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Chapter 5 Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks


At a Glance

Instructors Manual Table of Contents


Overview Objectives Teaching Tips Quick Quizzes Class Discussion Topics Additional Projects Additional Resources Key Terms Technical Notes for Hands-On Projects

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Lecture Notes

Overview
Chapter 5 explains low rate wireless personal area networks. Students will study wireless personal area network (WPAN). Chapter 5 lists the different WPAN standards and their applications. Students will also learn about IrDA, Bluetooth, and ZigBee technologies. Finally, Chapter 5 describes the security features of low-rate WPAN technology.

Objectives
Describe a wireless personal area network (WPAN) List the different WPAN standards and their applications Explain how IrDA, Bluetooth, and ZigBee work Describe the security features of low-rate WPAN technology

Teaching Tips
What is a WPAN?
1. Define a wireless personal area network (WPAN) as a group of technologies that are designed for short-range communications. WPAN eliminates the need for wires or cables to interconnect multiple devices. 2. Describe some of the applications available for WPAN technologies, including: a. Synchronizing PDAs, cellular, and Smartphones b. Home control systems (smarthome) c. Cordless telephones d. Portable device data exchange e. Industrial control systems f. Location smart tags used to locate people at home or at the office g. Security systems h. Interactive toys i. Inventory tracking Teaching Tip Read more about wireless personal area networks at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_personal_area_network.

3. Explain some of the advantages of WPAN, including: a. WPAN devices use very little power b. Short range helps maintain security and privacy

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Existing and Future Standards 1. Mention that the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is currently developing several different standards for WPANs. 2. Explain that interoperability is of utmost importance for any standard. For example, following the OSI protocol model allows manufacturers to ensure interoperability between their devices. 3. Compare the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Project 802 started by the IEEE, at about the same time ISO was creating OSI, to ensure interoperability among data networking products. Use Figure 5-1 to illustrate your explanation. Teaching Tip For more information about the OSI model, visit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osi_model.

Teaching Tip

For more information about the IEEEs Project 802, visit: http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/index.html.

Infrared WPANs (IrDA)


1. Mention that the most common infrared connections today are based on the IrDA specifications. The IrDA specifications define both the physical devices and the network protocols. 2. Describe the common characteristics of IrDA compliant devices, including: a. Provide walk-up connectivity b. Provide a point-to-point method of data transfer between only two devices at a time c. Cover a broad range of computing and communicating devices d. Inexpensively implemented 3. Use Table 5-1 to explain the four different versions of the IrDA specifications. 4. Explain that the IrDA specifications for the PHY layer describe the use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) to send signals and photodiodes to receive signals. 5. Explain that the Serial Infrared (SIR) (Version 1.0) was designed to work like the standard serial port on a PC. SIR uses a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter), a microchip that also controls a computers serial interface port.

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6. Describe how to transmit a 0 bit and a 1 bit using the 7-3-6 technique. Use Figure 5-2 to illustrate your explanation. 7. Describe the main characteristics of Fast Infrared (FIR) (Version 1.1). FIR extends the data rate to 4 Mbps. When two IrDA devices first communicate, they both transmit using SIR. They then exchange basic information, and, if both devices can accommodate the higher FIR speed, they shift to the faster rate. 8. Explain that FIR uses 4-pulse position modulation (4-PPM). In 4-PPM, information is conveyed by the position of a pulse within a time slot. Use Figure 5-3 to illustrate your explanation. Teaching Tip Read more about IrDA at: www.irda.org/.

Protocols Supported 1. Describe the main purposes of the following four protocols supported by IrDA: a. IrDA Physical Layer Protocol (IrPHY) b. IrDA Link Access Protocol (IrLAP) c. IrDA Link Management Protocol (IrLMP) d. IrDA Transport Protocols (TinyTP) 2. Explain the following optional extensions, as described in this section: a. IrWWW b. IrTran-P (Infrared Transfer Picture) c. Infrared printing (IrLPT) d. Other extensions: IrFM, IrSimple, and IrOBEX Other IrDA Considerations 1. Describe the following factors to consider when transmitting with infrared technology: a. Half-duplex transmission b. Deflection angle c. Ambient light d. Ease of use e. Security f. Distance limitation

RF WPANs
1. This section explains various RF WPANs technologies, including Bluetooth and 802.15.4 (ZigBee).

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IEEE 802.15.1 and Bluetooth 1. Define Bluetooth as an industry specification that defines small-form-factor, low-cost wireless radio communications. Teaching Tip Read more about Bluetooth at: www.bluetooth.com/Bluetooth/.

2. IEEE licensed this wireless technology, from the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), to adapt and copy a portion of the specification as the base material for 802.15.1. The 802.15.1 standard was approved in March 2, 2002 and is fully compatible with Bluetooth version 1.1. Teaching Tip For more information about the IEEE 802.15.1 standard, visit: www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG1.html.

Bluetooth Protocol Stack 1. Use Figure 5-4 to compare the Bluetooth protocol stack with the OSI protocol model. 2. Explain that the Bluetooth RF layer defines how the basic hardware that controls the radio transmissions functions. At this layer, data bits (0 and 1) are converted into radio signals and transmitted. 3. Define the radio module as a single radio transmitter/receiver (transceiver). It is the only hardware required for Bluetooth to function. Bluetooth can transmit at a speed of up to 1 Mbps. Bluetooth version 2.0 transmits at 2 or 3 Mbps. Use Figure 5-5 to show a Bluetooth transceiver. 4. Explain that Bluetooth uses a variation of frequency shift keying (FSK) called two-level Gaussian frequency shift keying (2-GFSK). 2-GFSK uses two different frequencies to indicate whether a 1 or a 0 is being transmitted. Use Figure 5-6 to illustrate your explanation. 5. Describe the Bluetooth Baseband layer. This layer lies on top of the RF layer and manages physical channels and links, handles packets, and does paging and inquiry to locate other Bluetooth devices in the area. 6. Explain that Bluetooth uses the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band. Bluetooth divides this frequency into 79 different channels spaced 1 MHz apart. Bluetooth also uses FHSS to transmit data. Use Figure 5-7 to illustrate your explanation.

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7. Mention that Bluetooth uses the same frequency as IEEE 802.11b WLANs. So devices that use Bluetooth can interfere with 802.11b WLANs. Bluetooth version 1.2 adds a feature called adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) that further improves compatibility with 802.11b. 8. Describe both types of Bluetooth devices: a. Master, controls all of the wireless traffic b. Slave, takes commands from the master 9. Define a piconet as a Bluetooth network that contains one master and at least one slave and that uses the same channel. Use Figure 5-8 to describe a piconet. Each Bluetooth device is preconfigured with an address needed when participating or not participating in the piconet. Use Table 5-3 to show the three most used piconet radio module addresses. 10. Describe the two-step process to connect Bluetooth devices. These steps are: a. Inquiry procedure b. Paging procedure 11. Mention that multiple piconets can cover the same area, and each can contain up to seven slaves. Bluetooth device can be a member of two or more overlapping piconets. 12. Define a scatternet as a group of piconets in which connections exist between different piconets. To communicate in each different piconet, a device must use the master device address and clock of that specific piconet. Use Figure 5-9 to describe a scatternet. 13. Mention that a Bluetooth device can be a slave in several piconets, but can be a master in only one piconet. A master and slave can switch roles in a piconet. 14. Use Figure 5-10 to describe the structure of a Bluetooth frame as explained in this section. Bluetooth Link Manager Layer 1. Describe both types of physical links: a. Synchronous connection-oriented (SCO) link b. Asynchronous connectionless (ACL) link 2. Use Table 5-4 to explain the supported Bluetooth link configurations. 3. Describe each one of the following three error correction schemes used in a Bluetooth connection: a. 1/3 rate Forward Error Correction (FEC) b. 2/3 rate FEC c. Automatic retransmission request (ARQ)

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4. Explain that since Bluetooth devices are designed to be mobile, conserving power is essential. The power consumption of a Bluetooth device varies depending on its connection mode. 5. Describe the following four power-saving modes used by Bluetooth devices once they are connected to a piconet: a. Active b. Sniff c. Hold d. Park Other Layers and Functions 1. Define the Logical Link Control Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) as the Logical Link Control layer responsible for segmenting and reassembling data packets. 2. Mention that the Radio Frequency Virtual Communications Port Emulation (RFCOMM) data protocol provides serial port emulation for Bluetooth data. 3. Explain that the LMP layer transmits control information.

Quick Quiz 1
1. FIR uses a modulation scheme called ____________________, in which information is conveyed by the position of a pulse within a time slot. Answer: 4-pulse position modulation (4-PPM) 4-pulse position modulation 4-PPM 2. At the heart of the Bluetooth RF layer is a single radio transmitter/receiver (transceiver). This single tiny chip is called a Bluetooth ____________________. Answer: radio module 3. A group of piconets in which connections exist between different piconets is called a(n) ____________________. Answer: scatternet 4. In ____________________ mode, a slave device listens to the piconet master at a reduced rate so that it uses less power. Answer: sniff

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IEEE 802.15.4-Low Rate WPANs (ZigBee) 1. Explain that the ZigBee standard provides for the connectivity of simple fixed and mobile devices that require only low data rates between 20 and 250 Kbps, consume a minimum amount of power, and typically connect at distances of 33 feet (10 meters) to 150 feet (50 meters). Teaching Tip For more information about ZigBee, visit: www.zigbee.org/. ZigBee Overview 1. Explain that the ZigBee specifications are based on the relatively low-level performance requirements of sensors and control systems. ZigBee devices are designed to remain quiescent for long periods of time, and ZigBee transmissions are designed to be short in range. Some ZigBee devices have the ability to route packets to other devices. 2. Describe the following basic classes of devices in a ZigBee network: a. Full-function device b. PAN coordinator c. Reduced-function device 3. Use Figure 5-11 to describe the ZigBee protocol stack. This protocol is based on the OSI seven-layer model, but defines only those layers that are relevant to achieving specific functionality. 4. Mention that there are a total of 27 channels across the different frequency bands. Use Table 5-5 to describe the 802.15.4 frequency bands and data rates. In addition, explain how data is modulated and transmitted in each of these bands. Use Figure 5-12 to illustrate your explanation. 5. Use Figure 5-13 to describe the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY frame format, as explained in this section. 6. Describe the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. This layer handles all access from the upper layers to the physical radio channel. Access to the medium is contention based and uses primarily CSMA/CA. The MAC layer can also use superframes instead of CSMA/CA. Teaching Tip Read more about CSMA/CA at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSMA/CA.

7. Define a superframe as a mechanism for managing transmission time in a piconet. It consists of a continuously repeating frame containing contention access periods, but it may also contain guaranteed time slots (GTS), which are reserved periods for critical devices to transmit priority data between two beacons.

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8. Explain that a beacon signals the beginning of a superframe and contains information about the type and number of time slots and the time synchronization frame for the network. Use Figure 5-14 to illustrate your explanation. 9. Mention that beacons are not required for device-to-device communications. Procedures for associating with and joining a network, routing, and so on, are embedded in the hardware. ZigBee devices are engineered to automatically associate with and join the network. Describe the device discovery and service discovery processes, as explained in this chapter. 10. Describe the impact of interference between ZigBee devices with IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth devices. 11. Use Figure 5-15 to describe the following four levels of addresses defined by the ZigBee specifications: a. IEEE address b. Network (PAN) address c. Node address d. Endpoint address 12. Use Figure 5-16 to describe the following basic network topologies: a. Start b. Mesh c. Tree 13. Explain that in both tree and mesh topologies, alternate paths may be available for packets. Use Figure 5-17 to illustrate your explanation. In cluster tree networks, alternate paths can only be available to a child or a full-function device if another fullfunction device is within its radio range. In a star topology, the network is controlled by the PAN coordinator. 14. Define cluster tree topologies as two or more tree topology networks that are interconnected by full-function devices. Use Figure 5-18 to describe a sample ZigBee cluster tree network. 15. Explain the power management considerations in a ZigBee network, as described in this section.

Low Rate WPAN Security


1. Explain that security should be of little concern with WPANs. One of the most serious concerns is social engineering. However, designing security in WPANs is much more difficult than in other networking technologies. 2. Define a public key infrastructure (PKI) as a unique security code, or key, provided by a certificate authority. A certificate authority is a private company that verifies the authenticity of users.

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Teaching Tip

Learn more about public key infrastructure (PKI) at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_key_infrastructure. Security in Infrared WPANs

1. Explain that security in IR is limited to the line-of-sight characteristic of this type of connection. IrDA specification makes no provision for encrypting data or protecting the connection, but users may encrypt a file before exchanging it. 2. Describe the security problems related with supporting open access in IR devices. Security in Bluetooth WPANs 1. Explain that Bluetooth provides security at the LMP layer using authentication. Authentication is based on identifying the device itself. Authentication scheme is a challenge-response strategy. 2. Define encryption as the process of encoding communications that ensures that the transmissions cannot be easily intercepted and decoded. Describe the three encryption modes available in Bluetooth: a. Encryption Mode 1 Nothing is encrypted b. Encryption Mode 2 Traffic from the master to one slave is encrypted, but traffic from the master to multiple slaves is not encrypted c. Encryption Mode 3 All traffic is encrypted 3. Describe the three levels of Bluetooth security: a. Level 1 No security b. Level 2 Service-level security c. Level 3 Link-level security Security in ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 WPANs 1. Explain that ZigBee WPANs use symmetric keys for authentication and encryption. In addition, IEEE 802.15.4 standard provides frame integrity, access control, and sequential freshness security services. 2. Explain that frame integrity uses a message integrity code (MIC). Access control is based on access control list (ACL). Sequential freshness is a security service used by the receiving device that ensures that the same frames will not be transmitted more than once. 3. Describe the three security modes in the 802.15.4 standard: a. Unsecured mode b. ACL mode (which uses access control) c. Secured mode (which uses full authentication and encryption)

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Quick Quiz 2
1. The upper ZigBee layers include mechanisms used by the devices to join a network, which is called ____________________. Answer: association 2. The ____________________ is a mechanism for managing transmission time in a piconet. Answer: superframe 3. ____________________ is the process of encoding communications, and ensures that the transmissions cannot be easily intercepted and decoded. Answer: Encryption 4. ____________________ is a security service used by the receiving device that ensures that the same frames will not be transmitted more than once. Answer: Sequential freshness

Class Discussion Topics


1. What is a wireless personal area network (WPAN)? 2. What are the security options available for Bluetooth devices?

Additional Projects
1. Ask your students to write a one-page report comparing the IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth protocol stack and the OSI model. 2. Ask your students to write a one-page report comparing the ZigBee protocol stack and the OSI model.

Additional Resources
1. How OSI works: http://computer.howstuffworks.com/osi.htm 2. IEEE 802: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802 3. Infrared Data Association: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IrDA

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4. Bluetooth: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth 5. IEEE 802.15.1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.15.1 6. EEE 802.15 Working Group for WPAN: http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/ 7. ZigBee: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZigBee 8. QuickStudy: ZigBee: www.computerworld.com/action/article.do? command=viewArticleTOC&specialReportId=9000060&articleId=111256 9. CSMA/CA & CSMA/CD: www.hackerscenter.com/wireless/csma.asp 10. Coaxial Cable: www.radioworks.com/ccoax.html

Key Terms
1/3 rate Forward Error Correction (FEC) An error correction scheme that repeats each bit three times for redundancy. 2/3 rate FEC An error correction scheme that uses a mathematical formula to add extra error correction bits to the data sent. 4-pulse position modulation (4-PPM) A modulation technique that translates two data bits into four light impulses. access control list (ACL) A list of addresses of other devices from which the device that maintains the list expects to receive frames. active mode A state in which the Bluetooth device actively participates on the channel. adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) A feature added by Bluetooth version 1.2 that further improves compatibility with 802.11b by allowing the master in a piconet to change the hopping sequence so that it will not use the frequency channel occupied by 802.11b in the piconet area. association A mechanism for a device to join a network. asynchronous connectionless (ACL) link A packet-switched link that is used for data transmissions. authentication The process of verifying that the device asking to join the piconet should be allowed to join. automatic retransmission request (ARQ) An error correction scheme that continuously retransmits until an acknowledgment is received or timeout value is exceeded.

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beacon A frame that signals the beginning of a superframe and contains information about the type and number of time slots contained in the superframe. binding The process of establishing a relationship between endpoints in a ZigBee network. Bluetooth radio module A single radio transmitter/receiver (transceiver) that performs all of the necessary transmission functions. carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) A device access mechanism in which all devices must listen to the medium to determine if the channel is free before transmitting. certificate authority An organization that supplies security keys and authenticates users. challenge-response strategy A process used to check if the other device knows a shared identical secret key. channels Another name for frequencies. Data Link layer The layer responsible for the transfer of data between nodes in the same network segment and that also provides error detection. device discovery The process of querying other devices on the network to identify their location and the number of devices connected. disassociation A mechanism used by devices to leave a network. encryption The process of encoding communications to ensure that the transmissions cannot be easily intercepted and decoded. enhanced data rate (EDR) A feature of the Bluetooth version 2.0 specification that allows it to support data rates of 2 and 3 Mbps by adding two new modulations, while remaining fully backward compatible with Bluetooth versions 1.1 and 1.2. frame A Data Link layer packet that contains the header and trailer required by the physical medium. full-function device A device used in 802.15.4 (ZigBee) networks that can connect to other full-function devices and has the capability of routing frames to other devices in a ZigBee network. It can also connect to endpoint or child devices. Full-function devices can maintain a connection to multiple devices. guaranteed time slots Reserved periods for critical devices to transmit priority data. hold mode A state in which the Bluetooth device can put slave units into a mode in which only the slaves internal timer is running. inquiry procedure A process that enables a device to discover which devices are in range and determine the addresses and clocks for the devices. IrDA An acronym for the Infrared Data Association and also a set of specifications for wireless infrared communications. Logical Link Control (LLC) One of the two sublayers of the IEEE Project 802 Data Link layer. master A device on a Bluetooth piconet that controls all of the wireless traffic. Media Access Control (MAC) One of the two sublayers of the IEEE Project 802 Data Link layer. message integrity code (MIC) A code composed of a subset of the data, the length of the data, and the symmetric key, used by the receiving device to verify that the data has not been tampered with during transmission. modulation index The amount that the frequency varies.

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offset quadrature phase shift keying (O-QPSK) A transmission technique used in 802.15.4 that uses two carrier waves of the same frequency but with a phase difference of 90 degrees between them. This technique modulates even numbered chips in the inphase wave and odd numbered chips in the other (Q-Phase), using quadrature amplitude modulation, before combining the waves for transmission. paging procedure A process that enables a device to make an actual connection to a piconet. PAN coordinator The 802.15.4 device that controls access to the piconet and optionally the timing as well. park mode A state in which the Bluetooth device is still synchronized to the piconet but it does not participate in the traffic. physical layer (PHY) The layer that is responsible for converting the data bits into an electromagnetic signal and transmitting it on the medium. piconet A Bluetooth network that contains one master and at least one slave that use the same channel. public key infrastructure (PKI) A unique security code that can verify the authenticity of a user. reduced-function device In ZigBee networks, a device such as a light switch or lamp, that can only connect to one full-function device at a time and can only join the network as a child device. scatternet A group of piconets in which connections exist between different piconets. sequential freshness A security service available in 802.15.4 used by the receiving device that ensures that the same frames will not be transmitted more than once. service discovery The process of sending a query to other devices on the network to identify their capabilities. slave A device on a Bluetooth piconet that takes commands from the master. sniff mode A state in which the Bluetooth device listens to the piconet master at a reduced rate so that it uses less power. superframe A mechanism for managing transmissions in a piconet. The superframe is a continually repeating frame containing a beacon, contention access periods, channel time allocation periods, and management time allocation periods. Using the superframe is optional in 802.15.4WPANs. symbol A data unit that can represent one or more bits. synchronous connection-oriented (SCO) link A symmetric point-to-point link between a master and a single slave in the piconet that functions like a circuit-switched link by using reserved slots at regular intervals. two-level Gaussian frequency shift keying (2-GFSK) A binary signaling technique that uses two different frequencies to indicate whether a 1 or a 0 is being transmitted in addition to varying the number of waves. UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) A microchip that controls a computers interface to its attached serial devices through a serial port or IrDA port. wireless personal area network (WPAN) A group of technologies that are designed for short range communications, from a few inches to about 33 feet (10 meters).

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ZigBee Alliance An association of manufacturers and interested organizations formed to promote the creation of a global standard for wireless devices used in monitoring and control applications.

Technical Notes for Hands-On Projects


Project 5-1: This project requires a notebook computer and another device equipped with infrared ports. Project 5-2: This project requires a notebook computer and another device with Bluetooth capabilities.