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Instructor: Architect Eva Maria Villanueva

CHURCH ARCHITECTURE simple, patterned after early Christian types; either rectangular or cruciform with simple naves and aisles thick walls reinforced with heavy buttresses for earthquakes protection immense sizes because of colonial policy which dictated that a church should be built for every 5000 baptized materials used include: volcanic tuff (adobe), hardened lava, volcanic ejecta, sandstone, river boulders, clay, corals, limestone, oyster shells, eggs SIGNIFICANT EXAMPLES PAOAY CHURCH, Ilocos Norte built in 1694 by Antonio Estavillo, completed 1702-1710 faade: rectangular, with arched doorway, four continuous pilasters alternating with niches finials and crenellations at pediment niche at the apex huge volutes with low relief lines tracing the contour to disguise the large buttresses

VIGAN CHURCH, Ilocos Sur finished in 1800 located within the grid iron planned streets of a colonial town baroque elements include protruding columns and solid frames; three arched doorways leading to three naves at the first level, guarded by ionic pillars with chinese fu dogs urn-like finial at pediment

SANTA MARIA CHURCH, Ilocos Sur constructed late 18th century, 85 steps leading to the church was built by Augustinian Benigno Fernandez massive brick church perched on a hill faade has circular buttresses, three openings and a blind niche, semi-circular pediment

TUMAUINI CHURCH, Isabela begun 1783-1788 by Dominican Domingo Forto and town mayor Pablo Sason; 1803-1808 circular belltower was completed pampango artisans carved the hardwood molds for the clay insets that decorate the church ultra-baroque : unique for its extensive use of baked clay both for wall finishes and ornamentation ornamental details : serpentine reliefs, spiral curves, flowers, foliage, sunfaces, cherubs and saints circular belltower with white limestone finish, decorated with bright red clay rosettes and festoons

BARASOAIN CHURCH, Bulacan 1871-1878 : stone church was constructed to replace wooden structure; 1880 earthquake ruined the church 1885 : Augustinian Juan Giron commissioned a builder named Magpayo to rebuild the church variation on the circle motif flutings on pilasters with ends blunted into semicircles detract from the NeoClassical belltower has a cubic base, three layes accented by blind and open windows, top has crenellations and six-sided cone

ANGAT CHURCH, Bulacan begun 1756-1773 by Augustinian Gregorio Giner; completed in 1802 by Fray Joaquin Calvo baroque style : coupled Corinthian and Doric columns divide faade into levels or segments, statues ringed with wreath-like ornaments flank niches, windows with bas-relief curtains plain three-storey belltower with balustered top

SAN SEBASTIAN CHURCH, Manila a church built for all times after previous churches were damaged by earthquakes in 1863 and 1880 designed in the Gothic style (without flying buttresses) by Genaro Palacios in Revivalist architecture made entirely of steel; plans were sent to Belgium where the parts were made in sections then transported to Manila interiors were painted to resemble faux marble; adorned with sculpture by Eusebio Garcia and painting by Lorenzo Rocha

adding to the height of the towers; these towers were damaged in the 1863 earthquake and were never rebuilt plaza adorned with Fu dogs represents colonial urban planning High Renaissance : superpositioned Tuscan orders at first level, Corinthian capitals at second level; circular windows at plain pediment; heavily carved, two-paneled main door with images of St. Augustine and St. Monica amidst Philippine flora nave is flanked by 12 collateral chapels each housing a Baroque or NeoClassic retablo Baroque elements include trompe loeil : sculpture by Italian artists Cesare Dibella and Giovanni Alberoni on the ceiling and pilasters cloisters built around an atrium with a garden planted by Augustinian botaninst Manuel Blanco

SAN AUGUSTIN CHURCH, Manila oldest church in the Philippines; built 1587-1607 by Juan Macias according to the plans approved by the Royal Audencia de Mexico and by a Royal Cedula 1854 : Don Luciano Oliver (Municipal Architect of Manila) directed the renovation of the faade by

TAAL CHURCH, Batangas 1858 : Fray Marcos Anton, with the help of the architect Don Luciano Oliver, started construction; the church was completed in 1878 built on top of a hill and may be reached through flagstone steps, unobstructed by other buildings faade : arched windows alternate with Ionic columns at first level, Corinthian at upper level; projected cornices and mouldings; three pediments interior is cavernous bur drab with stout piers and semi-circular apse : mathematical exactness rather than ornamentation MIAGAO CHURCH, Iloilo present church was built 1786-1797 under the supervision of fray Francisco Gonzales Maximo; a storey was added to the left belfry in 1830 also served as fortress against Muslim pirates, simple and massive structure mixed with ornate details local botanical motifs at faade reliefs reminiscent of cookie cutouts (de gajeta), used to describe 16th century Mexican architectural reliefs

DARAGA CHURCH, Albay established by people who fled the eruption of Mt. Mayon form Cagsawa the Franciscan wanted a church with the best features of Romanesque and Gothic, but it was executed by the carvers in Baroque faade : a whole tablet without columns and cornices, only symmetrically positioned fenestrations, apertures and niches; whorls, twisted columns, foliage, medallions, statues and reliefs

SANTO NINO DE CEBU BASILICA, Cebu built by Fray Juan de Albarran about 400 years ago, on the site where a soldier found an image of the Sto. Nino in a settlement that the Spanish soldiers have burned down the Convent was founded in 1565, making it the first to be built in the country constructed with stones from Panay and Capiz faade : blending of Moorish, Romanesque and NeoClassical elements; trefoils on the doorways; two levels divided into three segments and topped by pediment; retablo at the center belltower has four-sided balustraded dome interior : pierced screen with floral motifs, pineapple decors at the choirloft, corn cobs at the capital