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Tuesday, June 19, 2012

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RBIs status quo leaves India Inc disappointed


After the hype and the anticipation by India Inc. and the government alike, regarding an easing in liquidity and key policy rates by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to spur growth, came the status quo. The apex bank decided to maintain its short-term lending (repo) rate at eight per cent as before and left the cash reserve ratio (CRR) unchanged at 4.75 per cent. The unexpected inaction on the part of the RBI took one and all by surprise, as it came as a betrayal. Having factored in a repo rate reduction of 25 basis points at the least, along with the good news from Greece in early trading, the markets spooked and India Inc. was livid, with due reason.

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At an Assocham event in Mumbai during the weekend, Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee threw enough hints that, apart from the official announcement, an easing of interest rates by the Central bank was a given, by way of a monetary policy measure to boost growth. Pitching for the RBI joining the government in dealing with the ongoing slowdown, the UPA President-elect had said: I am confident that keeping in view all the factors, the RBI will adjust the monetary policy, as we are adjusting the fiscal policy. Commenting on the RBI policy here on Monday, even as the Bombay Stock Exchange's Sensex tanked by 244 points and eroded Rs. 75,000 crore in investor wealth, Mr. Mukherjee maintained that containing high inflation may have been the primary concern of the apex bank, and it wasn't necessary for the RBI Governor to consult the Finance Minister before mid-quarter monetary policy reviews.

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Incidentally, this isn't the first time that the government and the RBI aren't on the same page on monetary policy, and policy analysts find it heartening that the apex bank has held on to its own, despite intense pressure. A Central bank's primary concern is to contain inflation and guarantee currency and monetary stability. In a large measure, RBI Governor D. Subbarao appears to be miffed at the government's inaction regarding a host of measures, including fiscal consolidation. This is somewhat clear from the apex bank's official statement on mid-quarter policy review. The Reserve Bank had frontloaded the policy rate reduction in April with a reduction of 50 basis points. This decision was based on the premise that the process of fiscal consolidation, critical for inflation management, would get underway, along with some supply-side initiatives. Our assessment of the current growth-inflation dynamic is that there are several factors responsible for the slowdown in activity, particularly in investment, with the role of interest rates being relatively small. Consequently, further reduction in the policy interest rate at this juncture, rather than supporting growth, could

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exacerbate inflation-related pressures, it said. Pointing further to why RBI has decided to maintain status quo, the statement said: It is relevant to assess as to what extent high interest rates are affecting economic growth. Estimates suggest that real effective bank lending interest rates, though good, remain comparatively lower than the levels seen during the high growth phase of 2003-08. This suggests that factors besides interest rates are contributing more significantly to the growth slowdown. In a more direct reference to the government's inaction on diesel pricing and oil subsidy, the RBI said: In the absence of pass-through from international crude oil prices to domestic prices, the consumption of petroleum products remains strong, distorting price signals and preventing the much-needed adjustment in aggregate demand. The consequent subsidy burden on the Government is crowding out public investment at a time when reviving investment, both public and private, is a critical imperative. The widening current account deficit (CAD), despite the slowdown in growth, is symptomatic of demand-supply imbalances, and a pointer to the urgent need to resolve the supply bottlenecks.
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Posted by sambasivan srinivasan at 6:34 AM 0 comments Labels: Banking related general awareness, descriptive paper

Monday, June 18, 2012

Tips to ensure financial security


Are you financially equipped to deal with an emergency? No, don't smile. In fact, most young Indians aren't fit enough to deal with such emergencies. According to a global study conducted by Visa, 41% of young respondents (in the age-group of 18-24 years) are not financially equipped to deal with emergencies.

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This is a key indicator of their level of preparedness as building a contingency kitty is fundamental to any financial plan. "The (Global Financial Literacy) Barometer clearly demonstrates that more needs to be done in advancing financial education in India especially Select Language

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among women and young people," says Uttam Nayak, group country manager, India and South Asia, Visa.

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If you have just k ick -started your career, pay heed to these tips to ensure a financially secure future:

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The Visa survey has found that the average savings earmarked for an emergency by Indians was capable of lasting just 1.9 months. Financial planners, on the other hand, recommend keeping aside a sum worth six months' expenses in a fixed deposit or a liquid fund. With the latest tax structure exempting savings bank interest up to Rs 10,000 from tax, you have another choice in your basket. "Now there is a case for parking this amount in the savings bank account instead," says Prerana Salaskar-Apte, certified financial planner, The Tipping Point.

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Protect yourself

Once contingency fund is taken care of, you can focus on insurance. Buy a life cover only if your family is dependent on your income. Even in that case, stick to term insurance. If you do not have such responsibilities, a health cover will suffice.

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To enhance your protection portfolio, add a personal accident (PA) cover, budget permitting. While the health policy will prevent erosion in savings due to hospitalisation, PA cover will make good any loss of income if you are unable to work in the interim.

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Next step should be devising goal-oriented investment strategy - be it for house purchase, marriage, arranging for children's education or retirement planning. "For goals with a short-term horizon of around three years, like buying a house, you can look at debt mutual funds," says Pankaj Mathpal, CFP and CEO, Optima Money Managers. For longer-term goals like children's education or building a retirement nest, equity mutual funds would be the best bet, say financial planners.

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Now, the final piece of advice, which is perhaps the toughest to follow - avoid using credit cards recklessly. Remember, they are meant to be spending, and not borrowing, tools and you would do well to treat them so.

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Friday, June 15, 2012

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Role of Banks in an economy -article/essay


Money lending in one form or the other has evolved along with the history of the mankind. Even
in the ancient times there are references to the moneylenders. Shakespeare also referred to Shylocks who made unreasonable demands in case the loans were not repaid in time along with interest. Indian history is also replete with the instances referring to indigenous money lenders, Sahukars and Zamindars involved in the business of money lending by mortgaging the landed property of the borrowers. Towards the beginning of the twentieth century, with the onset of modern industry in the country, the need for government regulated banking system was felt. The British government began to pay attention towards the need for an organised banking sector in the country and Reserve Bank of India was set up to regulate the formal banking sector in the country. But the growth of modern banking remained slow mainly due to lack of surplus capital in the Indian economic system at that point of time. Modern banking institutions came up only in big cities and industrial centres. The rural areas, representing vast majority of Indian society, remained dependent on the indigenous money lenders for their credit needs.

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Independence of the country heralded a new era in the growth of modern banking. Many new commercial banks came up in various parts of the country. As the modern banking network grew, the government began to realise that the banking sector was catering only to the needs of the well-to-do and the capitalists. The interests of the poorer sections as well as those of the common man were being ignored. In 1969, Indian government took a historic decision to nationalise 14 biggest private commercial banks. A few more were nationalised after a couple of years. This resulted in transferring the ownership of these banks to the State and the Reserve Bank of India could then issue directions to these banks to fund the national programmes, the rural sector, the plan priorities and the priority sector at differential rate of interest. This resulted in providing fillip the banking facilities to the rural areas, to the under-privileged and the downtrodden. It also resulted in financial inclusion of all categories of people in almost all the regions of the country. However, after almost two decades of bank nationalisation some new issues became contextual. The service standards of the public sector banks began to decline. Their profitability came down and the efficiency of the staff became suspect. Non-performing assets of these banks began to rise. The wheel of time had turned a full circle by early nineties and the government after the introduction of structural and economic reforms in the financial sector, allowed the setting up of new banks in the private sector. The new generation private banks have now established themselves in the system and have set new standards of service and efficiency. These banks have also given tough but healthy competition to the public sector banks. Modern Day Role anking system and the Financial Institutions play very significant role in the economy. First and foremost is in the form of catering to the need of credit for all the sections of society. The modern economies in the world have developed primarily by making best use of the credit availability in their systems. An efficient banking system must cater to the needs of high end investors by making available high amounts of capital for big projects in the industrial, infrastructure and service sectors. At the same time, the medium and small ventures must also have credit available to them for new investment and expansion of the existing units. Rural sector in a country like India can grow only if cheaper credit is available to the farmers for their short and medium term needs. Credit availability for infrastructure sector is also extremely important. The success of any financial system can be fathomed by finding out the availability of reliable and adequate credit for infrastructure projects. Fortunately, during the past about one decade there has been increased participation of the private sector in infrastructure projects. The banks and the financial institutions also cater to another important need of the society i.e. mopping up small savings at reasonable rates with several options. The common man has the option to park his savings under a few alternatives, including the small savings schemes introduced by the government from time to time and in bank deposits in the form of savings accounts, recurring deposits and time deposits. Another option is to invest in the stocks or mutual funds. In addition to the above traditional role, the banks and the financial institutions also perform certain new-age functions which could not be thought of a couple of decades ago. The facility of internet banking enables a consumer to access and operate his bank account without actually visiting the bank premises. The facility of ATMs and the credit/debit cards has revolutionised the choices available with the customers. The banks also serve as alternative gateways for making payments on account of income tax and online payment of various bills like the telephone, electricity and tax. The bank customers can also invest their funds in various stocks or mutual funds straight from their bank accounts. In the modern day economy, where people have no time

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to make these payments by standing in queue, the service provided by the banks is commendable. While the commercial banks cater to the banking needs of the people in the cities and towns, there is another category of banks that looks after the credit and banking needs of the people living in the rural areas, particularly the farmers. Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) have been sponsored by many commercial banks in several States. These banks, along with the cooperative banks, take care of the farmer-specific needs of credit and other banking facilities. Future ill a few years ago, the government largely patro-nized the small savings schemes in which not only the interest rates were higher, but the income tax rebates and incentives were also in plenty. The bank deposits, on the other hand, did not entail such benefits. As a result, the small savings were the first choice of the investors. But for the last few years the trend has been reversed. The small savings, the bank deposits and the mutual funds have been brought at par for the purpose of incentives under the income tax. Moreover, the interest rates in the small savings schemes are no longer higher than those offered by the banks. Banks today are free to determine their interest rates within the given limits prescribed by the RBI. It is now easier for the banks to open new branches. But the banking sector reforms are still not complete. A lot more is required to be done to revamp the public sector banks. Mergers and amalgamation is the next measure on the agenda of the government. The government is also preparing to disinvest some of its equity from the PSU banks. The option of allowing foreign direct investment beyond 50 per cent in the Indian banking sector has also been under consideration. Banks and financial intuitions have played major role in the economic development of the country and most of the credit- related schemes of the government to uplift the poorer and the underprivileged sections have been implemented through the banking sector. The role of the banks has been important, but it is going to be even more important in the future.

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Descriptive paper --Bank PO guidance


I am receiving a lot of mails from members for guidance for descriptive paper. Please follow this link and that will give you full idea of descriptive paper http://www.sbank.in/search/label/descriptive%20paper http://www.sbank.in/2012/06/essay-writing-goods-andservices-tax.html http://www.sbank.in/2012/06/india-may-become-first-fallenangel.html http://www.sbank.in/2012/06/gaar-india-defers-tax-evasionmeasures.html http://www.sbank.in/2012/06/what-is-anda-cell.html http://www.sbank.in/search/label/letter%20writing

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best wishes to all of you. s.sambasivan chennai

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Tuesday, June 12, 2012

India may become first fallen angel among BRIC countries


useful for descriptive paper essays also.

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http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/India-may-become-firstfallen-angel-among-BRIC-countries/articleshow/14035248.cms

NEW DELHI: The clouds over the Indian economy just got darker. Global ratings agency Standard & Poor's on Monday cautioned that India seriously risks losing its investment-grade rating, citing slowing growth and political roadblocks to economic policy making as some of the factors pushing up the risk for Asia's third-largest economy.

The S&P report, which is a follow-up to its April outlook revision, says India's ability to pull back from the edge will depend on the way the government handles potentially slower growth and economic shocks. That would determine whether the country can maintain an investment grade rating or become the first " fallen angel" among the BRIC nations - Brazil, India, Russia and China.

"Setbacks or reversals in India's path towards a more liberal economy could hurt its long-term growth prospects, and therefore, its credit quality," S&P's credit analyst

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Joydeep Mukerji said in a report titled, "Will India be the first BRIC Fallen Angel?" The report had its impact on the financial markets, hurting stocks and the rupee.

Reacting to the report, finance minister Pranab Mukherjee said the government was fully seized of the current situation and vowed that there would be a turnaround in growth prospects in the months ahead. He rejected the S&P report which warned that India could be the first BRIC country to falter.

In late April, S&P had revised the outlook on India's long term sovereign rating to negative from stable citing slowing growth, high fiscal deficit and debt burden and the government's inability to push through economic reforms. The agency had made it clear that its action was not a downgrade but a revision in the outlook based on the current economic situation. It maintained its BBB (minus) rating which is the lowest investment grade rating.

Any downgrade in the rating now will badly hit investor sentiment, increase overseas borrowing costs for companies and emerge as a risk for the Indian economy. Since the April outlook revision, a spate of economic data has drawn a gloomy picture. Growth in the January-March quarter slowed to a 9-year low of 5.3%, while food inflation hit double digits. Industrial growth remains sluggish and business confidence has taken a knock.

Overall, growth in 2011-12 has slowed to 6.5% from 8.4% in the previous year and below the government's estimate of 7%.

Launching a scathing criticism of the handling of economic policy, the S&P report says the risks surrounding economic policy arise from an unusual political situation in the country, not from an ideological movement against reform.

"There is little sign of a revival in public support for the statist economic policies that were pursued until 1992," the report says.

It adds that divided leadership at the Centre may be the biggest hurdle to further economic liberalisation. "The crux of the current political problem for economic liberalisation is, in our view, the nature of leadership within the central government, not obstreperous allies or unhelpful opposition," the report says."The Congress party is divided on economic policies. There is substantial opposition within the party to serious liberalisation of the economy. Moreover, paramount political power rests with the leader of the Congress party, Sonia Gandhi, who holds no cabinet position, while the government is led by an unelected prime minister, Manmohan Singh, who lacks a political base of his own."

The UPA government has dragged its feet on economic reforms and blamed the policy logjam on the opposition's hardline and its unwillingness to cooperate on approving key economic legislations. Strong opposition from allies such as the Trinamool Congress has forced the government to put on hold its decision to open up the multi-brand retail sector to foreign firms such as Wal-Mart, Carrefour and others. Trinamool boss Mamata Banerjee's opposition to pension reforms has stalled any progress while plans to raise railway passenger fares had to be reversed on her demand.

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"The division of roles between a politically powerful Congress party president, who can take credit for the party's two recent national election victories, and an appointed prime minister, has weakened the framework of policymaking in our view," the report says."For example, Singh has been unable to liberalise the heavily controlled coal sector despite publicly advocating it for many years. The unusual division division roles and political power inside the central government has likely contributed to poor discipline and cohesion within the cabinet and government as a whole."

The report says the political context (and not lack of willingness among key economic policymakers in the central bank and the central bank) may limit the government's ability to act decisively and quickly to manage eroding economic environment and possible external shocks.

But the ratings agency had something to cheer for policymakers. It said that India is better positioned to weather the setbacks than in the past."Despite its recent problems, the Indian economy remains in much better shape to muddle through the current period of heightened global uncertainty than it was earlier, especially in the early 1990's, when it suffered a balance of payments crisis," the report said.

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Monday, June 11, 2012

Descriptive paper --bank PO


I found many people have shown interest in descriptive paper. hence reproducing my previous blog.

I am happy to see that a question on financial inclusion which was mentioned in my blog on July21/22 ,2011 appeared apart from banking related questions suggested Descriptive paper question were 1.Right to Education Act 2. Rural Development 3. Write a letter to bank manager issue loan , go for higher studies in USA 4. write a letter to your friend , attend seminar and topic is NETBANKING 5. write a letter to close your account in a bank 6.what is Financial Inclusion 7. Banking industry growth 8. If I were an author....

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. 9. How technology is helpful for Banking sector. precis writing is quite simple If any other candidate send questions

POWER CRISIS IN INDIA, corruption - its effects on our personal life and economy Should education be made fully free to all?

blessings and best wishes s.sambasivan chennai Please search for different subjects like reasoning, QA,english, computer awareness, marketing , bank interview, economics etc. U will get a lot of my blogs posted during the last two years. Read them. if u have doubts send email to samba.ssivan@gmail.com

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Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Descriptive Paper -- CWE PO -Model Paper


reposted on March 21, 2012 COMMON WRITTEN EXAMINATION BANK PO --MODEL ONE TIME : 60 MINUTES DESCRIPTIVE PAPER 1. Write an essay on any one of the topics in about 250/300 words: a) High population level is helping China and India to show progress in their economy. b) Why I prefer a Bank job. c) In spite of advancement of technology there is scope for improving customer service in Banking. d) Savings habit helps families and the nation. e) Infrastructure is the key for achieving a Nation's progress. f) Advantages of cell phones as compared to disadvantages in the use of them.

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2. Write a letter to your Bank Manager complaining about the rude treatment given to you by Mr. Asokan, Deputy Manager when you requested him for allotting a locker to you. OR Write a letter to the Head Office of your Bank praising the quality of service rendered by you branch since your opening a current account for your business with them about six months ago. OR Write a letter to your elder brother from the town in which you have just joined a new appointment describing the interesting features of the town, of the people with whom you are associated and of the work you are required to do. OR Write a letter as Manager of a Bank to a leading limited company dealing in construction business requesting them to open their current account with your Bank. Explain the nature of service you will be able to render to attract their account. 3. Write a precis of the following passage in one third of its length. Give a suitable title. (Strike out the draft after making fair copy)

While it is fascinating to try and understand animals in the wild, interacting with domestic animals, especially pets, can be delightfully enlightening. I will never forget the message conveyed to me by a little wild creature. I had reared a baby squirrel with a mind of her own. Once, intent on studying the construction of her teeth, I cupped her tiny body in the palm of my hand, held her head gently between my fingers, and tried to force open her jaw with my other hand. A polite paw pushed my hand away. I tried again, this time restricting her paw. Her other paw broke free, and she pushed my hand away a second time, this time, more emphatically. Refusing to acknowledge her unwillingness, I moved my hand towards her mouth once more and this time she freed both her paws and clapped them over her month; a move that made it impossible for me to open her month-and left me stumped, amazed and chuckling with delight at her ingenuity! My baby squirrel had conveyed exactly what she felt; Leave my mouth alone, wont you? Cant you understand when I tell you politely? A little more complicated than the message sent by the thundering elephant but just as clear! The complexity of man animal communication is probably a
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factor of not just the intelligence of the animal, but also the level of intimacy between the animal and the human. Our five-yearold mastiff understands that when visitors are present, he is not to enter the living room. One night, however, he stood persistently at the door, disregarding my husbands commands to go out, repeatedly trying to attract my attention. While hosts and guests pretended he didnt exist and we all tried hard to ignore him, the dog drew increasingly uncomfortable, till suddenly, he walked in straight to me, refusing to look at my husband, apology in every step for having dared to disobey him. With all eyes riveted on him, he sat down on his haunches in front of me, eyes imploring. When I still did not understand, he shoved his muzzle into my palm, shaking his head so as to move my hand. And then it clicked we had forgotten to feed him.! Every single person present in the room understood what he was saying. I am sorry to disobey you, but Im terribly hungry and can I have my dinner please?. The interesting thing is that he was communicating two different messages to two different people at the same time. Animals of higher intelligence are also capable of understanding messages at a symbolic level-an ability often thought to be the preserve of human beings. Consider this story that was narrated to me some years ago; of a mahout in Kerala who, wanting to take a dip in the river, pulled up a long blade of grass, and tied it like a chain round his elephants leg. The gentle giant understood what was required of him, and obliged the master by allowing himself to be restrained by the symbolic chain. Animals, in fact, often understood far more than we wish to communicate, since their understanding is based on non-verbal signals which are often very revealing. Like children, animals too pick up negative and positive vibes of anger, fear, dislike or of affection and kindness. Dogs and horses, specially, also seem to know when their masters are unwell or depressed, and go out of their way to show that they care. In the wild, however, the scenario is different. While wild animals certainly pick up non-verbal cues from us, in the main, they do not volunteer to communicate with humans except when it is absolutely necessary. This is largely due to two seemingly contradictory reasons. One, man has isolated himself to such an extent that he is no longer an integral part of an interdependent biosphere. Two, he is a predator who preys on both carnivores and herbivores, and is a threat to practically every other species. For these reasons, wild animals avoid us
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whenever possible, and interaction with human beings threaten them or their young when we are threatened by them or when we observe them for work or for pleasure. It is a sad commentary on the reputation of Natures most intelligent animals, that as a race, the only message we have effectively communicated to most of the natural world are those of threat, dominance, destruction and death. As creatures of superior intelligence who are now beginning to understand that our survival is dependent on theirs, it is imperative that we change this attitude. The moot point is, even if we succeed, how long will it take to reverse generations of signals sent by the old enemy, Man? Will it be possible, one day, to communicate to animals that we mean no harm and would like to be friends? You might also like: CWE PO - DESCRIPTIVE PAPER - MODEL ONE Descriptive paper --bank PO CWE PO - Descriptive Paper Descriptive paper --Bank PO guidance CWE PO - DESCRIPTIVE PAPER - MODEL 2
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Monday, September 26, 2011

CWE PO - descriptive paper September 18, 2011


A candidate sent questions asked in descriptive paper in CWE Po 2nd shift.

these questions were in CWEPO 2nd Sft in DESCRIPTIVE PAPER 1 Write a letter to your brother infoming him Importace of Lokpal Bill . 2 wrire a letter to related authority informing him water shortage in your area 3 Write a letter to editor of newspaer for starting a series of cultural heritage in your state . Essays 1 e-banking 2 emerging trends of Aviation Industry in India 3 Global world converting into global Village

Precis was relating to land acquisition and urbanisation

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Thank you Basti for sending the questions.

You might also like: Descriptive Paper -- CWE PO -- Model Paper CWE PO - Descriptive Paper CWE PO - DESCRIPTIVE PAPER - MODEL ONE Descriptive paper --bank PO Descriptive paper --Bank PO guidance
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Saturday, September 17, 2011

CWE PO - Descriptive Paper


17th september 2011 -- 6.10 am (EST)LAST MINUTE SUGGESTIONS; Confine yourself within the word limit prescribed for essay writing and letter writing. If number of words is not prescribed for letter writing--then see that you write within the space allotted. Precis - read well with concentration only once , write a draft and fair also. Attempt all the questions given in descriptive paper. For Objective: Attempt only if you are 60% confident about the answer. Negative marking is there.Take your hall ticket, photo, fee receipt, two ball pens (blue), two HB pencils, two erasers and two sharpeners. You have my blessings and good wishes. After the exam please send descriptive questions, general awareness questions, computer awareness questions to samba.ssivan@gmail.com.

I am thankful to one Miss Sudha for having sent me questions that were asked on the last sunday (July 24, 2011). Thanks to divyanevin I have added two more questions. I am happy to see that a question on financial inclusion which was mentioned in my blog on July21/22 appeared apart from banking related questions suggested Descriptive paper question were 1.Right to Education Act 2. Rural Development 3. Write a letter to bank manager issue loan , go for higher studies in USA 4. write a letter to your friend , attend seminar and topic is NETBANKING 5. write a letter to close your account in a bank 6.what is Financial Inclusion 7. Banking industry growth 8. If I were an author.... . 9. How technology is helpful for Banking sector. precis writing is quite simple If any other candidate send questions Please search for different subjects like reasoning, QA,english, computer awareness, marketing , bank interview, economics etc. U will get a lot of my blogs posted during the last two years. Read them. if u have doubts send email to samba.ssivan@gmail.com

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You might also like: Descriptive Paper -- CWE PO -- Model Paper Descriptive paper --bank PO CWE PO - DESCRIPTIVE PAPER - MODEL ONE CWE PO - descriptive paper September 18, 2011 Descriptive paper --Bank PO guidance
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Thursday, September 8, 2011

Essay writing - a few tips


reposted on 8th sept. 2011

ESSAY WRITING IMPORTANT POINTS An essay is generally speaking, a written composition containing an expression of ones personal opinions or ideas on a subject. A good essay must hold its readers attention from the beginning to the end. For this it must possess certain qualities, which make a piece of writing readable and enjoyable. Here are some of these qualities for you to keep in mind: First, a good essay shows its writers personality in the same way as good manners or pleasing behaviour does. So you have to learn how to write it and spend a lot of time to perfect your style in essay writing. If one wants to learn good manners, one must live with and learn from those who possess them. This is equally true of writing, essay writing in particular. One must study the best models and learn from them. And one must practice the art of writing with patience and great care. Secondly, every essay depends on two things. These are (a) its subject matter, and (b) its language. To write an essay you require materialclear ideas based on experience, reading and observation. These ideas have to be put into words and these words must convey what the writer wishes to say. For this he should know the right words and the most appropriate ways to put them together. In other words, an essay calls for ideas that are based on your everyday life or experience or ideas that you have imagined. It next calls for a rich stock of words and of structures (the sentence of the language). Above
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all, it calls for the ability to put these thoughts and sentences together. To say that an essay writer must put his thoughts together is to point to another main quality of a good essayits structure. Every essay has a structure. A) Part of An Essay An essay is generally divided into three parts: 1. The Introduction. 2. The Body. 3. The Conclusion. And each of these requires careful attention. i) Introduction Paragraph What is an introduction paragraph? The Introduction paragraph is the first paragraph of your essay. What does it do? It introduces the main idea of your essay. A good opening paragraph captures the interest of your reader and tells why your topic is important. How do I write one? The introduction should be designed to attract the reader's attention and give the reader an idea of the essays focus. Begin with an attention grabber. The attention grabber you use is up to you, but here are some ideas: Starting information This information must be true and verifiable, and it doesnt need to be totally new to your readers. It could simply be a pertinent fact that explicitly illustrates the point you wish to make. If you use a piece of startling information, follow it with a sentence or two of elaboration.

Anecdote An anecdote is a story that illustrates a point. Be sure your anecdote is short, to the point, and relevant to your topic. This can be a very effective opener for your essay, but use it carefully. You can also provide some background information about your topic. You can use interesting facts, quotations, or definitions of important terms you will use later in the essay. The main idea of the essay is stated in a single sentence called the thesis statement. You must limit your entire essay to the topic you
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have introduced in your thesis statement. A few sentences explaining your topic in general terms can lead the reader gently to your thesis. Each sentence should become gradually more specific, until you reach your thesis. If the attention grabber was only a sentence or two, add one or two more sentences that will lead the reader from your opening to your thesis statement. Finish the paragraph with your thesis statement. Topic: Peace in the Middle East Thesis Statement: The centuries-old conflict in the Middle East goes so deep that any peace will probably be temporary. Example: A dog is mans best friend. That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the only animal friends whose companionship people enjoy. For many people, a cat is their best friend. Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent house pets. ii) Supporting Paragraphs (Body) What are supporting paragraphs? Supporting paragraphs make up the main body of your essay. What do they do? They develop the main idea of your essay. How do you write them? 1. List the points that develop the main idea of your essay. 2. Place each supporting point in its own paragraph. 3. Develop each supporting point with facts, details and examples. To connect your supporting paragraphs, you should use special transition words. Transition words link your paragraphs together and make your essay easier to read. Use them at the beginning and end of your paragraphs. Examples of transition words that can help you to link your paragraphs together. a) For listing different points First; Second; Third Example: In the first place, people enjoy the companionship of cats. In the second place, cats are civilized members of the household. Lastly, one of the most attractive features of cats as house pets is their ease of care. b) For counter examples
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However; Even though; On the other hand; Nevertheless c) For additional idea Another; In addition to; Related to; Furthermore; Also d) To show cause and effect Therefore; Thus; As a result of; Consequently Example: Cats are more particular about personal cleanliness than people are. In addition, cats can be left at home alone for a few hours without fear. Unlike some pets, most cats will not destroy the furnishings when left alone. Like all good paragraphs, each supporting paragraph should have a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a summary sentence. iii) Summary Paragraph What is a summary paragraph? The summary paragraph comes at the end of your essay after you have finished developing your ideas. The summary paragraph is often called a conclusion. What does it do? It summarises or restates the main idea of the essay. You want to leave the reader with a sense that your essay is complete. How do you write one? 1. Restate the strongest points of your essay that support your main idea. 2. Conclude your essay by restating the main idea in different words. 3. Give your personal opinion or suggest a plan for action. Use a summary statement rather than phrases like the following: In summary, To conclude, To summarise, or In closing. These are too obvious and vague to be effective. Use a transitional phrase, which summarises a point in your essay instead. Examples: The benefits outweigh the dangers. Obviously. But are the numerically superior benefits worth the heavy price man has to pay? Reliance on the computer system is getting heavier by the minute in every field of activity or branch of knowledge. Is such seemingly innocuous reliance a healthy one? Wouldnt man become a robot, losing his mental faculties gradually but surely, losing his individuality, losing his freedom? Only time can tell.

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As we have seen, poverty is a known contributor to crime; therefore, it should not be discounted when considering ways to prevent crime. B) Writing Essays i) Prewriting Stage The prewriting stage is when you prepare your ideas for your essay before you begin writing. Do not start writing at once. You will find it easier to write your essay if you build an outline first. Six Prewriting Steps: 1. Think carefully about what you are going to write. Ask yourself: What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay? How can I best answer this question? What is the most important part of my answer? How can I make an introductory sentence (or thesis statement) from the most important part of my answer? What facts or ideas can I use to support my introductory sentence? How can I make this paragraph or essay interesting? 2. Write out your answers to the above questions. You do not need to spend a lot of time doing this; just write enough to help you remember why and how you are going to write your paragraph or essay. In a short essay, you can deal with a very few points only. It is of no use to write down a lot of things that have nothing to do with the subject. If you do so, the result will be a bad essay. 3. Write down facts that will help you to answer your question. (Make sure the facts you are writing are related to the exact question you are going to answer in your paragraph or essay.) 4. Write down your own ideas. Ask yourself: what else do I want to say about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important? 5. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay. Choose the most important point you are going to present. If you cannot decide which point is the most important, just choose one point and stick to it throughout your paragraph or essay. 6. Organise your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea. Once you have chosen the most important point of your paragraph or essay, you must find the best way to tell your reader about it. Look at the facts your have written. Look at your own ideas on the topic. Decide which facts and ideas
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will best support the main idea of your essay. Once you have chosen the facts and ideas you plan to use, ask yourself which order to put them in the essay. ii) Writing Stage The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences. Four Writing Steps: 1. For the introduction, write the thesis statement and give some background information. 2. Develop each supporting paragraph and make sure to follow the correct paragraph format. 3. Write simple sentences to express your meaning. Use simple words; be clear as well as brief. 4. Focus on the main idea of your essay. iii) Editing Stage The editing stage is when you check your essay for mistakes and correct them. Make sure that your handwriting is clear and legible. The examiner may not have enough time to take pains to read each and every word carefully. An illegible handwriting might only put off his interest in reading your essay even though it might be good. Editing Steps: a) Grammar and Spelling 1. Check your spelling 2. Check your grammar. 3. Read your essay again. 4. Make sure each sentence has a subject. 5. Make sure your subjects and verbs agree with each other. 6. Check the verb tenses of each sentence. 7. Make sure that each sentence makes sense. b) Style and Organisation 1. Make sure your essay has an introduction, supporting paragraphs, and a summary paragraph. 2. Check that you have a thesis statement that identifies the main idea of the essay. 3. Check that all your paragraphs follow the proper paragraph format. 4. Ensure that your essay is interesting. C) Assessment/Evaluation Criteria One key reason for students not achieving the marks that they are aiming for when writing essays is that they do not really understand quite what their examiner is expecting them to do. Content is the main criterion for assessment, but note can also be taken of presentation.
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Content is concerned with issues such as: Relevance of the answer to the question. Breadth of the essay Extent of background reading/knowledge. Understanding, structure and organization of material. Details of the information contained within the essay. Use of evidence and quality of argument. Critical analysis of material. Evidence of imagination, insight and synthesis. Appropriateness and accuracy of references. Presentation is concerned with issues such as: spelling, punctuation, grammar, writing style and legibility. *********************************** SELECTED TOPICSSECTION ONE Note: A few essays are given here. Candidates may present the answer in the examination in their own words within the prescribed number of words.

1. POVERTY ALLEVIATION BACKGROUND Eradication of poverty has long been the overarching objective of Indian economic development. But even after fifty years of planning, more than a fourth of our population is still living below extremely modest poverty line. Looking back at the Plans, we see that except for the first Five Year Plan, every other Five Year Plans have envisaged more than 5 percent growth in national income per year. But none of these goals have been reached. Till 1980-81, our average rate of growth moved around 3.5 percent per annum. It is this massive failure to achieve rapid growth that is the root cause of our failure to eliminate poverty. Besides relying on the strategy of rapid growth, we also adopted other poverty alleviation policies like transfers of various kinds that were supposed to augment the earned income of poor households. The two main transfer programmes in India are the Public Distribution System (PDS) and the provision of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS). There are several income augmenting programmes as well. The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP),
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Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), Training of Youth and Self-Employment Programmes (now merged into Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna) and two public works programmes for employment generation, namely Jawahar Rozgar Yojna (JRY) and the Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Area based programmes include Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) and Watershed Programmes. Some of these programmes overlap with each other. On these programmes, spending by the Central government account for around 8.5 per cent of the Central plan budgetary expenditure or a modest 1.45 percent of the GDP (1997-2002), which is inadequate as compared to the magnitude of the problem. STRATEGY TO ALLEVIATE POVERTY 1. Adopt pro-poor growth strategy, which create rapidly expanding job opportunities in the rural areas. 2. Address the inefficiency and inequity in the health and education sector by involving NGOs. 3. Empower panchayats in decision making. 4. Promote faster agricultural growth by expanding irrigation watershed management and land reforms. 5. Expand employment programme such as EGS, FAS, JRY etc all over the country so that poor get income support. 6. Expand the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) for the reduction of mortality and poverty. 7. Adopt midday meals programme all over the country to reduce poverty and encourage school attendance. 8. Expand group-based micro credit - scheme to cover the entire country.

**************************** 2. Sex Education--Relevance and Challenges

The term sex education has a positive connotation, projecting a mature society reflecting a modern, healthy mind open to discussion and awareness of sex as a boon and bane in an individuals life. The long-prevalent myopic attitude of society towards sex needs to be shunned in the changing times. Today sex education is gaining ground among all sections and age groups with the realisation that with the dynamic transformation of our surroundings and its effect on our mentality and attitude.

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The underlying cause of this awareness is the import of new ideas, tastes and habits through the media and cultural interaction, leading to perceptible changes in our values and attitudes. The modern outlook has changed our perception to a large extent. The one important ingredient for developing modernity is freedom. No doubt, freedom makes an individual mature, rational and bold, fulfilling ones most cherished desire to be happy by doing things the way one wishes. But freedom and modernity require a balanced approach. Growing minds especially fail to channelise freedom in the right direction and their immature decisions run the risk of mentally and physically destroying them. Their immaturity and half-knowledge breeds social problems of unmarried mothers, sexually transmitted diseases, child abuse, rape etc. This increasing malaise in society has drawn everybodys attention and must be remedied. This is where sex education steps in to enlighten young minds and people at large, the root cause of their problems being ignorance or half-knowledge about sex. Sex has never been a comfortable subject of discussion in our society, but the completely of our present-day life demands maturity in thinking and action from every citizen, especially our budding flowers, children. Children are the nations greatest assets and their care is the greatest investment in the future of society. Children by nature are very inquisitive and their intelligence and curiosity have shot up due to the increasing exposure to different mediums of communication. To substantiate a child and adolescents knowledge for sex, one needs to delve into a growing childs psychology. A developing mind is confronted with environmental images which encompass a range of human life activities and problems faced in parental, family, societal and peer relations. An ignorant mind at the growing state is unable to grapple with the transformation taking place within himself and the attitudinal changes in society. Biological change is accompanied by a growing mental faculty which tries to reason out everything under the sun. This psychology is now new; in fact, it has been ever-present. But it is now being studied as an important stage in personality development for the simple reason that the complex nature of societal relations demands awareness and maturity for our healthy survival and happiness. The new sexual ethos has inherent problems. Indulgence in sexual activity in the absence of full knowledge results in ugly consequences, be it untimely pregnancy leading to mental
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distress or deadly sexually transmitted disease. Sex education helps to build a sound and well developed personality both in adults and children. Currently there is a highly prejudiced opinion about AIDS and TB in India. While the curiosity of young minds regarding various things is satiated to an appreciable degree by our elders and parents, the issue of biological changes resulting in different behaviour, attitudes and desires is covered up unconvincingly or ignored with a hushhush attitude. Raising such questions is considered a digression of decent limits. The silence and false replies of parents results in making the child feel guilty of such queries. A questioning mouth can be quietened, but not the mind which can flee unchecked in any direction. Thus a growing child tries to satisfy his queries through friends, media, the Internet, etc. All this leads to inadequate knowledge which is far more dangerous, than ignorance. The inhibitions regarding sex need to be done away with for the benefit of society because it will empower minds to take steps judiciously. Because sex education is new to our society, it is beset with challenges, the toughest being its very non-tangible nature. The underlying challenge to the new approach is the thinking of human beings. Many adults still find it unacceptable and are unable to come out of their rigid mental construct regarding sex. The hurdles are usually parents themselves. Their attitude towards their ward should be one of friendship, making the child feel at ease and not like a stranger during the growing stage, left to fend for himself. The positive aspect is that these hurdles of sex education are not insurmountable. While its non-tangible nature cannot be fought with laws and weapons, the skilled persistent effort of public spirited citizens, organizations and academic institutions can go a long way in giving results. Certainly there is hope and conviction that enlightenment regarding this subject can save children and the masses at large from deviation. Efforts in this direction are increasing with perceptible results. But the positive results are confined mostly to the metros. It is incessant effort by all sections that will help spread knowledge into every nook and corner of the country. The avenues of sex education will play a significant role in keeping our values and culture intact, without which we stand the risk of losing our identity as a morally strong nation. ******************************

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3. TV An Addiction

Television is one of the major miracles of Science and has revolutionalised small human outlook. But TV, which was once meant for education as well as entertainment, has become an addiction today. With cable TV beaming 24-hour programmes through different channels, it has become an addiction for most. The educational content is sorely missing from TV programmes today. The young and the old alike are glued to their TV sets day in and day out. Social intercourse, outdoor activities and childrens studies have all taken a back seat to TV programmes. Guests are not welcome when ones favourite serial is on; telephones are often kept off the hook when one is engrossed in the trials and tribulations of ones favourite characters in a soap opera. All this has truly turned TV viewers into couch potatoes. We have no time for ourselves as well as for others. We plan our work schedules and outings keeping in view our favourite TV programmes. For children, students back home from the school, TV is a must they would like to take lunch with only TV on. The reading habit has virtually disappeared from the lives of school-going children as well as adults. Flickering images have become our window to the world of information and entertainment today, thus proving the truth underlying the statement that viewing TV programmes has made us all couch potatoes. We are paying a very heavy price for this idiot box. The programmes include exaggerated and meaningless advertisements meant for promoting the sales of consumer goods, most of which could be termed as luxuries in a developing country like ours. In the name of comedy, vulgar serials are telecast. Nearly 80 percent of the programmes are cinema-oriented and of no practical value to the viewers. Infidelity, adultery, cheating, womanizing, drinking, indulging in anti-social activities, corrupt police and government servants, terrorists, black marketers, hoarders, drug peddlers, etc., are the main characters of these serials. Contract killing, murders, rape scenes, offering and accepting of bribes for leaking out state secrets, etc., are shown in an explicit manner to the viewers, most of whom are children in their formative stage. In every episode, hardly 10 minutes are devoted for the story of the serial. The rest of the slotted time is lapped up by advertisers who are called the sponsors, and pay crores of rupees for the time that they get. The advertisements are forced on the viewers, and the same ads are repeated so many times during the day that one gets fed up. Even the contents of these advertisements are highly objectionable.

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Apart from studies, sports have been a big casualty due to TV addiction of the children and the youth. In small sized rooms, constant TV viewing causes permanent damage to the eyes. Late night TV viewing adversely affects the health. This is a national loss. Social and community life is another casualty. People are driven to pigeon holes called homes with no outside link. People today accept anything and everything in the name of entertainment, because TV brings it home to them inexpensively. In our country there are few prime time programmes produced for students. Informative programmes like the UGCs special newscasts and bulletins appear in the afternoon or at late nights and students find themselves either at schools, colleges or in bed during these programmes. Channels like Discovery and National Geographic are few and far between. However, television is not a bad medium which creates only a negative impact on children, for this right programmes have to be telecast at the right time and in the right way. This has not been realized in our country and we can hold the electronic media responsible for this because of its deterioration in programme planning and objectives in recent years. Our lives are centred round the various TV programmes that have made as dull and listless. Undoubtedly TV has become an addiction in modern times and the sooner we get out of this habit, the better it will be for all of us. It is high time that the intelligentsia; social workers, parents and other responsible citizens, rose in protest against the manner in which the powerful medium is being misused. Unless this trend is arrested, the country would be ruined one day, as the children and youth would have knowledge only about films and nothing else. To conclude, TV viewing is not that bad. This scientific infotainment invention is just like a knife, which can be used for cutting fruit and vegetables as also for stabbing a person. Much depends on the viewers. If they fall in love with it head long, TV is not to be blamed. Man has to reform himself. Excess of everything is bad. Keeping late hours at night no: only affects the punctuality of students but elders too dont leave their bed till 8 in the morning with their heads heavy due to constant exposure to serials and eye lids still heavy. TV has become a handy instrument for westerners to impose their culture on us through invisible and slow doses. The Indian culture will be the biggest victim of western onslaught on our culture via the 245-hour TV viewing with the help of cable network. We have to be wary of this danger which will surely emigrate our cultural values making us western satellites
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culturally. And then where would India be?

4. Dowry System : A Curse

The practice of giving dowry to girls has been prevalent in our society since times immemorial. Kings used to give territorial rights to the groom, horses, elephants and precious gems and jewellery, etc., to their daughters as dowry. In the times of our grandfathers and fathers, the dowry would consist of some articles of daily use like a bicycle for the groom, sewing machine, portable radio set and other such paraphernalia. And today, in modern times, we have refrigerators, cars, air conditioners and Swiss watches along with cash running into lakhs of rupees being given as dowry. The kings indulged in the practice of giving dowry because they considered it a matter of prestige for themselves. The more one gave, the more powerful he was considered in regal circles. There hardly used to be any demand from the grooms side because while deciding whom to marry, they used to give paramount importance to the strategic relations accruing with the marriage. Political, not monetary, considerations used to be important for them. During these times, though women had little rights and werent allowed any role outside the four walls of the house, but within the home they were highly respected. This trend stayed put till the early 20th century (before the advent of feminism). A woman was called Grihalakshmi. In marriages, dowry was given by the practice was merely considered a custom without which our orthodox ancestors considered the marriage ceremony somewhat incomplete. From the grooms side, there used to be no specific demand as people were not as money minded and materialistic as they are now. Moreover, the orthodox people desisted from equating the Grihalakshmi with money. There was general respect for fellow people and hence, no one would think of torturing anyone (and that too a girl) for the sake of money. But, with the advent of industrialization and commercialization, everything began to be weighed in terms of money. Human emotions, values and social inhibitions withered away as money took the centre stage. Humans became a saleable commodity. Just as you can purchase a politician for the no-confidence motion, you can auction your son for marriage. Since, human hearts have dried up of emotions (the hearts are just like empty pitchers) we witness inhuman torturing, both physical and mental, of the present day daughter-in-law by her in-laws. How inhuman and savage it is when we set someone afire just for insufficient dowry. Today also the girls prospective in-laws
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want her to be a Grihalakshmi (Goddess of wealth) but the difference is that they even indulge in beating their Goddess up if she doesnt satisfy their lust for money. And unless the Lakshmi raises her voice against her tormentors and transforms herself into a Durga / Kali, she is doomed. In a nutshell, what I want to say is that the girls themselves will have to lead the fight against dowry. They should have the courage to walk out of a marriage if it suffocates them like Nisha Sharma and other brave anti-dowry girls. They should have the courage and guts to says an emphatic no to a marriage if the prospective in-laws demand dowry. And such courage and self-confidence comes very easy to you if you are financially independent. Hence, girls should not live under the smug satisfaction of being a master in household work. Parents too need to encourage their daughters to venture out into the outside world. They should not be over protective. Some other steps that should be taken to tackle the menace of dowry are as follows :(1) Making the existing anti-dowry laws more stringent. (2) More thrust to the education of the girl child. Some seats in professional colleges may be reserved for girls (on the lines of reservation for SCs and STs). (3) Creating anti-dowry awareness in children from quite early on, so that they get thoroughly brainwashed against dowry by the time they reach adulthood. The awareness campaign may include essay and poster-making contests, declamation contests and debates, etc. The media should also contribute more in the awareness drive since it is the television that the children listen to the most these days. (4) The girls parents should desist from forcibly giving dowry to their daughter if the prospective in-laws dont demand it. By indulging in this practice, they work against their own daughter as it may ignite the greed factor in the in-laws. (5) The grooms too should come forward to play an active role for bringing about social change in this sector. They shouldnt simply follow their parents meekly. Instead of flaunting their manliness by indulging in beating up their wives, for their failure to bring desired dowry they should instead give proof of it at the time of marriage by standing against their own parents in case they demand dowry from the girls side. If need be, they should have the courage to do some plain talk with their parents.

5. Man and Environment

We human beings can thrive in the future as we did in the past


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by living in harmony with out natural environment. - Kofi A. Annan Opening of eyes in a beautiful morning, visualizing suns first rays in the melodious background music of chirping of birds enriches oneself with a great pleasure. God has endowed man with a beautiful gift environment where he lives, interacts and spends his lifetime. Environment comprises all physical, social and cultural factors and conditions influencing the existence and development of an individual. Air, water, land, plants, trees, flowers, hills, mountains, vegetation, climate, natural resources, and whatever is ostensible in nature is a part and parcel of environment. Whether it is water of food, shelter or life-pillar oxygen, medicines or other myriad of necessities, mans sustainability on earth ultimately remains a slave of environment which facilitates him with all his requirements, without asking for anything in return. But plunging into reality bites, man in his ventures and haste for development failed to respect nature and tampered with it. Endowed with an intellect, man exploited the environment by a conscious process of ideas due to opacity of vision. In an attempt to sustain the biotic world, abiotic world was ignored. But, stop there human! Beware! Let your steps be risk! Let your steps fall on right soil! It is a billion dollar question that when we race ahead on a civilized track, arent we losing something in the bargain? The unpalatable truth sustains that today, we are compelled to live in an endangered environment caused by our own folly a world, we thought it just belonged to us and none else and we are paying a dear price with nature reacting violently around us. The sword of environmental pollution hanging on our heads has become the order of the day, which may push human beings into dire straits. Greatest truths are the simplest. We feel the pinch of the problem with every breath, no matter, who we are or where we are! The most evil consequences of environmental deterioration can be identified as physical deformation of earths crust, a sea change in climatic conditions, alteration of hydraulic regime such as drought, loss of soil fertility and deleting water level. It is really depressing to know how man is meddling with his life-mask environment. It is poignant to observe that most of the sources of potable water have been contaminated. The holy Ganga is no longer holy. Yamuna, when it leaves Delhi, projects itself, as a black, coagulated mixture of dirt, sewage
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and industrial waste. Even the sea has become a marine slum. What a poor sketch we have drawn of our environment. You cannot obviously rape nature and get away with it. Escalating air pollution, one direct implication of industrialization, has distorted the heat balance giving birth to global warming?. This has caused sea-level to rise and might sooner than later turn islands into water graves. Today, man has almost cleared the indispensable tree a life bearer of man. Can anyone justify that in absence of these trees, wherefrom we will get oxygen to inhale? God knows, why man is trying to cut the same branch on which he is sitting? Adding salt to wounds, modern man has choked, soil with fertilizers and pesticides. Removal of forest cover, overgrazing by cattle, use of plastics and polythene have taken their toll. Cities with mind-bogging millions have distorted the equilibrium between population and natural resources. Appalling conditions of slums stand testimony for the price man is paying for urbanization. Even the mountains are under attack be it the foothills of mighty Himalayas or the Western Ghats. Wild life too is not intact from the clutches of culpable acts of man. Myriad of species have become extinct and many are on the verge of extinction. Worldwide climate is changing its colours with first El-Nino and now Asian Brown Cloud a noxious mixture of ash, soot and aerosols spreading across the whole Asian continent. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded in its second assessment report Balance of Evidence Suggests a discernible Human Influence on Global Climate. Now, one question naturally strikes in mind. Did we inherit this highly degraded environment from our ancestors? And if we will pass it on to our future generations, will they be able to sustain themselves? On the horizons of conclusion, I would say that now time is ripe enough to look back at the errors and redeem the past by stirring public consciousness. It would be fallacious to consider safe and clean environment a. Herculean task. But, at the same time celebrating Environment Day and establishment of Ministry of Environment only cannot prove a panacea. The problem is not development versus environment but both must strike a balance. The entire range of environmental protection measures should be dealt with a combination of command and control methods as well as voluntary regulations, fiscal measures, generation, of awareness and community involvement. Addressing the first UN Conference on Human Environment Day, Mrs. India Gandhi said :

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Modern man must re-establish the unbroken link with nature and with life. Together we can try to heal the environment. So, lets pave the way for development so that a surge of pride may enrich us all. Lets give earth a change.

6. Man is a Social Animal

Man is a moral, accountable being. - J. R. Lowell Wonders are many, an none is more wonderful than man. Sophocles Man, the most wonderful creature on this earth, is the only animal gifted with powers of perception, sense of touch, ability to speak, capacity to think and react. Man is a rational being. He is endowed with stupendous power of reasoning and makes smart decisions. His insatiable passion for comfort made him tame the forces of nature by using his discretion combined with nuggets of knowledge acquired. He is able to live happily in harmony with nature instead of in fear and awe of it. Gifted with all these qualities, man does not live by eating his bread alone. He has formed a society and he is dependent on the others to survive and live happily. Man was for society and is neither capable of living alone, nor has the courage to do so. - William Blackstone Man as a part of society is regarded as a social animal. As a social animal, he is bound to follow the moral principles and formal etiquettes in the society. He cannot live as he likes, his every action is ruled by the principles of society. The way he dresses, the way he speaks, the way he behaves, the way he lives, the way he treats others .. etc. All these are to be social. The word social means living in groups but not separately and isolated. So his every action should be accepted by the group in which the lives. Man as a social being finds lot of entertainment when he is associated with others. He finds place to share his views, crack jokes, show his wit and talent. He enjoys the jest with lot of zest. A song when you are happy and a lift when you are weary is what a man expects from others. Man as a social animal gets sympathy and support when he is in trouble applause and encouragement when he is
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victorious and happy. As a social animal, he is never a free man in the society. He cannot all the way come to a social gathering without clothes and say it is my will and wish. He should wear some dress accepted by the society. He cannot all the way destroy anything or harm anyone. He is governed by some moral principles of society. Man as a social animal should be benevolent to others but not malevolent. Right from the birth, every action of a man is governed by the social principles i.e., his upbringing, his education, his marriage. In fact, his entire life is under the umbrella of society and its principles. Man as a social being should be amicable with his fellow beings. He should be loyal to everyone in society. He must show the spirit of brotherhood and friendliness with whom he lives. Man cannot achieve anything alone. He should take the help and cooperation of others to achieve his desired goal. Let us consider an instance in a society : if one wants to build a beautiful farm and grow crops that he likes, he cannot do it by himself. He has to take the support of his fellow beings and toil a lot to realize his goal. Similarly, if he wants to do any social act or work that is very much useful to other people, every one in the society should extend his hand to complete the work. As a human being, every one expects affection, love and recognition from his fellow beings which cannot be felt unless he is a social animal. If a man were not to be social animal, we could never expect the world to be a happy place to live. Then every one has his own path and the results would be obnoxious. If a man society then his egoistic tendencies dominate and we cannot expect peace. Mans lust for power would cause relentless holecaust. In the present scenario, the spirit of social being has declined. Man by using the machines and destructive arms he invented to fulfill his ego, is trying to dominate the society. He has become egomaniac. If this continues, the essence of humanity and social being will vanish. So the spirit of social being should be induced in everyone and brewed up to live happily. In a nutshell, man is a social animal, since he is bound by the principles of society and if he were not to be social, then his life would be helpless and hapless.

7. DISCIPLINE IN LIFE
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Discipline is a precious asset. Life without discipline is like a ship without a rudder. It is a rod to check the erring, a brake to control the thoughtless action of man. Discipline is implicit obedience to the commands of superior authority, and acceptance of punishment with a smile for any breach thereof. If there is not discipline in life is anarchy will prevail. Life will become disordered. A little observation will show that from heaven above to earth below everywhere discipline reigns supreme. For instance, the earth, the moon and the stars move round the Sun, according to certain specific rules. Even animals are disciplined under their leader. The life of bees in a hive is a model of disciplined life. Coming down to men, the various organs of his body co-operate with one another and are disciplined for the maintenance, growth and development of the whole body. A savage in the primitive state of society obeys the laws of his clan. Even the civilized man obeyed the head of his family. The home is the nursery where we receive our first lesson of discipline through obedience to parents and elders. As we pass out of the nursery and enter the portals of an educational institution, discipline becomes a matter of vital importance. That is because student life is a period of preparation for the battle of life. No less is the need for discipline in the playground. A disciplined team, though weak, has a greater advantage over its rival, strong but ill-organised. In society also there is a great need for discipline. If its individual members are permitted to do whatever they like, society will break up and the onward march of civilization and progress will be arrested. Lack of discipline among the youth of a country may endanger national security. Nowhere perhaps is discipline more necessary than in the army. Here a moments hesitation may mean defeat and death. Difficulty, danger, nay, death itself, should not prevent a soldier from carrying out the orders of his commander, even if they are unjust or wrong. There are, however, men who are opposed to discipline. They think that it kills originality and takes away initiative. Disciplined people, they say, are just like parts of machinery. A man is not a machine He, therefore, should not be expected to be obedient and orderly. This is a very wrong view of discipline. It is the extreme of authoritarianism. Discipline does not mean that it allows originality. There is no objection to people taking to any work and adopting any thought. The only demand that discipline
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makes is that you should have a plan and an order. Discipline is a precious asset. Life without discipline is like a ship without a rudder. It is a rod to check the erring, a brake to control the thoughtless action of man. Its purpose is to see that liberty does not degenerate into licence.

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Posted by sambasivan srinivasan at 6:53 PM 2 comments Labels: Common Written Exam, CWE PO, descriptive paper, Essay writing, General Awareness, PO

Tuesday, September 6, 2011

CWE PO - DESCRIPTIVE PAPER MODEL 2


COMMON WRITTEN EXAMINATION BANK PO (SEPTEMBER 2011)--MODEL TWO TIME : 60 MINUTES DESCRIPTIVE PAPER 1. Write an essay on any one of the topics in about 500 words: A) Opening up of banking sector for more leading private companies. B) Gains made on account of Bank Naitonalisation C) Monetary measures for reducing inflationary trend and its results D) Banks in every day life of a common man. E) Impact of media on our daily life. 2. You are Branch Manager of a Bank. Write a letter to Head office recommending installation of ATMs in your Office premises and also in the Extension counter in an Engineering college. Elaborate the progress your branch will be making on account of this move. OR You are the Chairman of local Business Establishments Committee. Write a letter to the Manger of local Bank branch
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requesting that banks' working hours should be increased by one hour in the evening to facilitate depositing of cash by your members into their account. Give additional reasons justifying your request. OR Your friend has been attending bank interviews for the last two years. He did not get selected in his fourth interview for which results were announced recently. He is feeling dejected. Write a letter to him in 150 words suggesting that if he prepares well for the future exams he will succeed.

3. . Write a precis of the following passage in one third of its length. Give a suitable title. (Strike out the draft after making fair copy) An old tailor and his wife lived on the outskirts of a city. They had a daughter whom they both loved very much and as she was about to be married they took great pains to save money. The man toiled for long hours and his wife worked too. With the money they saved they purchased a few ornaments and kept them in a small wooden box for safekeeping. One day their hut caught fire. The man and his wife escaped just in time but the fire spread rapidly and soon engulfed the whole house. The neighbours soon gathered around and would not allow the man to risk his life and enter the house to save the precious ornaments. They drew water from nearby wells to pour onto the fire. A young traveller saw the poor man in tears and said, Why are you so upset? Your house can soon be rebuilt. It is not my house that I am shedding tears for, the tailor replied, But the ornaments that we have bought for our daughter. Now we shall not be able to give her the wedding gift we worked so hard for! The traveller thought for a while and seeing the plight of the poor man decided to help, but for a price. I will help you on condition that I will give you only what I like. The poor man was so desperate to salvage a few of the ornaments at least that he agreed. The young man entered the house carefully and located the box hidden exactly where the old man had said it would be. He came out of the house with the box, opened it, removed the ornaments and returned the box to the tailor. The old man was bewildered. But the ornaments are mine. Why have you done this? the tailor asked. I agreed to give you what I liked and so I have given you the box, the young man retorted cheekily. The neighbours were annoyed with the young man but could think of no solution. The old man had agreed to the condition after all. But his wife intervened, Let us go to the magistrate. He is a just man. Surely he will find a solution. The young man was not willing to go to the magistrate but the neighbours insisted.
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When he heard the story the magistrate realised the young man had taken advantage of the poor tailor. You told the tailor that you would give him what you liked and he agreed, is that correct? he asked. Yes. I will give you what I like were my exact words, the young man replied. Do you like the ornaments? the magistrate questioned. Yes of course! Well as you like the ornaments you have to give them back to the old man as was agreed between you. The young man realised that he had been outwitted. ******************************************* You might also like:

CURRENT AFFAIRS SOURCES

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economic times= news letter 11 november 2012

Correct it....!

present position of world economy -for essay writing ...

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Posted by sambasivan srinivasan at 7:37 PM 0 comments Labels: CWE PO, descriptive paper, PO

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