturers made it easier to produce fasteners and tools in larger quantities. Standards were then needed so the fasteners made in one part of the country would fit the tools made in another. Standardization of size led to greater quantities produced and to a reduction in the cost per unit. Soon, tools were not limited to people who worked with them for a living, but became available to the home handyman. Because anyone could get into the act and fix things around the house, or even build his own house, this led to even more tools being produced. Greater production led to less expensive, higher quality tools. So today’s hand tools are not the rare and expensive ones of yesteryear but inexpensive and easily found. Today’s hand tools’ being cheaper, as compared to 100 years ago, doesn’t reduce the tools’ necessity or quality. Today’s hand tools, just like all things made by humans, are expressions of humanity’s desire to do something quickly and easily. While some people might take exception to this statement, if you really look at it, it is true in all areas of human development. Every time people have invented something it has been for the purpose of saving time in getting that job done. Even the computer was invented to save time doing the math needed to write the reference table that was needed to fire artillery. Some inventions are practical, some are not, some just don’t make it and some find new uses until the original purpose they were invented for is lost. Hand tools are no exception. The hand tools your father used look much like the hand tools that you could buy today, but those tools are now used on things that your father or your father’s father never would have dreamed of. The ability to use hand tools and their development may not have driven the Industrial Revolution, but without them it would never have gotten off the ground. Today, people are talking about the end of the industrial age and the beginning of the Information Age. They sometimes make it sound as if the need for people to repair or build the equipment needed to transmit or receive that information is ending.

The Hand Tools Manual 

The knowledge of a person who repairs today’s broken equipment is different from that of his or her father, but the ability of that person to use a hand tool to open the cases and remove parts that make up today’s equipment is just as important as his or her father’s skill in repairing the equipment of his or her day. The knowledge needed by today’s automotive technician to repair a car is even greater than it was 20 years ago, and the need for hand tools is just as important now as it was then. If anything, the variety and number of technicians’ tools is even greater, because car manufacturers are bound and determined to cram more things under the hood.

Figure 1.02

If technicians do not know about tools that will save them time, or how to use those tools, then they are wasting money as well as time. Most repair technicians earn their living by charging for the time it takes to do a normal repair. If it takes two hours to do the repair, according to a book, and it takes the technician three hours, then the technician will be out an hour’s pay, because he or she will not be paid for that extra hour. The opposite is also true: If a technician uses tools so that it only takes him or her an hour to do the repair, then he or she will be paid for two hours’ worth of work for one hour’s worth of labor. Good workmanship demands that the repair technician know how to select the correct tool for the job. Technicians also need to know if there are any special rules about where, when and how to use that tool. They also need to know the best way to care for and maintain their tools to keep them usable. The abuse and misuse of a tool by the technician can cause a tool to be broken, but can also mean that the equipment under repair will not be available for use in a timely manner. When a technician uses the wrong tool, it can result in a broken part. This can make it harder, if not impossible, for the technician to do a timely repair, which then could lead to the repair being even more costly than buying a replacement part. At this time it seems to be cheaper just to go and buy a new piece of equipment than to have a broken one repaired. This may lead some people to get out of the repair business, but it does not mean it will remain true for all fields. The automotive repair field, for example, has grown not only because there are more cars, but also because cars have become so complex most repairs cannot be done at home. The medical field also uses many different 

Chapter : Introduction

types of equipment that were not even dreamed of 20 years ago. This has led to a whole new career choice — biomedical equipment technician. Another fact many people overlook is that today’s available resources are becoming scarcer, and as this happens, those resources will then become even more expensive. As resources become more expensive, technicians with the ability to repair equipment will become even more important resources, which will, in turn, lead to an increase in their pay. It may even come to the point that the person able to repair a piece of equipment will become more valuable than the user.

Terms
There are several terms readers of this book will need to understand: work, force, torque, mechanical advantage, mass and ratcheting. These terms are used a lot in this book to describe how a tool is used. Work can be anything that requires expenditure of energy. When you walk from point A to point B you have expended energy. If you run from point A to point B, you will have expended more energy than if you were to walk. Force is different from work: It is a measurement of the amount of effort needed to overcome something. If walking from point A to point B on a flat surface, the amount of force needed to lift the legs to get there is less than if point B is at the top of a flight of stairs. This is because more force is needed to lift your foot higher to put it on the next step and then even more force is needed to lift your body, using your leg, so that it is resting on the foot that is on the next step and so on and so forth. Force is measured in the amount of effort needed to overcome gravity. So, to lift a 50 pound object 1 foot in the air requires 50 foot-pounds of force. For someone to lift with one arm that much weight from a tabletop would require him or her to use 50 foot-pounds of force. If that person needs to lift the object 1 inch, the force required would be 50 inchpounds. Force, therefore, can be measured as distance traveled by weight moved. And it is measured using the units inch-pounds, inch-ounces, foot-pounds, or metrically as meterounces or meter-newtons. Force can also be measured by how the work is done. Let’s say that you have to pick up a rod that weighs 50 pounds from a table top and move the rod 1 foot. One way to do so is for a person to use one arm. To lift the rod will require that person’s one arm to produce 50 foot-pounds of work to lift the rod from the table. That one arm will also produce 50 foot-pounds of force to overcome the gravity holding the rod on the table. If two arms are used, it will still require 50 foot-pounds of work to lift the rod from the table, but now that the work is divided between the two arms, each arm only applying 25 foot-pounds of force. Using both arms gives the person lifting the rod a mechanical advantage over the person using one arm.

The Hand Tools Manual 

Let’s look at the another word that will be used a lot in this book — torque, a measure of turning or twisting force. Torque is calculated by multiplying force by distance. If, for example, a person applies 10 pounds of force to a nut with a 2-foot wrench, he or she will get 20 foot-pounds of torque. If that person applies 20 pounds of force using a 1-foot wrench, he or she will still get the 20 foot-pounds of torque. The amount of work being produced is the same, but more force has to be produced with the 1-foot wrench than with the 2-foot one. A person will have to develop more energy with a 1-foot wrench than with the 2-foot wrench. All hand tools will give the person using them a mechanical advantage over what he or she is working with as compared to working with just his or her fingers. Mechanical advantage allows the person using the hand tool to get his or her work done with less energy, whether it is turning a screw, driving a nail or gripping or cutting something. A screwdriver’s handle, for instance, is larger than the diameter of the screwdriver shaft, and the handle’s larger size increases the torque applied to the screw. Because the technician is using the screwdriver, rather than his or her fingers, the screw will less likely become loose. If a technician uses the same amount of force to turn the handle of a screwdriver that has a 2-inch diameter handle, the technician will apply twice the amount of torque than if he or she turns a screwdriver with a handle 1 inch in diameter. Greater gripping area makes it easier to turn a screw with a fat screwdriver handle than with a skinny one. Another advantage of using the screwdriver rather than fingers when turning a screw is the area that a person can grip with his or her fingers. A person is limited by the small area that can be gripped on a screw, so he or she can only apply so much force to the top of the screw. A person using a screwdriver has the entire handle to grip, which, of course, gives that person an advantage. If we go back to the idea of picking up a 50-pound rod, but this time we are limited to using only two fingers at the very end of the rod, the force needed to keep our grip will be much greater than if we were to wrap our entire hand around the end of the rod while lifting it. Another term technicians need to understand is mass. In this book mass refers to the amount of metal or material behind the working area of the hand tool being used. This amount of mass affects how well the tool works. Think about two blocks of material, one weighing 1/2 pound, the second 20 pounds. If the individual blocks were dropped from the same height and hit your hand, which one would cause the most pain and damage? The one that weighs 20 pounds is the clear answer. 

Chapter : Introduction

Mass also affects a hand tool’s ability to handle a large amount of applied force. Needlenose pliers, with the small amount of mass that is in their jaws, can have their jaws easily deformed when their handles are squeezed hard while gripping a nut. Meanwhile, common slip joint pliers, with the larger amount of mass in their jaws, can handle that same amount of squeezing force to grip the nut without their jaws deforming.

Figure 1.03

Similarly, the amount of mass behind the cutting edge of a chisel or any cutting tool, for example, will help determine how well that tool works or cuts. While we are looking at mass, we need to also look at the shape of the mass. If we have two blocks of material, each weighing 1 pound — one a wedge, the other a square — and they are accidentally dropped on our hand, the square block would hurt less than the wedge. Why? While both blocks have the same mass, the square block’s surface contact is spread over a larger area, causing the amount of the falling block’s force against the hand to spread out over the entire face of the block. Meanwhile, the wedge block will concentrate the area of surface contact to the sharp edge, or to a much smaller area, which, in turn, will cause more damage. That is how cutting hand tools work, but if there is not enough mass or the right type of mass behind the cutting edge to handle the force being applied, the hand tool will be damaged. If the material being cut is harder than the cutting edge of the tool, the tool will be damaged. Ratcheting occurs when a technician uses a hinged catch or pawl to engage with a toothed wheel or bar, thus preventing backward motion. The handle of a ratcheting tool will turn the tool when moved in one direction, but when moved in the opposite direction the handle will turn freely and not cause the tool to move. Such a response allows the technician to use a ratcheting tool to tighten a fastener without having to remove the tool from the fastener. This action is most commonly seen in tools that are used with sockets, but can also be found in screwdrivers and wrenches.

Figure 1.04

The Hand Tools Manual 

Buying Tools
Buying tools is a personal choice, but there are several elements good technicians will take into account when purchasing any tool, including the handle, the size of the tool, what the tool is going to be used on the most, and the quality of the material the tool is made with. The tool’s handle is the first part to look at. Manufacturers are spending a lot of money to design comfortable handles for different hands. The shape of the handle, its diameter and the material it is made of can determine whether or not the tool is worth picking up and using or something you dread looking at. Good technicians should find a handle that they can comfortably grasp. The wrong handle can cause the muscles in your hands or arms to become sore with just a small amount of work. Poorly designed handles can also cause blisters. Smart technicians will spend some time looking at and trying many different types of handles before they buy a tool. Technicians also need to look at the size of the tool. The size of the tool can affect the way the tool is used in several ways. With screwdrivers, for example, the length of the blade’s shaft can mean the difference between skinned knuckles or getting the job done right the first time. Similarly, the size of the handles on cutting pliers can mean getting the cutting edge into a tight space or being able to cut a large diameter wire. Using the wrong tool in these cases will mean either having to work harder or having to do extra work because something broke. There will be times when the technician has to find a way to do something when he does not have the right tools, but if you constantly face the same problem and a tool is available to handle it, get that tool. At the same time technicians look at the tool’s handles and size, they also need to consider the quality of the material the tool is made of. Just because the tool is made of steel doesn’t mean it can handle the job. Not all steel is created equal. Metal that is tempered and heattreated better withstands stress. Both the material and time needed to make the tool right costs the manufacturer money, so, therefore, good tools cost money. The best method to tell if you are getting a good quality tool is to look at the manufacturer of the tool. If the manufacturer is a large, well known company, then the chances are they will stand behind their tools. Most companies today give a lifetime warranty for their tools, even the cheap ones. This does not mean the tool will last a lifetime: the manufacturers just hope that if the tool breaks you will not go through the effort to get it replaced. Manufacturers that put the time and effort into producing their tools to hold up to your use or abuse will cost you more. But, you need to remember these hand tools are ones that will hopefully last a lifetime. You are better off spending a little more now to get the best than to keep spending more each year to replace broken tools. If you are unsure about which brands to buy, then talk to several people in your field and find out their recommendations. Technicians today may use battery-powered or air-powered tools for as much of their work as they can, and these tools can be great time savers. But there will still be many times that the power tool will not work, because of lack of torque or because the power tool’s sheer 

Chapter : Introduction

size will prevent you from getting to the work space. The author, because of his job, used a small battery-powered screwdriver constantly, but there were many times that he had to use the muscle-powered hand tools because the power tool would not work. Some of these power tools will be described in this book.

Types of Steel
There are many types of steel used to make hand tools. Each application the hand tool will be used for will lead to different types of steel used to make the tool. Most people think steel is the same hardness no matter the use for it. But steel, depending on the alloys, other metals or material added to it, or how it is heated and cooled, will have different abilities. Therefore, we can buy tools made of soft steel, tool steel, hardened steel, stainless steel, etc. Some hand tools will have to endure the shock of being hit with a hammer; some will have to endure forces applied to them by a twisting motion, such as wrenches, screwdrivers, etc; some will have to keep a sharp edge for cutting; and some will have to endure two or more of these forces at the same time. All of these tools, depending on what they are going to be used for, will require steels with different hardness or methods of tempering. Tempering is a heat treatment technique used to “toughen” a metal by heating it and then cooling it with precise control over time and temperature. Cooling steel quickly will make it hard, but at the same time make it brittle or easily broken. This hardened steel, however, will cut other softer metals. Cooling the metal slowly, but not too slowly, will produce a metal that will take a lot of blows from a hammer but may not be able to hold a cutting edge. Most tools will have more than one type of tempering to get the best of both of these methods. Cutting chisels, for example, have cutting edges that have been heated, and then cooled quickly, but have handles, where hammers strike, that have been cooled slowly to take blows. Alloys form when two or more elements are mixed together to get a different material metallic in nature. Mix iron and carbon and you get steel. Mix tin and lead and you get a compound called solder. There are also other elements that can be mixed into iron to get an even stronger form of steel or one with a special property needed, an example of which is stainless steel. This steel has a minimum of 10.5 percent chromium content that protects the steel from rusting. Tool steel is a special steel that many hand tools are made of. It will hold an edge when used for a cutting tool, but will also resist breaking when hit with a hammer. This kind of steel will also keep an edge and resist being deformed when heated. High Speed Steel (HSS) is steel that will keep its edge when high temperatures are present. The main use for this steel is in drill bits used with power drills. As the drill bit is spun in the power drill and pushed against a steel plate to cut a hole through it, it heats up. High Speed Steel will keep its sharp edge, while other types of steel will become soft and lose their edges. High Speed Steel will lose its edge if it gets too hot. When drilling metal, keep the tip of the drill cooled by using cutting oil on it to draw the heat away from it.

The Hand Tools Manual 

General Hand Tool Safety Rules
Hand tools use muscle power. Because they are powered by the user, the injuries they can cause are less severe than those caused by power tools, or tools run by motors. If technicians follow some simple general safety rules, they will go home without any injuries. 1. The most important safety rule is to wear safety glasses whenever you use hand tools. This is especially important when using a hammer or cutting something, because chips or splinters can fly up and quickly cause an eye injury. 2. Do not use a screwdriver as a chisel. When you use a screwdriver in this way, it is very likely to slip and cause a stab wound in the hand or other part of the body. 3. Do not use a chisel as a screwdriver. The blade of a chisel is very thin and can’t take the stress put on it by trying to turn a screw. The stress can cause the chisel to break and slip, causing a stab wound. 4. Do not carry a tool with a sharp edge like a screwdriver or chisel in your pockets. If you trip or fall, the tool could cause a stabbing injury. Use a tool carrier to put your tools in. 5. If the handle is broken, loose, splintered or cracked, then either replace the handle or the tool. Hammer and sledge hammer heads on broken handles can fly off and cause an injury or damage the equipment being worked on. 6. When using a chisel, always cut away from yourself. If the striking area of the chisel is made of soft material, like wood or lead, then use a wooden hammer to strike it with. The general rule is use a hammer that is made of the same material or something softer. 7. Don’t use chisels, wedges or punches if their heads have a mushroom shape. The hammer blows can cause a chip to fly off. 8. If the tool has a sharp edge, keep it sharp. A dull tool is more likely to cause an accident than a sharp one. 9. When using a wrench or socket to loosen or tighten a nut or bolt, use the correct size. Don’t use pliers, because they can ruin the corners of the nut or bolt by rounding them off. 10. Don’t use a wrench with jaws that do not fit tightly against the nut or bolt. It can slip off and ruin the nut or bolt. 11.When working around flammable substances, use tools that will not cause sparks. 

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Chapter : Introduction

Spark-resistant tools are made from wood, plastic, aluminum or brass. Use these instead of steel.

Tool Storage
Improper tool storage causes many shop injuries. These injuries are not always caused by the tool. When many people are using the tools and needed tools can’t be found, tempers can be lost. Follow these simple rules and you will reduce your chance of getting hurt. 1. Have a specific place for each tool, and when done with it put it back. 2. If the tool has a sharp edge, put a protective cover on it. Not only will this keep you from cutting your hand, but it will also keep the edge sharp. 3. If the tools are not being stored in a drawer, then have a sturdy hook to hang them on, and if possible make an outline of the tool so everyone knows where to put it. 4. When hanging heavy tools, such as axes or sledges, hang them with the head down.

The Hand Tools Manual 

About the Author
Thomas Dutton Dutton received a BS in Industrial Arts from Arizona State University (Tempe, AZ) and his Associates Degree from TSTC (Waco) in Biomedical Equipment. He has been an instructor at TSTC for nearly 4 years and is now Senior Instructor in the BET department. Tom Dutton believes that attitude provides the key to success. He works to instill integrity and honesty in the students who take his soldering and shop skills classes. “Most BMETs work alone,” he said. “They must have the integrity to do the best work possible, even if no one is going to check your work.”

The Hand Tools Manual 

TSTC Publishing
Established in 2004, TSTC Publishing is a provider of high-end technical instructional materials and related information to institutions of higher education and private industry. “High end” refers simultaneously to the information delivered, the various delivery formats of that information, and the marketing of materials produced. More information about the products and services offered by TSTC Publishing may be found at its Web site: http://publishing.tstc.edu/.

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