Biology Research Article | Ovarian Cancer | Estrogen

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is the ninth most common cancer among women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. It ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. Ovarian cancer accounts for about 3% of all cancers in women. A woman's risk of getting ovarian cancer during her lifetime is about 1 in 71. Her lifetime chance of dying from ovarian cancer is about 1 in 95. (These statistics don’t count low malignant potential ovarian tumors.) The rate at which women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer has been slowly falling over the past 20 years.

Risk factors for ovarian cancer
Age: Most ovarian cancers happen after change of life (menopause). Half of all these cancers are found in women over the age of 63. Obesity: Very overweight (obese) women seem to have a higher risk of getting ovarian cancer. A study from the American Cancer Society also found a higher rate of death from ovarian cancer in women who were overweight. The risk went up by 50% in the heaviest women. Having children: A woman who has had children has a lower risk of ovarian cancer than women who have no children. The risk goes down with each pregnancy. Breast feeding may lower the risk even further. Using birth control pills also lowers the risk of ovarian cancer if taken for more than 5 years. Female surgery: Having your "tubes tied" (tubal ligation) may reduce the chance of getting ovarian cancer. Removal of the uterus without removing the ovaries (a hysterectomy) also seems to reduce the risk of getting ovarian cancer. Fertility drugs: Some studies have found that use of the fertility drug clomiphene citrate (Clomid® )for longer than one year, especially if no pregnancy took place, may increase the risk of low malignant potential tumors. But not having children also increases the risk, even without the use of fertility drugs. Research in this area is now going on. If you are taking this drug, you should talk to your doctor about the possible risks. Male hormones: Androgens are male hormones. Women who took androgens were found to have a higher risk of ovarian cancer. Further studies are planned to look at this. Estrogen therapy and hormone therapy: Some recent studies suggest women using estrogens after change of life (menopause) have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. The risk seems to be higher in women taking estrogen alone (without progesterone) for many years (at least 5 or 10). The increased risk is less certain for women taking both estrogen and progesterone. Family history of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer: Ovarian cancer can run in families. Ovarian cancer risk is higher if your mother, sister, or daughter has (or had) ovarian cancer. The risk gets higher the more relatives you have with ovarian cancer. Increased risk for ovarian cancer does not have to come from your mother's side of the family -- it can also come from your father's side.

1 Biology Research Article

A syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms that together point to a certain disorder or disease. no reliable screening test exists for ovarian cancer. Having a family member with breast cancer can increase your risk of ovarian cancer. but some studies have found they increase the risk of one type (called mucinous) Diagnosing Ovarian Cancer Unfortunately. If you have inherited a mutation of one of these genes from either parent.a test used to create a "picture" of the pelvic and abdominal contents CT scans (computed tomography). gene mutations may result from radiation or cancer-causing chemicals.g. Genetic changes and syndromes: Certain inherited gene changes (mutations) can increase the risk of ovarian cancer. There are also several syndromes that increase the risk of ovarian cancer. but other studies disagree. These include changes in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. or bone scans to see if the cancer has spread blood tests to check your blood cells and organ function (e. liver) and to test for a tumor marker called cancer antigen 125 (CA-125test uses an antibody to detect a chemical produced at higher levels by ovarian cancer cells. A healthy diet can help prevent other diseases. Smoking and alcohol use: These don’t increase the risk for most ovarian cancers. the following tests may be performed:     physical examination. too.. The American Cancer Society recommends eating a variety of healthy foods. too. your chances of getting breast and/or ovarian cancer increase. Some studies have shown a reduced rate of ovarian cancer in women who ate a diet high in vegetables. including some other types of cancer. In some cancers. The following syndromes increase the risk of ovarian cancer:     Cowden's disease Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (also called Lynch syndrome) Peutz-Jeghers syndrome MUTYH-associated polyposis Diet: A study of women who followed a low-fat diet for at least 4 years showed a lower risk of ovarian cancer. kidney. you are more prone to ovarian cancer. including a pelvic and abdomen exam ultrasound – transvaginal /pelvic and abdominal . or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). and approximately 80% of ovarian cancers are diagnosed in advanced stages.If other cancers are running in the family. If ovarian cancer is suspected.) 2 Biology Research Article . And women who have colon cancer in their families may have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.

Oral contraceptive Women who have used oral contraceptives have reduced incidents of ovarian cancer. 3 Biology Research Article . average number of new cases per year and age-specific incidence rates. While prophylactic surgery offers what is thought to be the greatest reduction in risk.Ovarian cancer. Although the effects of duration of pill use are not ambiguous. 2006-2008 Prevention Removing Ovaries Women who have an inherited risk of ovarian cancer may choose to have their ovaries and fallopian tubes surgically removed (prophylactic surgery). Tubal ligation has also been shown to decrease the risk of ovarian cancer for women with this genetic profile. It is not clear how soon after starting to use the pills is effect becomes obvious. The risk of ovarian cancer decreases progressively with increasing duration of use. effects of latency and regency are controversial. and this reduction us one of the strongest and most consistent features of the epidemiology of the disease. Other smaller studies have however pointed to a much shorter latent effect. Two large and reliable studies. it may not completely eliminate the risk. UK. the cancer and steroid hormones (CASH) study done by the centers for diseases control and another done by the world health organization (WHO) suggested that the pill’s protective effect on ovarian cancer was barely discernible until ten or more years after starting.

the affected individual did eventually agree to be tested.cancer. Women with ovarian cancer should also talk to their doctor about available clinical trials. from http://bodyandhealth. However.cmaj.org 4 Biology Research Article . from http://www. Retrieved 2013. K. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is currently given only to women who have advanced-stage disease and have had most of their tumor removed during surgery." Most of the time.. from http://www..medscape. cmja-medical knowledge that matters. Because BRCA testing requires that testing be done first on an affected family member (one who has had breast or ovarian cancer). direct marketing of genetic testing to consumers. or the uterus. & Taylor. the rights of others. Some of the ethical issues that commonly emerge during genetic testing include concerns about information and informed consent. (2011). from http://www. V. (2011).canada. risk of discrimination. the right to be tested or not.com Cancer research UK.com American cancer society. justice. and responsibility to future generations. the fallopian tube. Retrieved 2013. the genetic testing experience is a potentially life-changing experience filled with complex ethical issues. (2011). there may still be a chance that cancer could appear in the other ovary. some family members who had no interest in. Radiation Therapy Certain individuals may also be candidates for radiation therapy. Retrieved 2013.cancerresearchuk. N. Pei.. (2002). Intravenous Chemotherapy with anticancer medications usually involves taking a combination of medications. means that for many individuals and families. Retrieved 1013.Treatment Removing Fallopian tube With early-stage ovarian cancer. Retrieved 2013. Biotherapy and immunotherapy treatments are currently under study.ca Ripe.org Body and health. (2004). Bibliography Dickens. confidentiality and privacy. Issues Regarding Ovarian Cancer The fact that decisions about genetic testing are often based on feelings of responsibility and commitment. B. were encouraged to reconsider their decision "for the good of other family members. or were opposed to testing. Chemotherapy may be given intravenously (injected into the vein) or directly into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal chemotherapy). from http://www. . rather than personal choice. Medscape. M. women who still want to have children may choose to have only one fallopian tube and ovary removed.

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