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Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Primary data


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4 4-9 10-12 12-19 20 21 21-25 25-31 31-33 30 31 32

Methods of primary data collection Observation method &various types of observation method Secondary data, sources & types Interviewing & depth interview Delphi method Conditions of successful interview Field work, nature, who conducts field work Principles of good interviewing Supervision of field workers Observation, nature Observation of human behaviour


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PRIMARY DATA Primary data are those data which are collected fresh and first time, and thus happen to be original in character. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and, until you publish, no one else has access to it.


OBSERVATION METHOD Observation method is the mostly commonly used method. Observation method becomes a scientific tool and method of data collection for the researcher, when it serves a formulate research purpose and systematically planned. Under the observation method the information is sort by way of investigators own direct observation without asking


from respondent. For instance, in a study relating to consumer behavior, the investigator instead of asking the brand of wrist watch used by the respondent, may himself look at the watch. While using this method the researcher should keep in mind things like what should be observed? How the observation should be recorded? How the accuracy of observation can be ensured? Advantage • • • The advantage of this method is that subjective bias is eliminated if the observation is done accurately The information under this method relates to what is currently happening This method is independent of respondent

Disadvantages • • • It is expensive method Information provided by this method is very limited Sometime unforeseen factors may interface with the observation task

Interview method The Interview method of data collection involves presentation of oral verbal stimuli and reply in term of oral verbal responses. This method can be used through personal interview and, if possible through telephone interviews. Personal interviews Personal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer asking question generally in face to face contact to the other person or persons. The interview may be in the form of direct personal investigation or it may be an indirect oral investigation. In case of direct personal investigation the interviewer has to collect the information personally from the source concerned. He has to be on the spot and has to meet the people from whom data have to be collected. This method is particularly suitable for intensive investigation. The interview may be carried in structured or unstructured way, structured interview involve use of


set of predetermined question and highly standardized techniques of recording. Thus, the interview in a structured interview follows a rigid procedure laid down, asking question in a form and order prescribed. In the non-structured interview method the interviewer is allowed much greater freedom to ask, in case of need, supplementary questions or at times he may omit certain question if the situation so requires.

Advantages • • • • More information and that too in greater depth can be obtained Interviewer by his own skill can overcome the resistance, if any, of the respondent. The interviewer can usually control the person who is answering This method is more flexible.

Disadvantage • • • It is very expensive and time consuming, specially when large geographical sample is taken Interviewing at times may also introduce systematic error. Under Interview method the organization required selecting, training of interviewer.

Telephone interviews This method of data collecting consists in contacting on respondent on telephone itself. It is not widely used method. Advantage • • • • It is more flexible It is faster than other method Interviewer can explain requirement more easily Recall is easy


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Disadvantage • • • Little time is given to respondent for considered answer Surveys are restricted to respondent who have telephone Extensive geographical coverage may get restricted by cost consideration

Collection of data through questionnaires This method of data collection is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquires. It is being adopted by private individual, research worker, private and public organization and even by the government. In this method, questionnaire is sent to the person concerned with a request to answer the question and return the questionnaire. A questionnaire consists of number of question printed or typed in a definite order on a form of set of forms. The questionnaire is mailed to respondent who are expected to be read and understand question and write down the reply in the space meant for the purpose in the questionnaire itself.

Advantage • • • • There is low cost even when large and widely spread geographical area is concerned It is free from the bias of the interviewer Respondent have adequate time to give well thought out answer Respondents, who are not easily approachable can also reached conveniently

Disadvantage • • • • The lower rate of return of duly filled in questionnaires It can be used only when respondent are educated and co-operating The control over the questionnaire may lost once it sent This method is likely slowest of all the methods

Collection of data through schedules


This method of data collection is very much likely the collection data through the questionnaires, with the little difference which lies in the fact that schedules are being filled in by the enumerators who are specially appointed for this purpose. These enumerators along with schedules go to respondent, put them the questions from the proforma in the order the questions are listed and records replies in the space meant for the same in the proforma. This method requires selection of enumerators for filling up schedules or assisting respondent to fill up schedules and as such enumerators should be carefully selected. Enumerators should be intelligent and must possess the capacity of cross examinations in order to find the truth. This method of data collection is very useful in the extensive enquiries and can lead to fairly reliable result. It is however very expensive and usually adopted in the investigation conducted by government agencies or by some big organization. For eg. Population censes done by govt.

Advantage • • • It can be adopted in those cases where informants are illiterate. There is very little non- response as the enumerators go personally to obtain the information. The information received is more reliable as the accuracy of statements can be checked by supplementary questions wherever necessary.

Disadvantage • • Amongst the various methods of collecting primary data, this method is costly as enumerators are generally paid persons. The success of the methods depends largely upon the training imparted to the enumerators.


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Skilled interviewing requires experience and training, but there is a tendency for statistics to neglect this extremely important part of the data collecting process.

Other methods of data collection

Electronic media as method of data collection (e mail, fax, online) We can also use the one of the method or source of primary data collection.

Warrantee card Warrantee cards are usually postal sized cards which are used by dealer of consumer durables to collect the information regarding their products. The information sought is printed in the form of questions on the warrantee cards which is placed along with the product with a request to a consumer to fill in a card and post it back to the dealer

Distributor audit Distributor audit are performed by distributor as well as manufacturer through their salesmen at the regular interval of time. Distributors get usually the retail store audited through salesmen and use such information to estimate market size market share, purchasing pattern and so on. The data are obtained in such audits are not by questioning but by observation.


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Consumer panel The extension of pantry audit approach on regular basis is known as consumer panel where a set of consumers are arranged to come to an understanding to maintain detailed a daily record of their consumption and same is made available to investigator on demand.

Use of mechanical device The use of mechanical device has been widely made to collect the information by the way of indirect means. For e g. Eye camera, C C TV’s etc.

Observation method Observation involves recording the behavioural patterns of people, objects and events in a systematic manner. Observational methods may be:
• • • • • •

structured or unstructured disguised or undisguised natural or contrived personal mechanical non-participant or participant

Structured or unstructured Structured


In structured observation, the researcher specifies in detail what is to be observed and how the measurements are to be recorded. It is appropriate when the problem is clearly defined and the information needed is specified. Unstructured In unstructured observation, the researcher monitors all aspects of the phenomenon that seem relevant. It is appropriate when the problem has yet to be formulated precisely and flexibility is needed in observation to identify key components of the problem and to develop hypotheses. The potential for bias is high. Observation findings should be treated as hypotheses to be tested rather than as conclusive findings. Disguised or undisguised Disguised In disguised observation, respondents are unaware they are being observed and thus behave naturally. Disguise is achieved, for example, by hiding, or using hidden equipment or people disguised as shoppers. Undisguised In undisguised observation, respondents are aware they are being observed.. Natural or contrived Natural In natural observation involves observing behaviour as it takes place in the environment, for example, eating hamburgers in a fast food outlet. Contrived In contrived observation, the respondents’ behaviour is observed in an artificial environment, for example, a food tasting session.


Personal In personal observation, a researcher observes actual behaviour as it occurs. The observer may or may not normally attempt to control or manipulate the phenomenon being observed. The observer merely records what takes place. Mechanical Mechanical devices (video, closed circuit television) record what is being observed. These devices may or may not require the respondent’s direct participation. They are used for continuously recording on-going behaviour. Non participant or Participant Non participant The observer does not normally question or communicate with the people being observed. He or she does not participate.

Participant In participant observation, the researcher becomes, or is, part of the group that is being investigated. Participant observation has its roots in ethnographic studies (study of man and races) where researchers would live in tribal villages, attempting to understand the customs and practices of that culture. It has a very extensive literature, particularly in sociology (development, nature and laws of human society) and anthropology (physiological and psychological study of man). SECONDARY DATA


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The secondary data constitute the chief material on the basis of which statistical work is carried out in many investigations. It should be noted that it is the process of assembling primary data which is called “collection” of statistics and is different from the from the process of “compiling” statistics (i.e. secondary data) from various published source. To quote Crum, Patton and Tebutts, “Collection means the assembling, for the purpose of a particular investigation, of entirely new data, presumably not already available in published sources.” We have used the term “collection” in this report strictly in the narrow sense defined above.


According to W.A.Neiswanger “A primary source is a publication in which the data are published by the same authority which has gathered and analyzed them. A secondary source is a publication reporting data which has been gathered by other authorities and for which other are responsible.” In other words secondary data is one which is collected by some earlier agency but it is used and analyzed by any other for its own use. The various sources of secondary data may be divided into two broad categories:

a) Published statistics.

There are a number of national ( government , semi government and private) organization and also international agencies which collect statistical data relating to business , trade ,labour, prices , consumption , production , industries , agriculture, income, currency and exchange, health, population and a number of socio – economic phenomenon and publish their findings in statistical report ion a regular basis ( monthly, quarterly, annually, ad-hoc) these publication of various organization serve as a very powerful source of secondary data. Given below is brief summary of these sources

1. Official publication of central government.


The following are various government organization along with the year of their establishment which collect , compile and published statistical data on number of topics of current interest- prices , wages , population, production and consumption, labour ,trade army etc. :

• • • • • • •

Central Statistical Organization (C.S.O.) – Ministry of Planning (1951)

Department of Statistics,

National Sample Survey Organization (N.S.S.O)- Department of Statistics Ministry of Planning (1950) Office of The Registrar General And Senses Commissioner of India New Delhi (1949) Directorate of Economics And Statistics- Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (1948) Directorate General Of Commercial Intelligence And Statistics- Ministry of Commerce (1895) The Indian Army Statistical Organization (I.A.S.O)- Ministry of Defence. (1947) Labour bureau – Ministry of Labour (1946)

A separate statistical department is attached to almost all the main ministries at the Center and State levels which collect a publish statistics weekly, monthly and annually depending upon the nature of the subject. The main publications are: Statistical Abstract of India (annual), Monthly Abstract of Statistics, Annual survey of Industries, Agricultural Statistics of Indian Trade Journal Labour Gazettes, Statistical system of India, National income statistics.

2. Publication of Semi-Government Organization.


Useful information is also published in the publications of various semi government statistical organizations enumerated below.

• • • •

The Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi The Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi Gokhale Institute of Politics And Economics, Pune. Department of Economic Analysis and Policy and Department of Statistical Analysis and Computer services of Reserve Bank Of India

Further, the statistical material published by various other institution like Municipal and district boards corporations, block and Panchayat samitis on Births and Deaths, Health, Sanitation and other related subjects provides fairly useful and reliable statistical information.

3. Publication of Research Institutions. Individual research scholars, the different department in the universities and various research organizations and instituted like Indian Statistical Institute (I.S.I) Calcutta and Delhi; Indian Council of Agricultural Research (I.C.A.R), New Delhi; Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute (I.A.S.R.I) New Delhi; National Council of Research and Training (N.C.E.R.P), New Delhi; National Council of Applied Economics Research, New Delhi; The Institute of The Applied Manpower Research, New Delhi and so on publish the findings of the research programs in the form of research papers or monograph and journals which are a continuous source of secondary data on the subject concerned.

4. Publication of Business and Financial Institutions.


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A number of private commercial and trade association like Sugar mills association, Indian cotton mills Federation, Federation of India, Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), Institute of Chartered Accountant of India, Trade Unions, Stoke Exchanges, Bank Bodies, Co-operative societies, etc. Published reports and statistical material on current economic, business and other phenomenon. Private concerns like Tata consultancy Services also publish statistics

5. Newspaper and Periodicals Considerable statistical material on a number of important current socio economic problems can be obtained from the numerous data collected and published by some reputed magazines periodicals and newspaper like Eastern Economists, Economic Times, The Financial Express, Indian Finance Commerce,Capital,Transport, Statesman Year Book and The Times of India Year Book.

6. Report of Various Committees in Commissions appointed by the government. The report of the enquiry commissions and committees of the central and state Governments to find their expert use on some important matters relating to economics and social phenomenon like wages, dearness allowance, price, national income, taxation, land, education, etc. are individual sources of secondary information. For instance Simon –Kuznets Committee Report on National Income in India, Wanchoo Commission Report on Taxation, Kothari Commission Report on Educational Reform, Pay Commissions Report, Land Reform Committee Report, Guptha Commission Report on Maruthi Affairs etc. are individual sources of secondary data

7. Publication Of International Bodies.


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The publication of number of International agencies provides invaluable statistical information on a variety of important Economics and Current topic. The publication of the united national organization (UNO) like UNO statistical year book, UN Statistical Abstract, Demographic Year Book etc: and its subsidiaries like World Health Organization (WHO) on contagious diseases; annual reports on international labour organization (ILO), International Monetary Fund (IMF); World Bank; International Finance Corporation (IFC); International Statistical Educational Institute etc are very valued sources of secondary data.

b. Unpublished Statistics All statistical data need not be published. Statistics of a wide range and variety can be compiled out of data taken from returns, registers and other records in the course of administrative work. Major source of statistics produced by the government, private and public concerns , business associations and international statistics is intended to serve various current and future purposes. An important features of collection of data from internal records is to use authentic data at minimal cost of collection

Two important type of administrative records from which data are collected are:  Document prepared for purposes of registration, applications for permits licenses , loans etc  Records relating to internal activities of institutions, e.g., cost records, periodical profits and loss statement, balance sheet, other periodical progress reports, operational budgets and performance records



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Secondary data may be classified as either internal or external. Internal data are those generated within the organization for which the research is being conducted. This information may be available hi a ready-to use format, such as information routinely supplied by the management decision support system. On the other hand, these data may exist within the organization but may require considerable processing before they are useful to the researcher. For example, s variety of information can be found on sales invoices. Yet this information may not be easily accessible; further processing may be required to extract it. External data are those generated by sources outside the organization. These data may exist in the form of published material, online databases, or information made available by syndicated services. Before collecting external secondary data, it is useful to analyze internal secondary data.

INTERNALSECONDARY DA A T Internal sources should be the starting point in the search for secondary data. Since most organizations have a wealth of in-house information, some data may be readily available and may provide useful insights. For example, sales and cost data are compiled in the regular accounting process. When internal data on sales showed Reebok ( that Internet sales were a mere 0.7 percent of their total sales but were rousing bad feelings among retailers, the company discontinued online selling. It is also possible to process routinely collected sales data to generate a variety of useful information, as illustrated by the department store example. Extensive analysis was conducted on internal secondary data in the department store patronage project This provided several rich insights. For example, sales were analyzed to obtain: Sales by product line Sales by major department (e.g.. mens wear, housewares) Sales by specific stores Sales by geographical region Sales by cash versus credit purchases Sales in specific time periods of sales by size of purchase


Sales trends in many of these classifications Secondary internal data have two significant advantages. They are easily available and inexpensive. In fact, internal secondary sources are generally the least costly of any source of marketing research information; yet these data often are not fully exploited. However, this trend is changing with the increased popularity of database marketing.

In most of the studies the investigator finds it impracticable to collect firsthand information on all related issues and as such he makes use of the data collected by others. There is a vast amount of published information from which statistical studies may be made and fresh statistics are constantly in a state of production. The sources of secondary data can broadly be classified under two heads EXTERNALSECONDARY DATA

Sources of published external secondary data include federal, state, and local governments, nonprofit organizations (e.g., Chambers of Commerce), trade associations and professional organizations, commercial publishers, investment brokerage firms, and professional marketing research firms. Ia fact, so much data are available that the researcher can be overwhelmed. Therefore, it is important to classify published sources. Published external sources may be broadly classified as general business data or government data. General business sources are comprised of guides, directories, indexes, and statistical data. Government sources may be broadly categorized as census data and other publications. Interviewing An INTERVIEW is a data-collection technique that involves oral questioning of respondents, either individually or as a group. Answers to the questions posed during an interview can be recorded by writing them down (either during the interview itself or immediately after the interview) or by tape-recording the responses, or by a combination of both.


Interviewing is a technique that is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations for people’s attitudes, preferences or behaviour. Interviews can be undertaken on a personal one-to-one basis or in a group. They can be conducted at work, at home, in the street or in a shopping centre, or some other agreed location. Advantages of Depth Interviews • • • • Can uncover deeper insights about underlying motives than focus groups. Can attribute the responses directly to the respondent, unlike focus groups. Result in a free exchange of information and there is no social pressure to conform. As a result of probing, it is possible to get at real issues when the topic is complex.

Disadvantages of Depth Interviews • • • • Skilled interviewers capable of conducting depth interviews are expensive and difficult to find. The quality and completeness of the results depend heavily on the interviewer's skills. The data obtained are difficult to analyze and interpret. The length of the interview combined with high costs limits the number of depth interviews.

Delphi Method In this method opinions are solicited from a number of other managers and staff personnel. The decision makers consist of a group of 5 to 10 experts who will be making the actual forecast. The staff personnel assist decision makers by preparing, distributing, collecting and summarizing a series of questionnaires and survey results. The managers whose judgments are valid are the respondents. This group provides input to the decision makers before forecast is made. Responses of each respondent are kept


anonymous which tends to encourage honest responses. Each new questionnaire is developed using the information extracted from the previous one, thus enlarging the scope of information on which participants can base their judgments. The goal is to achieve consensus forecast. Advantages  This method can be used to develop long-range forecasts of product demand and sales projections for new products.  Disadvantages   The process can take a long time. Responses may be less meaningful because respondents are not accountable due to anonymity.   High accuracy may not be possible. Poorly designed questionnaire will result in ambiguous or false conclusions. A panel of experts may be used as participants (respondents).

The conditions for a successful interview are as follows: Given the current global economic conditions, many of you are suddenly finding yourselves in a position where you have to compete for limited resources. The resources to which I am referring are jobs. Companies all over the world are laying off employees in record numbers and this situation doesn't appear to show any signs improvement in the near future. Whether you are going on your first interview or interviewing after being employed for a very long time, following the ten steps outlined below will help to ensure that you put your best foot forward and leave a favorable impression with interviewers. The interview process is like a dance. There is a time and a purpose for each movement that you make and each word that you speak, so let's review the basic steps that you need to take in order to ensure success.


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The Resume

Your resume is the tool that will provide your potential employer with key information about your skills and qualifications. This is the tool that they will use to determine whether or not you are selected for an interview. Make sure that your resume is current, accurate and contains no spelling errors.


Prior to the interview make sure that you read your resume aloud to yourself as many times as necessary to ensure that you can accurately communicate all of the information verbally during the interview process. These practice sessions will also help to put you more at ease during the actual interview.

Research Company Background

Always do your homework and research the background information on your potential employer's company so that you can speak intelligently to any questions that they may ask. The lack of basic information about the company may indicate that you are not serious about getting the job.

Poise and Confidence

Remain calm during your interview. Smile, maintain good eye contact and above all, listen. Maintain the all important balance between talking and listening. Talking too much or too little can work against you. Remember, this is like a dance so it is important to find the right balance. Paying attention to the verbal and non-verbal cues of the interviewer will help you determine the appropriate balance.


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Dress and Appearance

Dress appropriately for the position for which you are applying. Consider the environment or the culture in which you will be working and dress accordingly. Remember, first impressions are very important.  Self Talk

Get pumped up prior to the interview. Look at yourself in the mirror and tell yourself "This job is mine and I am going to go out and get it!"  Behavioral Questions

Be prepared to answer Behavioral Questions should they arise. These are questions that ask you to describe how you have handled certain work-related problems in the past. An example would be "Tell me about a time in the past when you had a disagreement with a co-worker. What was the conflict, how did you handle it and what was the end result?"  Buzz Words

Be sure to read the job description thoroughly prior to the interview to make sure that you understand all of the terminology that will be used by the interviewer. A lack of understanding of key words on your part could spell disaster.

Important Dont’s

Don't discuss personal information such as your financial status, family situation, or other non job-related items. Stick to discussing the knowledge, skills, and abilities that make you qualified for the job.



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Be sure to come prepared with a couple of basic questions to ask the interviewer. This will show that you have initiative and a sincere desire to get the job. Practice, preparation, and confidence are some of the key elements that you will need to achieve success during the interviewing process. Believe in yourself and invest in yourself because you are worth it! Be present...Take Action...Be Exceptional!

In this method opinions are solicited from a number of other managers and staff personnel. The decision makers consist of a group of 5 to 10 experts who will be making the actual forecast. The staff personnel assist decision makers by preparing, distributing, collecting and summarizing a series of questionnaires and survey results. The managers whose judgments are valid are the respondents. This group provides input to the decision makers before forecast is made. Responses of each respondent are kept anonymous which tends to encourage honest responses. Each new questionnaire is developed using the information extracted from the previous one, thus enlarging the scope of information on which participants can base their judgments. The goal is to achieve consensus forecast. Advantages  This method can be used to develop long-range forecasts of product demand and sales projections for new products.  Disadvantages   The process can take a long time. Responses may be less meaningful because respondents are not accountable due to anonymity.  High accuracy may not be possible. A panel of experts may be used as participants (respondents).


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Poorly designed questionnaire will result in ambiguous or false conclusions.

FIELDWORK : Field work is the fourth step in the marketing research process .It follows problem definition, development of the approach and formulation of the research design .During this phase the field workers make contact with the respondents , administer the questionnaires or observations forms , record the data , and turn in the completed forms for processing. A personal interviewer administering questionnaires door-to-door, an interviewer intercepting shoppers in the mall, a telephone interviewer calling from a central location, a particular section of a store, and others involved in data collection and supervision of the process are all field workers. General fieldwork/data-collection process is the process which involves the selection, training, and supervision of the field worker, the validation of fieldwork, and the evaluation of field workers.

NATURE OF THE FIELDWORK The nature of the fieldwork varies with the mode of data collection and the relative emphasis on the different steps will be different for telephone, mail, personal and electronic interviews. The marketing research data are rarely collected by the persons who design the research. Researchers have two major options for collecting their data: they can develop their own organizations or they can contract with a field work agency. In either case, data collection involves the use of some kind of field force. He field force may operate either in the field or from an office. The quality of field work is high because the fieldwork /data collection process is streamlined and well controlled.



A fieldworker is an individual who is responsible for gathering the data in the field; for example a personal interviewer administering a door-to-door questionnaire. The field workers who collect the data typically have little research background or training. Knowing the vital importance of the data collected in the field, the research administrator must concentrate on carefully selecting fieldworkers.

Some of the general qualifications fieldworkers need are;  Healthy – Fieldworkers can be strenuous and they must the stamina required to do the job.     Outgoing- they must be able to establish good rapport with the respondents. Communicative- effective speaking and listening skills are greatly required. Pleasant appearance- they should be neatly dressed. Educated- they must have good reading and writing skills.

ASKING THE QUESTIONS Asking questions is an art. Even a slight change in the wording or sequence or the manner can distort its meaning and bias the response .These are the following guidelines for asking questions.     Read each question slowly Repeat the questions that are not understood. Be thoroughly familiar with the questionnaire. Use the exact wording used in the questionnaire.

1. PROBING—it is a motivational technique used when asking survey questions to induce the respondents to enlarge on , clarify , or explain their answers and to help the respondents to focus on the specific content of the interview.


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Example; if the respondent hesitates, the interviewer should reassure the respondents with comments like;” there are no right or wrong answers. We are just trying to get your opinions”.

Although recording respondent answers seems simple, several mistakes are common. However specific guidelines are provided for recording the answers of the respondents.    Record responses during the interview. Use respondent’s own words. Do not summarize respondent’s answers.

 

Include all the comments. Repeat the response as it is written down.

Finally the interviewer should answer the respondent’s questions about the project. The respondent should be left with the positive feeling about the interview. Also it’s very important to thank the respondent and express appreciation.

IN-HOUSE TRAINING FOR INEXPERIENCED INTERVIEWERS After the personnel are recruited and selected, they must be trained. The objective of training is to ensure that the data collection instrument is administered uniformly by all fieldworkers. The goal of the training sessions is to ensure that each respondent is provided with common information. More extensive training programs are likely to cover the following topics:

1. How to make initial contact with the respondents and secure the interview.


2. How to ask the survey 3. How to probe 4. How to record responses 5. How to terminate the interview.

MAKING INITIAL CONTACT AND SECURING THE INTERVIEW An essential part of the interviewing process is establishing a very good rapport with respondent Interviewers are trained to make appropriate remarks that will convince a person that his or her cooperation is important. For example: Good afternoon. My name is------------- and I am from National survey Research Company. We are conducting a survey regarding ------------. I would like to get few of your ideas. For initial contact in a telephone interview, the introduction might be, Good evening. My name is ------------.I am calling from Burke research, Ohio. There are two main techniques for securing interviews.

Foot-in- the-door compliance technique. Based on the foot-in-the door theory, which attempts to explain a compliance

with a large or difficult task on the basis of the respondent’s prior compliance with a smaller request.

Door-in-the- face compliance technique. A two step method for securing a high response rate. In step 1 an initial

request, so large that nearly one refuses it, is made. In step 2 a second request is made for a smaller favor; respondents are expected to comply with this more reasonable request.


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Research on a technique presents some interesting considerations for improvement of fieldworkers .It also represents an ethical consideration if the respondent is deceived.

PRINCIPLES OF GOOD INTERVIEWING The principles of interviewing represent the essence of sound data collection for business research purposes. For clarity they have been divided into two categories:

 

The basics ---The interviewing point of view and Required practice---The standard enquiry premises and procedures.

The basics: The interviewer observes the following basic principles    Have integrity and be honest- this is cornerstone of all professional inquiry Have patience and tact-this is very important while interviewing Pay attention to accuracy and detail- never assume you know what a respondent is thinking or jump to any conclusion.  Keep the inquiry and respondent’s responses confidential- Do not discuss the studies with any one .never violate the privacy rule.

The required practices: 1) Complete the number of interviews according to the sampling plan assigned to you. 2) Follow the directions provided- lack of uniformity in the procedure can create wrong analysis. Hence follow the directions carefully.


3) Complete the questionnaire meticulously- Follow exactly all the rules and regulations of the questionnaire pattern. 4) Compare your sample execution and assigned quota with the total number of questionnaires you have completed- Do not consider your assignments done until you finished this. 5) Clear up any questions with the research agency- call the agency to get the matter clarified if any.

GUIDELINES ON INTERVIEWING; THE COUNCIL OF AMERICAN SURVEY RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS      Read each question carefully as written in the questionnaire. Do not mislead the respondents as to the length of the interview. Keep all the studies, materials and findings confidential. Clarify any question by the respondent in the neutral way. Remain neutral while interviewing .do not indicate agreement or disagreement with the respondent.      Speak slowly and distinctly so that words will be understood. Avoid unnecessary conversations with the respondents. Write neatly and legibly Check all the work for thoroughness before turning in to the supervisor Always thank the respondent for participating in the study.

Supervision of fieldworkers: a) Direct observation: Where the investigator is actually present during the task. b) By Evaluating task performance c) Participative observation/evaluation


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d) Quantitative supervision methods e) Qualitative supervision methods.

OBSERVATION OBSERVATION involves looking and listening very carefully. We all watch other people sometimes, but we don’t usually watch them in order to discover particular information about their behavior. OBSERVATION is a technique that involves systematically selecting, watching and recording behaviour and characteristics of living beings, objects or phenomena.

NATURE OF OBSERVATION: Business researchers can observe people, objects, events or other phenomena by assigning the task to human observers or by using machines designed for specific observation tasks. Human observers are commonly used when the situation or behaviour to be recorded is not easily predictable in advance of the research. Mechanical observation, such as by traffic counters on a factory floor, can be very accurate when the situation or behaviour to be recorded is routine, repetitive, or programmatic. Human or mechanical observation methods may be unobtrusive in that communication with the subjects is not generally necessary. Rather than ask customers how much time they spend shopping in a specific supermarket, the supermarket manager might observe and record shopping time by timing the interval between a shopper’s entering and leaving the store. The unobtrusive or nonreactive nature of the observation method often generates data without subject’s knowledge. An observation situation in which the observer’s presence is known to the subject is visible observation. A situation in which the subject is unaware that observation is taking place is hidden observation. Hidden, unobtrusive observation minimizes respondent error. Furthermore, asking subjects to participate in the research is not required when those subjects are


unaware that they are being observed. However, hidden observation raises an ethical issue concerning respondent’s privacy. The major advantage of observation studies over surveys, which obtain self-reported data from respondents, is that the data obtained by observation are not subject to distortions, inaccuracies, or other response biases due to memory error, social desirability, and so on. The data are recorded when the actual behaviour takes place. It mainly depends on:  The perception of the observer- An observer will be influenced by his perception (believes) while analysing the situation.        It is an in-depth psychological study of an event, situation or of behaviour. Time factor does matters It’s more hidden in nature Observation period is generally of short duration (frequency). Observation varies on the base of purpose It’s very complex in the process of analysis. Establishes a psychological relationship between observers and observe.

Human Observation:

Surveys emphasize verbal responses, while observation studies emphasize and allow for the systematic recording of nonverbal behaviour. A French researcher, who regularly visited his wife’s office in the early evening, observed a typical pattern: The married men and women were working overtime, and nearly all of the single men and married women had gone home. This led to the hypothesis that marriage helps men in their careers and hinders women, because the husband receives family support for job advancement while the married woman does not. This informal observation led to more rigorous quantitative studies. Toy manufacturers use the observation technique because children often cannot verbally express their reactions to a product. By observing children at play with a proposed toy, doll, or game, business researchers may be able to identify the elements of a potentially successful product. Researchers might observe play with toys to answer the following questions: “How long does the


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child’s attention stay with the toy? Does the child put the toy down after 2 minutes or 20 minutes? Are the child’s peers equally interested in the product?” Behavioural scientists have recognized that nonverbal behaviour can be a communication process by which meanings are exchanged between individuals. Head nods, smiles, raised eyebrows, and other facial expressions or body movements have been recognized as communication symbols. Observation of nonverbal communication has considerable promise for the business researcher. For example, with regard to customer-salesperson interactions, it has been hypothesized that in low-importance transactions where potential customers are easily replaced, salespersons may show definite nonverbal signs of higher status of the customer.


Zikmund William G, Business Research Methods,  Malhotra Naresh, Marketing Research,  http:/ ment_and_personal_development.  Kothari C. R, Research & Methodology, II edition, Wishwa Prakashan  Aswathappa. K, Production & operations management, Himalaya Publishing House


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