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Hanlei Zhang. Student Member. IEEE. and Mo-Yuen Chow. Fellow. IEEE.

parking deck charging during work [1]. PHEVs also provide additional energy storage for future smart grids through Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) [3] and Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) [4] technologies. For practical reasons, consumers need PHEVs with compact and long life battery packs. In addition, the majority of the current power system infrastructures is more than 50 years old and is difficult to satisfy the ever-increasing customer needs, especially when PHEVs are penetrating the market in the foreseeable future [1, 5]. In both of the V2G and V2H techniques, introduced to enable the smart grid concept put forward to reform the existing power systems, PHEV batteries are especially important because they act as spare/reserved power (4kW/per car) when power from grid is insufficient, and power storages to absorb the excessive power provided by the grid during off-peak hours [6]. Like a gasoline automobile driver, a PHEV driver also needs to know how far the car can still cover with its battery, and how much time left for him to re-charge his battery. The batterys state information, such as its state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH) and state-of-function (SoF) [7], can help answer these questions. Yet, precise battery state information will only be obtained with an accurate battery model. The battery state information enables optimal control over the batterys charging/discharging process, reduce the risk of overcharge and undercharge the battery [8], prolong the battery life, manage the battery to its optimal usage [9], and enable optimal V2G and V2H applications. As early as 1965, Shepherd [10] developed a mathematical equation, as in (1) to directly describe the electrochemical behavior of a battery in terms of a cells potential E, no-load voltage and the potential drop due to the internal resistance N. No-load voltage is fitted by a constant voltage Es, a reciprocal function and an exponential function.

Abstract--With the increasing demand in PHEV safety, performance, etc., the PHEV applications require a battery model which can accurately reflect and predict the battery performance under different dynamic loads, environmental conditions, and battery conditions. An accurate battery model is the basis of the precise battery state (state of charge, state of health and state of function) estimation. And the precise battery state information can be used to enable the optimal control over the batterys charging/discharging process, therefore to manage the battery to its optimal usage, prolong the battery life, and enable vehicle to grid and vehicle to home applications fitting into the future smart grid scenario. One of the challenges in constructing such a model is to accurately reflect the highly nonlinear battery I-V performance, such as the batterys relaxation effect and the hysteresis effect. This paper will mainly focus on the relaxation effect modeling. The relaxation effect will be modeled through series connected RC circuits. Accuracy analysis demonstrates that with more RC circuit the battery model gives better accuracy, yet increases the total computational time. Therefore, to select an appropriate battery model for a certain PHEV application is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem balancing between the model accuracy and the computational complexity within the constraints set by the minimum accuracy required and the maximum computational time allowed. This multi-objective optimization problem is mapped into a weighted optimization problem to solve. Index TermsElectric battery model, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), battery relaxation effect, accuracy analysis, computational complexity analysis, multi-objective optimization.

LUG-IN Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have been drawing significant attention because of the increase in oil consumption and environmental pollution [1-2]. The cost for electricity to power PHEVs for all-electric operation has been estimated at less than one quarter of the cost of gasoline. Also, PHEVs are environment friendly. With electricity recharging the PHEV batteries coming from renewable energy, air pollution and dependence on petroleum can be reduced dramatically. In addition, PHEVs provide convenience to customers with the choice of home recharging during night or

This work was supported by Engineering Research Centers (ERC) Program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number EEC08212121. Hanlei Zhang is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 USA (email: hzhang8@ncsu.edu). Mo-Yuen Chow is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 USA (email: chow@ncsu.edu).

I. INTRODUCTION

The generic battery model [11] provided by MATLAB/Simulink SimPowerSystems is based on this equation. However, this model is too simple to reflect the performance of a battery under dynamic changing current load. Impedance-based model, adopted by many researchers [1213], measures the batterys impedance with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method, then use an equivalent circuit to represent the impedance spectra. Randles circuit [14] is often used for this purpose because it has a similar

impedance spectrum with that of a Lithium-Ion battery. However, researchers also have demonstrated that different battery types, such as the Lithium-Ion batteries [12] and NIMH batteries [13], have different shape of impedance spectra. Therefore, it is difficult to construct a parameterized battery model based on this method. Power provided by battery comes from the chemical reaction inside, and this process is highly nonlinear. One of the challenges of constructing an accurate battery model is to accurately reflect these highly nonlinear relationships, such as the battery relaxation effect and hysteresis effect. If a battery is left to relax after charging or discharging, it takes some time for the terminal voltage to relax to the new steady state value. This is called relaxation effect. And because of the hysteresis effect, the voc (open circuit voltage) of a battery not only depends on the battery SoC, but also influenced by the batterys charging/discharging history. In practice, PHEVs will not always operate under constant current. Load current of the battery changes when a PHEV accelerates or decelerates. In addition, if driven under charge-sustaining mode, or parked at home/packing deck with V2H or V2G technique enabled, the PHEV battery will be charged and discharged momentarily. In order to reflect the battery performance in real life, a battery model must be able to reflect both relaxation and hysteresis effects accurately. In addition, PHEVs are usually working under a wide ambient temperature, from -27C to +40C. The battery performance can drift dramatically with temperature variation. Usually higher temperature means more capacity can be drawn out of the battery. The battery performance also keeps deteriorating with its age. After 1000 charging cycles, under 25 C, a Lithium-Ion battery may loss 10% of its capacity. The battery degradation is also temperature related. With higher temperature, this deterioration process will be faster. Therefore, in order to be accurate, a battery model should also be able to adapt to its environmental conditions and age. Recently, researchers [15-17] are using Thevenins theorem to construct battery models. The basic idea is to use resistors representing the batterys internal resistance and a controlled voltage source representing the batterys electromotive force (EMF). This method reflects the battery performance macroscopically, and can be used to construct a parameterized model with different parameters representing different batteries and types. With this model technique, the relaxation effect can be modeled by series connected RC parallel circuits [15], and the hysteresis effect can be modeled through voc-SoC hysteresis loop. Therefore, the model constructed is accurate under dynamic current load. In addition, with model parameter adaptation, this model can also reflect the environmental effects (temperature, humidity, etc.) and aging effect. In this paper, an equivalent circuit based on the Thevenin's theorem is used as a batterys base model to provide accurate battery I-V performance. Series connected RC parallel circuits are used to model the batterys relaxation effect. Later, the vocSoC hysteresis loop (obtained from charging/discharging experiments) will also be used to reflect the battery hysteresis effect to further improve the accuracy of the battery model.

The characteristic parameters of the battery model are identified through pulse charging/discharging techniques, which can be easily implemented with standard laboratory equipments, such as power supply, electronic load and multimeters. Parameter-SoC relationship can be identified through the terminal voltage measurements and parameter-current relationship can also be identified through different current value used during the pulse charging/discharging experiments. Heuristically, with more RC parallel circuits used, the model will be more accurate in reflecting a batterys I-V performance. However, more RC parallel circuits also mean higher complexity, which is often not preferred for real-world applications. Through accuracy analysis and computational complexity analysis, this paper provides criterions for the model selection based on the application requirements. The remainder of the paper is organized as the following. Section II introduces the battery equivalent circuit used and the relaxation effect modeling. Section III describes the model parameter identification method. Section IV uses the accuracy analysis and computational complexity analysis to deduce the criterions for the model selection according to application requirements. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section V. II. THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF ONE BATTERY CELL A. Equivalent Circuit The equivalent circuit used in this paper is constructed based on the Thevenin's theorem. The circuit is composed of two parts, as shown in Fig. 1. The left part describes how the battery SoC varying with the current. The capacitor CCapacity reflects the battery capacity. The right part describes the relation between the load current and the battery terminal voltage. Series connected RC parallel circuits are used to model the battery relaxation effect.

B. Relaxation Effect Modeling RC parallel circuits are used here to model the battery relaxation effect. With one RC parallel circuit modeling the battery relaxation effect, non-ignorable modeling error exists and while two series connected RC parallel circuits are used, the modeling error is reduced dramatically, as shown in Fig. 2.

Voltage (v) Current (A) Voltage (v) Current (A)

Fig. 2. (a) Relaxation effect modeling with one RC parallel circuit; (b) relaxation effect modeling with two series connected RC parallel circuits.

with this method. Heuristically, more RC circuits provide better modeling accuracy; however, criterions must be enacted to demonstrate how many is appropriate. In Section IV, the proper number of RC circuits will be discussed for the PHEV applications. III. MODEL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION A. Charging/discharging Experiment In order to obtain the characteristic parameters of the model, an automatic remote battery charging/discharging web based workstation has been developed with standard laboratory equipments, as shown in Fig. 3.

3 2.5 R0 / mohm 0 0.5 1 3.5 Voc / v 40 20 0

30 R1 / mohm 20 10 0

20 10 0

3 C1 / kF 2 1

1 C2 / kF 0.5 0

0.5

0.5

0.5

R2 / mohm

0.5 SoC

0.5 SoC

vt be the battery terminal voltage obtained from t be the estimated battery terminal voltage experiment, and v

Let obtained from the model. The modeling error is defined as

A power supply (ZUP120-3.6) is used to charge the battery, with a standard constant current constant voltage (CCCV) charging method [18] to ensure a full charging. An electronic load (Chroma 63108) is used to discharge the battery. Two multi-meters (Fluke 45) are used to measure the battery terminal voltage and the load current. B. Parameter Identification Algorithm Fig. 4 shows the voltage and current measurements from the pulse discharge experiment.

Fig. 6 shows the comparison between the experimental battery terminal voltage and the model estimated battery terminal voltage and the modeling error e with different number of RC circuit.

3.5 3.2 2.9 0 vt vt 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 0.5 1 1.5 Time (s) -0.2 0 2 104 (a) One RC model vt vt 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 2.9 0 0.5 1 1.5 Time (s) 2 104 -0.2 0 0.5 1 1.5 Time (s) 2 104 0.5 1 1.5 Time (s) 2 104

3.5 3.2

Fig. 4. Terminal voltage and load current of the battery during the pulse discharge experiment.

vt vt

3.2 2.9 0

Theoretically, only after infinite relaxation time, v3 equals to the battery EMF. However, infinite relaxation time is not realistic in practice. Here, the relaxation time is set as half an hour (at least ten times the constant of the RC circuit dynamics), which is a good enough approximation of the steady-state error value with an error less than 0.0624%. The voltage increase from v1 to v2 equals to the voltage on the internal resistor R0 before t0. Thus, R0 is calculated though:

0.5

2 104

0.5

2 104

Fig. 6. The experimental battery terminal voltage and the estimated battery terminal voltage from battery model, and the modeling error of battery models containing from one to three RC circuits.

Root mean square percentage error (RMSPE) and maximum percentage error (MPE) as described in (3) and (4) are used to quantify the model accuracy:

R0 =

v2 v1 . iL

(2)

Through least squares error fitting, the other parameters, R1, C1, , Rm and Cm can also be identified. Fig. 5 shows the model characteristic parameters identified

1 RMSPE = n

vt v ti i vt i =1 i

n

100%,

(3)

vt v ti i vt i

100%.

(4)

RMSPE reflects the average behavior of the modeling error, and MPE reflects the worst case of the modeling error. Fig. 7shows the RMSPE and MPE of the models with RC circuits ranging from one to five.

(2) On-line parameter identification In PHEV applications, the load condition of the battery (e.g. accelerating and decelerating) keeps changing, and so do the environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, etc.) and the batterys age. Therefore, in order to capture these effects with the model, one approach is to constantly update the model parameters to properly reflect the most up-to-date battery conditions and performance. In the future, we will adapt the parameter value on-line based on the in-situ battery measurements. Thus the models complexity can be a major bottleneck for the on-line usage, if not handled properly. Suppose a set of n data points from the battery terminal voltage measurements, (t1, v1), (t2, v2), , (tn, vn) are represented by the following equation:

Fig. 7. RMSPE and MPE of models containing from one to five RC circuits.

v ( t ) = f ( ) = R1e

where the vector =

+ R2 e

+ ... + Rm e

(5)

The accuracy analysis demonstrated that with more RC circuits the battery model provides better modeling accuracy. In addition, the second RC circuit contributes the most to the improvement in the model accuracy. With three or more than three RC circuits contained in the battery model, although the modeling error is still decreasing, however, the speed of this decrease is slower and slower. B. Computational Complexity Analysis More RC circuits used increases the modeling accuracy, yet also increases the models computational complexity. (1) Battery performance prediction For the battery performance prediction, we need to calculating the models output (the terminal voltage vt) according to the models input (the load current iL). Pseudo code for the battery performance prediction is given as the following:

% f s is the sampling rate. SoC ( k ) = SoC ( k 1) + iL ( k 1) 1 1 , Q ( k 1) f s

1 R1 C1 f s

[ R1 , C1 , R2 , C2 ,

K , Rm , Cm ] ,

We can

i = Ri Ci .

formulate the model parameter identification as a typical least squares fitting problem solved by the Gauss-Newton algorithm with the following steps: (1) Initial parameter setting:

o o o o o o o = R1 , C1 , R2 , C2 , K , Rm , Cm .

i = 1, 2,K , n .

r1 R 1 r2 R J = 1 L rn R1

r = v f ( t , o ) , where ri = vi f ( ti , o ) ,

r1 r1 L 1 Rm r2 r2 L 1 Rm L L L rn rn L 1 Rm

1

vRC1 ( k ) = vRC1 ( k 1) R1 iL ( k 1) e

+ R1 iL ( k 1) , + R2 iL ( k 1) , + Rm iL ( k 1) ,

vRC2 ( k ) = vRC2 ( k 1) R2 iL ( k 1) e

1 R2 C2 f s

r1 m r2 m . L rn m

vRCm ( k ) = vRCm ( k 1) Rm iL ( k 1) e

1 Rm Cm f s

= ( J T J ) J T v , and n = o + .

n

(5) Repeat step (2) until the residual r is less than a predetermined threshold, is then estimated as the optimal solution of the problem. The computational complexity of step (2) is nmkM(k), the computational complexity of step (3) is 2nm2kM(k), and the computational complexity of step (4) is (8m3+8nm2+2nm)M(k). Thus, the computation complexity of the model parameter update is [8m3+2n(k+4)m2+n(k+2)m]M(k). The total execution time equals to the total instructions multiplied by the average CPI (Cycles per Instruction of the

Suppose the data precision is k-bit, for example a doubleprecision number occupies 64 bits in the computer memory, and a quadruple-precision number occupies 128 bits. The computational complexity of the Pseudo code is kM(k), where M(k) stands for the computational complexity of the multiplication operation, with SchnhageStrassen algorithm [19] M(k)=k(logk)(loglogk). Therefore, a model with m RC circuits has a computational complexity of mkM(k).

CPU) and divided by the clock rate of the CPU (33MHz for a typical microprocessor for an embedded system, such as the Intel 80386). The average CPI of a CPU is usually around 2.5, means 2.5 CPU cycles are needed to complete each instruction. The total execution time consumed by the battery models with the number of RC circuits ranging from one to five and data precision ranging from 8-bit to 128-bit is shown in Fig. 8.

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 128 1 2 2.5

1.5

ta p

5 0.5

Da

rec 64 is io n( bit

4 3

s)

16 8

2 1

f RC ber o Num

its circu

Fig. 8. The execution time of models with from one to five RC circuits and from 8-bit to 128-bit data-precision.

The computational complexity analysis demonstrated that with more RC circuits included in the battery model, the total execution time increases rapidly. C. Model Selection An accurate battery model is required in order to provide precise battery state information, and less model complexity is also required so that the model can be used in real-time. However, as has demonstrated by the accuracy and the complexity analysis, these two requirements conflict with each other. Therefore, to select a proper model for a certain application is actually to balance between the model accuracy and the model complexity. The model selection is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. There are two objectives: to maximize the model accuracy and to minimize the model complexity. There are also two constrains: the minimum accuracy required and the maximum complexity allowed. With J1 representing the modeling error and J2 representing the total execution time, the optimization problem can be formulated as:

With the two constraints, the feasible area for the optimal solution will be narrowed. Suppose the application requires a modeling error less than 10%, only area I is the feasible region. If the application also requires an execution time less than 2s, only area II is the feasible region. With both of them, the optimal solution can only be selected within the area III (overlap of area I and area II). V. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKS Series connected RC parallel circuits are used in this paper to model the battery relaxation effect. Heuristically, more RC parallel circuits included in the battery model will bring better modeling accuracy; however, will also bring more computational complexity. Based on the results of the accuracy and complexity analysis, the model selection is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. This optimization problem tries to find the optimal solution through maximizing the modeling accuracy while minimizing the modeling complexity, subjecting to the two constraints: the minimum model accuracy required and the maximum model complexity allowed. And this multi-objective optimization problem is mapped into a weighted optimization problem to solve. In the future, the battery hysteresis effect will also be modeled in order to further increase the accuracy of the battery modeling and the battery state estimation. In addition, on-line model parameter identification methods will also be researched so that the model can be adaptive to the varying environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) and the battery age. REFERENCE

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min J = w1 J1 (m) + w2 J 2 ( m)

m

*

(6)

*

is the maximum execution time allowed. w1 and w2 are weighting factors set according to the application. A larger w1 means more emphasis on the modeling accuracy, and a larger w2 means more emphasis on the modeling real-time characteristic. Different optimal solution may arrive through minimizing J with different w1 and w2 settings, as shown in Fig. 9.

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